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October

2017

www.chemengonline.com

Improving Bulk
Solids Handling page 43
Fluid Sealing
Chlor-Alkali Production Facts at Your Fingertips:
Air Separation
Performance Materials
Focus on Mobile
Interpreting Spectroscopy Data Engineering
Chem Show Preview Applications
The Smart Way to
Unload, Convey,
Weigh & Mix MODU-KLEEN
BIN VENT
FILTER

CONVEYING SWITCH
LINE RECEIVER
BLENDCON
TM SILO BLENDER
BULKBUSTER
BULK BAG
UNLOADER

STORAGE STORAGE STORAGE


SILO SILO SILO

TM
GYRO BIN
VIBRA-JET
ACTIVATING
BIN FEEDER
BULK AERATOR
TM
BAG DYNA-SLIDE
HIGH PRECISION
WEIGH AIR-ACTIVATED
HOPPER FEEDER


BAGBUSTER
BAG BREAKER
BELLA
TWIN SHAFT
FLUIDIZED
ZONE MIXER BLENDCON
AIR BLENDING
HEAD

TRANSPORTER

MANUAL
HOSE SWITCH

Less degradation Sixteen concepts


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Circle 17 on p. 98 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66433-17
www.chemengonline.com

October 2017 Volume 124 | no. 10

Cover Story
43 Part 1 Feeder Design for Solids Handling Processes
involving the movement of bulk solid materials require careful consideration
of the feeder equipment design, including how the feeders work with various
bins and hoppers
51 Part 2 Choosing Agglomeration Processes
A products intended use often dictates what type of
agglomeration equipment should be used. Presented here is
a discussion of the main types of equipment and methods for
forming agglomerates

In the News
7 Chementator
Liquid metal membranes improve on Pd membrane for
separating hydrogen; A mag-drive pump that handles suspended
solids; Making graphene from graphite without oxidation;
Accelerated decomposition of halogenated compounds;
Commercial launch for MOF-based gas storage; and more
13 Business News
AkzoNobel opens paint manufacturing facility in the U.K.; Solvay to begin 43
PEKK production in the U.S.; Ineos announces plans to construct VAM plant
in Europe; Air Products forms JV with LuAn Clean Energy in China; Aveva to
merge with Schneider Electric; and more
16 Newsfront The Greening of Chlor-Alkali Production
Environmental regulations and high energy costs are driving technology advances
to make chlor-alkali plants cleaner and more efficient
22 Newsfront New Performance Materials Solve 51
Industrial Challenges From additives to polymers to coatings to 3-D
printables, new materials improve performance

Technical and Practical


40 Facts at your Fingertips Air-Separation Processes
This one-page reference describes cryogenic and non-cryogenic approaches to 16
separating the components of air for industrial use
42 Technology Profile Vinyl Acetate from Acetic Acid
and Ethylene This process description outlines the manufacture of vinyl
acetate monomer from acetic acid and ethylene
60
60 Feature Report: Fluid Sealing Part 1 Valves:
Emissions Standards and Current Practices New
industry standards aimed at reducing fugitive emissions have necessitated
updates to valve-testing procedures and a renewed focus on high-performance
sealing and packing technologies
64 Feature Report: Fluid Sealing Part 2 Minimizing
Leakage on Heat-Exchanger Girth Flanges Thermal
distortion in heat-exchanger internal components can lead to leakage, but
several design measures can be taken to mitigate these concerns

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017 1


86 Engineering Practice Spectroscopy: Interpreting
Measurement Data Spectroscopic technology can assess many
critical characteristics about products, but it has limits. It can be challenging to
know when the line has been crossed

Equipment and Services


28 Focus on Mobile Engineering Applications
Monitor dust hazards and noise safety; Remote-access tool helps users
manage chemical safety; These apps streamline tasks in hazardous
environments; Convert concentration to conductivity and vice versa; Track
relevant packaging-line metrics from your smartphone; and more

86 32 New Products
Rapid online analysis of phosphorous content; A wall-mountable meter for
particle measurement; A very compact, standalone PLC; A new range of filter
bags for industrial applications; This pressure switch is freely configurable with
scalable outputs; and more
92 Show Preview Chem Show 2017
The 2017 Chem Show will take place in New York City from Oct. 31 to Nov. 2. A
28
selected group of products on display at the show is presented here

Departments
5 Editors Page Getting ready
Recent events have brought the need for disaster preparedness to the forefront
of our attention
100 Economic Indicators
32
Advertisers
69 Special Advertising Section: CPI Product Review
84 Sealing Special Section
85 Hot Products
96 Product Showcase
97 Classified
98 Reader Service
99 Ad Index

Chemical Connections
Follow @ChemEngMag on Twitter
Join the Chemical Engineering Magazine
LinkedIn Group
Visit us on www.chemengonline.com for Latest News,
Webinars, Test your Knowledge Quizzes, Bookshelf
and more

Coming in November
Look for: Feature Reports on Crystallization; and Cooling Towers; A
Focus on Maintenance and Reliability Equipment; A Facts at your
Fingertips on Filter Aids; News Articles on Plant Security; and
Membrane Technology; New Products; and much more
Cover design: Rob Hudgins

2 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017


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Editor s Page
EDITORS ART & DESIGN
Getting ready
DOROTHY LOZOWSKI ROB HUDGINS

M
Editorial Director Graphic Designer y local municipality recently mailed out a brochure titled
rhudgins@accessintel.com
dlozowski@chemengonline.com Are you ready?. It is a guide booklet about what to do
GERALD ONDREY (FRANKFURT) PRODUCTION in case of a nuclear emergency. I live close to a nuclear
Senior Editor
gondrey@chemengonline.com SOPHIE CHAN-WOOD power plant. The brochure describes radiation, how to
Production Manager
schan-wood@accessintel.com shelter-in-place, where evacuation routes are and what to bring with
SCOTT JENKINS
Senior Editor INFORMATION you in case of an evacuation. It also contains tips on what to do to
sjenkins@chemengonline.com SERVICES get ready before an actual emergency. Suggestions include having
MARY PAGE BAILEY CHARLES SANDS potassium iodide on-hand (KI is said to block radioactive iodine from
Associate Editor Director of Digital Development
mbailey@chemengonline.com csands@accessintel.com entering the thyroid gland), making sure your pets have identifying
GROUP PUBLISHER CONTRIBUTING EDITORS
tags or microchips, and more. The potential for emergency situations
SUZANNE A. SHELLEY
that require fast reactions is very real, as has been brought to the
MATTHEW GRANT
mattg@powermag.com sshelley@chemengonline.com forefront of our attention by a recent onslaught of natural disasters.
AUDIENCE CHARLES BUTCHER (U.K.) Getting ready, as best as possible, before an emergency is good ad-
cbutcher@chemengonline.com
DEVELOPMENT vice that I will heed.
SARAH GARWOOD PAUL S. GRAD (AUSTRALIA)
Audience Marketing Director pgrad@chemengonline.com
sgarwood@accessintel.com When disaster strikes
JESSICA GRIER
TETSUO SATOH (JAPAN)
tsatoh@chemengonline.com
In late August and early September, Hurricanes Harvey and Irma dev-
Marketing Manager
jgrier@accessintel.com
astated islands off the coast of North America and sections of the
JOY LEPREE (NEW JERSEY) U.S. Gulf Coast and Florida. There was much damage, and tragically,
jlepree@chemengonline.com
GEORGE SEVERINE
Fulfillment Manager lives were lost. The images that many of us witnessed are a testament
gseverine@accessintel.com to the powerful forces of nature, as well as a reassurance of the will-
JEN FELLING ingness of people to help each other in times of need.
List Sales, Statlistics (203) 778-8700
j.felling@statlistics.com The astounding flooding in the Houston area together with hurricane-
force winds and loss of power posed many extreme challenges. Much
EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD press was given to Arkemas Crosby, Tex. location, where loss of cool-
JOHN CARSON JOHN HOLLMANN ing caused temperature-sensitive organic peroxides to decompose
Jenike & Johanson, Inc. Validation Estimating LLC
and burn. According to comments from Rich Rowe, president and
DAVID DICKEY HENRY KISTER CEO of Arkema Inc. as posted on its website (www.arkema-americas.
MixTech, Inc. Fluor Corp.
com), the Crosby site was prepared for emergencies with redundant
HEADQUARTERS contingency plans in place. In the unprecedented situation, however,
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Tel: 49-69-9573-8296 self out and to eventually cause ignition of the remaining peroxides that
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CIRCULATION REQUESTS: contingency plans, even those were not enough to avoid an alarming
Tel: 847-564-9290
Fax: 847-564-9453 situation under the extreme circumstances.
Fullfillment Manager; P.O. Box 3588,
Northbrook, IL 60065-3588 In a statement released by the American Chemistry Council (ACC),
email: chemeng@omeda.com
president and CEO Cal Dooley commented that all ACC members (of
ADVERTISING REQUESTS: SEE P. 98 which Arkema is one) have comprehensive and well-rehearsed emer-
For reprints, licensing and permissions: Wright's Media, 1-877-652-5295,
sales@wrightsmedia.com gency plans. He also said that in the coming weeks after Harvey, evalu-
ations would be made to assess if there are additional procedures and
ACCESS INTELLIGENCE, LLC process safety efforts that could further inform and enhance the safety
DON PAZOUR
Chief Executive Officer
JONATHAN RAY
Vice President, Digital
performance of our operations in the future.
With the concentration of chemical process industries (CPI) plants in
HEATHER FARLEY MICHAEL KRAUS
Chief Operating Officer Vice President, the Gulf Coast region, it is a testament to their emergency planning and
Production, Digital Media & Design
disaster preparedness that we did not hear of more alarming situations
JAMES OGLE
Executive Vice President STEVE BARBER like the one in Crosby. It is also a testament to the
& Chief Financial Officer Vice President,
Financial Planning and Internal Audit workers, who in the face of extreme circumstances,
MACY L. FECTO
Exec. Vice President, GERALD STASKO
followed emergency plans to safely shut down or re-
Human Resources & Administration Vice President/Corporate Controller duce operations.
JENNIFER SCHWARTZ Are you ready? is a very relevant question for
Senior Vice President & Group Publisher
Aerospace, Energy, Healthcare all of us, both at home and in our jobs. As more
storms churn in the Atlantic Ocean at the time of
ROB PACIOREK
Senior Vice President,
9211 Corporate Blvd., 4th Floor
Rockville, MD 20850-3240
this writing, we prepare for the worst and hope for
Chief Information Officer www.accessintel.com
the best.
Dorothy Lozowski, Editorial Director

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017 5


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Chementator
Liquid metal membranes improve on Pd
membranes for separating hydrogen Edited by:
Gerald Ondrey

A
membrane Sandwiched liquid metal He Nonporous silicon-
carbide tube
of liquid gal- membrane (SLiMM) Shell H2 DPC MONOMER
lium (Ga) sand-
As part of an NEDO project,
wiched between Liquid gallium Asahi Kasei Corp. (Tokyo,
two porous silicon car- Hydrogen
helium
+
layer
Japan; www.asahi-kasei.
bide supports offers a Hydrogen
atom co.jp) verified a newly de-
pathway to improve the veloped process for di-
currently available mem- phenyl carbonate (DPC), a
branes of solid palladium H2 monomer used to produce
(Pd) metal for separating He H2 polycarbonate (PC) at its
hydrogen after the steam Mizushima Works (Kura-
reforming of methane. shiki, Okayama). The stabil-
ity and operability of the pro-
Pd metal is effective
cess was confirmed through
at allowing hydrogen over 1,000 h of continuous
to pass while exclud- Porous silicon- Liquid gallium operation. Compared to the
ing other species, such carbide support layer
conventional process, the
Worcester Polytechnic Institute
as CO2 and CO, but Pd new process successfully re-
has limitations. Pd is costly and so must be carried out, liquid Ga achieves the same duces energy consumption
be spread into thin layers, which can crack dissociation of H2. The hydrogen atoms and CO2 emissions while
easily, allowing all gases through. Also, Pd then hop from one interstitial site to another, using CO2 as a feedstock.
membranes are adversely affected by sulfur across the 200-m-thick Ga layer, says re- This new route to DPC
in the gas mixture. Researchers at Worces- search team leader Ravindra Datta. (Chem. Eng., April 2015,
p. 10) uses only an alcohol,
ter Polytechnic Institute (WPI; Worcester, The gallium membranes offer several key
phenol and CO2 as feed-
Mass.; www.wpi.edu) have developed a advantages over Pd membranes. First, gal- stocks, and therefore in-
separation membrane that uses liquid Ga liums cost is an order of magnitude lower creases the flexibility of the
instead of solid Pd to separate hydrogen. than Pd, and the metal is non-toxic. Also, as companys phosgene-free
The team has successfully demonstrated Datta explains, the liquid membrane is self- PC process (Chem. Eng.,
the system, known as a SLiMM (sandwiched healing, so it can spontaneously repair any December 2005, p. 16),
liquid metal membrane), to separate H2 from cracks or defects. Further, he says there is which uses ethylene oxide
gas mixtures of helium (see diagram). more interstitial space in a liquid metal than (EO) as feedstock.
When H2 contacts a Pd membrane, it dis- a solid, so the hydrogen atoms can diffuse
sociates into hydrogen atoms, which diffuse through the material more easily. LANDFILL LEACHATE
through the membrane and recombine on The WPI team plans to test its SLiMMs OriginClear Inc. (Los Ange-
the other side. At the elevated temperatures with real-world synthesis gas mixtures from les, Calif.; www.originclear.
at which steam methane reforming would steam-methane reforming. com) recently announced
its first order to retrofit an
existing treatment site for
landfill leachate water with
Getting more value from recycled polystyrene the companys Electro-Wa-
ter Separation (EWS) and

A
lthough polystyrene has been to produce materials for construction ap- Advanced Oxidation (AOx)
adopted into a large number of plications, such as insulation. The process technologies. Rainfall gener-
end products, it remains one of chemically transforms polystyrene waste ates runoff from landfills that
the least-recycled plastic waste streams by selectively lowering the molecu- must be treated because
streams an estimated 95% of polysty- lar weight (chain length), creating a homo- it is highly contaminated
rene materials are discarded after a single geneous product. According to GreenMan- with debris and microbes.
This landfill leachate water
use. Employing a proprietary thermo-cat- tra, this is the first technology of its kind
is difficult to treat because
alytic process, GreenMantra Technologies to target and produce styrenic polymer it quickly overwhelms filters
(Brantford, Ont., Canada; www.greenman- products from waste polystyrene on a large and membranes, the com-
tra.ca) is planning to build a demonstration scale. Existing end-of-life options for poly- pany says. OriginClear will
plant that will recycle 1,000 metric tons per styrene include energy production via incin- install its EWS:AOx system
year (m.t./yr) of polystyrene waste into sal- eration, or processes that produce lower- at an existing commercial-
able end products. Construction for the value products, such as densified, ridged scale treatment facility for
plant is slated to begin in 2018. polystyrene plastic or styrene monomer. landfill leachate in Negeri
The styrenic polymer products result- Waste polystyrene is the primary raw ma- Sembilan, Malaysia to in-
ing from GreenMantras recycling process terial for GreenMantras process, and the crease the plants treatment
capacity from 26,000 gal/d
have been validated for use in ink applica- company says is has achieved 90% yield
to 100,000 gal/d. EWS uses
tions, and initial investigations also indicate of its target polymer products with minimal
that the technology could be augmented production of byproducts. (Continues on p. 8)

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017 7


electrical pulses to coagulate A mag-drive pump that handles suspended solids
suspended solids and oils,
making them easier to sepa- CDR Pompe

I
n critical pumping applications in-
rate from the water. The elec-
volving toxic or expensive prod-
tric pulses generate reactive
oxygen species that can be
ucts, the use of double mechanical
used to disinfect water with- seals or external flushing fluids can
out chemicals. OriginClear has lead to product contamination or leak-
developed a reactor module age, as well as additional costs for in-
specifically for AOx (for more stallation and monitoring. Although
details, see Chem. Eng., Au- hermetically-sealed pumps, such as
gust 2013, p. 11). magnetically-driven (mag-drive) pumps
can prevent such problems, mag-drive
UTILIZING FOOD WASTE pumps run into problems when pump-
Researchers at Cornell Uni- ing fluids with suspended solids, says
versity (Ithaca, N.Y.; www.cor- Mario Monza, export sales manager at
nell.edu) recently published CDR Pompe S.r.l. (Bollate, Italy; www.
a study investigating the use cdrpompe.com). CDR Pompe has re-
of hydrothermal liquefaction
solved this drawback, with its newly de-
to enhance the conversion of
food waste into biomethane.
veloped XTN-XTS pump series, which
Hydrothermal liquefaction is will formally be launched at next years
a thermochemical conversion Achema trade fair.
of biomass into liquid fuels The XTN-XTS series features a pat-
using a hot, pressurized water ent-pending, dynamic-shaft design with In a field application at a pharmaceutical
environment. The process an open style impeller, which allows solids to manufacturer, the pump has operated suc-
also results in a carbon-rich circulate inside the pump, explains Monza. All cessfully for over one year, says Monza. The
aqueous phase, which can passages between static and rotating parts XTN-XTS prototype was used for pumping
be converted to biomethane are designed using strategically located organic solvents with a fluctuating solids
by anaerobic digestion. The
pressure differences inside the pump to concentration of between 10 and 30%, with
combination of the two pro-
cesses speeds the conversion
avoid resistance to circulation and accumu- organic solids size up to 1 mm.
of waste to energy, compared lation of solid particles (diagram). A gener- The company is now ready to commercial-
to directly subjecting the bio- ous axial canal on the pump shaft eliminates ize the pump series, and plans to offer mod-
mass to anaerobic digestion axial-thrust forces, and allows for the circu- els in 316 stainless steel or lined with PFA
alone, the researchers say. lation of solids. Finally, diamond-coated SiC (perfluoroalkoxy alkanes). Pumping capaci-
Production of biomethane bushes are used to protect from dry-running ties range from 10 to 60 m3/h with heads
directly from food waste in an and increase abrasion resistance, he says. up to 50 m.
anaerobic digester takes days,
while production of biogas
from the aqueous phase of hy-
drothermal products takes only Extracting lithium without roasting
minutes, the team says.

L
Food waste represents a ithium Australia NL (Perth, Western pregnant liquor solution to 4 to precipitate
large component of landfilled Australia; lithium-au.com) has gen- aluminum and fluoride from solution, with a
municipal waste in the U.S., erated 99.8% (battery-grade) lithium subsequent softening step to remove excess
and 30% of food produced carbonate from lithium-bearing sili- CaSO4, followed by evaporation and precipi-
is ultimately wasted, mak- cates, such as spodumene, using its Sileach tation of Li2CO3. The addition of halogens,
ing food waste a valuable re- process a hydrometallurgical process that such as fluoride, is essential to the operation
source and an opportunity to does not require an energy-intensive roast- of Sileach. The halogens attack the chemical
reduce carbon footprint. ing step. The company says Sileach has the bonds in the silicate mineral, causing all met-
ability to process contaminated spodumene als to go into solution.
GAS STORAGE concentrates and allows the recovery of Lithium Australia has lodged an interna-
The extreme toxicity of some components other than lithium as byprod- tional patent application for Sileach. ANSTO
gases, such as arsine, phos- ucts, including silicon and aluminum. Minerals a division of the Australian Nu-
phine and boron trifluoride,
The companys spodumene originated clear Science and Technology Organization
which are essential in the
semiconductor manufacturing
from Pilbara Minerals Ltd.s (Perth; www.pil- (Lucas Heights; www.ansto.gov.au) pro-
industry, makes their handling baraminerals.com.au) Pilgangoora lithium- vided technical assistance in the develop-
and storage very dangerous tantalum project, located 120 km from Port ment of Sileach. Performance enhancement
and costly. Rather than stor- Hedland in Western Australias Pilbara region. studies are being conducted on a bench
ing the pressurized gases Sileach involves mixing the lithium-bearing scale and improvements will be incorporated
in cylinders, the new ION-X material with a source of fluoride, such as into the ANSTO Minerals pilot plant and
product line, developed by CaF2 or HF in the presence of sulfuric acid into design specifications for a large-scale
NuMat Technologies (Skokie, at 90C for about 3 h to extract about 80% pilot plant. Further pilot testing is planned
Ill.; www.numat-tech.com) of the lithium. Li2CO3 of more than 98% on a range of minerals including lepidolite,
(Continues on p. 10) purity is obtained by raising the pH of the zinnwaldite and spodumene.
8 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017
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Circle 09 on p. 98 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66433-09
and distributed by Versum Ferro-coke utilization promises to reduce energy
Materials, Inc. (Tempe, Ariz.;
www.versummaterials.com), consumption in ironmaking
fills a cylinder with specialized NEDO

J
Conventional process
adsorbents made from metal- FE Steel Corp.
Sintering machine Sintered ore
organic frameworks (MOFs) (Tokyo, Japan; High-grade iron ore
for selective adsorption, stor- w w w. j f e - s t e e l .
Coke oven Coke
age and delivery of ultra-high- co.jp) plans to
High-grade coal
purity gases. build a pilot plant for New process
The MOFs were designed to using ferro coke in the
have pore sizes that perfectly Blast furnace
ironmaking process at its Binder Low-temperature tuyere
fit dopant gases, enabling high
Fukuyama area of West Low-grade iron ore High-temperature tuyere
storage capacity, even at sub-
atmospheric pressures, ex-
Japan Works, with sup- Briquetting
port from the New Energy Non-coking coal machine Pig iron
plains Ben Hernandez, CEO of Cooling tuyere

NuMat Technologies. The high and Industrial Technology Breeze coke


containing Ferro coke
internal surface areas and tun- Development Organiza- metallic iron Continuous
vertical-type
able pore structures allow for tion (NEDO; Kawasaki, carbonization
MOFs that are tailored specifi- Japan; www.nedo.go.jp).
cally to adsorb a particular gas. The $150-million medium-scale plant will with ferro coke. The ferro coke is made by
With infinitely tunable pores, produce 300 ton/d of ferro coke, which will mixing low-grade (non-coking) coal, low-
MOFs sidestep current limita- replace some of the coke used in the blast grade ore fines with a binder, and then form-
tions and fundamentally alter
furnace for making iron. Ultimately, the com- ing it into briquettes, followed by carboniza-
the role of adsorbents in chemi-
cal storage, says Hernandez.
pany aims to reduce energy consumption in tion and reduction in a shaft furnace.
The ION-X product line is the the ironmaking process by 10% by 2022. By reducing the amount of coke needed
largest commercial launch of In conventional ironmaking, sintered iron in the blast furnace, JFE Steel expects it can
MOF-based products to date, ore is mixed with coke in a blast furnace to reduce the energy consumption by taking
and requires the production of reduce the iron in the ore. In addition to the advantage of the catalytic function of the
multiple tons per year of MOF sintering step, the process requires high- ultra-fine particles (less than 50-m dia.) of
materials by NuMat. Versum grade coal in the coking ovens, and both the iron metal contained in the ferro coke,
Materials will also construct a steps are energy intensive. In the new pro- reducing the amount of coke needed and
new plant dedicated to ION-X cess (diagram), the coke is partially replaced operating at lower temperatures.
products in Sihwa, South Korea.

PET PRECURSOR
Researchers from the Korea
High-performance aluminum alloy
Advanced Institute of Science makes use of cerium

A
and Technology (KAIST, Dae-
jeon, South Korea; www.kaist.
newly developed aluminum-cerium extend the performance range of aluminum
edu), led by professor Sang alloy is exceptionally stable at high alloys beyond where it currently stands, ex-
Yup Lee, have developed an temperatures, and is highly corro- plains David Weiss, vice president of engineer-
efficient biocatalytic system sion-resistant, allowing its use in ing and R&D at Eck Industries. The aluminum-
to produce terephthalic acid components for advanced engines and for oxides and cerium-oxides that form on the
(TPA) from p-xylene, using other aerospace, automotive and power- alloys surface make it highly corrosion-resis-
metabolically engineered generation applications. tant. The alloys favorable corrosion properties
Escherichia coli bacteria. Co-developed by Eck Industries (Mani- have fostered its use for corrosion-resistant
TPA is an important bulk towoc, Wis.; www.eckindustries.com) and rotor blades in power generation. Generally,
chemical for manufacturing
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL; Oak most formulations of the alloy do not require
polyethylene terephthalate
(PET), which is used mainly
Ridge, Tenn.; www.ornl.gov), with fund- heat-treatment to develop mechanical proper-
to manufacture plastic bot- ing from the U.S. Dept. of Energys Critical ties, which reduces the total energy input re-
tles and clothing fibers. Cur- Materials Institute (CMI; Ames, Iowa; cmi. quirements for the alloy, Weiss says.
rently, TPA is produced from ameslab.gov), the castable Al-Ce alloy is The inclusion of the rare-earth metal ce-
the oxidation of p-xylene, being used to make cylinder heads and pis- rium is attractive to the CMI because it helps
with a typical yield of more tons for advanced gas and diesel engines, drive down the cost for less common and
than 95 mol%. The current as well as turbocharger components and more valuable rare-earth elements, such
process, however, has draw- aircraft engine parts. as neodymium and dysprosium. Most rare
backs, such as the require- The addition of cerium to molten aluminum earth deposits contain about 50% cerium.
ment for high temperatures
leads to the formation of Al11Ce3 intermetal- Using the cerium for high-performance al-
and pressures, heavy metal
catalysts, and the formation
lics that are stable at over 1,000C which loys makes rare earth deposits more eco-
of the undesirable byproduct renders the alloy stable at temperatures up nomically viable to mine, Weiss says.
4-carboxybenzaldehyde. to 500C. Typically, Ce levels of 812% are While the alloy was originally developed as
The researchers developed used to develop sufficient high-temperature a casting alloy, it is also being studied for use
a best-performing strain of strengthening. in forging and extrusion processes, as well
E. coli with an increased TPA The alloys ability to recover from damage as for additive manufacturing applications,
(Continues on p. 12) at high thermal loads over time means it can Weiss notes.
10 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017
Making graphene from graphite without oxidation University of Connecticut

G
raphene can be produced layers to unstack and spread out
and isolated by exfoliating in order to lower the energy of the
graphite, but existing pro- system, explains UConn profes-
cesses are difficult and ex- sor Douglas Adamson. The ex-
pensive. The most common method foliation is driven thermodynami-
involves aggressive oxidation of cally, with the graphene acting as
graphite and results in diminished a surfactant.
properties and added expense. An- Adamsons group has also de-
other approach mechanical exfo- veloped a method for making gra-
liation requires large energy input phene-polymer composites using
and produces small graphene frag- the unoxidized (pristine) graphene
ments at low yields. made in this way. The team takes
Now a research team at the Uni- advantage of the surfactant-like ize the composite materials, which
versity of Connecticut (UConn; property of graphene and generates are, in essence, porous electrodes.
Storrs; www.uconn.edu) has de- a water-in-oil emulsion containing Their first application will be as elec-
veloped a method to produce gra- the pure graphene flakes, water and trodes for capacitive deionization
phene from graphite without the one of a variety of monomers capa- (CDI)-based desalination of brack-
need for oxidation or mechanical ble of undergoing chain polymeriza- ish water. CDI removes ions by ad-
energy in a simple, thermodynami- tion. By polymerizing the monomer sorbing dissolved salts onto charged
cally driven process that has not while in the emulsion, the research- electrodes. A major challenge in CDI
been reported before. ers build an open cell foam compos- is the cost of commercial-scale CDI
The process places graphite at an ite containing a continuous network electrodes. Using the UConn teams
oil-water interface with high interfa- of graphene without requiring any stabilized graphene composites as
cial energy. If you think of graphite high-energy processes or oxidation CDI electrodes could allow CDI to
as stacked layers of graphene, plac- of the graphene. enter large-scale use, as their cost
ing the graphite material at the oil- Adamson and colleagues have to manufacture is lower than polysty-
water interface causes the graphene formed a company to commercial- rene foam, Adamson says.

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017 11
Circle 10 on p. 98 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66433-10
production. Their method proceeds at am-
bient reaction temperature and pressure,
Accelerated decomposition of
does not use heavy metals or any other halogenated compounds
toxic chemicals, and completely eliminates

A
the byproduct. The researchers designed a new research partnership be- compound and making it more vulner-
two-phase (aqueous/organic) fermentation tween the Water Environment able to oxidation.
system for TPA production on a larger scale, & Reuse Foundation (WERF; This strategy known as ad-
where p-xylene was supplied in the organic Alexandria, Va.; www.werf. vanced oxidation integrated with re-
phase. Through a few optimization steps, org) and the University of Texas at duction, or AIR will employ zero-
they achieved production of 13.3 g of TPA Arlington (UTA; www.uta.edu) seeks valent iron (ZVI) conjugated with
from 8.8 g of p-xylene a yield of 97 mol%.
to tackle one of the most challenging common oxidants. According to the
and persistent water contaminants team, well-dispersed ZVI nanopar-
ANTI-SOLVENT CRYSTALLIZATION perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). ticles (Fe0) chemically reduce PFOS
Wageningen University & Research (www. Current industrial methods for treat- while oxidizing and transforming into
wur.nl) and IPSS Engineering (both, Wagenin-
ing PFOS in water involve physical Fe2+ and Fe3+, at which point the Fe
gen, the Netherlands; www.ipss) have signed
a long-term cooperation agreement for the
removal via membrane separation or ions can activate added oxidants to
further development, optimization and com- adsorption process, but there are no produce hydroxyl and sulfate radicals
mercialization of the new anti-solvent crystalli- widely used chemical degradation that attack and decompose PFOS via
zation technology, tradenamed ProKris. WUR processes due to the difficulties asso- oxidation routes. The team will con-
and IPSS have been cooperating in this field in ciated with removing halogen atoms. tinue to investigate if this combina-
a number of projects since 2014. Currently, a Although halogenated compounds tion of oxidative decomposition with
project aims to build the first pilot installation are highly resistant to chemical oxida- reductive dehalogenation would be
for the ProKris technology at the WUR. tion, research published in Environ- effective in large-scale PFOS degra-
ProKris is based on the use of anti-solvents mental Engineering Science showed dation. The team believes that the
to separate and isolate valuable compo-
that introducing a preliminary chemi- AIR process could be easily scaled
nents, such as sucrose, fructose, lactose,
insulin and isosaccharinic acid from complex
cal reduction step prior to oxidation up, but that the costs to acquire large
mixtures, such as sugar beets, beet pulp, may enhance PFOS decomposition. quantities of ZVI might pose some is-
black liquor and all other sugar-containing The initial chemical reduction step sues. This research is slated for com-
feedstocks and waste streams. strips off the fluorine, weakening the pletion in the Fall of 2018.

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Circle 04 on p. 98 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66433-04 Circle 34 on p. 98 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66433-34
12 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017
Business News
Plant Watch Toyo awarded petrochemical LINEUP
AkzoNobel opens paint project in Indonesia
September 4, 2017 Toyo Engineering AIR PRODUCTS
manufacturing facility in the U.K.
September 12, 2017 Akzo Nobel N.V. Group (Chiba, Japan; www.toyo-eng.co.jp) AKZONOBEL
(Amsterdam, the Netherlands; www.akzonobel. has been awarded a construction project from
AVEVA
com) has opened its 100-million paints PT Chandra Asri Petrochemical Tbk (CAP;
production plant in Ashington, U.K. The factory Jakarta, Indonesia; www.chandra-asri.com) CB&I
will be capable of doubling AkzoNobels that involves construction of a polyethylene
CHANDRA ASRI
current U.K. production levels to 200 million production unit with a total capacity of
L/yr. The facility also has capacity to expand 400,000 m.t./yr at CAPs existing petrochemical CLARIANT
in order to support future growth plans. complex in Cilegon, Java, Indonesia. The plant
EASTMAN
is scheduled for completion in 2019.
Solvay to begin PEKK EVONIK
production in the U.S. Eastman announces projects to increase EXXONMOBIL
September 12, 2017 In early 2018, Solvay CHDM production capacity
S.A. (Brussels, Belgium; www.solvay.com) September 1, 2017 Eastman Chemical GEORGIA-PACIFIC
will begin producing polyetherketoneketone Co. (Kingsport, Tenn.; www.eastman.com) H.B. FULLER
(PEKK) polymers at its site in Augusta, Ga. announced multiple projects to increase
1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol (CHDM) capacity INEOS
to support its global composite materials
business. PEKK is used in thermoplastic at its Kingsport manufacturing facility. The INGEVITY
composites reinforced with carbon fibers series of debottlenecks and expansion projects
will increase capacity by 15,000 m.t./yr. J.M. HUBER
and in additive manufacturing for a range of
industrial applications. All projects are expected to be complete by KEMIRA
early 2019.
NITTA
CB&I to provide process technology
for PDH plant in China Sumitomos propylene oxide technology PTTGC
September 11, 2017 CB&I (The Woodlands, selected for new PTTGC project
SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC
Tex.; www.cbi.com) was awarded a contract by August 31, 2017 Sumitomo Chemical Corp.
Xuzhou HaiDing Chemical Technology Co. for the (Tokyo, Japan; www.sumitomo-chem.co.jp) will SEKISUI
license and engineering design of a grassroots license its process technology for producing SOLVAY
propane dehydrogenation (PDH) unit to be propylene oxide (PO) to PTT Global Chemical Co.
built in Pizhou, Jiangsu Province, China. The (PTTGC; Bangkok, Thailand; www.pttgcgroup. SUMITOMO
unit will use CB&Is catalytic dehydrogenation com) for a project to construct new plants for TORAY
technology and a customized catalyst from PO and polyols. The new PO plant will have a
production capacity of 200,000 m.t./yr, with TOYO
Clariant (Muttenz, Switzerland; www.clariant.
com) to produce 600,000 metric tons per year completion planned in 2020. W.R. GRACE
(m.t./yr) of propylene.
Toray to build polyphenylene
Kemira starts up sodium chlorate sulfide plant in Hungary
production plant in Finland August 25, 2017 Toray Industries, Inc. (Tokyo,
September 11, 2017 Kemira Oyj (Helsinki, Japan; www.toray.com) will construct a new
Finland; www.kemira.com) has finalized its polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) production facility
approximately 50-million investment in a new at the Hungarian site of its U.S subsidiary
sodium chlorate production line in Joutseno, Zoltek Companies, Inc. It is Torays first resin
Finland. The production of sodium chlorate compound production facility in Europe and is
has started and full capacity is expected to expected to start operations in March 2018,
be achieved by the end of 2017. The new producing 3,000 m.t./yr of PPS.
production line will significantly increase the
Joutseno sites current sodium chlorate capacity. Mergers & Acquisitions
Air Products forms JV
Ineos announces plans to with LuAn Clean Energy in China
construct VAM plant in Europe September 11, 2017 Air Products (Lehigh
September 5, 2017 Ineos Technologies Valley, Pa.; www.airproducts.com) will form
(London; www.ineos.com) is planning to build a $1.3-billion joint venture (JV) with LuAn
a vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) plant with a Clean Energy Co. to serve a syngas-to-liquids
production capacity of 300,000 m.t./yr. The production facility in Changzhi City, China. Air
company is completing an engineering study Products has already invested $300 million
into the construction of the plant that will also in four large air separation units (ASUs) at the
support the decision for the plant location, site. Under the new agreement, Air Products
likely to be one of Ineos Oxides integrated will invest $500 million for a 60% ownership Look for more
sites at Hull, U.K., Cologne, Germany or in the new JV, to be called Air Products Luan latest news on
Antwerp, Belgium. (Changzhi) Co. chemengonline.com
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017 13
H.B. Fuller to purchase
Royal Adhesives & Sealants
September 11, 2017 H.B. Fuller Co. (St. Paul, Minn.;
www.hbfuller.com) has agreed to purchase Royal Adhesives
& Sealants (South Bend, Ind.; www.royaladhesives.com)
for a purchase price of $1.575 billion, subject to customary
adjustments. This acquisition is expected to generate
approximately $650 million in revenue for H.B. Fullers
fiscal year 2017.

Aveva to merge with


Schneider Electric
September 5, 2017 Schneider Electric SE (Rueil-
Malmaison, France; www.schneider-electric.com) and
Aveva Group plc (Cambridge, U.K.; www.aveva.com)
reached agreement on the terms and conditions of a
combination of Aveva and the Schneider Electric industrial
software business. The transaction will form an enlarged
global software group worth around 3 billion (nearly
$4 billion).

W.R. Grace to acquire selected


assets from Evonik and Huber
August 29, 2017 W. R. Grace & Co. (Columbia, Md.;
www.grace.com) agreed to acquire certain assets from
Evonik Industries AG (Essen, Germany; www.evonik.
com) following the close of Evoniks acquisition of J.M.
Huber Corp.s (Edison, N.J.; www.huber.com) silicas
business. The assets to be acquired include Evoniks
Sident precipitated-silica product range and J.M. Hubers
Zeofoam and Zeoflo defoamer and anti-caking products.

ExxonMobil completes acquisition


of aromatics assets in Singapore
August 28, 2017 The Singapore affiliate of ExxonMobil
Chemical Co. (Houston; www.exxonmobilchemical.
com) has completed its acquisition of one of the
worlds largest aromatics facilities on Jurong Island in
Singapore. The acquisition will increase ExxonMobils
Singapore aromatics production to over 3.5 million m.t./
yr, including 1.8 million m.t./yr of p-xylene, and add about
65,000 bbl/d of transportation fuels capacity.

Ingevity to acquire Georgia-Pacifics


pine chemicals business
August 23, 2017 Ingevity Corp. (North Charleston,
S.C.; www.ingevity.com) will acquire Georgia-Pacifics
(Atlanta, Ga.; www.gp.com) pine chemicals business
for $315 million. The acquired business manufactures
pine-based tall-oil fatty acids, tall-oil rosin and tall-oil
rosin esters used in adhesives, cleaners, paints, coatings
and inks, as well as fluids used for metalworking, mining,
packaging and rubber processing.

Toyo to divest selected chemicals


assets to Sekisui and Nitta
August 22, 2017 Toyo Tire & Rubber Co. (TTR; Hyogo,
Japan; www.toyo-rubber.co.jp) has announced the divestiture
of a significant portion of its chemicals-related assets.
TTR will divest its Rigid Polyurethane Foam Business to
Sekisui Chemical Co. (Osaka; www.sekisuichemical.com).
TTR also plans to divest its Chemical Industrial Products
business to Nitta Corp. (Osaka; www.nitta.co.jp).
Circle 05 on p. 98 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66433-05 Mary Page Bailey
14 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017
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Newsfront

The Greening of
Chlor-Alkali Production
Environmental regulations and high energy costs are driving technology advances that make
plants cleaner and more efficient
AkzoNobel

IN BRIEF

F
or some, the production of
CLOSING THE GAP chlorine and caustic has
been considered a nasty
NEW MEMBRANES business: not only are the
OXYGEN DEPOLARIZED products dangerous if not han-
CATHODES dled properly, but the traditional,
THE MERCURY ERA
century-old chlor-alkali process
COMES TO AN END
itself the electrolysis of brine
has been carried out in hundreds
STAYING COMPETITIVE of cells that either contain mercury
(a toxic pollutant) or a diaphragm
made of asbestos (a carcinogen).
And continuously flowing through
the banks of cells are thousands
of Amperes of electrical current FIGURE 1. AkzoNobels MEB (Membraan Electrolyse Bedrijf) plant in Rot-
terdam is one of the first and largest membrane-based chlor-alkali plants in
2
(current densities of 56 kA/m ), Europe. The facility is now converting to the latest zero-gap membrane tech-
which makes the process one of nology, which will significantly increase the energy efficiency
the most energy-intensive in the chemical 3135). And more recently, the switch to
process industries (CPI). so-called zero-gap technology, in which the
Nevertheless, both Cl2 and NaOH, as well gap between the cathode and the mem-
as the byproduct H2 are extremely important brane is minimized, is pushing the efficien-
in just about all sectors of the CPI. In Europe, cies to nearly the thermodynamic optimum,
for example, over half of all chemicals pro- says Jacqueline Oonincx, director Tech-
duced rely on chlor-alkali products, with the nology Chlor-Alkali & Chloromethanes,
vast majority of Cl2 used in modern plastics, Akzo Nobel N.V. (AkzoNobel; Amsterdam;
such as polyvinylchloride (PVC), according to the Netherlands; www.akzonobel.com).
Euro Chlor (Brussels, Belgium; www.euro- The companys MEB plant in Rotterdam
chlor.org). Also, 85% of all medicines made (Figure 1), for example, is currently being
in Europe are based on chlorine, over 90% modernized to incorporate the latest zero-
of European drinking water is made safe gap membrane technology a process
for consumption using chlorine and 25% of that takes several years to carry out.
medical devices involve chlorine chemistry in
their production, says Euro Chlor. Closing the gap
Because of the tremendous need for The first fully zero-gap membrane cell
these products, and the fact that trans- was launched in 2012, when thyssenkrupp
porting huge volumes of Cl2 is impractical, Uhde Chlorine Engineers (Dortmund, Ger-
hundreds of chlor-alkali plants are running many; www.thyssenkrupp-uhde-chlorine-
throughout the world close to where the engineers.com) introduced its BM2.7v6
Cl2 is needed and will continue to be in- the sixth generation of its single-element
dispensible. What makes todays chlor-al- membrane cell. Like its predecessors, the
kali plants different from those of just a few cells have a membrane area of 2.72 m2,
decades ago, is that they are much more making it easy to upgrade existing units.
efficient than their predecessors due to The BM2.7v6 is said to have a zero gap
the introduction of bipolar membrane tech- over the entire active membrane. As a re-
nology (Chem. Eng., February 2001, pp. sult, the BM2.7v6 reduces power consump-
16 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017
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Circle 44 on p. 98 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66433-44
TABLE 1. COMPARISON OF CHLOR-ALKALI PROCESSES
co.jp) gave an overview of its latest
Units Mercury Diaphragm Membrane Membrane
process process process ODC process* ion-exchange membrane technol-
Power kWh/m.t. (Cl2) 3,2003,600 2,3002,900 2,2002,600 1,6001,700 ogy, the Aciplex-F6800 series of per-
consumption fluorosulfonic acid membranes, and
Steam demand kWh/m.t. (Cl2) 0 8001,000 200400 200400 previewed the next development, the
for 50%
caustic soda
F7001X, which will be commercial-
Total power kWh/m.t. (Cl2) 3,2003,600 3,1003,900 2,4003,000 1,8002,100 ized in 2018. The F7001X features
consumption the companys patented Ion Cluster
CO2 m.t.CO2/m.t.Cl2 1.82.0 1.752.2 1.351.7 1.01.2 Control technology, which is said to
emissions** enhance the current efficiencies by
CO2 balance % +44% +42% +26% Reference value
0.30.5% for the same cell voltage
Notes:
*Accounts for the energy demand for producing the O2 used in the oxygen depolarized cathode (ODC) process.
(CV). The F7001X has been shown to
** Assuming 565 kg of CO2 per mWh of electricity (source: Bundesumweltamt, 2009). enable cell voltages to be reduced by
Credit for table: thyssenkrupp 50 mV compared to the F6808.
tion to 2,0202,035 kWh per metric this technology, says Jeff Pan, CCO
ton (m.t.) of NaOH at 6 kA/m2, says and Overseas business director at Oxygen depolarized cathodes
the company (see Table 1 for com- Bluestar. The company is now work- Possibly the biggest quantum jump
parisons). The BM is being used in ing to further reduce the energy con- in terms of energy reductions in the
a number of commercial plants, in- sumption to below 2,020 kWh/m.t. chlor-alkali production process has
cluding several recent conversions of NaOH with its NBZ-X electrolyzer, been the introduction of the oxygen
from mercury to membrane tech- which is expected to be commercially depolarized cathode (ODC) technol-
nology, such as AkzoNobels plant available within the next two years, ogy (Figure 2). This magazine has
in Frankfurt am Main, Germany says Pan. It will be a skid-mounted been following this breakthrough
(250,000 m.t./yr of Cl2), which was plant that is easily installed, and the since it was originally developed by
completed in 2015. More recently active electrode area will be smaller Covestro AG (formerly Bayer Mate-
(October 2016), CABB AG (Pratteln, than the NBZ-2.7 II, he explains. rialScience; Leverkusen, Germany;
Switzerland; www.cabb-chemicals. www.covestro.com) and thyssen-
com) started up two electrolyzers, New membranes krupp (for more details, see Chem.
each with 131 sixth-generation, In a related effort to reduce energy Eng., May 2007, pp. 5055, and
single-element cells from thyssen- costs, new generations of ion-ex- Chem. Eng. December 2014, pp.
krupp, thereby replacing the amal- change membranes are also being 1722). This technology reduces
gam electrolysis plants. The new developed. AGC Chemicals, a di- power consumption by up to 25%,
plant increases the Cl2 capacity from vision of Asahi Glass Co. (Tokyo, and it has already been imple-
27,000 m.t./yr to 47,000 m.t./yr, Japan; www.agc-chemicals.com), mented in several industrial plants
thereby meeting the sites demands has continued its efforts to reduce worldwide since 2011, says thys-
and essentially eliminating the need electric resistance of its ion-ex- senkrupps Krude.
for Cl2 transports, says CABB. change membranes over the last 40 The company also offers ODC
We are working continuously on years. The companys current flag- technology for making Cl2 from HCl,
improving our technologies; for ex- ship product, the Flemion F-8080, a process that promises to be an
ample with new surface structures, is a cation-exchange membrane (a important way to recycle HCl gener-
membranes, materials or coatings, fluorinated carboxylic polymer) that ated in the production of methylene
says Denis Krude, CEO of thyssenk- offers extremely low resistance and diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) and tol-
rupp Uhde Chlorine Engineers. The is said to be the preferred product by uene diisocyanate (TDI). MDI and
main target is to lower the power many users. The use of carboxylic TDI production facilities are operat-
consumption even further, under polymer helps ion-exchange mem- ing at extremely high rates due to
2,000 kWh/m.t. NaOH, he says. branes in salt electrolysis achieve the tight isocyanate markets, result-
Meanwhile, other membrane-elec- high electrical current efficiency. ing in increased availability of HCl,
trolysis suppliers are also working At Euro Chlors 10th Technol- says Krude.
to improve efficiencies of their own ogy Conference (May 1618; Berlin,
zero-gap technology. For example, in Germany), the company introduced Mercurys era comes to an end
2014, Bluestar (Beijing) Chemical Ma- the latest Flemion membranes and Although the conversion of mercury
chinery Co. (China; www.bcmc.com) said it is working on a soon-to-be cells to membrane cells can make
first commercialized its second-gen- released version, the Fx-634, which good economic sense in terms of
eration zero-gap electrolyzer technol- is more robust than the F-8080 and reducing operating costs (see Table
ogy, the Natural Circulation Bipolar F-8080A, and will enable a further re- 1), a number of mercury plants are
Zero Gap Electrolyzer (NBZ-2.7II), duction of the operating voltage by still operating around the world, es-
which has a power consumption 50 mV, the company says. pecially in Europe, where the mercury
of 2,030 kWh/m.t. of NaOH. Since Also at the the Berlin conference, cells had traditionally been the tech-
then, there are now 19 plants using Asahi Kasei Corp. (www.asahi-kasei. nology of choice. Worldwide, there
18 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017
Pure medical-grade bicarbonate?
Or 100,000 tonnes for food production?
What if you could do both
with one efficient solution?
The market for refined bicarbonate Its just one of countless challenges
is steadily expanding, forcing many solved by ANDRITZ SEPARATION the
producers to increase both purit y worlds leading separation specialist.
and throughput. Our latest solution? With the broadest technology portfolio
Dewatering and drying equipment for one and more than 2,000 specialists in 40
of the worlds largest production lines countries, ANDRITZ SEPARATION is a
for sodium bicarbonate, with an annual driving force in the evolution of separation
capacity of 100,000 tonnes and 15% less technologies, services, and solutions.
energy consumption than conventional Whats your biggest challenge?
technologies. Best of all, the technologys
carbon dioxide dr ying atmosphere
prevents thermal degradation to achieve
the highest levels of purity.

andritz.com/separa tion

Circle 03 on p. 98 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66433-03
thyssenkrupp Uhde Chlorine Engineers
The ODC process Cathode Anode

NaOH 30% Collecting


channel
02

Support structure Anode


electrode
Elastic element
Membrane

ODC

Percolator Downcomer

02 300g NaCI/I
FIGURE 2. Shown here is the operating principle (a) of an NaCl-ODC (oxygen depolarized
cathode) cell, and an NaCl-ODC plant in operation (b)
With the adoption of from mercury-cell to the BiChlor
the EU Mercury Regula- membrane electrolyzer of Ineos
NaOH 32% 210g NaCI/I + CI2 tion in May 2017, the E.U. Technologies (London, U.K.; www.
2 NaCI + H2O + 1/2 CI2 + 2 NaOH simultaneously ratified ineos.com). Ashta says the change
the United Nations Mina- will also result in a 20% reduction in
are still 34 mercury plants with a joint mata Convention on Mercury (www. energy consumption.
production capacity of 3 million m.t./ mercuryconvention.org). This rati-
yr of Cl2, according to Euro Chlor. At fication by the E.U. Commission Staying competitive
the end of 2016, membrane tech- prompted other Member States to Since 2007, there has been a gradual
nology accounted for about 66% of act, bringing the number of ratifica- decline in European chlorine produc-
European Cl2 production capacity, tions up to the required 50 for the con- tion; the chlorine industry has not
with mercury-cells share account- vention to enter into force on August followed the general growth of the
ing for approximately 17% of the Cl2 16, 2017. The Minamata Convention chemical industry in Europe and the
production capacity, according to requires the phaseout of all mercury- rest of the world, according to Euro
Euro Chlors Industry Review 2016 cell chlor-alkali production by 2025. Chlor. The regulatory and economic
2017, published last month. The first Conference of the Parties environment in Europe continues to
In 2017, conversion of mercury (COP1) meeting was scheduled for challenge our global competitiveness,
plants to membrane processes (or September 2427, 2017 in Geneva, says executive director Dolf van Wijk.
closures of the mercury plants) will Switzerland (after this article went to He points to statistics from Cefic (The
further increase, says Euro Chlor. In press), and the The World Chlorine European Chemical Industry Coun-
2013, best available technology (BAT) Council (WCC; www.worldchlorine. cil; Brussels, Belgium; www.cefic.
conclusions under the E.U.s Indus- org) said it would be attending. Es- org) that show regulatory costs have
trial Emissions Directive implied that tablished in 1993, WCC represents doubled over the past decade, with
mercury cell technology can no longer national and regional trade associa- energy policies continuing to increase
be used in chlor-alkali units after 11 tions and their member companies, power prices due to rising taxes and
December 2017. On May 24 2017, to promote best practices and the levies, reducing our global competi-
the new E.U. regulation on mercury benefits of chlor-alkali chemistry. tiveness, he says. Europe urgently
was published (EU 2017/852). The In the U.S., the diaphragm cell is needs to improve its policy support
new regulation reinforces the phase- the dominant technology for its chlor- for the manufacturing sector to foster
out deadline of the end of 2017, and alkali sector. Of the two remaining innovation, provision of new jobs, gen-
Euro Chlor says it will continue to mercury-cell plants still operating in erate growth and supply the needs of
support the membership in identify- the U.S., one will be converted to future generations.
ing conversion and storage options. membrane technology by the end of Electricity accounts for at least
This regulation allows temporary stor- this year, and the other is expected to 50% of the chlor-alkali production
age of liquid Hg for a maximum of up close or convert by the 2025 dead- costs, says Ton Mandres, techni-
to five years, with the possibility of line of the Minamata Convention. cal director at Euro Chlor. Whereas
extension of three additional years. In 2014, Ashta Chemicals Inc. shale gas has essentially cut elec-
Meanwhile, liquid mercury must be (Ashtabula, Ohio; www.ashtachemi- tricity costs in half in North America,
converted into mercury sulfide before cals.com) announced it would be energy is a bigger challenge for the
being permanently disposed of, says investing $60 million to convert its E.U., he says.
Euro Chlor. chlor-alkali facility in Ashtabula, Ohio Gerald Ondrey
20 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017
Circle 36 on p. 98 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66433-36
Newsfront

New Performance Materials


Solve Industrial Challenges
From additives to polymers to coatings to 3-D printables, new materials improve performance

IN BRIEF FIGURE 1. PolyMag additives are FDA-compliant and impart metal Eriez
detectability, X-ray contrast and magnetic susceptibility when added
ADDITIVES
to plastic moldings to help prevent plastic contaminated food products
POLYMERS from reaching the consumer

COATINGS AND
ENAMELS

OTHER PERFORMANCE
MATERIALS

H
igh-performance materials are protection in marine engines and industrial
intended to make consumer applications. However, recent testing found
goods, industry and the world, in that the additive has additional properties,
general, function better. Inventive as it can prevent hydrogen embrittlement
performance materials can be found in all (or white etching cracks) the process by
categories, from additives to polymers to which metals, such as steel, become brittle
coatings and enamels to newer materials, and fracture when in contact with hydro-
such as 3-D printables. What each brings gen. This phenomenon is something that
to the table depends upon the type of ma- occurs in the structure of the metal, says
terial and the intended application, but one Nanol CEO Johan von Knorring. The met-
thing all performance materials have in allurgical process disrupts and weakens the
common is that they are constantly being structure of the metal. It occurs especially
innovated to perform better than the mate- at high loads when hydrogen atoms dif-
rials that came before. This article rounds fuse into the micro-structure of the metal.
up some of the newest materials designed This causes unpredictable metal fractures
to solve industrial challenges within several and cracking, but weve found that it can
different categories. be prevented with [the additive, also known
as] Nanol. He adds that Nanol should be
Additives viewed as a multifaceted additive that has
Many additives were developed to solve additional performance attributes, such as
problems that were plaguing industry. For viscosity improvement, friction modification
example, Nanol Technologies (Helsinki, Fin- and anti-wear properties, as well as protec-
land; www.nanol.eu) lubricant additive was tion against hydrogen embrittlement.
originally developed for fuel saving and wear The additive has mainly been used in
22 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017
MilliporeSigma Stronghold Coatings

FIGURE 3. Dichtol 1532, a polymeric capillary sealer for castings and composites, impregnates micropores
FIGURE 2. Poloxamer 188 Emprove Expert poly- and hairline cracks without vacuum or pressure, forming a protective barrier to gases and liquids that is in-
mer is a surface-active non-ionic polymer used visible when cured. It penetrates deeply into the coating to prevent corrosion of the metal substrate
in cell culture media as a shear protectant and
a standard component in cell culture media for Eriezs (Erie, Pa.; www.eriez.com) to plastic moldings. Incorporating
production processes. It helps ensure lot-to-lot latest additive was developed to as- these additives into the processing
consistency and reliable performance
sist food processors that needed of items such as conveyor belts, pal-
marine engine and power-plant ap- a way to detect plastic contamina- lets, ear plugs, gaskets, totes, pens,
plications, but is finding use in new tion in food products in an effort to shovels, scoops, scraper blades
segments where hydrogen embrit- comply with standards, such as the and other plastic items used in a
tlement is an issue, such as gear Food Safety Modernization Act and food processing facility can prevent
boxes and wind-power turbines. Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based plastic-contaminated food products
Using Nanol in these applications Preventive Controls. The companys from reaching the consumer, says
will prolong service intervals, lower PolyMag additives (Figure 1) are John Collins, PolyMag business
friction, reduce energy consumption FDA-compliant and impart metal manager with Eriez, as food pro-
and decrease wear on parts, von detectability, X-ray contrast and cessors readily use these detection
Knorring says. magnetic susceptibility when added techniques to avoid having contami-

A Guide to Advanced and Next-Generation


Battery Technology and Materials
This comprehensive guidebook provides descriptions of the major battery technologies and
materials in the advanced and next-generation battery markets, as well as information on
many of the companies operating in the advanced and next-generation battery industries.

Included in this guidebook is a table that represents a list of selected technology-


development companies in the advanced batteryspace, along with their areas of focus,
contact information and technology status. Itlists both established companies and startup
companies that have made technologicalstrides in recent years toward commercially viable
battery technologies.
Major application areas for advanced and next-generation batteries
Key parameters for advanced and next-generation batteries
A sampling of academic and national laboratory research groups and lead investigators that arefocused
on technology for advanced batteries

Details Include: Developments by application area Battery materials and


Driving forces Grid-energy storage components
Battery materials Lithium-ion technology Production capacity
Supply-chain logistics Advanced lead-acid batteries Research stage
Advanced batteries Wearable batteries Advanced battery companies
Li-ion variants Lithium-sulfur battery technology and specic technologies
Next-generation batteries Redox ow batteries References

Learn more at store.chemengonline.com 28014

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017 23


Eutectic Corp./Castolin Element Six

FIGURE 5. Diafilm ETC700 CVD diamond heat spreaders are the first thermal management material engi-
neered to offer electrical conductivity alongside the exceptional thermal performance of diamond
mers to advise customers about liporeSigma. Our Poloxamer 188
FIGURE 4. XuperCOAT was developed for the migration issues and regulatory Emprove Expert has a tight and
protection of molds in metals casting. The coating compliance during the product de- well-controlled molecular weight
was designed to increase the lifetime of the mold
plates or tubes and to ensure longer campaigns sign phase, preventing problems distribution, which shows superior
of first-class cast products in terms of cast shape before they occur and shortening performance compared with other
and surface quality time to market. suppliers and quality grades.
M545TF can be supplied pre- Other industries, too, are reaping
nants in their product. colored, with Elix Polymers taking the rewards of new performance
The additives are provided in pellet the responsibility for compliance polymers. For example, GreenMan-
form, allowing molders and extrud- of the pigments with food-contact tra Technologies (Brantford, Ont.,
ers to produce metal-detectable and regulations. A series of actions have Canada; www.greenmantra.ca), a
X-ray-visible plastic items used for been taken to assure no impact on clean-tech company that uses a
food contact applications. extractables and leachables. For ex- proprietary thermo-catalytic system
ample, no colorants and dyes, dis- and patented process to cost-ef-
Polymers persants or process aids are allowed fectively convert and upcycle waste
New polymers are also being cre- in recipes, unless they are approved plastic, is the first company to de-
ated for use in food-contact applica- in the base material, and only FDA/ polymerize waste polyolefin plastic
tions. For example, a new acryloni- EU pigments are used. into a synthetic wax on a commer-
trile butadiene styrene (ABS) grade Biopharmaceutical manufacturers cial scale, according to Domenic
from Elix Polymers S.L. (Tarragona, also need polymers that are devel- DiMondo, senior director, research
Spain; www.elix-polymers.com) is oped to meet regulatory require- and business development with the
for use in products that come into ments. As such, MilliporeSigma (Bil- company. The novelty of our pro-
contact with food and which also lerica, Mass.; www.emdmillipore. cess is in the non-discriminatory
require extra toughness and resis- com) offers a Poloxamer 188 poly- features of the process with regard
tance to high temperatures. While mer, a surface-active non-ionic poly- to the polyethylene or polypropylene
the company has a high level of ex- mer used in cell culture media as a plastic used. This allows us to use
perience as a supplier of ABS for shear protectant and a standard a full range of polyolefin waste plas-
medical consumer applications, it in- component in cell culture media for tics as feedstock, he says. Future
tends to transfer this competence to production processes. Millipore- commercial products will include a
food-contact applications, which are Sigmas Poloxamer 188 Emprove portfolio of styrenic polymers derived
also sensitive applications requiring a Expert polymer (Figure 2) helps en- from waste polystyrene.
high level of support and knowledge sure lot-to-lot consistency and reli- In the meantime, the technology
in regulation, says Aurelie Mannella, able performance. The product has allows the company greater control
healthcare industry manager with been cell culture tested, optimized of the polymer depolymerization
Elix Polymers. and comes with Emprove Expert and resulting product properties,
Target applications for the latest polymer dossiers to help manu- enabling them to produce drop-in
grade of ABS include kitchenware, facturers meet regulatory require- offsets or novel synthetic polymers,
products for preparation and stor- ments for risk assessment. Certain waxes and additives. Ceranovus
age of food and toys. The latest molecular weight species can have waxes, some of the newest prod-
grade has been migration tested a negative impact on cell culture ucts, are sold commercially for ap-
with different food simulants, says performance, says Andrew Bulpin, plications in asphalt modification for
Mannella. This enables Elix Poly- head of process solutions with Mil- roofing and paving, polymer pro-
24 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017
cessing, masterbatch, inks, coatings and adhesives.
These products stand out from other waxes as they
can improve throughput and productivity in manufac-
turing processes such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) ex-
trusion and plastics processing, while also helping to
reduce energy costs and equipment wear. As a modi-
fier, they can enhance the physical properties of the
end product, depending on the application, providing RECE
greater stability or performance in the field, says Di- IVE FU
Mondo. And because the waxes are produced from
post-consumer recycled plastics, they enable end ACCELL
products utilizing the wax to qualify for LEED (Leader-
ship in Energy and Environmental Design) and other
environmental credits.
Other polymer developments include the introduc-
to ALL
at Yo
SS
Facts of Chemic
al Eng
one cour Fingertip ineerings
nvenie s
nt locaarticles in
tion of Makrolon, a thermally conductive (TC) poly-
carbonate from Covestro LLC (Pittsburgh, Pa.; www.
covestro.com). The material can be used for thermal
tion.
management in a variety of components. Relevant EACH INFORMATION
applications span the electronics, automotive light- PACKED PDF ARTICLE includes
ing and light-emitting diode (LED) lighting industries. graphs, charts, tables, equations and
Makrolon TC polycarbonate can be used as a re- columns on the full chemical engineer-
placement for aluminum, a material often used in heat
sinks. Heat sinks molded using these grades provide ing processes you deal with on a daily
dissipation of the heat generated by the OEMs prod- basis. This is the tool you will come to
uct in order to maintain desired operating tempera- rely on, referring back to the information
tures and meet product performance goals. Many
existing applications are over-engineered using die
again and again with just the click of a
cast aluminum since the effect of higher conductiv- mouse.
ity is lost in certain low-convection conditions, says
Kevin Dunay, electrical industry manager, polycarbon- Facts at Your Fingertips
ates with Covestro. Unlike aluminum, the processing
temperature of Makrolon TC polycarbonate enables
Topics Include:
insert molding of components. Molding in compo-
nents allows for parts consolidation, which translates
Conservation Economics: Carbon
into reduced costs. Furthermore, the material is lighter Pricing Impacts
weight and provides enhanced design freedom when Distillation Tray Design
compared to aluminum. Burner Operating Characteristics
Coatings and enamels Measurement Guide for Replacement
High-performing coatings and enamels are also being Seals
developed to improve upon existing solutions for chal- Steam Tracer Lines and Traps
lenging industrial applications. For instance, Larry Gri-
Positive Displacement Pumps
menstein, owner of Stonghold Coatings (Franklin, Ohio;
www.strongholdone.com) says he noticed that thermal Low-Pressure Measurement for
spray coatings often failed. What I found was that the Control Valves
coatings had porosity and the sealers being sold actu- Creating Installed Gain Graphs
ally did not perform well in service, he says. I found a
special resin and ran some tests and it worked better
Aboveground and Underground
than anything in the current market. Storage Tanks
He adds that following some modifications in formula-
tion to meet safety requirements, the resulting product,
Dichtol, became a material used to seal thermal-spray Receive full access today
coatings. I was approached by automotive and pump by visiting
companies to use the sealer on cast aluminum parts.
These parts had been sealed in vacuum pressure tanks,
www.chemengonline.com/
but there were still a small percentage of failures, and magazine/facts-at-your-fingertips
some of the parts were so expensive that a small per- 24670
centage of failures became a major cost problem. Com-

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017 25


Nanosteel
manager for enamel activity. Re-
glassing is the process by which
older or damaged glass-lined steel
equipment is refurbished to like-new
condition. During the re-glassing
process, the old glass lining is re-
moved, steel repairs and modifica-
tions are completed and corrosion
resistant DD3009 enamel is fused
onto the prepared steel in a com-
puter-controlled electric furnace.
The end product is a high-quality,
glass-lined steel vessel.
Drummer continues: All enamels
are not of the same quality, so we de-
veloped our own enamel to improve
the characteristics and to provide the
FIGURE 6. BLDR metal L-40 is case-hardenable steel powder that provides both high hardness and best enamel dedicated to chemical
ductility and prints easily on standard commercial metal printing equipment, which means that it can be
used on existing printers and pharmaceutical industries.
Another coating, XuperCOAT
panies started to mark small failure ment engineer/president with ZYP. (Figure 4) from Eutectic Corp.
areas on the part and coat it with Based on this core technology, ZYP (Menomonee Falls, Wis.; www.
Dichtol. Failure changed from a few recently launched its Boron Nitride castolin.com), was developed for
percent to tenths of a percent. Cera Patch product, a ready-to- the protection of molds in metals
Since then, several new Dich- use, water-based ceramic putty/ casting. The coating was designed
tol products have been launched, patching material that can be filled to increase the lifetime of the mold
including Dichtol 1532 (Figure 3), into any fissure, crack or defect in plates or tubes and to ensure lon-
a polymeric capillary sealer for refractory materials to achieve non- ger campaigns of first-class cast
castings and composites. It im- wetting with molten aluminum. This products in terms of cast shape
pregnates micropores and hairline repair product is completely free and surface quality. The coating
cracks without vacuum or pres- of refractory ceramic fiber (RCF), also helps reduce operational costs
sure, forming a protective barrier and is engineered to expand to fill for molds and increases high-qual-
to gases and liquids that is invis- damaged areas and does not sin- ity output ratios, says Thilo Krah-
ible when cured. It penetrates ter, shrink or crack with use. It ad- Tomala, global industry segment
deeply into the coating to prevent heres well to all refractory surfaces, manager for steel and non-ferrous
corrosion of the metal substrate. dense or porous, and is applicable industries with Eutectic. Standard
Pressure-resistant to 8,700 psi and for all environments to 1,472F for solutions in the market are nickel-
temperature resistant to 932F, the continuous use, and to 1,832F for or chrome-based electroplating
product is easily applied by dip, intermittent use. BN Cera Patch coatings, says Krah-Tomala. Xu-
brush or spray, dries in minutes and is ready-to-use after applying with perCOAT can increase the lifetime
cures at ambient temperature. putty knife or trowel followed by of molds from two to five times
ZYP Coatings (Oak Ridge, Tenn.; drying. No special cure is needed. compared to these solutions, de-
www.zypcoatings.com), which In an effort to provide another pending on base material and pro-
specializes in paintable high-tem- industrial solution, DeDietrich cess parameters. Our customers
perature ceramic refractory coat- Process Systems (Reichshoffen, also managed to lower costs for
ings, pioneered the use of paint- France; www.ddpsinc.com), a pro- molds by up to 30%, at the same
able boron nitride (BN) coatings for vider of process equipment for the time reducing the appearance of
everywhere that molten aluminum fine chemical, chemical and phar- surface defects like stickers or lon-
is melted, transferred or cast. BN maceutical industry, developed its gitudinal corner cracks.
has properties usable to above DD3009 enamel for re-glassing
3,272F in inert atmospheres and to glass-lined reactors to provide op- Other performance materials
1,832F in air. It exhibits high ther- timum properties of chemical resis- A variety of other materials are also
mal conductivity, high electrical re- tance to acidic and alkaline medi- being developed to solve industrial
sistivity, high lubricative nature and ums and mechanical resistance to dilemmas. For example, in an effort
chemical stability. The company shock and abrasion. to help address industry challenges,
produces its own very high-purity Glass-lined steel equipment is such as food waste and prod-
grade of BN powder using continu- used in processes when service uct end of life, The Dow Chemical
ous furnace technology, according conditions are particularly difficult, Company (Midland, Mich.; www.
to Cres Holcombe, senior develop- says Laurent Drummer, marketing dow.com), through its own R&D
26 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017
and collaboration with industry part- Obeloer. A high conduction cross-
ners, has been working to develop section enables better RF perfor-
high-performance technologies that mance by improving the ground-
enable next-generation packaging
to be developed and manufactured
plane isolation, reduces the slow
wave mode and capacitive coupling
PROCESS
faster and more cost efficiently, all
while providing sustainability efforts,
says Nathan Wiker, group market-
between ground planes at low fre-
quencies, maintaining a bulk ther-
mal conductivity greater than 650
PLANTS FOR
ing director, Dow Packaging & Spe- W/mK and reduces conductive - Hydrogenation
cialty Plastics. losses at higher frequencies. - Solids blending / drying
As such, the company recently With the growing use of metal
launched its Evercap closure resins. 3-D printing, many industrial cus-
- Pharma, food, cosmetics
The caps, closures and fitments tomers are seeing benefits from - Finechemicals
market faces many challenges as moving certain applications to
the range of innovations in pack- 3-D printing [additive manufactur-
aged food, beverages, cleaners and ing (AM)], including reducing part
other chemical markets continue count, creating new advanced ge-
to diversify. In addition to the basic ometries or simplifying the supply
tasks of preventing leakage and pre- chain, notes Harald Lemke, senior
serving freshness, cap-and-closure vice president and general man-
technologies need to be durable, ager of engineered powders with
lightweight, safe and recyclable, NanoSteel (Providence, R.I.; www.
he says. The Evercap portfolio en- nanosteelco.com), a steel-alloy de-
ables wide-ranging chemistry and sign company with a focus area in
processes, giving customers a way designing new steel powders for
to create a range of closures, caps use in additive manufacturing. Our
and fitments. This offers the indus- customers voiced a desire to 3-D
try many diverse, proprietary poly- print high-hardness components
ethylene (PE) technologies, ranging such as tooling, including molds or
from high-density (HDPE) to linear dies and parts like valves or gears.
low-density (LLDPE) to low-density These components typically call for
(LDPE), says Wiker. the use of high-hardness steels,
Another company, Element Six such as D2, M2 and H13, he says.
(Santa Clara, Calif.; www.e6.com) However, these materials are in-
wanted to develop thermally con- compatible with laser powder bed
ductive heat spreaders for use in fusion, the most common metal 3-D
high-end, high-power applications, printing process.
such as high-power radio frequency, To overcome this challenge,
optoelectronics and high-voltage NanoSteel launched the first high-
power semiconductor devices, says performance tool steel for the laser
Thomas Obeloer, business develop- power bed fusion AM process,
ment manager with the company. called, BLDR metal L-40 (Figure
Diafilm ETC700 CVD diamond heat 6). This material is case-harden-
spreaders (Figure 5) were the re- able steel powder that provides Hall A / Booth 642
sult. The material is the first thermal both high hardness and ductility
management material engineered (case hardness > 70HRC, 10%+
to offer electrical conductivity along- core elongation). It prints easily on
side the exceptional thermal perfor- standard commercial metal printing Your fast lane to
mance of diamond. The innovation equipment, which means that it can advanced mixing technology:
offers low dielectric and resistive be used on existing printers.
losses, making it a suitable mate- Through the combination of our Phone: +1 201 825 4684
rial for devices that demand optimal selected powder chemistry and print- Ext.: 205
thermal management with minimal ing process parameters, parts are
impact on electrical radio-frequency created on standard commercial laser usa@ekato.com
(RF) performance. powder bed fusion (LPBF) equipment
The material outperforms other that demonstrate high hardness and
commercially available non-dia- ductility, along with exceptional sur- www.ekato.com
mond heat-spreader materials, face finish, says Lemke.
such as metallized dielectrics, says Joy LePree
Circle 18 on p. 98 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66433-18

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017 27


Focus

Focus on Mobile Apps


VelocityEHS Monitor dust hazards from the palm of their hands while
and noise safety in the field. The app syncs directly
The Airwave App helps users moni- to users online MSDSOnline Ac-
tor dust levels and noise, to ensure counts, so changes made from any
compliance with exposure limits set location are automatically reflected
by the U.S. Occupational Safety both in the online account and the
and Health Administration (OSHA). app, ensuring that employees al-
The app provides remote access ways have consistent, up-to-date
to the companys Apex2 personal information related to hazardous
sampling pump and dBadge2 noise chemical-inventory information.
dosimeter. When connected via VelocityEHS, Chicago, Ill.
Bluetooth, the app enables users www.ehs.com
to easily monitor realtime data and
assess risk, allowing for timely inter- Updated app protect workers
vention should an event that requires from heat-related injury
attention arise. Specifically, it en- The National Institute for Occupa-
ables users to alarm directly from a tional Safety and Health (NIOSH) and
mobile device; remotely start, pause the U.S. Occupational Health and
or stop a measurement, check mea- Safety Admin. (OSHA) have collabo-
surement process, battery life and rated to update OSHAs Heat Safety
memory capacity; and email data, Tool (photo), which is designed to
photos and notes for a stream- keep employees safe when working
lined reporting process. Casella, outdoors in extreme temperatures.
Bedford, U.K. Extreme heat causes more deaths
www.casellasolutions.com than any other weather-related haz-
ard, according to the agency. The
Remote-access tool helps app helps workers exposed to hot
users manage chemical safety and humid conditions to check the
This company recently launched its heat index in the users location, and
enhanced SDS/Chemical Manage- shows the current risk level. The
ment mobile app (photo), which app, which now has a clearer user
gives users the ability to access crit- interface, forecasts the hourly heat
ical chemical safety information, in- index throughout the entire workday,
cluding Material Safety Data Sheets giving employers information they
(MSDS), product details, container can use to adjust the work environ-
information, scan barcodes, QR ment or hours to protect workers.
codes and UPC codes. It also lets U.S. Occupational Health and Safety
users access previous scans (even Admin., Washington, D.C.
when Internet access is not avail- www.osha.gov
able), and keep track of important
inventory details related to what These apps streamline tasks in
chemicals are stored on site, where hazardous environments
OSHA
they are stored, and in what quanti- This company purchased Ecom In-
ties, from any remote location. This struments of Germany (in October
significantly improves users abil- 2016), a maker of cell phones, 4G
ity to manage chemical inventories smartphones and tablets, cam-
onsite, says the company. By com- eras, beacons and other devices
bining its popular eBinder app and that are designed and certified for
Chemical Inventory Scanning app use in hazardous areas. The Ecom
functionality into a singular SDS/ App Library provides more than 200
Chemical Management mobile app, useful apps tested by applications
employees now have easy on- and for use in hazardous areas using
offline access to safety data sheets, Ex-certified smartphones, tablets
as well as the ability to quickly scan and peripherals that are certified
chemical container bar codes and for use in hazardous environments.
manage inventory information, These tools help engineers and
Note: For more information, circle the 3-digit number on p. 98, or use the website designation.
28 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017
Hot Topics in
technicians in hazardous-areas take advantage of a the Chemical
diverse array of mobile apps to streamline workflows,
improve the way assets are operated and managed,
and ensure safe operations for employees, says the
Processing Industry
company. Pepperl+Fuchs, Twinsburg, Ohio
www.pepperlfuchs.com

Convert concentration to conductivity


and vice versa
One of the key appli-
cations for the mea-
surement of electro-
lytic conductivity in
process analytical
chemistry is analyz-
ing solution strength
in concentration
control or monitor-
ing. The principle
of this analytical Valves
method is based on Mettler Toledo Process Analytics Selection, Operation and Troubleshooting
pure salts and acids Optimal Pump
that show very distinctive electrolytic conductivity be-
havior at different concentrations in aqueous solutions.
Management
The mobile CONDverter app (photo), designed for en-
gineers and instrumentation professionals, provides a CHEMICAL
ENGINEERING
CHEMICAL
ENGINEERING
simple reference tool that allows users to select a spe-
cies from a list of typically used industrial chemicals and
enter a concentration value. The app then calculates Valves Selection: Managing Vapor
and displays the corresponding conductivity value in a
wide range of measurement units right on the users Operation and and Particulate
phone. The tool always allows conductivity values to be
converted to concentration. Mettler Toledo Process Troubleshooting Emissions
Analytics, Urdorf, Switzerland
www.mt.com

Diagnostic app helps users resolve error codes


The Diagnostic Tool mobile app helps users to locate
and analyze common drive errors. It provides a quick
way for users of the companys drives to solve error Managing Vapor and
codes the drive may arise. Built into the app are easy- Particulate Emissions
to-use wiring diagrams to assist with first-time setup, Guidebook
plus links to relevant manuals that provide the most
comprehensive drive data and information. The app
has full contact details of the technical support teams
around the world to aid with technical problems. Cur-
rently, the app has full information of all drives within
the Unidrive M, Powerdrive F300, Elevator drives,
Unidrive SP, Commander SK, Digitax ST and Mentor
MP ranges. Control Techniques Ltd., a Division of
Emerson Industrial Automation, Newtown, U.K.
www.emerson.com
Optimal Pump
Track relevant packaging-line
Management
metrics from your smartphone
The Beumer Overall Operation Monitoring app (photo,
p. 30) enables staff to maintain an overview of all of
the relevant parameters of filling, palletizing and pack-
aging machines on their packaging line from their mo-
bile device. The mobile app shows the status of avail-
Find these and other related CPI titles
ability, performance and quality parameters related to
individual machines or the entire line, as well as en-
in the Chemical Engineering Store.
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM
store.chemengonline.com 29
Outotec ergy and compressed-air consump- angle and operating speed, and en-
tion. Users can evaluate all data and ables the user to visualize the ma-
display data or diagrams to evaluate chines motion pattern. The ability to
or compare performance. The flex- assess these parameters using this
ible app lets users add or change highly intuitive and easy-to-use app
details and dashboards, as needed. allows users to avoid sudden pro-
Beumer Group GmbH & Co. KG, duction outages and plan for timely
Beckum, Germany maintenance interventions, says the
www.beumergroup.com company. Schenck Process Hold-
ing GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany
Digital tool supports faster www.schenckprocess.com
equipment inspections
Customers can get immediate feed- Promote teamwork by
back from their equipment inspec- seamless access to key data
tions thanks to this companys latest The FactoryTalk TeamONE app is
mobile app for smartphones and tab- part of the companys expanded In-
lets (photo), which guides its techni- formation Solutions offerings, and is
cians through inspections, allowing designed to help employees make
them to capture relevant technical better decisions across the enter-
data and images more efficiently to prise by enabling users to collabo-
improve realtime decision making. rate, view live production diagnos-
This allows the technician to email a tics, interact with machine alarms
preliminary report to the client straight and troubleshoot devices. By pro-
from the app (with a more in-depth viding near-instantaneous incident
analysis report to follow), to charac- and device data, engineering and IT
terize equipment condition and main- workers can collaborate as a team to
tenance records, including spare- quickly address problems that arise.
Beumer Group parts requirements. Outotec Oyj, This app functions like a smart node,
Helsinki, Finland so rather than acting like a client that
www.outotec.com connects to the server, the apps
decision modules communicate di-
Specification data for U.S. and rectly to devices on the network,
metric screws, in one place enabling live data viewing, which can
The iengineer mobile app provides be synced with other team members
a comprehensive database of screw via secure cloud access. Rockwell
and bolt information, for a large array Automation, Milwaukee, Wis.
of U.S. and metric screws. It provides www.rockwell.com
access to key dimensional data and
specification information for several Streamlines the specification
hundred U.S. and metric screws of this fire-protection product
(with 9 different screw head styles). It The companys product FireNut
also provides information about hun- (photo) is a lightweight, rubber-
dreds of drill bit sizes, tap sizes and based, easy-to-install alternative to
more. Strength and torque informa- the fire-insulated metal boxes that
Schenck Process Holding tion is included for 29 different ma- are often used for the protection of
terials, and data for allowable shear bolted connections or flanges on
force are also provided. It includes a offshore installations. Designed to
chart to convert between fractions protect just the nuts of a bolted con-
and decimals. iengineerapp nection or flange, this lightweight
www.iengineerapp.com solution is customizable to accom-
modate almost any bolt size, is easy
Monitor vibrating machines to install, and extends the service life
using this app in the event of a fire. It is resistant to
The vibe2know app (photo) lets both jet fire and pool fire. The Fire-
users monitor a vibrating machines Nut mobile app is designed to make
current performance using a smart- it easier to specify the best FireNut
phone. To use it, the user simply in- to suit their flange type and size,
serts a smartphone into the specially thereby improving onboard safety,
designed magnetic mount (from the says the company. Trelleborg
company) and attaches it to the Group, Trelleborg, Sweden
equipment. The app measures vibra- www.trelleborg.com n
Trelleborg Group tory amplitude, frequency, oscillating Suzanne Shelley

30 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017


A perfect view even
with condensation!
The future is 80 GHz: a new generation
of radar level sensors

For the latest generation of radars, condensate on the sensor is


not an issue. Totally unafected by condensation or buildup on the
antenna, VEGAPULS 64 accurately detects the liquid level. With
the smallest antenna of its kind and exceptional focusing, it delivers
outstanding performance every time. Simply world-class!

www.vega.com/radar

Chem Show 2017:


Hall A, Stand 813

Wireless adjustment via Bluetooth with


smartphone, tablet or PC. Compatible retroit
to all plics sensors manufactured since 2002.

Circle 43 on p. 98 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66433-43
New Products
Endress+ Hauser Rapid online analysis of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide,
phosphorus content ammonia and more) into the same
The Liquiline CA80TP phospho- data file as other connected sensors.
rus analyzer (photo) is designed for These monitors measure particles
monitoring industrial wastewater sized from 0.3 to 25 m with a flow-
and inlet and outlet streams of mu- rate of 2.83 L/min. GrayWolf Sens-
nicipal wastewater treatment plants. ing Solutions, Shelton, Conn.
The CA80TP uses a thermal diges- www.graywolfsensing.com
tion technique along with colorimetric
analysis, requiring only a small quan- Industry-first controller for
tity of reagents. With online measure- IIoT-enabled operations
ment, there is no waiting for time- Launched last month, the DeltaV PK
consuming laboratory analysis. The controller (photo) makes the advanced
CA80TP measures phosphorus in automation of the DeltaV distributed
ranges of 0.05 to 10 mg/L or 0.5 to control system (DCS) available to
50 mg/L. It has two 420-mA outputs fast-growth industries traditionally
with the option for additional outputs. less reliant on large-scale automa-
Samples are drawn from the process tion. The next-generation controller
using a suction strainer or can be provides scalable automation control
taken from a bypass piping system. to all process industries, particularly
A precise sample volume is digested parts of the life sciences, oil-and-gas,
at high temperature with a digestion petrochemical and discrete manufac-
reagent. An optical dosing unit to turing industries that have relied on
dose sample and reagents uses complex, non-integrated program-
a redundant light barrier for a high mable logic controllers (PLCs) with
level of reliability, guaranteeing pre- limited operational capabilities. The
cise and reproducible results from ex- fit-for-purpose DeltaV PK controller
tremely small volumes of reagent. The is said to be the process industrys
CA80TP has a software-controlled first controller that manufacturers can
safety cover to prevent access to scale down for skid units or scale up
GrayWolf Sensing Solutions
the digestion reactor when it is under to be natively merged into the DeltaV
operation. Endress + Hauser Inc., DCS in a larger plant. Emerson
Greenwood, Ind. Automation Solutions, St. Louis, Mo.
www.us.endress.com www.emerson.com

A wall-mountable meter for A very compact


particle measurement standalone PLC
The PC-5000 Series meter for sens- The new Micro PLC VIPA Control
ing particulate matter (photo) is wall- (photo) is an ultra-compact stand-
mountable and can display and log alone PLC featuring high channel
calculated particle mass concentra- density. The system has a width of
tions with the option to incorporate less than 72 mm, making it up to
sensors for additional environmental 50% smaller than typical micro con-
parameters, such as total volatile or- trollers, says the manufacturer. De-
ganic compounds (TVOCs), carbon signed as a standalone PLC, the
dioxide (CO2), temperature and rela- Micro PLC incorporates a new dis-
Emerson Automation Solutions tive humidity. A laser-diode-powered play and an operating concept that
sensor and a brushless internal pump enables users to easily see essential
enable reliable particulate measure- control information. It is based on
ment down to 0.3 m. A high-accu- the latest Speed 7 technology, which
racy photo-ionization detector (PID) ensures fast program processing
for TVOC measurement and a dual- for precise positioning and diverse
wave NDIR CO2 sensor are offered. control tasks. Other features include
PC-5000 series monitors may also high channel density thanks to the
be connected to this companys Ad- 30 integrated digital and analog I/O
vancedSense, DirectSense or Wolf- channels, and the system can also
Pack instruments to add logging ca- be expanded with up to an additional
pabilities for additional compounds eight modules. Convenient push-in
Yaskawa Europe (for instance, formaldehyde, ozone, technology helps to minimize down-
32 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017
time and speed up maintenance because the plugs
can be mounted and replaced quickly and easily with-
out the need for tools. Yaskawa Europe GmbH,
Eschborn, Germany
www.yaskawa.eu.com

Push-button data for


bins, tanks or silos
The BinMaster C-100 control console provides level
and volume data outdoors at ground level with the push
of a button. It is simple to add to a network of up to
120 SmartBob cable-based sensors mounted on bins,
tanks or silos. The C-100 control console and the C-100
MB with Modbus Communications feature a 24-V d.c.
power supply and a NEMA 4X rating for resistance
against windblown dust and rain. Consoles are often
installed near load-out areas for access from trucks
or at ground level for worker walk-up use. The newly
updated consoles offer a wide range of measurement
units, including feet or cubic feet, U.S. gallons or bush-
els, and tons or metric tons. Additionally, users can se-
lect the measurement type as product or headroom and
measurement format in pounds, tons or kilograms.
BinMaster, Lincoln, Neb.
www.binmaster.com

A new range of filter bags for


industrial applications
At the parts2clean trade show (Oc-
tober 2426; Stuttgart, Germany),
this company will introduce three
ATEX Certified
new Max-Load filter bag ranges.
Pleated, melt-blown and coreless
Centrifuges
types extend the companys filter
bag offering. Max-Load filter bags
can be used in the companys
Excellence Down to the
Topline single-bag filter housings Smallest Detail
(photo) and Maxline multi-bag filter
housings. They are designed for a Eaton
large variety of applications and fea-
ture a side inlet, flow-through top for optimum sealing Safe and ecient for applications with
of the filter bag, easy filter bag change-outs and are ammable liquids: Gastight, ATEX certied
said to reduce product loss to a minimum. The Max- design various options and sizes of package
Load filter bag offering can also be equipped with a units available.
powerful magnetic bar to remove ferritic particles.
Eaton Corp., Tinton Falls, N.J. For contact details: gea.com/contact
www.eaton.com

This pressure switch is freely


configurable with scalable outputs
The new PSD-4 electronic pressure switch (photo, p.
34) enables flexibility in industrial applications because
the output signals (PNP/NPN, 420 mA or 010 V) are
freely configurable. The output signal, with a turndown
of 5:1, can be scaled to the relevant measuring range.
GEA CP-01-008

Thus, with just one instrument variant, many specifica-


tions can be realized. The PSD-4 features a 9-mm high
LED display with 14 segments, which can be rotated
continuously through 330 deg. This enables the mea-

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM


Circle 23 on p. 98 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66433-23
WIKA Alexander Wiegand sured value and status to be read A particle analyzer for
easily in any mounting position. In ad- nano-scale identification
dition, extensive diagnostic functions The new FlowCam Nano particle
inform the user about the instrument analyzer features Nano-Flow par-
status. WIKA Alexander Wiegand ticle-imaging technology that pro-
SE & Co. KG, Klingenberg, Germany vides digital images of particles
www.wika.com ranging in size from 300 nm to 30
m (photo). The system automati-
All-metal push-in and threaded cally reveals protein agglomerates,
fittings for cooling water supply silicon oil droplets, glass shards
The Liquiline line of threaded fittings and other opaque, transparent and
and coolant connectors (photo) are translucent sub-visible particles with
available in dezincification-resistant the high-resolution imagery needed
brass, as well as aluminum and stain- for identification. Particle analyzers
less steel. In addition, 45- and 90-deg based on light obscuration, dynamic
elbows made of brass or stainless light scattering, Brownian motion or
steel with optimized flow properties the Coulter Principle are unable to
have been added to the line. The new image these particles and allow for
swept screw-in elbow of dezincifica- their identification. In addition, the
tion-resistant brass or stainless steel FlowCam Nano may serve as a valu-
achieves significantly better flowrates able companion to USP 788 compli-
than conventional elbow fittings in ance testing methods for particulate
comparative tests, since there is no matter by documenting the pres-
turbulence and no obstruction of the ence and type of nano-scale par-
flow to prevent heat dissipation, says ticles, which may cause failed test
the manufacturer. They are suitable, results. The FlowCam particle im-
for example, for coolant connec- aging and analysis family of instru-
tors in welding processes, power ments now encompasses six mod-
electronics or high-frequency induc- els engineered to analyze particles
tion heating systems. The improved ranging from 300 nm to 5 mm in
Eisele Pneumatics
flowrate of the elbows allow the use size. Fluid Imaging Technologies,
of smaller diameters to achieve the Scarborough, Maine
same cooling effect as with conven- www.fluidimaging.com
tional elbow connectors. Eisele
Pneumatics GmbH & Co. KG, Waib- A clog-resistant
lingen, Germany tank-cleaning head
www.eisele.eu The clog-resistant Hydroclaw tank-
cleaning head impacts a jet of water
Isolate steam, condensate and on a claw-like plate, which shatters
process media with these valves the fluid into a 360-deg pattern, ef-
Last month, this company intro- fectively covering the whole tank.
duced the PV4 and PV6 piston Traditional cleaning heads typically
valves (photo) for isolation purposes. have multiple small orifices that
They are available in NPT and SW form a 360-deg cleaning pattern. As
versions, in sizes from to 2 in., in there is only a single orifice for the
Spirax Sarco
either forged carbon steel or forged cleaning fluid to pass through, the
stainless steel. These valves are de- overall free passage is dramatically
signed to Class 800 and provide tight increased (between 3 to 5 times
shutoff. They are suitable for steam, higher, says the manufacturer), al-
condensate and other liquid systems. lowing for liquid with high particle
The highly reliable and robust PV4 content (for particles over 7.6 mm in
and PV6 have been rigorously tested diameter) to be used as the cleaning
and developed for use in the oil, gas media. The HydroClaw is made from
and chemicals industries, where they FDA-compliant 316L stainless steel,
are considered an industry standard making it suitable for food-grade
for the isolation of steam, condensate and aseptic clean-in-place (CIP) ap-
and process media. Spirax Sarco, plications. It has no moving parts
Inc., Blythewood, S.C. and is self-draining, self-flushing and
Fluid Imaging Technologies www.spiraxsarco.com/global/us is laser-welded for optimum durabil-
34 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017
ity. The HydroClaw is designed to fit through a 76-mm
opening and is available with a variety of connection
types Bete Ltd., Lewes, U.K.
www.spray-nozzle.co.uk
Steel Belt Systems for the
This hose pump has been Chemical & Petrochemical Industry
enhanced for water applications
This companys line
of Abaque Series
peristaltic (hose)
pumps (photo) have
recently been rede-
signed to incorpo-
rate a wide variety SBS Group designs and builds continuous
of design enhance- process plants, equipped with steel belts
ments. These pumps
meet challenging from Berndorf Band, for a wide range of
requirements in the applications in the chemical,
water and wastewa- Neptune Chemical Pump petrochemical, rubber and food industry.
ter industry thanks
to a seal-free design that eliminates leaks and prod-
uct contamination. They feature a new hose connec- Having been pioneers in the development
tion system that has an improved clamping system of pastillating units, SBS is able to
with fewer parts to simplify hose replacement, a rede- supply complete packages for the
signed pump rotor to decrease weight and increase
strength, and a new oval viewing window that allows solidiication of liquid sulphur into pastilles.
shoe adjustment without removing the cover. Hose
failure detectors and vacuum kits are also available. Rolldrop and Accudrop are
Neptune Chemical Pump Co., North Wales, Pa.
www.neptune1.com registered trademarks of SBS Group.

A modular vacuum gripper series


with many independent gripping zones

SBS Steel Belt Systems USA


Phone: +1 847 841 3300
info@steelbeltsystemsusa.com

www.steelbeltsystems.com
Coval

The new MVG Modular Vacuum Gripper series (photo)


can be tailored to desired sizes, and users can also
configure: the vacuum generators; the gripping in-
terfaces (foam or suction cups); and the vacuum
level control (electronic vacuum switch or vacuum Berndorf Belt Technology USA
gauge). The MVG Series enables precise vacuum Phone: +1 847 841 3300
management with multi-zoning, which allows for
sales@berndorf-usa.com
the creation of multiple independent gripping zones.
This helps to optimize vacuum management during www.berndorfband-group.com
production cycles or palletization, resulting in an in-
crease in vacuum level, reduction of leaks and a drop
in energy consumption, says the company. Coval,
Visit us at booth #608
Montlier, France
www.coval.fr

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM Circle 06 on p. 98 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66433-06


This company adds triplex Mouvex compliant with API 674 to provide
pumps to its portfolio reliability and safety. Triplex Series
This company has integrated the pumps are available in seven mod-
Finder Triplex Series pumps (photo) els TD18, NF50, NH77, NJ116,
into its growing portfolio of transfer NL171, TN 260 and TP420 with
solutions for the energy and indus- power ratings ranging from 13 to 310
trial markets. Finder Triplex Series kW (18 to 420 h.p.). Typical applica-
pumps are highly reliable reciprocat- tions include water jetting, methanol
ing plunger pumps specifically de- injection, glycol recirculation, des-
signed for a wide variety of critical caling, boiler feeding and others.
applications. These pumps are also Mouvex, Auxerre, France
www.finderpumps.com

Use this actuator for


small-diameter valves
GF Piping Systems

The new EA15 electric actuator


(photo) is designed for small-di-
ameter, open/close ball-valve ap-
plications in chemical processing,
refrigeration and water-treatment
facilities. Key features included in
the standard package are: open/
close limit switches; seven-segment
error code display; adjustable inter-
nal heating element; and chemically
resistant polyproplyene housing. An
optional failsafe battery backup is
also available. The EA15 utilizes an
ISO 5211 universal mounting pattern
and carries certifications for vibration
testing. Designed to operate quar-
ter-turn valves, the EA15 actuator
delivers a nominal torque of 10 Nm
and a peak torque of 20 Nm. Clearly
displayed LED indicators enable
fast and easy reading of valve posi-
tion and actuator status at a glance,
whether in low-light conditions or
from a distance. GF Piping Sys-
tems, Irvine, Calif.
www.gfps.com

Detect pipeline leakage


via this fiber-optic system
This companys new pipeline leak-
detection system (photo, p. 37)
utilizes an infield fiber-optic cable,
which not only informs users about
the occurrence of a leak, but gives
an accurate location of any potential
Circle 14 on p. 98 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66433-14
36 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017
Setting
media and of liquids containing
Standards
Hawk Measurement
particle diameters up to 5 mm, all
with a very small pressure drop. In
addition, the extremely wide her-
ringbone plate corrugation, with
FLUXUS F/G721
a gap width of 10 mm, assures
highly turbulent flow at all points
of the plate, which in turn coun-
ters fouling. Application areas for
these plates are the production of
bioethanol, industrial wastewater
treatment and petrochemical pro-
leakage, allowing for extremely rapid cessing. Kelvion Holding GmbH,
assessment and repair. This solu- Bochum, Germany
tion combines multiple measured www.kelvion.com
variables within one cable, such as
sound, temperature or vibration, al- Measure temperature and
lowing the system to automatically flow with a single sensor
cross-reference and remove false
signals. Through the use of multivari-
able sensing, a single fiber-optic sys-
tem (FOS) is capable of detecting the
following: changes in temperature
caused by liquid or gas movement
in pipe leaks; sound and vibration
from pipe leaks or third-party intru- Advanced Non-Intrusive
sions; and changes in stress or strain Ultrasonic Flow Measurement
experienced due to pipe bending or
Baumer Highly accurate and reliable
loss of support. The FOS monitoring bidirectional flow measurement
system provides predictive analysis New FlexFlow process sensors of liquids and gases over a wide
capabilities to allow better-informed (photo) are based on a calorimetric turndown ratio
decisions to optimize the service measurement principle that enables
Bidirectional communication
life of pipeline assets. It is able to the monitoring of both flowrate and
via all common field buses as
seamlessly integrate into an exist- velocity in addition to media tem- well as advanced remote
ing digital-control system or super- perature in a single instrument. The diagnostics
visory control and data acquisition combination of two measuring func-
(SCADA) and alert operators through tions in a single sensor reduces the Engineered and approved for
a variety of digital protocols. Hawk number of measuring points required use in hazardous areas
(ATEX, IECEx Zone 2) and at
Measurement, Lawrence, Mass. in closed systems and therefore extreme pipe temperatures
www.hawkmeasure.com minimizes installation costs, service (-190 C up to 600 C)
and storage. The FlexFlow range
New heat-exchanger plates for includes the PF20H and PF20S op- Highest cost-effectiveness:
treating viscous media tions, which are suitable for hygienic - No pipe works
- No process shut-downs
The new NW150L and industrial applications. The IO- - Virtually maintenance-free
stainless-steel heat- Link enables users to simultaneously
exchanger plates configure several sensors, which Zero point stable, drift-free
(photo) complement simplifies point adjustment for dif- and independent of pipe
this companys range ferent process stages during setup dimensions, material,
pressurisation, pipe noise and
of heat-exchanger or for batch changeover. FlexFlow the medium flowing inside
plates for viscous and sensors are designed to enable di- (calibration traceable to
particle-containing agnostic data polling and process national standards)
media by introducing evaluation at all times, which helps
this new product line to maximize system uptime. All the
for the lower operat- sensors in the FlexFlow range are
ing range. The NW temperature resistant to 150C and
models have a wider clean-in-place (CIP) and steam- www.flexim.com
Kelvion Holding
plate gap than those in-place (SIP) capable. Baumer info@flexim.com
in the NT series, which enables Ltd., Swindon, U.K.
efficient heat treatment of viscous www.baumer.com
Circle 22 on p. 98 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66433-22

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017 37


Goudsmit Magnetics Group This magnetic filter removes platinum silicone tubing is sterilizable by
small iron particles from fluids autoclave or gamma irradiation, and is
This company recently introduced a available in five diameter sizes from 1/4
magnetic filter (photo) that captures through 1 in. New Age Industries,
very tiny iron particles (as small as Inc., Southampton, Pa.
1 m in diameter) in industrial liquids, www.newageindustries.com
such as lubricating oil, solvents and
coolants. Removing iron particles Zero-leakage sealing
from such products reduces damage for bulk powder handling
to machines and tools, cuts machine The New-Seal technology (photo)
downtime and extends the life of other provides zero-leakage sealing of bulk
filters present in the process and the solids for screw conveyors, paddle or
industrial fluids themselves. The mag- ribbon mixers, rotary valves, mixers,
netic filter can be placed either before blenders and agitators at tempera-
or after a candle filter. Installation be- tures up to 300F. Externally pres-
fore will extend the service life of the surized gas-bearing technology (sup-
candle filter, and installation after will plied at 4 bars) maintains seal-gap
ensure separation of the finest iron pressures at 2 bars while reducing
particles. The magnet is oriented par- buffer-gas flow consumption to 0.5
allel to the main flow, which means std. ft3/min. Therefore, nothing at a
that filtering takes place continuously, pressure lower than 2 bars will flow
without stopping the main flow. Un- across or into the seal face, because
like other filters, this magnetic filter the seal gap pressure is higher than
requires no flushing fluid, so there is that of the opposing powder, fluid or
New Age Industries
very little loss of the original fluid. The gas. Even at 0 rpm, the seal faces do
capacity of one filter unit is approxi- not touch, enabling New-Seal to be a
mately 0.8 m3/h and the maximum friction- and maintenance-free design,
pressure is 1.5 bars. Multiple filter according to the company. Large ra-
units can be placed in parallel, which dial, angular and axial error motions
results in a proportional increase of can be accommodated. New-Seal
the capacity. Goudsmit Magnetics is available for shafts ranging from
Group, Waalre, the Netherlands 1 to 40 in. in diameter. New Way
www.goudsmitmagnets.com Air Bearings, Aston, Pa.
www.new-seal.com
New silicone tubing eliminates
particulate shedding Clamped configuration makes
AdvantaSil High Pressure unreinforced this pump easier to maintain
silicone tubing (photo) is designed to The PS1 Original is a 13-mm, clamped
deliver increased flowrates and reduce metal air-operated double-diaphragm
New Way Air Bearings processing time. The tubings unrein- (AODD) pump (photo) that is equipped
forced characteristic allows for limited with this companys Pro-Flo Shift air-
pumpability up to 30 psi backpres- distribution system (ADS). The pumps
sure and makes it easier to see pro- clamped configuration allows for sim-
cess fluids. AdvantaSil High Pressure plified maintenance, diaphragm re-
is suitable for single-use applications, placement and cleaning. PS1 Original
such as inline integrity testing of filtra- pumps are shear-sensitive and intrinsi-
tion assemblies and high-volume fluid cally safe with self-priming and dry-run
transfer, although it is not limited only capabilities, and offer long mean time
to disposable applications. The tub- between repair (MTBR), anti-freezing
ing handles short-run peristaltic pump functionality and increased on/off reli-
applications requiring 30 psi backpres- ability, says the manufacturer. The PS1
sure, and most sizes offer full vacuum Original has an aluminum center block
capability. Because the tubing does not and is available with an aluminum,
contain braid reinforcement, particulate stainless steel or Alloy C wetted-path
shedding that can occur when cutting material. The pump features maxi-
braided hose is eliminated. AdvantaSil mum discharge pressures to 8.6 bars
High Pressure silicone tubing oper- (125 psig), maximum flowrates to 60.2
ates with temperatures ranging from L/min (15.9 gal/min) and maximum
Wilden Pump and Engineering 65 to 400F (53.9 to 204.4C). The suction lifts to 5.9 m (19.3 ft) dry and
38 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017
9.8 m (32.2 ft) wet. Diaphragms are A breakthrough in Bryan Steam
available in several material options. green corrosion protection
Wilden Pump and Engineering, BioPouch (photo) is a new, green va-
Grand Terrace, Calif. por-phase corrosion inhibitor for pro-
www.wildenpump.com tection of metal parts in a non-venti-
lating space. BioPouch is powered by
A condensing boiler with the companys NANO VpCI technol-
replaceable tubes ogy, primarily made from agricultural
The Free Flex condensing boiler byproducts. NANO-VpCIs emit from
(photo) offers a thermal efficiency of the pouch and saturate the enclosure
95% and features a weld-free design. via diffusion, filling all void spaces and
Free Flex permits field access to the recessed areas with protective vapor
heat exchanger for cleaning, as well molecules. Molecules from BioPouch
as tube replacement, making it the are attracted to and adsorb onto me-
only repairable condensing boiler tallic surfaces, resulting in the forma-
available on the market, according tion of a nano-protective barrier layer.
to the manufacturer. Free Flex is also Studies have shown the excellent
available in knockdown configurations ability for VpCI molecules to provide
to fit where other packaged boilers protection in the presence of corrosive
cannot. The boilers come equipped species, such as chlorides, moisture
with a built-in control system and an and sulfides, and displace them at the
easily configurable compact footprint. metal surface. Vapor-phase inhibit-
Low NOx, knockdown and outdoor ing action protects inaccessible and
weather protection options are avail- recessed surfaces. Cortec Corp.,
able on most boilers from this com- St. Paul, Minn.
pany. Bryan Steam LLC, Peru, Ind. www.cortecvci.com
www.bryanboilers.com Mary Page Bailey and Gerald Ondrey Cortec

More than pipes

Spools and components ready for installation

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marcel.bartels@butting.de www.butting.com

Circle 24 on p. 98 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66433-24 Circle 12 on p. 98 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66433-12

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017 39


Facts At Your Fingertips
Air Separation Processes TABLE 1. COMPOSITION OF AIR
Department Editor: Scott Jenkins Gas component % by volume Boiling point, K (C) Molecular
(chemical formula) in air Mass g/mol
Nitrogen (N2) 78.08 77.4 (195.8) 28.02

T
he components of air (Table 1), uniform electric
Oxygen (O2) 20.95 90.2 (183) 32.00
especially nitrogen (N2) and ox- fields in their void
Argon (Ar) 0.93 84.2 (186) 39.94
ygen (O2), are critical for many spaces. These dif- Carbon dioxide (CO2) 0.040 194.7 (78.5) 44.01
modern industrial processes. Primary ferences can be Neon (Ne) 0.0018 27.2 (246) 20.18
metals production, chemical manu- capitalized upon to Helium (He) 0.0005 4.2 (269) 4.00
facturing, gasification processes, preferentially ad- Krypton (Kr) 0.0001 119.8 (153.4) 83.8
clay, glass and concrete production, sorb N2, because Hydrogen (H2) 0.00005 20.3 (252.9) 2.02
welding and other processes depend N2 molecules are Xenon (Xe) 8.7 106 165.1 (108.1) 131.29
on O2 from air, while the chemical, more strongly adsorbed than O2 mol- include air compression, air-cooling
petroleum-refining and electronics ecules or Ar atoms. The zeolite ad- and purification, heat exchange,
industries utilize N2 for its inert prop- sorbents are paired with a pressure- refrigeration, internal product com-
erties. In addition, liquid N2 is used swing system, whereby pressurized pression and rectification (counter-
for cryogenic grinding, freeze-drying, air enters a vessel containing the current distillation, where the separa-
cryogenic storage of biological ma- adsorbent. N2 is adsorbed preferen- tion of components occurs).
terials, food freezing and other ap- tially and an O2-rich effluent stream An air-separation unit (ASU) using
plications. Argon (Ar) is used as an is produced until the bed has been a conventional, multi-column cryo-
inert material in welding, steelmak- saturated with N2. When saturation genic distillation process can pro-
ing, heat-treating and electronics is reached, the feed air is routed to duce O2 from compressed air at high
manufacturing. This one-page refer- another vessel and the regeneration recoveries and purities. The most
ence discusses the main methods of the first bed begins. Regeneration common design is a double-column
by which these common industrial is achieved by reducing the pressure system with an adjacent Ar unit.
gases can be derived from air. in the bed, which reduces the equi- To start the separation process, a
librium N2-holding capacity of the ad- large quantity of incoming air needs to
Air separation approaches sorbent and N2 is released. be liquefied. This is accomplished by
Separation of air into its constituent Membrane systems. Gas separa- cooling the air by decreasing its tem-
parts for industrial use can be divided tion processes using polymeric or perature and manipulating the pres-
into two main categories: cryogenic ceramic membranes are based on sure until condensation begins.
air separation and non-cryogenic differences in the rates at which O2 The first air-separation process was
processes. Cryogenic air separation and N2 diffuse through a membrane developed by Carl von Linde. Started
processes produce N2, O2 and Ar as that separates high- and low-pres- up in 1902, it separated O2 from air,
either gases or liquids by employing sure process streams. Membrane and was eventually developed into the
low-temperature distillation to sepa- air-separation systems are less en- double-column mechanism in 1910 to
rate the fluids. Cryogenic separation ergy-intensive than cryogenic sepa- allow the production of both O2 and
processes are most commonly used ration, but are generally more limited N2 simultaneously. The ability to ex-
when high-purity products and high in performance. Due to O2s smaller tract Ar was developed in 1913.
production rates are required. Non- molecular size, most membrane ma- The energy needed for the very
cryogenic processes for air separation terials are more permeable to O2 than low temperatures accounts for most
include the use of selective adsorption to N2. Membrane systems are usu- of the cost of production, so the ef-
to separate air components, and dif- ally limited to the production of O2- ficiency of the compression and
ferential permeation through mem- enriched air (2550% O2, rather than heat exchange are of great interest.
branes. These techniques use differ- 21 vol.% in regular air). While ASUs require high initial capital
ences in molecular structure, size and costs, they can realize relatively high
mass to separate air components. Cryogenic separation yields and can obtain large volumes
Non-cryogenic processes are carried Cryogenic air separation is currently of high-purity gases or liquids.
out at near-ambient temperatures, and the most efficient and cost-effective
are most often used in cases when technology for producing large quan- Further reading
high-purity gases and liquid products tities of O2, N2 and Ar as either gas- Vinson, D.R., Air Separation Control Technology, Computers
and Chemical Engineering, vol. 30, pp. 1,4361,446,
are not needed and when production eous or liquid products. By taking ad- 2006.
volumes are relatively small. vantage of boiling-point differences of Smith, A.R. and Klosek, J., A review of air separation
the species at very low temperatures technologies and their integration with energy conver-
Non-cryogenic air separation (see Table), a distillation column can sion processes, Fuel Processing Technology, vol. 70,
pp. 115134, 2001.
The following describes two of the be used to separate them. Alekseev, A., Basics of Low-Temperature Refrigeration,
main types of non-cryogenic air sepa- There are five major unit operations Linde AG, https://cds.cern.ch/record/1974048/files/
ration methods. required to cryogenically separate air arXiv:1501.07392.
Adsorption. Zeolites (highly porous into useful products. Key steps of Easterbrook, N., Boland T. and Farese, D., Extremely
Low-Temperature Systems, Chem. Eng., August 2015,
aluminosilicate materials) have non- the cryogenic air distillation process pp. 3844.

40 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017


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Circle 25 on p. 98 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66433-25
Technology Profile
Vinyl Acetate from Acetic Acid and Ethylene
By Intratec Solutions Ethylene, acetic Vapor-phase Vapor-phase Acetylene,
process process

V
acid, oxygen acetic acid
inyl acetate (vinyl acetate
monomer; VAM) is an impor-
Vinyl acetate
tant vinyl ester, primarily used monomer
in the production of polymers
and copolymers for coatings, paints Acetic anhydride, Addition reaction,
Methyl acetate,
Carbonylation hydrogen, carbon
and sealants, as well as for binders acetaldehyde decomposition monoxide
and in textile and paper processing.
n Raw material n Pathway n Main product

The process FIGURE 2. Several pathways are possible for producing vinyl acetate monomer
The following paragraphs describe a is routed to the crude VAM tank, acetate product with 99.9 wt.% from
typical vapor-phase oxidation process while gases from the scrubber are the overheads.
for VAM production from acetic acid recycled to the reaction. A portion of
and ethylene. Figure 1 presents a sim- these gases is washed with water to VAM production pathways
plified flow diagram of the process. remove residual acetic acid, which is VAM commercial production is most-
Reaction. Make-up and recycled also directed to the crude VAM tank. ly based on the reaction of ethylene
acetic acid pass through a vaporizer, After the water wash, the gases are with acetic acid and oxygen, but other
along with fresh and recycled ethyl- directed to an absorption column, for pathways are possible (Figure 2).
ene. The feed stream, containing ex- CO2 removal by a potassium carbon-
cess of ethylene over acetic acid, is ate solution. Economic performance
mixed with oxygen, preheated and VAM purification. In the azeotropic The total operating cost (raw materi-
fed to multi-tube reactors. The reac- column, a VAM-water mixture is als, utilities, fixed costs and deprecia-
tion occurs over palladium and gold distilled from the column overhead tion costs) estimated to produce vinyl
catalysts. Heat is removed by evapo- and fed to a decanter, along with acetate was about $1,100 per ton of
rative cooling on the reactors shell. the aqueous phase separated in the VAM in the third quarter of 2013. The
At the end of this stage, 810 wt.% pre-dehydration step. Here, an or- analysis was based on a plant with
of ethylene and 1535 wt.% of ace- ganic phase containing VAM is sepa- capacity to produce 350,000 metric
tic acid are converted to VAM. Water, rated and directed to the light-ends tons per year of VAM.
CO2 and small quantities of ethyl ac- column, while an aqueous phase is This column is based on Vinyl Ac-
etate, ethylidene diacetate, and glycol routed to the wastewater column. etate from Acetic Acid and Ethylene
acetates are the main byproducts. Ethyl acetate is withdrawn as a side Cost Analysis, a report published
VAM separation. The reactor ef- stream and discharged, and acetic by Intratec. It can be found at: www.
fluent is cooled and fed to the pre- acid from the column bottom is re- intratec.us/analysis/vinyl-acetate-pro-
dehydration column, where a crude cycled to the vaporizer. duction-cost. n
VAM stream is withdrawn from the The purpose of the light-ends col- Edited by Scott Jenkins
bottom and stored. The overhead umn is to strip off acetaldehyde and
stream is separated into an organic other volatile materials from the crude Editors note: The content for this column is supplied by In-
tratec Solutions LLC (Houston; www.intratec.us) and edited by
phase, which is recycled to the col- vinyl acetate, while the wastewater Chemical Engineering. The analyses and models presented
umn, and an aqueous phase, which is column separates residual VAM from are prepared on the basis of publicly available and non-
directed to a decanter downstream. wastewater. Finally, residual acetic confidential information. The content represents the opinions
of Intratec only. More information about the methodology for
Uncondensed gases are washed by acid and heavy-ends are removed in preparing analysis can be found, along with terms of use, at
acetic acid, and the solution formed the pure VAM column, yielding a vinyl www.intratec.us/che.

Carbon dioxide
1. Vaporizer
2. Oxidation reactor
5 6 7 3. Predehydration column
4. Crude VAM tank
Light ends to waste 5. Scrubber
6. Water wash
Fresh Vinyl 7. CO2 removal
ethylene acetate 8. Azeotropic column
9. Wastewater column
Fresh 1 10. Light-ends column
acetic 11. Pure VAM column
acid 2
Ethyl 12. Steam boiler
3 ST 12
acetate 13. Cooling tower
4 10 11 CW 13
Oxygen ST Steam
8 9 CW Cooling water
Wastewater

FIGURE 1. This diagram shows a typical vapor-phase oxidation process for vinyl acetate production

42 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017


Feeder Design for
Part 1

Solids Handling
Processes involving the movement of bulk solid materials require careful consideration of the
feeder equipment design, including how the feeders work with various bins and hoppers
Joe Marinelli and

T
he importance of feeder de-
Scott Miller
sign in maintaining reliable
Solids Handling
material flow in solids han-
Technologies Inc.
dling processes can easily
Arching Ratholing
be underappreciated and underes-
timated, but ignoring the feeder will IN BRIEF
likely result in costly and disastrous
outcomes. Feeders are designed FLOW PROBLEMS
to control solids flow, but they also FLOW PATTERNS
need to work well with the bin, hop-
HOPPER SHAPES:
per or silo system associated with WEDGE VERSUS
the process. Engineers can expend CONICAL
great effort and resources to evalu-
ate a materials flow properties, VOLUMETRIC FEEDER
design the best bin for those prop- TYPES
erties and spend signficant funds FIGURE 1. Arching and ratholing can result in no-flow conditions for a
solids handling process GRAVIMETRIC FEEDER
on liners or steep hoppers, only to TYPES
have all the money and effort wasted by an a rathole (Figure 1). If an arch forms, consider
improperly designed feeder. that this arch is strong enough to support the
The bin and feeder must work together to entire contents of the bin or silo and stop the
ensure uninterrupted flow from the bin. To fos- flow. An arch is sometimes referred to as
ter a deeper understanding of the importance a bridge or dome. When material arches,
of feeder design, this article discusses mate- sometimes the only way to address it is to
rial flow basics, flow patterns, the key role of employ a drastic means of flow promotion,
bin design, the types of feeders commonly such as vibrators, fluidization and unfortu-
used and devices available in the market- nately, sledgehammers.
place. In addition, it includes a list of feeder- Typically, a rathole develops when flow is
related dos and donts and finally a flow initiated and the material flows for a short
chart used to determine the correct feeder for time, then stops. Consider that friction de-
an application (see flowchart, p. 42). velops between the material and the hopper
wall surface such that, if the hopper wall is
Flow problems too rough or too shallow (or both), the ma-
Several flow problems can occur in bins and terial will not slide. When this occurs, a flow
silos, including the following: channel develops. Usually this channel forms
No flow due to arching and ratholing straight up into the material, but it can also
Erratic flow travel off to one side. If the solid material has
Flooding or flushing cohesive strength, the flow channel will empty
Flowrate limitations out and form a stable pipe that is referred to
Segregation as a rathole. Like arching, collapsing a rat-
These problems are discussed further below. hole requires extreme measures. The effects
Arching and ratholing. In some situations, of these measures on the structure of the bin
flow is initiated from the bin, and it either or silo should be considered. Collapsing ra-
does not flow at all or perhaps flows for a tholes can release tremendous amounts of
short time and then abruptly stops flowing. material, which can cause silos to fail.
When this occurs, the material is in a no-flow Erratic flow. The problem of erratic flow is a
condition due to the formation of an arch or combination of arching and ratholing. If the

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017 43


Cover Story
material in a bin ratholes, has happened? When the bin is filled, the
and a flow-aid approach air within the voids of the solid material is
is used to collapse the squeezed out through the bin filter at the
rathole, a bridge may still top. As flow is initiated, more air is squeezed
form. Consider that when out of the material voids. Also, when mate-
a rathole collapses, the rial enters the hopper, it dilates or expands,
material impacts the outlet creating a vacuum. Nature tries to satisfy this
with tremendous pressure. condition by bringing air in from the outlet
In some cases, the force below. This counter-current airflow slows the
of the collapsing material is material down and limits the flowrate.
so great that a stable arch Segregation. Separation of particles, or
forms due to the impact segregation, occurs when a product com-
FIGURE 2. Segregation can pressure. This type of flow problem can ad- posed of different particle sizes or densities
occur when a solid product versely affect flowrate, cause unwanted varia- (for example, grain with fines or dust) sepa-
consists of different particle
sizes. When piling, as shown
tions in bulk density and can potentially affect rates. The major cause is sifting, where fine
here, finer particles tend to the structural integrity of the bin. particles of a solid sift between coarse par-
concentrate under the fill Flooding or flushing. Fine powders are ticles. As an example, upon forming a pile of
point, while coarser material easily fluidized. When a rathole forms and material with differing particle sizes, typically,
tends to roll to the outside
material is knocked off the top of the flow the fine particles would concentrate under
channel, this material will be highly fluidized the fill point, while the coarse particles would
and uncontrollable. Also, if the level detector role or slide to the outside (Figure 2). There
indicates a low level (due to ratholing), it will are several other mechanisms of segregation
call for more material to fill the bin. As this that can be troublesome if uniform density or
material enters the rathole, it will become mixed material is required for a process.
highly fluidized. When one of these two con-
ditions occurs, the feeder at the outlet of the Flow patterns
bin, which is designed to handle a solid, will There are two major types of flow patterns
be overcome with fluidized product and will for solids in a bin or silo: funnel flow and
likely flush uncontrolled out of the feeder. mass flow.
Limited discharge rate. Fine powders are Funnel flow. A material flows in funnel flow
less permeable than coarser materials. This mode when only some of the material is
creates a problem with air passing through flowing, while the rest remains stagnant
the particles easily. For example, lets say a along the walls of the vessel. Suppose that
discharge rate of 10 ton/h is required and the hopper walls slope at 45 deg or even 60
when the feeder is turned on, the rate is ac- deg. In most cases, these hopper walls at
tually 2 ton/h. Normally, discharge rates can these angles are not steep enough to en-
be raised by increasing the feeder speed. sure solids flow along them. The hindrance
However, when this is done, the discharge of solids flow occurs because of the friction
rate increases to 3 ton/h no matter how that develops between the bin wall and the
fast the feeder speed is increased. What material. When the walls are too shallow or
too rough to overcome friction, many of the
Will the material flow issues described previously can result
discharge by gravity?
(Figure 3). The flow sequence for funnel flow
No Yes can be characterized as first-in-last-out,
What accuracy is needed
where the first material in the bin is typically
to control feedrate? the last to discharge. If the material is cohe-
Volumetric feeder Within 5% < 2% Gravimetric feeder
sive, it may bridge or rathole.
Funnel flow bins are suitable for coarse,
Will the feeder discharge into a
pneumatic conveying system? free-flowing materials that do not degrade.
Is the process
Yes No continuous or batch? Additionally, they can also be used with sol-
ids that are not susceptible to segregation
Will you be using a cone or problems. The bins live or usable capacity is
a wegde type hopper?1 Batch Continuous
Cone
bottom or reduced with funnel flow, and ratholes also
internal Cone Wedge
auger can potentially cause structural failure.
type Gain in weight Loss in weight Weigh Material such as plastic pellets or coarse,
unloader system system belt dry sand would typically be suited to funnel-
1. From flow properties testing: more cohesive flow applications. The major benefit of funnel
Rotary Pan Screw Belt materials may require a larger opening.
airlock/valve feeder2 feeder3 feeder3 2. Other applicable feeders, such as a circle flow is that the headroom requirements for
feeder or louvered feeder may apply.
3. These can be used under conical openings the bin are reduced, as are fabrication costs.
as well.
44 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017
However, solids flow problems usually far from the entire cross-sectional area of the
outweigh the benefits, as most fine powders bin outlet. If this does not occur, a funnel-
do not flow well in funnel flow conditions. flow pattern will develop in a bin that was
Mass flow. A material flows in mass flow designed and modified for mass flow.
mode when all the material in the bin moves
when any of it is withdrawn. The solid is ca- Hopper shape: wedge versus conical
pable of flowing along the walls because they Conical shaped hoppers are commonly used
are steep and smooth enough to overcome to store and handle bulk solids. Conical hop-
the friction that develops between the solid pers required to ensure mass flow usually
and the wall surface (Figure 4). A rathole have steep hopper slopes and smooth sur-
cannot form, simply by definition all the faces. On the other hand, wedge hoppers
material is in motion when discharging. Note require less steep hopper walls to ensure
that arching is not eliminated by mass flow. If mass flow. Examples of wedge hoppers are
a material has sufficient cohesive strength, it transition and chisel hoppers. Each of these
may arch over the outlet. incorporates a slotted or elongated opening FIGURE 3. When hopper walls
Mass flow bins are suitable for cohesive (Figure 5). Typically, a wedge-type hopper are not sufficiently smooth or
solids, fine powders, materials that degrade can be about 11 deg less steep than a coni- steep to overcome friction of
or spoil, and solids that segregate. Particles cal hopper and still promote flow along the the solids on the walls, flow
problems can result
that have segregated by sifting (side to side walls (that is mass flow).
segregation) flowing in a mass flow bin will Some advantages of wedge hoppers over
be remixed as they discharge through the conical hoppers are the following:
outlet. Fine powders that tend to flood are Wedge hoppers do not have to be as tall
allowed to de-aerate in the bin and flow in a as conical hoppers to ensure mass flow
controlled manner. Wedge-shaped hoppers require a smaller
Bins designed for mass flow develop a slot width than the diameters of conical
first-in-first-out flow sequence and the en- hoppers to prevent arching. Consider also,
tire contents of the bin are fully live. that this allows the use of a smaller feeder
It is critical that the feeder pull material Wedge-shaped hoppers also allow mate-

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017 45


Cover Story
rial to flow at higher discharge rates mine the volume of material that can be
because of the increased cross- transported for every revolution of the
sectional area created by the slotted screw. The discharge rate of a screw
opening on this type of hopper feeder can then be changed by adjust-
Disadvantages of wedge-shaped hop- ing how fast the screw rotates, which
pers that must be considered include is typically measured in revolutions per
the following: minute (rpm).
Wedge-shaped hoppers may cost A screw feeder is well suited to a wide
more to fabricate than one with a range of both fine and coarse materials.
conical geometry Because screw feeders are enclosed,
The feeder used to discharge material they are well suited to handle dusty or
must be capable of discharging ma- hazardous materials. In addition, screw
terial over the entire cross-sectional feeders are not ideal for friable materials,
FIGURE 4. In mass flow area of the slotted outlet. This requires where particle attrition is undesirable.
situations, all of the material a specially designed screw or belt for However, screw feeders require very
moves when any of it is with-
drawn from the hopper use with the hopper little headroom, which is helpful when
This feeder may be more expensive there are process-height restrictions.
than one used for a circular opening A screw feeder is typically used with
This feeder will discharge offset at its wedge-type hoppers with slotted out-
end. Centerline discharging from the lets. To maintain mass flow, a screw
bin may better be served by a conical feeder must have an increasing capac-
configuration ity in the discharge direction. This can
be accomplished by varying the flight
Volumetric feeder types pitches and altering the screw shaft by
A volumetric feeder allows material to use of a conical shape (Figure 6). The
be fed on volume-per-time basis. Typi- goal is to ensure a uniform withdrawal
cally, volumetric feeders will provide of material from the bin, achieving a
accuracies within 2 to 5%, which may fully active outlet. The screw shown on
be more than adequate. Volumetric the right side of Figure 6 however, is a
feeders work well when a material has constant-pitch screw, which develops a
a fairly consistent density, meaning the preferential flow channel over the back
weight per volume remains constant. In flight. The material over the front of the
controlling the feedrate, the volumetric screw is stagnated.
feeder assumes the density remains A mass-flow screw feeder has a
the same and relies on feeder speed conveying section, which means that
to control the rate. In mass flow situa- its discharge placement is offset from
tions, material will be discharged with the centerline of the bin. Additionally,
a fairly uniform density due to the con- exceptionally long conveying sections
sistent pressure history the material will may result in unacceptable shaft de-
have experienced. flections and will increase the power re-
With most feeders, gravity flow from quirements to turn the screw.
a bin discharges to the feeder. Even the Belt feeders. A belt feeder consists of
best feeder will not work if the mate- an endless moving belt, idlers that sup-
rial arches above the bin outlet. And port and guide the belt, one or more
even the best feeder will not overcome pulleys to control the belt tension, a
a poor bin design. Common volumet- drive to power the belt, and the sup-
FIGURE 5. Wedge-shaped hoppers
often require less steep hopper walls to ric feeder types include screw feeders, porting structure. The top of the belt
achieve good flow belt feeders, rotary valves, pan feeders, will carry material from the bin outlet to
louvered feeders, circle feeders, and an offset discharge point. The material
Laidig-type unloaders. volume conveyed by the belt is often
Screw feeders. A screw feeder uses set by an adjustable gate below the bin
a rotating auger contained in a trough. outlet. This gate will shear the mate-
The auger is a shaft with flights wrapped rial to a constant depth and width. The
around it. As the screw rotates, material speed of the belt is used to adjust the
shears or slips on itself, and on the sur- material feedrate.
face of the flights, advancing forward. A Like the screw feeder, a belt feeder is
screw pitch is made up of one 360-deg often required for bins with slotted out-
wrap of the flight. The distance from lets. To maintain a mass-flow pattern,
the start to end of the pitch will deter- a belt feeder must increase in capacity
46 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017
FEEDER DOS AND DONTS

T
he following represent practices to employ, and others to avoid, Dont mistake a conveyor for a feeder. Often, conveyors are as-
when designing and choosing feeders and related equipment. sumed to be feeders. A feeder is designed to operate nearly 100%
Do measure flow properties. Material flow properties are re- full; whereas, a conveyor would typically operate at less than, say
quired to determine your materials cohesive properties, wall friction 40% capacity to provide conveyance.
properties and compressibility. These properties provide necessary Do account for loads on a feeder. Feeder loads can be tricky. For
information for proper design of your feeder. instance, consider a bin with a properly designed mass-flow screw
Dont choose the wrong feeder. You would not want to use a belt feeder that has initially been filled with your material. Be aware that
feeder when handling floodable materials. Likewise, you would not initial fill loads require increased torque to turn the screw. This initial fill
use a screw feeder to handle friable products. pressure can require 2.5 times the running torque to start the screw.
Do design for mass flow. The bin and feeder must work in unison. Dont use constant-pitch flights. Constant-pitch screws are
If the bin is not designed to ensure mass flow, the feeder will be deal- notorious for developing preferential flow channels. The back flight
ing with funnel flow and ratholing, erratic flow, flooding and segrega- (away from the discharge end) fills with material and the succeeding
tion issues. Likewise, if the feeder is designed improperly, flow from flights being constant pitch, do not have the capacity to take any
the bin will be affected negatively. more material and material does not flow over the entire bin outlet,
Dont assume that one feeder is suited to all solids.You may only the back.
need to discharge at high flowrates. This would likely require a slot- Do ensure increasing-capacity geometries. A screw or belts
ted opening with either a belt or screw. If you need to discharge to a success is dependent on increasing the capacity of the equipment
pneumatic conveying system, a rotary airlock will be required to seal in the discharge direction. With a screw, this is done by varying the
against a positive pressure gradient. You would not want to use a belt flight pitches, and on a belt, by using an interface design that pro-
or screw to do this. vides the increase in capacity required for uniform flow.
Do consider material consistency. If you are handling a low den- Dont sacrifice quality for low cost. We all have to work within
sity product or require low discharge rates, you may want to con- budget constraints. But purchasing an incorrectly designed feeder
sider a pan feeder to provide uniform discharge. If your material is because it was less expensive can lead to severe handling problems
dusty or toxic, a properly designed screw feeder will be useful. down the road. n

in the discharge direction. This can be ac- from back to front. This allows more mate-
complished through a properly designed in- rial to be deposited on the belt toward the
terface between the bin outlet and the belt. discharge end of the bin. Additionally, the in-
This interface uses gradually rising interface terface increases in width from back to front,

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017 47


Cover Story
Mass flow screw Constant-pitch screw between the vanes and the housing. This
Capacity over length Capacity over length
seal prevents countercurrent, high-pressure
air from permeating up into the bin and inter-
Capacity Capacity
(ft3 per (ft3 per rupting material flow.
revolution) revolution)
As the pockets begin filling with material,
Length along screw Length along screw air displaced from formerly empty pock-
Uniform flow across bin outlets entire area Preferential flow channel
Constant
ets may cause some erratic material flow
Stagnant material
screw from the bin. Typically, this is observed as
pitches
a reduction in material flow or as material
flooding. To alleviate this problem, newer
rotary valves include a vent line designed
Conical Increasing Conveying Constant to send the displaced air to either the top
shaft with screw section with diameter of the bin or to a dust collector. A vent line
constant pitch constant shaft
pitches pitches may need to be added if the rotary valve
does not have one. Rotary valves typically
FIGURE 6. Varying the flight allowing the material to stream onto the belt feed preferentially from one side of a bin,
pitches and altering the screw uniformly and maintaining a fully live bin out- as the pocket fills with material and cannot
shaft in a screw feeder can
maintain uniform withdrawal let (Figure 7). take any material from the other side of the
of material from a container The belt feeder can handle a wide range outlet. To restore mass flow, the bin outlet
of materials, including friable materials, very must be made fully live, where the material
cohesive materials and sticky or fibrous ma- is uniformly withdrawn from the bin outlet.
terials. A belt feeder is not well suited for fine This is typically accomplished by adding a
powders or other materials that are prone to vertical section between the bin outlet and
flooding or those that are extremely dusty. the rotary valve. The preferential flow chan-
Some materials may require a belt scraper or nel will expand upward through the vertical
some other cleaning device to deal with ma- section, and uniform material flow will be
terial buildup on the belt. Belt feeders also established (Figure 8).
demand regular maintenance and cleaning. A rotary valve will be sized based on the
Rotary valve feeders. A rotary valve feeder outlet and required feedrate. Feedrate can
(also known as a rotary airlock) consists of a be adjusted by changing the pocket size
series of pockets attached to a rotating shaft. and the rotary valve rotations per minute.
The feeder has a driven rotor with vanes at- Rotary valves are suited for bins with square
tached to it that form the pockets, and is or circular outlets. They are typically not ap-
enclosed in a cylindrical fixed housing. As plicable for very cohesive materials, friable
the rotor spins, material from the bin fills the materials, fibrous materials, or materials
pocket by gravity. Once the pocket rotates with large chunks. Any material that can
180 deg to the bottom of the valve, grav- jam or stick inside of the pockets may prove
ity causes material to drop out of the valve. problematic. Another concern is very abra-
Typically, rotary valves are used as airlocks sive materials that can wear away at the
to feed material from a bin into a pneumatic clearance between the vanes and housing.
FIGURE 7. Belf feeders, like
the one shown here, can han- conveying system. They are capable of pro- Wear will diminish the air seal and change
dle a wide range of materials viding an air seal due to the tight clearance the accuracy of the feeder over time, be-
cause material could leak and bypass the
rotating pockets.
Pan feeders. Pan feeders (also called vibra-
tory pan feeders), use a pan with a vibratory
drive attached to vibrate and feed the mate-
rial. As the pan feeder vibrates, material is
thrown very slightly up and forward. Material
feeds from the outlet into the tray and can
be conveyed a short distance to some dis-
charge point (Figure 9a).
Vibratory feeders can handle a range of
materials and achieve a wide range of flow-
rates. Increasing or decreasing the vibration
is typically used to control the feedrate. Very
fine materials may not be suited to vibratory
feeders since they are prone to flooding.
Dusty materials can be accommodated by
48 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017
an enclosure over the pan. Actual flowrates the outlet and uses a number of flat blades
for a given material will be influenced by par- spaced equidistantly, making up the vane, to
ticle size, cohesive strength, wall friction and work material to an outer-perimeter chamber
a variety of other factors. Depending on the and then to outlet ports. These feeders have
material, additional testing may be required excellent precision and work well with a large
to ensure proper feeding and control. variety of materials.
Louvered feeders. A louvered feeder at- Cone-bottom or auger-type unloaders. A
taches directly to an outlet and uses a se- cone-bottom or auger-type unloader con-
ries of internal louvers (or slats) that gently sists of an internal auger that sweeps around
vibrate to discharge material. The louvers will the cone bottom of a bin. The auger under-
be spaced and angled such that when not cuts material in the bin, feeding it to the cen-
vibrating, material will find its angle of repose ter outlet. The auger drive is located outside
and not discharge. A vibratory drive attached of the hopper, keeping it out of the material
to the outer housing of the enclosed louvers stream and accessible. These types of feed-
provides discharge. Beneath the louvers is a ers are ideal for feeding difficult-flowing or
chute that directs the material stream to the very cohesive materials that might otherwise
desired outlet. bridge over the outlet (Figure 9d).
The housing of the feeder is supported by
cables attached to the bin. The feeder has a Gravimetric feeder types
flexible skirt to seal and isolate the bin from A gravimetric feeder allows for material to
vibrations (Figure 9b). be fed on a weight-per-time basis (rather
Circle feeders. A circle feeder is a unique than volume-per-time). Gravimetric feeders
table-style feeder that uses a rotating vane achieve a greater degree of accuracy than
to push material to an outer perimeter and volumetric feeders. If a system or process
one or more discharge points. It consists of requires accuracy closer than 5%, a gravi-
a slow rotating vane, an enclosed housing, metric feeder will be able to achieve 0.25
discharge ports, and a driving mechanism to 0.5% accuracy. Unlike volumetric feed-
(Figure 9c). The feeder mounts directly on ers, gravimetric feeders will allow for density
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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017 49


Cover Story
FIGURE 8. A rotary valve slide gate or a volumetric feeder, will quickly
feeder has a motorized rotor fill the LIW hopper. Once the hopper is filled,
that spins, allowing material
from the hopper to fill the
weighing begins. As discharge begins, the
sections load cells measure the loss in weight of the
Vertical Vent to bin product being discharged to the process.
spool or dust A LIW system accommodates both con-
piece collector
tinuous and batch processes. For a continu-
ous process, when the hopper is refilling, the
feeder will switch to volumetric mode. Once
the hopper has been filled again, the feeder
reverts to gravimetric mode. Another option
is to use dual LIW hoppers (no freeze). While
variations within a material. Common gravi- one hopper is discharging, the other is filling,
metric feeders are weighbelt feeders, loss- so no volumetric mode is necessary.
in-weight (LIW) feeders, and gain-in-weight Gain-in-weight system. A GIW system is
(GIW) feeders. strictly a batch system. It weighs the total
Weighbelt feeder. A weighbelt feeder is material filling a container. Material is fed
much like the volumetric belt feeder. The into a container on a scale or load cells, until
weighbelt feeder incorporates some type of the desired amount is reached. Once the
weighing platform. Typically this will be one or amount is reached, filling will stop and the
more load cells with one of the belts support GIW system will be emptied to a process.
rollers mounted to it. The weighbelt may be Most materials will work with a GIW system;
directly under a bin or be fed by a prefeeder. however, it is vital that the GIW container be
The feeder uses both the belt speed and the completely emptied to maintain accuracy. n
continuous weight measurement to deter- Edited by Scott Jenkins
mine the amount of material being delivered
on a weight basis. Authors
Weighbelts work well for both continuous Joseph Marinelli is president of Solids Han-
or batch processes. Weighbelts are sensitive dling Technologies, Inc. (1631 Caille Ct., Fort
Mill, SC 29708; Phone: (803) 802-5527;
to material buildup, which will result in a loss Email: joe@solidshandlingtech.com; Website:
in accuracy and may require maintenance www.solidshandlingtech.com). Marinelli is a
to clean, adjust and recalibrate the feeder. bulk materials handling expert who has taught
hundreds of highly acclaimed engineering
Weighbelts can handle a similar range of seminars. Since 1972, he has been active in
materials as that of belt feeders. Also, they testing bulk solids and consulting on materials
handling systems design. Marinellii has previ-
are typically not suited to materials that are ously worked with Jenike & Johanson, Inc., world-renowned experts
sensitive to flooding. on solids handling. Marinelli received his B.S.M.E. degree from
Loss-in-weight system. An LIW system Northeastern University in Boston, Mass. Marinelli has also worked
for manufacturers of solids handling equipment, such as feeders
controls the feedrate based on the weight and silos. This background provides a unique blend of consulting
of material taken away from a hopper. LIW and manufacturing experience to solve solids flow problems. He
FIGURE 9. The feeder types lectures frequently, teaching courses on solids flow principles and
shown here use a variety systems comprise three components: a re-
flow property testing, and has authored several papers and an ency-
of mechanical strategies to fill device, a LIW hopper and a feeder. The clopedia section on the subject. Since 1997, he has been involved
maintain solids flow refill device, which could be a hopper with a with very popular seminars at the University of Wisconsin in the
9a 9b areas of bin and feeder design and solids flow property testing. He
is also a columnist (Powder Perspectives) for the website, www.
powderbulksolids.com
Scott Miller is senior consultant for Solids
Handling Technologies, Inc.(same address as
above; Phone: (803) 517-0058; Fax: (803)
802-0193; Email: scott@solidshandlingtech.
com). Miller works closely with clients to pro-
vide the expertise required to evaluate and
Pan feeder solve their solids flow problems. He analyzes
flow properties test data produced by his em-
Louvered feeder ployers testing laboratory, and writes flow re-
9c 9d ports describing the parameters necessary to
resolve flow problems. Miller is also actively involved in providing
1. Flow adjusting hands
2. Flow adjusting ring practical, conceptual design recommendations to clients. Miller re-
3. Motor ceived his B.S.M.E. degree, with a minor in mathematics, from Ge-
4. Peripheral rotary ring neva College in Beaver Falls, Pa. His background as a plant engineer
5. Bottom panel at a power-generation facility in Pennsylvania provides valuable ex-
6. Central rotary ring perience handling anthracitic waste, planning outages and providing
7. Discharge port flange
solutions to typical coal-handling problems.

Circle feeder Cone bottom unloader

50 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017


Part 2

Choosing
Agglomeration
Equipment
A products intended use often dictates what type of agglomeration equipment should be used.
Presented here is a discussion of the main types of equipment and methods for forming agglomerates

A
gglomeration is the process of con- Feeco International Greg Mehos
verting fine powder particles into University of Rhode
larger ones through the introduction Island
of external forces. Agglomeration Chris Kozicki
offers numerous benefits for bulk solids pro- Feeco International
cessors, including significant dust reduction,
improved handling, more complete utilization
of raw materials and densification. Agglom-
eration can be accomplished by a variety of IN BRIEF
means, including mixing with a liquid, apply- GENERAL PRINCIPLES
ing pressure and heating.
This article describes various technolo- TUMBLE-GROWTH
AGGLOMERATION
gies available for particle size enlargement.
The technologies fall into three general cate- PRESSURE
gories: (1) tumble-growth agglomeration, (2) AGGLOMERATION
pressure agglomeration, and (3) agglomera- TEMPERATURE AND
tion by heating or sintering. Tumble-growth SINTERING
agglomeration includes both wet and dry
methods. Stresses developed in pressure HANDLING
agglomeration equipment can range from AGGLOMERATED
FIGURE 1. This disk pelletizer is an example of a tumble- PRODUCTS
moderate to extreme. For some materials,
growth wet agglomaration technology, in which fine particles
agglomeration by heating or sintering can are wetted with a liquid, usually water FINAL REMARKS
be accomplished at relatively moderate
temperatures. An end products intended ital costs, but lower operating costs. The ag-
use often dictates what type of agglomera- glomerates formed by these methods have a
tion equipment should be used. higher bulk density, but they may be prone to
attrition if the pellets that are produced have
General principles sharp edges.
Tumble-growth agglomeration equipment Particles are held together by a number of
tends to have lower capital costs than the mechanisms. Solid bridges between particles
other methods, but costs may be higher if can be the result of sintering, partial melting
drying is required. Agglomerates produced and recrystallization during drying. Binders
by tumble-growth technologies tend to have that readily adhere to solid particles are ef-
a lower bulk density and a wider particle size fective agglomerating aids. Liquid bridges in
distribution as compared to other agglom- spaces between individual particles can form
eration methods. Binders frequently must be strong agglomerates as a result of capillary
added to ensure that green (that is, wet) forces that develop when the voids are com-
or dry agglomerates have sufficient strength. pletely filled with the liquid. Attractive forces,
Pressure agglomeration equipment, as such as van der Waals interactions, valence
well as equipment that agglomerate particles forces and hydrogen bridges can also hold
by heat or sintering, tend to have higher cap- solid particles together. If adjacent particles

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017 51


Cover Story
Feeco International strength tests performed on agglomerates
made using a wet process. The tests are
conducted on green agglomerates prior to
drying. To prevent breakage during the dry-
ing process, the green pellets must have suf-
ficient crush strength.
Cohesive strength. Unlike crush strength,
cohesive strength is a bulk property. Co-
hesive strength tests are conducted using
a shear-cell tester to measure the stress
required to cause a consolidated sample
of agglomerates to fail. Together with wall
friction test results, cohesive strength mea-
surements can be used to design hoppers,
bins and silos that will reliably handle both
the agglomerated product and the fine
powder that is to be fed into the agglom-
eration equipment.
Particle size. The particle size of an agglom-
erated product is usually measured by sieve
analysis. Sieves are made up of circular metal
trays, each with a screen-like wire mesh in the
bottom. Using sieves with a range of sizes al-
lows a materials particle-size distribution to
be measured. Other methods for measuring
particle size include laser diffraction and dy-
FIGURE 2. Binders are often have shapes that allow interlocking, very namic image analysis.
introduced into wet agglom- strong agglomerates can form.
eration equipment, such as
the pin mixer shown here, to
Simple tests can be used as screening Tumble-growth agglomeration
improve the agglomerates tools to determine the most suitable agglom- Tumble-growth agglomeration can be either
crush strength eration process for a particular powder. Liq- wet or dry.
uid can be added to a fine powder in a small Wet agglomeration. In a wet agglomeration
kitchen blender to determine if the liquid will process, the fine particles are wetted with an
indeed wet the powder. This simple test can appropriate liquid, typically water. In some
also give the investigator a sense of how cases, a surfactant or other chemical is
much liquid must be added to avoid produc- added to improve the wettability of the solid
ing a slurry or paste. To gauge the likelihood particles and improve pellet formation. Bind-
that pressure agglomeration methods will be ers are frequently introduced to improve the
a suitable technology, hydraulic presses can agglomerates crush strength. In a wet tum-
be used. Differential scanning calorimetry ble-growth process, powder, liquid and ad-
(DSC) can be used to estimate the tempera- ditives are fed continuously into a chamber
ture required to agglomerate a fine powder where the wetted mass is then sheared or
by melting or sintering. kneaded until the liquid is evenly distributed
Many vendors of agglomeration equip- and the granules have the desired size and
ment have test facilities for conducting feasi- strength. Examples of organic binders are
bility studies with pilot-scale agglomerators. waxes, rosin, starch and alginates. Inorganic
Often, the equipment is available for rent, binders include alkali silicates, bentonite and
and potential users can perform thorough various aqueous solutions and dispersions.
evaluations at their sites. The major criteria for selecting a binder are
When conducting a feasibility study, the cost, availability, compatibility with the prod-
following properties should be measured: ucts final use, and its ability to give agglom-
Crush strength. Crush strength tests deter- erates their desired crush strength.
mine how much pressure is required to crush Popular wet agglomeration equipment in-
an agglomerate completely. Crush tests are cludes pin mixers, plough mixers, disc pel-
performed on single agglomerates, using letizers, fluidized beds and other technolo-
a metal plate to gradually apply increasing gies. Figures 1 and 2 are photographs of a
pressure to the agglomerate until it fractures. disk pelletizer and a pin mixer, respectively.
Green/wet crush strength. Green/wet In general, wet agglomeration of fine pow-
crush strength tests are essentially crush ders occurs in three stages. The first stage
52 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017
is a mixing stage where powder, liquid and Feeco International
Raw feed Binder
binder are combined. Next, moist particles
are joined together to form green agglomer-
ates. The green particles are generated by
first forming nuclei that then grow into larger 3
aggregates by layering or coalescence. 8
In some cases, nucleation and aggregate 2
growth take place in two separate pieces 1
of equipment. For example, agglomerates
from a pin mixer can be fed into a disk pel-
letizer. The final stage is drying or curing,
which takes place in a separate device. An 4

example of a wet agglomeration process is


diagrammed in Figure 3. 5
The optimal amount of liquid added to a
powder (that is, the amount that gives green 1. Paddle/pin mixer
2. Disc pelletizer
agglomerates their greatest strength) is typi- Oversize 3. Liquid spray system
4. Transfer Conveyor
cally 4090% of its full saturation. Saturation 5. Rotary dryer
is the fraction of the total void space that 7 6 Product 6. Vibrating screen
7. Oversize mill
can be filled with a liquid. When the liquid 8. Surge hopper
is added to a dry powder, liquid bridges will Undersize
begin to form at contact points between par-
ticles. This is known as the pendular stage internal solid surfaces become surrounded FIGURE 3. The major compo-
of saturation. Moisture is attracted to the in- by liquid. At this point, the bulk mixture be- nents of a wet agglomeration
process are shown here
terfaces between powder particles by capil- comes more paste-like, the tensional forces
lary forces. As saturation levels are increased, disappear, and the agglomerates become
the funicular stage is approached, where all significantly weaker. When the powder be-

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017 53


Greg Mehos
Often, spray nozzles run along the in-
terior of the drum to coat particles with
liquid. This promotes adhesion and par-
ticle coalescence. A drum agglomerator
is shown in Figure 5.
Dry powder Pendular state Funicular state Capillary state
The major advantages of dry tumble-
growth agglomerators are the reduced
FIGURE 4. When liquid is added to pow- comes fully saturated, the capillary state drying costs and higher throughputs.
der, the agglomerates formed typically is reached, and at higher moisture lev- Disadvantages include the difficulty in
have their optimal strength at 4090% of
their full saturation amount els, the mixture begins to behave as a predicting the time required to granulate
slurry. Saturation states of powder are powder, the fact that seed particles are
illustrated in Figure 4 [1]. often required during startup, and the
The optimum saturation state of a high product-recycle rates that are usu-
powder often depends on the equip- ally necessary.
ment used for size enlargement. In gen- Other kinds of tumble-growth ag-
eral, the higher the shear imparted to glomerators include V-blenders and
the powder by the equipment, the lower other batch mixers that are equipped
the optimum saturation state and the with spray nozzles. Fluidized beds can
smaller the size of the agglomerate. also be used for size enlargement. Me-
Since producing a green pellet with chanical agitation in mixing equipment
an optimum saturation state is critical, creates a turbulent environment that
careful control of the liquid and solids allows particles to contact with both
feedrates is required. Providing a steady liquid and each other, and coalesce,
liquid stream is usually not a problem, grow and form agglomerates. A similar
but providing a stable powder feedrate environment can exist when particles
or ensuring a constant solids-to-liquid are suspended in a fluidized bed. Flu-
ratio may be a challenge for some pow- idization occurs when the upward flow
ders. Methods for designing reliable of gas provides drag forces equal to the
powder feed systems are discussed by weight of the bed of particles.
Mehos and Morgan [2]. In a fluidized-bed agglomerator, dry
Dry agglomeration. Dry agglomera- powder is fed into a chamber equipped
tion can be somewhat of a misnomer with a distributor plate through which
because the technology frequently re- the fluidizing gas is fed. Spray nozzles
quires moisture, although the amount above the fluidized bed provide a fine
FIGURE 5. Dry agglomeration processes, is significantly less than what is required mist of liquid. The gas is heated, which
such as those using drum agglomerators for wet agglomeration processes. The removes the added liquid while agglom-
like the one shown here, also use mois-
ture, but significantly less than that used most common equipment used in dry eration takes place.
in wet agglomeration processes agglomeration is an inclined drum. If the dry powder is isolated by spray-
drying, agglomeration can be accom-
plished by feeding partially dried par-
ticles into an integrated fluidized-bed
dryer. In a fluidized spray dryer, gas not
only enters the top of a tower, where it
contacts the atomized suspension or
solution of solids, but also enters from
the bottom of the tower through a distri-
bution plate. Because only partial drying
is achieved in the spray dryer section of
the tower, particles reaching the bottom
are slightly cohesive, and size enlarge-
ment will occur during fluidization. In
most cases, the final drying also takes
place in the fluidized bed.

Pressure agglomeration
Pressure agglomeration falls in two
general categories: roll compaction
and die compaction. Because attrac-
tive forces between particles intensify
Feeco International

54 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017


as the distance between them decreases, of these methods. Feeco International
applying pressure can lead to exceptionally Die compaction. Die
strong agglomerates. compaction also relies
Roll compactors. Roll compactors use a on mechanical forces
mechanical force to press powder. Fine par- to press fine powders,
ticles are first fed between two counter-rotat- but also allows ag-
ing rolls, which draw material into the gap be- glomerates with a de-
tween them. The powder is compressed into sired shape. Die com-
a sheet if smooth roles are used, or formed paction equipment
into strips if the compactor is equipped with includes briquetters
corrugated rollers. The sheet or strips are and pellet mills.
then fed through a flake breaker. The ag- Briquetters. Bri-
glomerates are irregular in shape, but often quetters are roll com-
have sufficient flowability. A roll compactor is pactors that have pocketed rolls. Briquetters FIGURE 6. Roll compactors,
shown in Figure 6. allow the material to be molded into a de- like the one shown here, are
examples of pressure agglom-
The starting material is fed into the gap sired geometry as it is pressed into recessed eration equipment
between the rolls by gravity or with a feeder. cavities on the two rolls. Each roll has one
The equipment works best when the pow- half of the desired form, and as the rolls ap-
der is de-aerated before it reaches the rolls. proach each other, the halves unite, pressing
This is accomplished by one or more of the the material into the desired shape.
following methods: equipping the feed hop- Pellet mills. Pellet mills are devices that
per with a screw that compresses the mate- force fine powders into dies that are open at
rial as it is conveyed downward; fabricating both ends. There are two common types: flat
the hopper with gas-permeable walls and die mills and ring die mills. Flat die mills are
applying vacuum on the clean side; using similar to extruders, in that a screw is used to
one or two gas-permeable rolls and provid- convey powder into an orifice plate. A cutter
ing vacuum in the interior; or a combination at the opposite side of the screw cuts the

Wet Milling

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Easily clean between batches

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017 55
Circle 29 on p. 98 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66433-29
Cover Story
Greg Mehos exposed pellets. are widely used to manufacture pellets con-
Ring die mills. In a ring tinuously. The screw comprises four sections:
die mill, powder is fed a feed section, a conveying section, a melt-
into the inside of a cy- ing or sintering section, and a pumping sec-
lindrical chamber. Two tion. If the feed hopper is conical, the pitch of
rollers inside the cylin- the screw beneath its outlet should equal the
der then compress the diameter of the hopper outlet. For cohesive
powder through the die materials, the hopper outlet should have a
holes. Cutters outside length that is at least twice its width, and the
the cylinder then cut the screw should have a tapered shaft to ensure
pellets as they leave the that the feed hopper is fully activated. By re-
mill. Figure 7 is a sche- ducing the diameter of the shaft linearly in the
matic diagram of a ring direction of flow, the capacity of the screw will
die mill. be constant, and all the contents of the hop-
Typical die geometries per will be able to enter the extruder.
FIGURE 7. In a ring die mill, are shown in Figure 8. Because consider- A short conveying section follows the feed
powder is fed into the interior able pressures develop ahead of the die, it section, followed by the melt or sintering
of a cylinder and rollers push
the material out through holes
must be designed so that it will not fail during section. Friction or a heated barrel increases
in the cylinder operation of the mill. Straight bores are rarely the temperature of the conveyed powder.
used. Instead, a small chamber located at Frequently, the diameter of the barrel is re-
the inlet is employed to guide powder into duced or the shaft diameter is increased to
the die. To reduce frictional resistance, the enhance shear. Pressure is generated by
size of the die is often larger at the die inlet, pumping the material through a die plate or
outlet or both. A tapered die outlet is benefi- restricted orifice. If necessary, the extrudate
cial because it can prevent sudden expan- leaving the die plate or orifice can be im-
sion and breakage due to springback. mersed in a water bath to reduce its temper-
ature to below its melting point. Cutters are
Temperature and sintering used to convert the extrudate into pellets.
Extruders are typically used to heat pow-
ders to temperatures high enough to cause Handling agglomerated products
melting or sintering. Two types of extrud- Because agglomerated products are typically
ers are commonly used: ram extruders and non-cohesive, they can be susceptible to
auger or screw extruders. segregation by particle size during handling.
Ram extruders. A ram extruder is used This is especially true if the product has a
batch-wise. Powder is fed into a barrel wide particle-size distribution and the mean
equipped with a die plate and then isolated particle size exceeds approximately 100 m.
by a hydraulically-driven piston. The pow- Such a material is prone to side-to-side seg-
der is then forced toward the die. The barrel regation when a hopper, bin or silo is filled
may be heated, although the temperature [3]. Once a pile has formed, larger particles,
will likely rise even without the introduction having better flowability, will flow toward the
of heat because of friction. The entire plug of periphery. Smaller particles will then percolate
powder does not necessarily have to reach down the center of the solids bed.
its melting point, because only a thin layer of Storage vessels should therefore be de-
liquid needs to be sheared between the wall signed for mass flow to ensure that all ma-
and the plug. terial will flow when the gate is opened or
The extruder is equipped with cutters im- when the feeder is started. Otherwise, the
mediately downstream of the die plate. Be- particle size may cycle during discharge. A
cause high pressures are generated, the mass flow pattern will develop if the hopper
feed material must have a low moisture walls are steep enough and low enough in
content. Otherwise, the liquid will flash upon friction to allow flow of solids along the walls.
FIGURE 8. Many different die leaving the die plate and potentially fracture
geometries, like the diagrams
here, exist, but straight bores the pellets that are formed. Final remarks
are rarely used Screw extruders. Auger or screw extruders Agglomeration of powders is desirable for
a variety of reasons, including reduced dust
levels and improved flowability. It is important
to recognize that the products intended use
often dictates what type of agglomeration
equipment should be used. For example,
many operators must be able to return the
Greg Mehos
56 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017
agglomerates back to their initial particle size, at the 34th biennial Institute for Briquetting and Agglomeration Conference,
Scottsdale, Arizona, 2015.
which would eliminate sintering as a possible 4. Pietsch, W., Agglomeration Processes Phenomena, Technologies, Equip-
agglomeration method. Some applications ment, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 2002.
require a constant particle-size distribution,
and therefore tumble-growth processes will Authors
require classification equipment to recycle Greg Mehos is an adjunct professor at the
undersized agglomerates to the front end of University of Rhode Island (51 Lower College
Road, Kingston, RI 02881; Phone: (978) 799-
a process and oversized agglomerates to a 7311; Email: gmehos@uri.edu) and is avail-
milling process. Simple screening tests that able for independent consulting and contract
use bench scale presses and mixers will pro- work. Mehos has expertise in a wide range of
bulk-solids handling areas, including design of
vide insight to the best choices. To select the hoppers, dryers, gasifiers and moving-bed re-
most appropriate agglomeration equipment, actors, as well as analyses of purge and con-
ditioning columns. He received his B.S. and
larger scale tests should be conducted at Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the University of Colorado and
manufacturers facilities or rental equipment an M.S.Ch.E. from the University of Delaware. He is a registered
should be evaluated at the users site. Crush professional engineer in Massachusetts and a member of AIChE. He
served on the executive board of AIChEs Particle Technology Forum
tests, cohesive strength tests, and particle- and is a past chair of the Boston AIChE section.
size measurements can then be used to
select the most applicable technology. Wolf- Chris M. Kozicki is a process sales engineer
gang Pietsch [4] is an excellent reference for at Feeco International, Inc. (3913 Algoma Rd.,
reviewing agglomeration technologies. n Green Bay, WI 54311-9707; Phone: 920-468-
1000; Email: ckozicki@feeco.com; Website:
Edited by Scott Jenkins www.feeco.com) a complete solutions pro-
vider that engineers, designs and manufactur-
References ers systems, including agglomeration, drying/
cooling and material handling. Kozicki has
1. Mehos, G. and Kozicki, C., Consider Wet Agglomeration to Improve Powder
Flow, Chem. Eng., January 2011. been associated with limestone and gypsum
pelletizing systems, mineral byproduct briquet-
2. Mehos, G., and Morgan, D., Hopper Design Principles, Chem. Eng., January
2016. ting and agricultural chemical processing. He is a past president of
the Institute for Briquetting and Agglomeration and received a B.S.
3. Mehos, G., Preventing Segregation in Agglomeration Processes, presented
degree in engineering mechanics from the University of Wisconsin.

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Circle 11 on p. 98 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66433-11

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017 57


2ND ANNUAL

FEBRUARY 27-28, 2018


Marriott City Center | Charlotte, NC
Hosted by:

CONFERENCE SESSIONS
The Connected Plant Conference is designed specifically to address the emerging trends and applications around
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Changes are happening quickly, and the time to learn more about how digitalization can be implemented
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investments in technology, and what are some of the key benefits from adoption: enhanced productivity, cost
savings, worker safety, more efficient O&M?

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SIMULATION AND MODELING FOR THE CPI
Plant-speciic data compared against other corporate assets and benchmarked against sector-leading assets
can be powerful tools in identifying and modeling strategies to improve plant performance, eiciency, and
proitability. This two-part session ofers practical approaches to simulation and modeling techniques and
discusses emerging trends.

SAFEGUARDING CRITICAL ASSETS IN AN ERA OF CYBER THREATS


With connectivity comes an increased vulnerability to cyber threats, which, though worrisome, can be
efectively managed. Learn about the nature of existing and emerging threats and what strategies are
available to address them.

MOBILE DEVICES AND WEARABLES FOR ENHANCED WORKER SAFETY


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consider how your facility can implement them for a safer, more efective workforce.

IMAGINING AND SELLING THE CONNECTED PLANT INTERNALLY


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MOBILE TRAINING AND ON THE REAL-WORLD EXPERIENCES
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30690
Feature Report
Part 1

Valves: Emissions Standards


and Current Practices
New industry standards aimed at reducing fugitive emissions have necessitated
updates to valve-testing procedures and a renewed focus on high-performance
sealing and packing technologies
Zwick GmbH
Gobind Khiani

W
hile reducing fugitive emissions
Fluor Canada Ltd. is a leading concern in the fight
against climate change, emis-
sions continue to be released
IN BRIEF via leakage of process equipment in manu-
TESTING AND facturing plants and other operations in
IMPLEMENTATION many industrial sectors. Valve leakage is re-
DESIGNING FOR portedly responsible for more than 65% of
REDUCED EMISSIONS total fugitive emissions, by some estimates.
As a result, valves have been a consider-
FINAL CONSIDERATIONS
able area of focus in the effort to reduce
fugitive emissions.
So, where are the chemical process
industries (CPI) headed in the quest to
achieve reductions in fugitive emissions?
Regulators and end users are currently
working on developing, expanding and im-
proving several industry standards for fugi-
tive emissions and valve seals (Figure 1), as
summarized below:
ISO 15848: Measurement, Test and Quali-
fication Procedures for Fugitive Emissions
Part I Classification System and FIGURE 1. A great deal of effort has gone into developing
Qualification Procedures for Type industry standards aimed at reducing fugitive emissions from
Testing of Valves valve seals
Part II Production Acceptance U.S. and Europe. As a result of concerns re-
Test of Valves lated to emissions, the American Petroleum
API 622: Type Testing of Process Valve Institute (API; Washington, D.C.; www.api.
Packing for Fugitive Emissions org) worked to develop the API 624 standard
API 624: Type Testing of Rising Stem Type Testing of Rising Stem Valves Equipped
Valves Equipped with Graphite Packing with Graphite Packing for Fugitive Emissions.
for Fugitive Emissions Currently, ISO 15848-2 is the only production
API 641: Type Testing of Quarter-turn fugitive-emissions standard, and the norm is
Valves for Fugitive Emissions to test 3% of valves per line item using helium
Additional user-defined fugitive-emission at 100 psi. There have been several proce-
reduction requirements dural shifts required with the introduction of
API 624.
Testing and implementation API 624 was developed to cover multi-
Valve emissions are taken quite seriously turn valves, such as gate, globe and control
around the globe, particularly in Canada, the valves used in operating plants. The API 624
60 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017
Task Force worked for over two years ValvTechnologies Inc., USA

to incorporate members views, as


well as the requirements of regula-
tors and manufacturers, and came
up with a reasonable standard, which
is summarized below. Note that this
standard applies to rising and rising-
rotating stem valves up to 24 in.
in diameter.
1. ANSI Class 1500 valves are not
covered.
2. The test medium is methane.
3. In total, 310 test cycles are re-
quired with three thermal cycles.
4. The temperature application
range is from 29 to 538C with
the last 10 cycles defined by the
user (can be as low as 45C). FIGURE 2. Severe-service valves may undergo specific tests and additional verification in order to ensure
5. Retightening of gland bolts is not that they meet endurance requirements
permitted during testing. and one pressure class below. require four tests, whereas gate
6. The proper test orientation for 8. The allowable leakage is 100 valves require four tests per API
valve stems is vertical. parts per million (ppm) maximum 602, eights tests per API 600 (for
7. To comply with API 624, several or below when performing a fugi- valves up to 20 in. in diameter) and
valves are required to be tested. tive emissions test on a valve. eight tests according to API 603.
Similar industry principles applied 9. Gate and globe valves need to be 10. Test valves should be production
to test valves qualify two nominal tested separately. For example, valves, rather than specially man-
sizes smaller and one size larger according to API 602, globe valves ufactured test valves.

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SEPARATION AND STEAM DRUM SOLUTIONS SINCE 1961
Circle 16 on p. 98 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66433-16

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017 61


Zwick GmbH At higher temperatures, some tive-emissions testing laboratories
greases create volatile organic are being set up, the API commit-
compounds (VOCs) and burnoff tee has moved forward with issu-
Vertical testing has been known ing Fugitive Emissions Code API
to generate more heat in the yoke 641 to cover quarter-turn valves,
area namely ball valves, plug valves and
Certain challenges require a good butterfly valves.
testing company that has experience Some leading manufacturers of
in fugitive-emissions testing and pro- these types of valves have taken
vides guidelines to manufacturers in initiative in the reduction of fugitive
terms of the use of packing, valves, emissions with the development of
grease, testing requirements and advanced technologies, including
so on. In addition, the industry cur- enhanced stem designs, packing
rently is discussing the challenges solutions for high-cycle operations
in conducting these more rigorous and fast-acting valves that meet
tests. As most testing companies stringent fugitive-emissions require-
do not provide a great deal of infor- ments. A few leading manufacturers
mation or operational guidelines be- who provide severe-service valves
yond whether a valve passes or fails (Figure 2) have taken these require-
FIGURE 3. New valve-sealing configurations a given test, the responsibility falls to ments seriously, and have begun
reduce maintenance requirements and increase valve manufacturers to provide rec- testing their valves with verification
personnel safety
ommendations in many areas (for in- by an independent agency to dem-
As a result of the release of API stance, suggesting a certain amount onstrate that their designs not only
624, testing companies have been of torquing, followed by 510 dry-run meet, but exceed, endurance test-
preparing for the increased amount cycles and then re-torquing.) ing standards and possess the abil-
of valve testing that will be required. An additional challenge for valve ity to perform 500,000 cycles while
To this end, new test facilities are manufacturers is re-qualifying valves retaining a maximum leakage rate
being planned and opened. that were previously qualified to equivalent to the stringent require-
Implementation of API 624 needs ISO 15848-1 standards, although ments dictated by the ISO 15848-1
to be carefully monitored, and users ISO 15848 Class BH is more dif- 2006 Class BH standard for the en-
should validate claims from valve ficult to comply with than the tirety of the test. For more informa-
manufacturers by requesting to view 100 ppm of API 624 and API 641. tion about severe-service valves,
please see Getting the Most from
Severe Service Valves, Chem. Eng.,
June 2017, pp. 5258.
Typical stem-sealing technology
Some seals are capable of more than 500,000 cycles, requires packing adjustment. For
all with stem packing that requires no maintenance and high-cycle valves, these adjust-
ments would have to occur very
adjustment often, causing disruptions in plant
operation, safety concerns and
non-compliance with tightening
emissions regulations. As no gland
test results, as is advised by key rep- Still, these new qualifications re- adjustments can take place dur-
utable test facilities. quire time, effort and costs from ing the test, in order to guarantee
Below are some considerations to valve manufacturers. that the valve will comply with the
take into account when evaluating The shift in testing media (from 100-ppm emissions requirement,
testing procedures and results: helium to methane) also presented packing manufacturers have begun
Number of cycles on some some new considerations. The mo- to increase the packing sealing
valves. Too many cycles could be lecular weight of helium is significantly stress required at the time of installa-
tortuous to packing, as certain lighter than methane, and hence tion. API 624 gland torques with low-
smaller-size valves do not come more permeable. Therefore, if a valve emissions packings are significantly
with grease ports to keep stems complies with ISO 15848 Class BH, it higher than the torques applied on
lubricated all the time will comply with API 624/641, but not these valves previously. With new,
Failure of valve stem threads, vice versa, necessarily. more environmentally friendly pack-
yokes and glands during the test ing solutions, laboratory-tested re-
Grease becoming trapped in Designing for reduced emissions sults have shown that some seals
the packing, which can cause While the industry prepares for new are capable of more than 500,000
leakage standards, and new API 624 fugi- cycles, all with stem packing that
62 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017
requires no maintenance and ad- speed is what creates a gas pulse A full review should be conduct-
justment. This solution is suitable through a pipeline system. Pulse- ed to investigate bonnet and
for end users that require a rapidly jet systems can be used to clean gasket leaks during testing (this
rotating valve that must complete system filters, spray chemicals in is not actually covered by the
many cycles annually (for instance, an injection-type system or pulse current edition of API 624, but a
100 or more cycles per day continu- debris or media through a pipeline taskforce is working on revisions,
ously) and must also meet fugitive- to prevent clogging. These systems and this may be addressed in
emissions requirements. cycle many thousands of times per future versions)
In addition to making sure that day. Conventional packing systems Through new and innovative tech-
packing requires zero adjustment cannot handle the abuse of the nologies from valve manufacturers,
or maintenance, and is capable of fast cycle speed, combined with emissions coming out of valves will
500,000 or more cycles, the pack- the high cycle count. These chal- be better controlled and more ef-
ing should be durable for extremely lenges have been addressed by fectively reduced. Furthermore, the
high pressures, high temperatures valve manufacturers through the laboratory testing and certification
and fast cycle speeds, such as less use of newer, more environmen- procedures dictated by industry
than 0.5 s. In addition, the packings tally efficient design solutions. In standards help engineers to establish
must meet the reduced emissions these cases, the packing seals were tighter design tolerances and prop-
requirements to comply with the laboratory-tested at high pressures erly specify and install low-emissions
recommended fugitive-emissions and line temperatures up to 450F packing materials.
standard of 100 ppm or less recom- for over 500,000 cycles, requiring Edited by Mary Page Bailey
mended by the U.S. Environmental no adjustments or maintenance.
Protection Agency (EPA; Washing- This equals longer plant operation Author
ton D.C.; www.epa.gov). between intervals, improved site Gobind Khiani is a technical fel-
These beneficial features will lead safety and less emissions from the low in the area of piping valves
for the Energy & Chemicals
to longer intervals of plant operation stem packing. Group of Fluor Canada Ltd.
between maintenance schedules (Phone: 403-537-5020; Email:
and provide safer plant operations, Final considerations gobind.khiani@fluor.com). He
has served in engineering and
as plant personnel are not required As design engineers begin to con- project management roles for
to access the valve to undergo sider API 624 and API 641, there both operating and EPC compa-
nies. He is a chairman of the Cal-
packing adjustments. These factors are several important factors that gary Branch Executive Committee at the Association of
ultimately result in longer valve seal they should take into account when Professional Engineers and Geoscientists of Alberta
life (Figure 3). specifying valves: and the Valve Users Group. Khiani has experience in
piping and pipelines, valves, surge and control valve
Consider a trunnion-mounted Packing selection selection and sizing, modularization in valves, safety
ball valve capable of 90- or 180- Packing sealing stress integrity of piping systems, fugitive emissions and ma-
deg rotation with cycle speeds as Finish or tolerance of mating terial selection. He has a B.S. degree in civil engineer-
ing from the University of Pune in India and an M.S.
low as 0.5 s this fast actuation materials degree in engineering from the University of Calgary.

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Circle 26 on p. 98 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66433-26

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017 63


Feature Report
Part 2

Minimizing Leakage on Heat-


Exchanger Girth Flanges
Thermal distortion in heat-exchanger internal components can lead to leakage, but
several design measures can be taken to mitigate these concerns
Pankaj K. Tubeside Shellside
Singla
Fluor Daniel India Tubesheet
Pass 1 & 2
30
Location at Tube
tubesheet layout
IN BRIEF - "X"
Tubeside Shellside
BASIS FOR ANALYZING Pass 3 & 4
THERMAL SHOCK

DESIGNING FLANGE
JOINT PARTS

EVALUATING THERMAL Pass 5 & 6


SHOCK 12
43
56
Bundle railing Tube passes
device
A B C

L
eakage of bolted flange joints results FIGURE 1. Determining the shellside and tubeside operating
in additional costs at any facility in temperature at a particular location within the tubesheet is
an essential part of analyzing the potential for thermal shocks
the chemical process industries in flange joint parts
(CPI), and poses significant opera-
tional, environmental and safety risks. chemical processing plant. They are used
There can be many reasons for flange to transfer heat energy across metal walls
leakages, such as thermal shocks or dif- between hot fluids and cold fluids. Tubes,
ferential thermal expansion of compo- tubesheets and girth flanges are among the
nents, uneven bolt stresses, improper metal components that separate the fluids
flange alignment, improper gasket seating, and are exposed to varying-temperature
high vibration levels, incompatible materi- fluids in heat exchangers.
als and so on. Some of these causes can Large temperature differences between
be rectified by properly selecting materials the hot and cold fluids can cause thermal
or using the correct assembly techniques. distortion of these exposed components.
Some reasons, such as thermal shocks and Thermal distortion of girth flange-joint parts
high vibration levels, are direct results of is one of the major causes of fluid leakages
operating conditions. in shell-and-tube heat exchangers. There
This article outlines a basis for identify- are two main categories of thermal shock,
ing the thermal shock scenario in the girth outlined below.
flange joints of shell-and-tube heat ex- Temperature differential (TD) thermal
changers and the design measures that can shock. Thermal shock on girth flange
be adopted in mechanical strength calcula- joints due to the large temperature dif-
tions of flanges to minimize leakage due to ference between the two different flu-
thermal shocks in operational equipment. ids placed on the shellside and tubeside
Shell-and-tube heat exchangers are an of the exchanger is identified as TD in
essential part of any petroleum refinery or this article.
64 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017
Small More
No rotation rotation rotation

Bowing

Before bolt After bolt After


tightening tightening pressurized
Flange rotation
Flange bowing
FIGURE 2. Flange rotation caused by thermal distortion can decrease the effective-
FIGURE 3. Flange bowing is a damaging phenomenon that results in un-
ness of flange rigidity
even compression and even separation of bolts
Temperature gradient (TG) ther- cumference of the tubeside (chan- Basis for analyzing thermal shock
mal shock. Multi-pass heat ex- nel) girth flange and tubesheet, and Before delving into industry stan-
changers are required to optimize becomes a cause for fluid leakage. dards and calculations, it is essen-
designs and provide maximum uti- This thermal shock is identified as tial to note that all fluid temperatures
lization of the temperature differen- TG in this article. mentioned in this article, unless oth-
tial and allowable pressure drop of It becomes necessary to design erwise noted, will be the operating
the fluids. As the number of passes girth-flange joint parts adequately, temperatures (OT) of fluids.
in the heat exchanger increases so that the impacts of these types The industry standard API 660
on the tubeside, it may result in of thermal shocks can be mini- [1] describes the temperature lim-
a case where there is a consider- mized during operation of heat ex- its that define when the effects of
able difference in the tubeside fluid changers. Design measures that TD and TG should be considered
temperature at the inlet and outlet can be adopted to alleviate these in the mechanical design of girth
connections. This leads to a tem- concerns are also discussed in flange joints and associated parts.
perature gradient around the cir- this article. It has been observed that some-

Circle 38 on p. 98 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66433-38

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017 65


1N 4NA 4NB by HTRI (Heat Transfer Research
Inc., Navasota, Tex.; www.htri.net),
is recommended. One can easily
determine pass-wise temperatures
Tubesheet
from this type of software output
30o
file (Table 1 is an example of such a
Tubeside Shellside
file) and then determine TD across
the tubesheet.
In multi-pass heat exchangers,
the TD limit between the shellside
and the tubeside can exceed the
Last
support
API value for one or more passes,
plate resulting in local distortion of
flange joints.
FIGURE 4. Software programs designed specifically for heat-exchanger
2N 3N rating are useful in evaluating TD and TG for multipass heat exchangers
Designing flange joint parts
Large TD and TG values should be
times user specifications also en- ed as Tss1, Tss2 and Tssx avoided wherever possible. Impacts
force temperature limits that can be of TD and TG are neither accounted
more stringent than API 660 values. Engineers should consider an for in conventional code designs,
Temperature limits from API 660 are additional analysis in mechanical nor does API 660 mention the type
of additional analyses that should
be performed for girth flanges.
Large TD and TG values should be avoided wherever The method of analysis and
possible. Impacts of TD and TG are neither accounted additional requirements should
be agreed upon with end users
for in conventional code designs, nor does API 660 and vendors. Finite element analy-
mention the type of additional analyses that should be sis (FEA) can be one of the meth-
ods for this additional analysis to
performed for girth flanges. verify dimensions calculated using
conventional design codes. How-
defined below for the example heat design of flange joint parts if the ever, the expertise of vendor and
exchanger shown in Figure 1. following is true: FEA report reviewers should be
The tubeside operating tempera- ascertained beforehand.
ture at the inlet, outlet and loca- |Tts1 Tts2| or |Ttsx Tssx| > 110C Flange rotation and flange bowing
tion X on the tubesheet (a ran- during equipment operation are the
dom location, as shown in Figure It is difficult to determine tubeside two major effects of thermal distor-
1A) is denoted as Tts1, Tts2 and operating temperature at any ran- tion on girth flange joints and their
Ttsx dom location (X), so the use of the associated parts.
The shellside operating tempera- thermal rating functionality from a The primary function of flanges is
ture at the inlet, outlet and loca- commercial heat-exchanger design to transmit the force from the bolts
tion X on the tubesheet is denot- software, such as that developed to the gasket and stop the separa-
Tubeside Shellside tion of connected pressure parts.
Flanges must be strong enough to
Pass 1 & 2 bear this force without any dam-
281.21/221.98oC 1 2
165.92oC age and rigid enough to ensure
281.21oC 221.98oC
that they do not excessively rotate
across the face of gasket (Figure
218.33/197.50oC Pass 3 & 4 150.61oC 4 3 2). High TD and TG tend to weaken
197.50oC 218.33oC
the steel, so it is countered by de-
196.08oC 187.39oC creasing the allowable stresses of
5 6 parts, and adequate rigidity is en-
196.08/187.39oC Pass 5 & 6 120.00oC
sured by lowering the allowable ri-
Max. OT per tube pass
gidity index.
at tubesheet face The force required to compress
A B the gasket, together with high bolt
FIGURE 5. The operating temperatures across the heat exchanger passes can be used to determine if
loads, can cause bowing of the
the flange joint parts may require additional analysis during mechanical design in order to mitigate the flanges, resulting in uneven com-
potential for thermal shocks pression or even an opening mid-
66 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017
way between two bolts, as seen type AKU, as defined by the Tubular Tubeside inlet (Tts1) = 281.21C
in Figure 3. Differential thermal Exchanger Manufacturers Associa- Tubeside outlet (Tts2) = 187.39C
expansion of flanges increases tion (TEMA; Tarrytown, N.Y.; www. Shellside inlet (Tss1) = 120.00C
flange bowing and opening. This tema.org) [5]. For more information Shellside outlet (Tss2) = 181.22C
is mitigated by increasing the avail- on TEMA exchanger types, please Determining TD and TG. Since
able bolt area and performing full see Specifying Shell-and-Tube Heat the shellside vapor outlet connec-
bolt-load calculations. Exchangers, Chem. Eng., May tion is quite far from the tubesheet
The following are the measures 2013, pp. 4753. The operating face and the shell inlet connection,
that can be adopted as design en- temperatures for this exchanger are it is assumed to have an average
hancements to avoid the effects of as follows (additional properties are operating temperature of Tss34
thermal distortion on girth flange shown in Table 1): at passes 3 and 4 and Tss12 at
joints. These measures can be used
for girth flanges, tubesheets and
channel covers, as applicable.
1. Reduce the allowable flange rigid-
ity index to 0.70.
2. Provided/required bolt area ratio
Dependable seals
should be 120% of design, and
full bolt-load calculations should
be performed.
start with DeWAL
3. Reduce allowable stresses for Seals, gaskets and diaphragms can all leak, so DeWAL
flanges and tubesheet to 80% Industries has developed a broad range of durable,
of allowable, as per ASME Sec II bondable PTFE and UHMW ilm and tape compositions
Part D [2]. that create dependable seals despite abrasion, harsh
4. Increase the required thickness (t)
chemicals, high temperatures or irregular surfaces.
of the flanges and tubesheet by
5 mm, if t 100 mm; or by 10
mm, if t > 100 mm. Note that fu-
ture machining allowance, as re-
quired by API 660 or user speci-
fications, is separate from this
extra thickness.
Apart from the above extra
measures, target bolt and gasket
stresses are determined as de-
scribed in ASME PCC-1 Appendix More than a dozen DeWAL PTFE and UHMW ilms and
O [3] and API 660.
tapes are designed speciically for gaskets, expansion
Additionally, while perform-
ing calculations based on ASME joints, valve seals and diaphragms.
PCC-1, engineers may consider
reducing the maximum permissible
bolt stress for the flange (Sfmax;
as defined in Ref. 3) by a reduc-
tion factor Syo/Sya (ratio of flange
yield strengths), irrespective of the
criteria mentioned in WRC 538,
Section 4 [4].
Thermal engineers should also
be consulted to evaluate the po-
tential for changing nozzle loca-
tions or interchanging the fluids on Let DeWAL engineering
both sides, so that TD and TG can help you with your most
be fully eliminated from the system. dificult challenges.
Quality of Product...First
Evaluating thermal shock
Narragansett, RI 02882
The heat exchanger considered for www.dewal.com usa1@dewal.com
800-366-8356 001-401-789-9736
the following examples is illustrated
in Figures 4 and 5. This particular
exchanger has six passes, and is of Circle 13 on p. 98 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66433-13

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017 67


TABLE 1. FLUID PROPERTIES*
Point number 1 2 3 4 5 6
Tube pass 1 1 1 1 1 1
Length from tube inlet, mm - 604.87 1,814.60 3,024.40 4,234.10 5,443.10
Mass fraction vapor - - - - - -
Bulk temperature, C 281.21 276.73 268.12 260.27 253.13 246.63
Point number 7 8 9 10 11 12
Tube pass 2 2 2 2 2 3
Length from tube inlet, mm 5,443.80 4,234.10 3,024.40 1,814.60 604.87 604.87
Mass fraction vapor - - - - - -
Bulk temperature, C 240.71 235.34 230.45 226.01 221.98 218.33
Point number 13 14 15 16 17 18
Tube pass 3 3 3 3 4 4
Length from tube inlet, mm 1,814.60 3,024.40 4,234.10 5,443.80 5,443.80 4,234.10
Mass fraction vapor - - - - - -
Bulk temperature, C 215.05 212.06 209.35 206.88 204.64 202.59
Point number 19 20 21 22 23 24
Tube pass 4 4 4 5 5 5
Length from tube inlet, mm 3,024.40 1,814.60 604.87 604.87 1,814.60 3,024.40
Mass fraction vapor - - - - - -
Bulk temperature, C 200.73 199.04 197.50 196.08 194.78 193.58
Point number 25 26 27 28 29 30
Tube pass 5 5 6 6 6 6
Length from tube inlet, mm 4,234.10 5,443.80 5,443.80 4,234.10 3,024.40 1,814.60
Mass fraction vapor - - - - - -
Bulk temperature, C 192.50 191.50 190.59 189.76 189.01 188.31
Skin temperature, C 185.58 185.18 184.81 184.47 184.16 183.88
Point number 31 32
Tube pass 6 6
Length from tube inlet, mm 600.38 -
Mass fraction vapor - -
Bulk temperature, C 187.68 187.39
Skin temperature, C 183.80 --
* Data from HTRI Output

passes 1 and 2 for shellside fluid at design calculations. and Pressure Vessel Committee (BPVC), Subcommit-
tee on Materials, ASME Section II, Part D Allowable
the tubesheet face. The temperature gradient around Stresses, 2017.
Average temperature (Tss34) = the channel-side flange compo- 3. ASME, PCC-1 Guidelines for Pressure Boundary
(Tss1 + Tss2)/2 = 150.61C nents, including the tubesheet, is: Bolted Flange Joint Assembly, Appendix O, 2013.
Average temperature (Tss12) = 4. Welding Research Council, WRC Bulletin 538 De-
(Tss34 + Tss2)/2 = 165.92C TG = Tts1 Tts2 = 281.21 187.39 termination of Pressure Boundary Joint Assembly Bolt
Loads, Section 4, p. 15, February 2014.
= 93.82 (< 110C)
5. Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA)
The temperature differential across Standards, 9th Ed., Nov. 2007.
the tubesheet is calculated as follows: In the above example, the TD at 6. ASME BPCV Section VIII, Div. 1 Rules for Construction
At pass 1, TD = Tts Tss12 = pass 1 exceeds the API 660 limit, of Pressure Vessels, 2017.
281.21 165.92 = 115.29C so additional analysis of the chan- 7. Heat Transfer Research Inc. (HTRI) design software and
(Since this is greater than 110C, nel-tubesheet-shell flange joint is documentation, www.htri.net.
additional mechanical analysis re- required. The use of these design Author
quired for flange joint parts). augmentations, along with adher- Pankaj Kumar Singla is a
At pass 2, TD = Tts Tss12 = ence to industry codes and stan- mechanical design engineer for
Fluor Daniel India Pvt. Ltd. (6th
221.98 165.92 = 56.06C dards and rigorous design soft- Floor, Infinity Tower B, Cyber City,
(< 110C) ware, will help to evaluate, and DLF City Phase II, Gurgaon 122
Similarly, at passes 36, TD = perhaps even eliminate, the poten- 002, Haryana, India; Email:
pankajsingla99@gmail.com;
Tts Tss (< 110C) tial for damaging thermal shocks Phone: +91-97164-14125). Sin-
and distortions in the critical inter- gla has more than nine years of
experience in the detailed engi-
It should be noted that the aver- nal components of shell-and-tube neering of static equipment in the pre-bid phase, as
age of operating temperatures at heat exchangers. well as front-end engineering design (FEED) and de-
the shellside, as assumed in this Edited by Mary Page Bailey tailed engineering for various oil-and-gas, petroleum
refining and petrochemical industry projects. Prior to
case, may not be applicable for joining Fluor, Singla worked as a static equipment engi-
other cases. Therefore, use of the References neer for Daelim Industrial Co. (South Korea) and as a
shellside fluid temperature at des- 1. American Petroleum Institute, API Standard 660 Shell- senior engineer at Valdel Engineers & Constructors
and-Tube Heat Exchangers, 9th ed., March 2015. (India). He holds a B. Tech. degree from the Giani Zail
ignated locations must be carefully Singh College of Engineering & Technology in Bathinda,
evaluated before being adopted into 2. American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler Punjab, India.

68 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017


special advertising section

CHEMICAL
ENGINEERING
ESSENTIALS FOR CPI PROFESSIONALS

CPI Product Review


and Sealing Technology
Berndorf Band GmbH ....................................... 83
Bionomic Industries Inc.................................... 78
Bungartz, Paul GmbH & Co. KG ........................ 80
Butting, H. GmbH & Co. KG ............................... 70
Cashco, Inc. ...................................................... 81
Chemstations ................................................... 79
The Clean Air Group, LLC .................................. 80
Collins Instrument Company, Inc. ..................... 74
Cortec Corp. ..................................................... 70
DeWAL Industries Inc. ...................................... 84
Dynamic Air ...................................................... 70
Ekato Process Technologies GmbH................... 71
Emcor Group .................................................... 83
Emerson ........................................................... 77
Endress+Hauser ............................................... 73
Flexicon ............................................................ 75
Flexim GmbH .................................................... 76
GEA Group ....................................................... 82
Jenike & Johanson, Inc. .................................... 76
Midwestern Industries Inc. ............................... 75
Netzsch ............................................................ 79
Paratherm ........................................................ 74
Pfeiffer Vacuum ................................................ 71
Plast-O-Matic Valves ........................................ 81
Proco Products ................................................. 84
RedGuard ......................................................... 78
Ross, Charles & Son Co. ................................... 73
Saint-Gobain .................................................... 82
Sandvik Process Systems ................................. 76
SonicAire.......................................................... 77
Vega ................................................................. 72
Viega LLC.......................................................... 72
CPI Product Review 2017 Special Advertising Section

Environmentally Friendly Butting: Columns for


Corrosion Protection for chemical park
Closed-Loop Systems and B UTTING manufactures stainless
steel vessels, tanks and col-
Hydrostatic Testing umns according to customer speci-
fications in several sections or in

V pCI-649 is an environmentally
friendly, nitrite-free corrosion
inhibitor for use in systems con-
one piece, through a very large de-
gree of prefabrication in the plant.
The family business was recently
taining fresh water or glycol. It able to demonstrate its longstand- The very high degree of
can be added at low doses to ef- ing experience by producing two col- prefabrication benefited
fectively and economically protect The combined contact umns for a German chemical park. the customer.
ferrous and non-ferrous metals and vapor phase action BUTTING obtained an order for
from corrosion in closed loop sys- of corrosion inhibitors in the production of two columns. The
tems, or in vessels that have been VpCI-649 protect closed-loop processing engineering equipment in the form of a hollow, slender
hydrostatically tested. The vapor system internals below and column has special fittings, as required by the application or the op-
phase action of this unique con- above the surface of the water. erating conditions. Both columns were prefabricated in Knesebeck:
centrated liquid protects against The first column, 25 metres long and 1 400 mm in diameter, was
corrosion in areas that traditional produced in two parts, as was the second column, which was much
contact-only corrosion inhibitors cannot reach. VpCI-649 also con- smaller, 15 metres long and 1 000 mm in diameter.
tains an acrylic polymer to prevent scale formation. The large number of fittings presented a special challenge: A
VpCI-649 is an especially important tool for protecting intricate total of more than 190 metres of welding wire had to be welded
internal surfaces from corrosion during hydrostatic testing. A cost- for the inner fittings. Robert Lenz, Spools & plant construction, ex-
effective dose of VpCI-649 can be easily added to pipelines, casings, plains: A large number of branches were welded on one side. In so
tanks, and valves; circulated; and drained. This leaves behind a pro- doing, very tight tolerance requirements had to be complied with,
tective layer on the system internals for continued protection of up to in order to guarantee the parallelism of the inner fittings. In addi-
two years. tion, carbon steel support feet had to be welded to one end of each
column.
www.cortecvci.com www.butting.com

Gyro EX Bin Activating Feeder/Discharger


Accurate Feeding and Discharging

T he GYRO EX bin activating feeder and


discharger produces a controlled gyra-
tory motion to positively withdraw granular
materials from bins, storage silos and hop-
pers at any desired feed rate for a more con-
sistent and reliable discharge. At the heart
of the GYRO EX bin activating feeder and
discharger is the drive that produces a ra-
dial force creating a uniform circular motion
on both the upper activation cone and the Features:
lower discharge cone. It is this annular radi- A. Low headroom reduces height.
al vibratory motion which imparts the force B. Material stops due to angle of repose.
to the material, assuring a more reliable C. Gap is adjustable to increase or decrease
and predictable material discharge. feed rate.
A unique feature of the GYRO EX bin ac- D. Circular distance of activation cone cre-
tivating feeder and discharger is that the ates a wide feed zone.
stored material load is completely sup- E. Vibrating lower cone is self-cleaning.
ported by the upper bin activation cone charge cone which might create packing or F. Exterior mounted vibrating motor.
which has a lower cone angle than the dis- plugging problems. Irrespective of the par- G. High strength reinforced flexible
charge cone, assuring an uninterrupted and ticle size, the GYRO EX bin activating feeder connector.
positive discharge of the stored material. and discharger is well suited for almost any
The GYRO EX bin activating feeder and dis- size material and the rate can easily be in- http://www.krausvibratory.com/products/
charger can also be started and stopped creased or decreased by adjusting the gap gyroex.html
as desired because material is not allowed between the inlet opening and the upper
to accumulate or stagnate in the lower dis- activation cone. www.dynamicair.com

70 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017


CPI Product Review 2017 Special Advertising Section

Bluetooth technology brings safety and convenience


to process instrumentation
Vega, global manufacturer of process measurement technology, introduced a new version
of its display and adjustment module Plicscom featuring Bluetooth low energy technology.
The operating module increases operator safety and convenience, all while keeping plant
data safe and secure.

P licscom displays have always


been famous for their modular-
ity; a quick 90 turn allows users to
let via the Vega-Tools App. The App
allows users to check the measure-
ments of a particular vessel and make
move the same small display puck minor adjustments from the safety
from instrument to instrument within and comfort of an indoor control area
a facility. or a vehicle. For a quick check of diag-
The digital module contains inte- nostics or a look at current tank lev-
grated lighting, and a heated version els, nothing is more convenient than
is designed to perform in low-tem- Plicscom with Bluetooth.
perature applications. Process instru- By the way, every Plicscom mod-
ments are often used in hazardous ule with Bluetooth ships with a mag-
areas or in harsh, dirty measuring The display and adjustment module Plicscom netic pen specifically for use in Ex
environments. Grain, flour, and com- with Bluetooth enables wireless setup and areas. The pen can make adjustments
mercial animal feed are often stored adjustment, measured value display and sensor through the window of a closed hous-
in silos over 50 feet tall. Making the diagnostics via smartphone or tablet. ing. In difficult, dirty environments,
best use of space and getting an ac- the magnetic pen allows users to get
curate level reading typically means in- common environmental challenges in the close to a sensor and make modifications
stalling a radar sensor at the top of the process industry where a lot of applica- without removing their gloves.
silo. This puts operators in a delicate posi- tions are outside. Backward compatibility assure the use
tion when doing on-site-adjustments. Plicscom with Bluetooth minimizes of the new Plicscom with Bluetooth also
For the staff working at these facilities, most common risky situations, and in with all VEGA Plics instruments supporting
that often means fighting the elements. many cases eliminates them completely. the huge installation base of devices.
Blowing dust, heavy rain, high winds, ex- Operators can now wirelessly connect eas- www.vega.com/en/radar/
treme temperatures, and even snow are ily to devices from a smartphone or tab- Wireless-adjustment

Viega Introduces MegaPress Fittings for


IPS Stainless Steel
New Offering Helps Reduce Production Downtime, Protects Against Revenue Loss

F or chemical processing plants, the in-


troduction of new Viega MegaPress
Stainless press fittings dramatically reduc-
tify unpressed connections during pressure
testing. And MegaPress Stainless fittings
offer the same proven quality and durabil-
es the time required to make pipe repairs ity as all Viega products, bringing complete
compared to other pipe joining systems. confidence to every job.
Faster repairs mean shorter periods of pro- Viega has a heritage of bringing bet-
duction downtime, reducing the potential ter ideas to market, one of which was
for losses in revenue. the launch of the industrys first press fit-
Designed for Iron Pipe Size (IPS) stain- ting technology in 1989, said Dominic
less steel, the new line of Viega MegaPress Kng, Viega Product Manager for Metals.
Stainless fittings makes secure connections Through the introduction of MegaPress
in seven seconds or less, reducing installa- fittings for IPS stainless steel, were ex-
tion time by up to 60 percent compared to tending the availability of our original in-
welding or threading. novation offering a new solution for the
Combining productivity with peace-of- chemical processing industry.
mind, the MegaPress Stainless fittings are For fast pipe repairs, new Viega
equipped with the patented Viega Smart MegaPress Stainless fittings can For more information on the new line of
Connect feature, which allows installers be installed in 7 seconds or less. MegaPress Stainless fittings, visit
and maintenance personnel to easily iden- www.viega1.us/mpstainless.

72 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017


CPI Product Review 2017 Special Advertising Section

Future-oriented flow measuring technology


Endress+Hausers flow range for higher levels
of safety, product quality and availability in
your process
I n the chemical industry, requirements re-
garding safety, legal standards, efficiency
and quality are continuously increasing. In
unmatched multitude of
functions, which supply a
maximum amount of pro-
addition, process systems operators must cess information. It is not
deal with rising costs and competitive pres- only possible to retrieve
sure. Finally, emerging opportunities for device, diagnostics, ser-
digital interconnectivity through Industry vice or process data via
4.0 are gaining significance within process the control room, but now
automation. also on site thanks to a
Proline 300/500 has been developed web server integrated
entirely in accordance with SIL guidelines into the measuring de-
(IEC 61508) thus guaranteeing greatest vice. This allows for direct
safety during operations. In accordance connection to a laptop without the need More than simply measuring flow. Proline
with NAMUR NE107, the warning messages for additional software or hardware. 300/500 flowmeters ensure plant operators
displayed in the event of an error also con- A further highlight is Heartbeat receive comprehensive diagnostics,
tribute to operational safety, as these in- TechnologyTM. Integrated into all Proline process and measurement data.
dicate immediately if a device is defective, devices, this checking function enables per-
requires maintenance, or is running outside manent self-diagnosis, along with extensive
the predefined specifications. monitoring of the values measured, as well RS485, EtherNet/IP and PROFINET. This
Every Proline 300/500 measuring de- as providing a certified and metrologically ensures that customers are able to in-
vice is checked using accredited, fully traceable verification during operation. tegrate Endress+Hauser flowmeters
traceable calibration facilities before deliv- Proline 300/500 has a unique range seamlessly into their existing infrastruc-
ery (ISO/IEC 17025). of signal outputs and protocols: HART, tures or automation systems.
Proline 300/500 is equipped with an PROFIBUS, FOUNDATION fieldbus, Modbus www.endress.com/chemical-process

Multi-agitator system for crucial mixing and dispersion


requirements
The Ross VersaMix is a multi-shaft mixer designed for viscous applications requiring a high
level of accuracy and batch-to-batch consistency. Three independently driven agitators
work in tandem to ensure high-speed fine dispersion, efficient turnover and uniform
heating/cooling.

A vailable in sizes from 1 gallon through


4000 gallons capacity, VersaMix Multi-
Shaft Mixers offer reliable scalability from
the product changes rheologically through-
out the batching cycle.
The VersaMix is well-suited for a variety
electronic pastes, battery slurries, cleaning
solutions creams, specialty inks and coat-
ings, hot-melt adhesives, sealants lotions,
product development to full-scale produc- of processing applications including polymer gels, toothpaste, flavor emulsions, pharma-
tion. Typically equipped with a three-wing dispersions, filled epoxies, urethanes, ad- ceutical suspensions and ointments.
anchor, a high speed disperser and a rotor/ vanced composites, greases and lubricants, www.mixers.com
stator, the mixer deliv-
ers a robust combina- Shown is a Ross VersaMix Model VMC-200 with a maximum working capacity of 200 gallons.
tion of laminar bulk flow An air/oil lift raises and lowers the agitators into the vacuum-rated vessel. All product contact
and high shear neces- surfaces are stainless steel type 316L polished 180-grit finish. The ASME 60-psi jacket on the
sary for homogenization vessel is insulated with 2 thick mineral wool and sheathed with water-tight stainless steel
and deagglomeration in cladding. The vacuum cover includes multiple charging ports, viewing windows, tank light and
high viscosity conditions a thermoprobe. Finished product is discharged out of a 3 pneumatically-actuated diaphragm
up to several hundred valve installed on the tanks conical bottom. Shown is a Ross VersaMix Model VMC-200 with
thousand centipoise. a maximum working capacity of 200 gallons. An air/oil lift raises and lowers the agitators into
Because each agitator is the vacuum-rated vessel. All product contact surfaces are stainless steel type 316L polished
independently driven, the 180-grit finish. The ASME 60-psi jacket on the vessel is insulated with 2 thick mineral wool
VersaMix imparts a wide and sheathed with water-tight stainless steel cladding. The vacuum cover includes multiple
range of mixing intensi- charging ports, viewing windows, tank light and a thermoprobe. Finished product is discharged
ties and flow patterns as out of a 3 pneumatically-actuated diaphragm valve installed on the tanks conical bottom.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017 73


CPI Product Review 2017 Special Advertising Section

Thermal-Fluid Sampling: Where and How to Sample


Where and how thermal fluid is sampled can make all the difference in what the
test results reveal.

W here a sample should be taken


is simple any location where
there is flow and the temperature is
sample that will be measured.
Ideally, a sample should be
taken directly into a glass sample
above 180F. A blowdown valve on jar so any contamination or carbon
the pump suction strainer housing in the fluid is easy to measure. The
is a good bet since thats where the problem with glass is that it can
lowest pressure and temperature shatter if the sample is taken too
exists in most systems. Piping drain hot (above 250F). So if the next
valves will work as long as several heater shutdown isnt scheduled
containers worth of fluid are purged until the Phillies win the pennant,
before taking the sample. Expansion install 18-24 of 1/4 copper tubing
tank or thermal buffer tank drain on the sample port and bend a loop
valves are tempting as a sample lo- See the one-minute video at www. or two through a bucket of water.
cation because they are (usually) paratherm.com/fluid-analysis This will knock the sample tem-
cool and (mostly) accessible. Dont perature down the couple-hundred
do it. For a long list of reasons, its degrees needed to keep the glass
almost the worst place to take a from breaking. Or take the sample
sample, just above scooping it off in a clean metal can with a screw
the floor near the pump. top and send that in (just remem-
ber to label it with the system name
Taking the Hot Oil Sample and date). Do not take the hot
How to take a sample is not quite sample in a metal cooling bucket
as simple. Why? Because improper and then transfer it to the sample
sampling practices can actually alter Paratherms new fluid-analysis lab, completed in container.
the physical characteristics of the 2016, continues to add equipment and capabilities www.paratherm.com

Plastic Control Valves Handle Corrosive Chemicals


Collins 2-in. valves and actuators are specially designed to handle corrosive fluids acids,
bleaches, chlorine, pH control and aggressive environments

C ollins Instrument Companys line of


economical 2-in. flanged plastic control
valves handle corrosive liquids including
environments that can attack the outside
of the valve and actuator. Collins plastic
control valve packages withstand salty ma-
hydrochloric acid, caustic, sulfuric acid, and rine atmospheres as well as industrial en-
many others. With bodies of either PVDF vironments that are too corrosive for metal
or polypropylene, these highly-responsive valves and actuators.
control valves are specifically designed for Collins actuators incorporate a unique
use with corrosive media and/or corrosive internal locking ring to attach the cylinder
atmospheres. to the yoke. A semicircular groove is ma-
Suitable for applications in numerous in- chined inside the lower edge of the cylin-
dustries, including chemical, petrochemical, der, and a matching groove cut in the yoke.
pulp and paper, and municipal, these valves When the yoke and cylinder are assembled,
are extremely corrosion-resistant, and fea- a flexible polypropylene rod is inserted into
ture fast-acting positioning (stroke rate Plastic valves and actuators from Collins the groove through a slot in the side of the
approximately 12 in./s). They are available cylinder, securing the two sections together.
with a wide selection of trim sizes, in globe, The integral positioner eliminates the need Along with its corrosion resistance the
angle, and corner configurations. for external linkages which are subject to Collins control valve features a stem pack-
The differential-area piston eliminates corrosion and malfunctioning. Valves may ing arrangement that virtually eliminates
the necessity for auxiliary loading regula- also be furnished without a positioner for the problem of fugitive emissions, thereby
tors. All actuator parts apart from the inte- on/off applications. protecting the environment.
gral positioner are molded of glass-filled, Collins also offers a plastic pneumatic Located on the Texas Gulf Coast in
UV-inhibited polypropylene. Before ship- actuator. The combination of a plastic ac- the town of Angleton, Collins Instrument
ment, the aluminum positioner and a por- tuator and a plastic valve body provides an Company has been serving the chemical
tion of the cylinder are immersed in Dip effective way to handle both corrosive ma- and petrochemical industry for over
Seal to provide atmospheric protection. terials flowing through the valve, and harsh 65 years. www.collinsinst.com

74 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017


CPI Product Review 2017 Special Advertising Section

Handle virtually any bulk solid material


Flexicon stand-alone equipment and automated plant-wide systems convey, discharge,
condition, fill, dump and weigh batch bulk materials dust-free

F lexicon engineers and manufactures a broad range of equip-


ment that handles virtually any bulk material, from large pellets
to sub-micron powders, including free-flowing and non-free-flowing
products that pack, cake, plug, smear, fluidize, or separate.
Individual bulk handling equipment includes: flexible screw con-
veyors, tubular cable conveyors, pneumatic conveying systems,
bulk bag dischargers, bulk bag conditioners, bulk bag fillers, bag
dump stations, drum/box/container dumpers, and weigh batching/
blending systems. Each of these product groups encompasses a
broad range of models that can be custom engineered for special-
ized applications, and integrated with new or existing upstream and
downstream processes and storage vessels.
All equipment is available to food, dairy, pharmaceutical and in-
dustrial standards.
For large-scale bulk handling projects, Flexicons separate
Project Engineering Division provides dedicated Project Managers
and engineering teams on four continents to handle projects from
concept to completion. Working with each customers preferred en- Flexicon offers stand-alone bulk handling equipment as well as
gineering firm or directly with their in-house team, Flexicon adheres plant-wide systems integrated with new or existing processes
strictly to the customers unique standards, documentation require-
ments and timelines through a single point of contact, eliminating and study the performance of new designs.
the risk of coordinating multiple suppliers. In 2015 the company doubled the size of its manufacturing fa-
Flexicons worldwide testing facilities simulate full-size customer cility and world headquarters in Bethlehem, PA, and also operates
equipment and systems, verify performance prior to fabrication, manufacturing facilities in Kent, United Kingdom; QLD, Australia;
demonstrate newly constructed equipment for visiting customers, and Port Elizabeth, South Africa. www.flexicon.com

All your screening products in one place


Specialists in screening equipment, screens, and parts since 1953.

M idwestern Industries is a U.S. manufac-


turer of screening equipment, replace-
ment screens and parts. Easily integrate their
tured by Midwestern are utilized in many
screening applications. From scalping ap-
plications to fine mesh screening, their
equipment into an existing process and gain MEV screener provides consistent perfor-
the reliability and value that you deserve. mance and value. The MEV high-frequency
Midwestern offers outstanding customer ser- screener is a rectangular screener that uti-
vice, on-time deliveries, custom built screen- lizes an elliptical motion to convey material
ing equipment, and replacement screens and across the screening surface. Available in
parts for most makes and models of screeners. a variety of sizes with one to five screening
Midwesterns line of Gyra-Vib round decks, the MEV has the versatility to meet
separators are used to separate particles your screening needs.
by size or to separate solids from liquids. The end-tensioned screens used in the
Designed for maximum screening efficiency, high-frequency screener simplifies the screen the most advanced testing facilities in the
Midwesterns MR Series vibratory separa- changing process. End-tensioning permits the screening industry, they have dedicated over
tors can be constructed and finished to use of square-opening and slotted screens 10,000 square feet at their headquarters in
food, dairy, and pharmaceutical standards. and is accurately maintained by a spring- Massillon, Ohio to help their customers gain
Sifting, scalping, classifying, and loaded draw bar. Users can make screen valuable insight into their screening process.
dewatering applications benefit from the changes in just 15 minutes. This facility can be used for new applications
versatility and range of screening products Midwestern offers a variety of screening as well as improving upon existing ones.
available to customize each vibratory sepa- accessories to maximize your screening pro- Midwestern believes that this is the best tool
rator for specific applications. Additional cess. From anti-blinding devices to screen- for their customers to make informed deci-
screening decks are available for mul- heating transformers, they have the products sions about their screening process. The
tiple separations. Midwestern MR Series and service experience to help assess your simple act of sending in material can save
Separators are manufactured from 24 needs and supply the right equipment. you time and money by purchasing the right
through 60 diameter units. Be sure to take advantage of equipment the first time.
The high-frequency screens manufac- Midwesterns FREE test facility. One of www.midwesternind.com

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017 75


CPI Product Review 2017 Special Advertising Section

Continuous Jenike & Johanson


pastillation Engineering Services
with Sandvik J enike & Johanson, Inc. is the worlds leading technology
company for bulk material handling, processing, and stor-
Rotoform system age. They deliver engineered solutions to achieve reliable
powder and bulk solids flow based on proven theories and
decades of project experience. With their skilled, highly technical team of experts and industry-

F orming quality pastilles that


are highly uniform, hemi-
spherical, stable, thermally
leading innovations, they have successfully delivered bulk material engineering solutions for
more than 55 years.
Bulk materials and their flow properties are at the core of all Jenike & Johansons work. Every
unstressed, and dust-free is project (7,500+ to date) is truly unique. Clients are offered maximum flexibility in selecting ser-
a difficult task. Yet with 2,000 vices required to meet their bulk material handling needs. Jenike & Johanson does not follow
installations worldwide, the the one size fits all concept which can be a dangerous pitfall in engineering. Decisions made
Sandvik Rotoform granulation system has a during the feasibility and engineering stages of a project are critically important for its success.
proven track record for achieving such a feat. If bulk solids systems are not engineered from the outset to handle the unique characteristics of
the materials, process start-up time can be significantly delayed and design capacity may never
ROTOFORM PASTILLATION PROCESS be reached.
A pump delivers the molten product from a The engineers at Jenike & Johanson are renowned experts in the field of bulk material engi-
tank to the dropformer via heated piping. neering. They are frequent keynote speakers at major industry events, routinely deliver informa-
The Rotoform itself consists of a heated cy- tive webinars and customized courses, and publish thoughtful technical articles in top industry
lindrical stator, which is supplied with liquid journals and publications all this in order to provide clients with the latest insight on cutting-
product, and a perforated rotating shell that edge methodologies which make the powder and bulk solids handling aspect of the business run
turns concentrically around the stator. seamlessly.
Droplets of the product are deposited by The chemicals industry provides the building blocks for companies manufacturing paints,
the nozzle bar across the whole operating pigments, coatings, adhesives, resins, consumer products, and foods. 75% of all chemicals are
width of a continuously running stainless handled in bulk solid form during manufacturing. When feeding powders to reactors or conveying
steel belt. Heat released during solidifica- wet cake from a centrifuge to a dryer, poor material flow can result in throughput limitations, non-
tion is transferred via the steel belt to cool- uniform product, or dust emissions/spillage.
ing water sprayed underneath. www.jenike.com

ROTOFORM FEATURES
Every aspect of the Rotoform system has
been designed to ensure not only premium
Functional Safety
quality pastilles, but also low operating
costs and minimal environmental impact. FLEXIM offers the worlds first
The system has high availability, between SIL 2-certified clamp-on flowmeters
8,500 and 8,700 hours per year. Unlike com-
petitive systems, individual Rotoform units
can be stopped for cleaning or maintenance
without shutting down the entire plant,
A s the worlds first ultrasonic clamp-on flowmeters, the
FLUXUS series from FLEXIM have proven their suitability for
use in process control protection equipment according to the IEC
yielding lower operational costs. To make 61508 norm and are certified as SIL 2 capable.
maintenance even simpler, the Rotoform The FLUXUS F/G70X and F/G80X series meters, which are to
pastillator unit uses just two motors. be used for the permanent, non-invasive flow measurement of
The Rotoform granulation system also liquids and gases, are audited and certified. Since clamp-on ul- Measuring with FLUXUS
provides an environmentally-friendly process trasonic transducers are simply attached to the outside of the pipe means measuring
with low sound emissions, low dust emissions, wall, the measuring system is not exposed to any wear and tear by on the safe side
and no need for air cleaning. Furthermore, the the medium flowing inside and is thus virtually maintenance-free.
closed cooling water system means there is In addition to that, there is no need to open the pipe when installing the clamp-on flowmeter
no possibility of cross contamination between and therefore no interruption to production or processing.
water and end product. Noise levels are below Due to the ultrasonic transit-time technology used, the measurement works bidirectionally
85 dB(A), dust emissions are under 5 mg/m3, with the same high degree of accuracy over an extremely high dynamic range. FLUXUS clamp-
and electrical consumption is just 4 kW per ton on meters measure independently from the medium flowing inside the pipe, as well as the
of urea. pipe material, its dimension and wall thickness and the operating pressure. It goes without
saying, the SIL 2-certified measurement systems are also offered in versions approved for use
CHEMICAL APPLICATIONS in potentially explosive atmospheres (ATEX, IECEx Zone 1 and 2).
The Sandvik Rotoform system is widely In conjunction with the patented transducer mounting fixture WaveInjector, the FLUXUS
used across the chemical and fertilizer meter can also measure at extreme pipe wall temperature ranges from -170 C up to 600 C.
industries for products such as sulphur Thanks to carefully matched transducer pairs, unique internal temperature compensation and
bentonite, fatty alcohol blends, hot melt ad- sophisticated internal signal processing, clamp-on ultrasonic FLUXUS meters are highly zero-
hesives, and various wax products. point stable and drift-free, ensuring precise measurement data.
www.sandvik.com www.flexim.com

76 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017


CPI Product Review 2017 Special Advertising Section

Embrace Flexibility to Remove Project Roadblocks


Emersons latest capital project technology enables chemical, life sciences, oil and gas,
and other industrial manufacturers to scale automation, simplifying project execution

A s capital projects grew in scale and com-


plexity in the last 25 years, process in-
dustry organizations experienced unforeseen
Controller. More powerful and versatile than
any control solution currently available, the
new controller is tailored to streamline ex-
out adding
footprint, addi-
tional hardware, or
cost overruns and schedule delays, resulting ecution of capital projects. The DeltaV PK re-engineering.
in billions of dollars in losses annually. Project Controller is designed specifically to assist Whether stand-
teams responded by adopting modular con- industries relying on complex, non-integrated alone or fully
struction strategies: multiple vendors across programmable logic controllers (PLC) in sim- merged, the DeltaV
the globe working on different elements plifying capital projects. PK Controller deliv-
of a project, then integrating on site. While The DeltaV PK Controller is the next rev- ers the features of
modularity simplified construction, it added olution in automation for capital projects a full-scale DCS, including batch produc-
complexities to on-site integration. Different efficiency. tion, recipe management, execution, and
process units using different control strate- Powerful Standalone. Easily Integrated. historization.
gies and automation technologies increase The DeltaV PK Controller can operate as Emerson is committed to delivering flex-
project complexity. a standalone controller and later be merged ible solutions, helping organizations adapt
To help organizations achieve on-time and natively into a DeltaV distributed control technology to projects rather than adapting
on-budget execution, Emerson launched the system (DCS), eliminating on-site integra- projects to available technology. The DeltaV
Project Certainty initiative to transform capi- tion challenges. OEM modular construction PK Controller facilitates the promise of modu-
tal project execution by defining project goals can easily be merged into a DeltaV DCS on lar construction, ensuring that efficiencies
and adopting high-impact strategies that site without complex data mapping. gained in construction are not lost during on-
eliminate costs, reduce complexity, and ac- With a built-in OPC UA server and site commissioning and startup. The DeltaV
commodate late changes. Ethernet connectivity, the DeltaV PK PK Controller continues taking automation off
Emerson has taken the next leap in inno- Controller securely connects to Industrial the critical path and eliminating the costs and
vating flexible technologies to ensure proj- Internet of Things (IIoT), cloud-based complexities that put capital projects at risk.
ect success with the launch of the DeltaV PK analytics, and third-party software with- www.emerson.com/deltavpkcontroller

SonicAire Fans: Fugitive Dust has Nowhere to Hide


C ombustible dust can create real dangers
for your employees and have a huge
financial impact on industrial facilities.
SonicAire fans have changed how the chemical industry
deals with combustible dust. SonicAire fans are the first
and only- proactive, engineered solution designed to
Controlling that dust continues to be eliminate overhead fugi-
of critical concern, as the threat of The SonicAire 2.0 fan uses a tive dust problems. Only
fires and explosions from combus- 2 HP TEAO fan motor, giving SonicAire fans can ro-
tible dust must be dealt with on a it twice the cleaning strength botically prevent fugitive
daily basis. of the original SonicAire fan. dust from accumulating
There was a time in the not so in the first place. In addi-
distant past that the only solution tion, these fan systems
for overhead fugitive dust prob- meet or exceed NFPA standards on combustible dust, keep-
lems was to hire people to clean ing facilities in compliance with relevant OSHA and NFPA
up the accumulated dust after the regulations.
fact. By definition, this manual Using the companys proprietary BarrierAire technol-
cleaning meant that at certain ogy, SonicAire fans help to prevent dangerous dust ex-
times the dust levels were higher plosions and improve overall air quality, creating a
than normal. cleaner and healthier work environment for em-
This inevitable dust buildup ployees. This technology alters the direction of
becomes a problem. When fugi- the dust and forces it to the floor by preventing
tive dust accumulates, it is danger- upward currents and stagnant air that keeps
ous even lethal. Thats why OSHA dust in suspension, preventing accumulation
levies fines when plants are out of com- of fugitive dust in overhead and hard-to-reach
pliance with dust levels recommended by NFPA Standards. places. With a focus on Dynamic Particle Control,
Noncompliance means risking OSHA fines. But the bigger risk is SonicAires team of engineers works with facilities to
the safety of the employees. develop a solution specific to their needs.
The reality is that manual cleaning is cyclical in nature. By With SonicAire fans in use, fugitive dust has nowhere to hide.
definition, this means that dust accumulates before the next
cleaning. www.sonicaire.com

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017 77


CPI Product Review 2017 Special Advertising Section

Ultra-High Efficiency Gas Absorption and Particulate


Collection in a Space Saving Design
Now Achievable with Proprietary Bionomic Scrubber Technology
Overview parable size packed towers or tray scrubbers gas travels in

T he patented RotaBedTM Fluidized Bed


Scrubber represents a major break-
through in ultra-high efficiency gas absorp-
for higher scrubbing efficiency in a smaller di-
ameter vessel.
Designed to handle gas capacities from
an angular
upward path
and fluidizes
tion and particulate collection in a space 500 thru 25,000 cfm, RotaBed is available the liquid on
saving non-fouling design. RotaBed is the in mild steel, 304, 316, and AL6XN Stainless the large open
ideal technology for applications involving Steels, High Nickel Alloys, Titanium FRP, FRP- area grid sur-
particulate laden gas streams or when han- Dual Laminate, and Polypropylene. Pressure face. Unlike
dling high solids content or scale forming drop range is 1..75 thru 15 w.c. with par- low efficiency
scrubbing liquids. ticulate removal efficiencies of 3 microns and static plug flow
The key to the scrubbers superior perfor- above from 97 to over 99.9%, and water sol- fluidized beds,
mance is a unique swirl induced Coriolis grid uble gases up to 99.99% the RotaBed
that achieves much greater fluidized bed sta- shaped grid How RotaBedTM Works
bility, resulting in more efficient gas mixing How It Works design utilizes
and transfer efficiency than less advanced de- During operation, gas with contaminants swirl induc-
signs. This unique approach to gas-liquid flu- enters the RotaBed gas inlet(1) and flows ing vanes(4) to dramatically increase mass
idization is accomplished without the need for upward. Scrubbing liquid is introduced transfer and particulate collection via cre-
marbles or plastic spheres that are prone to through fully open non-clog pipe distribu- ation of a rotating Coriolis motion fluid-
fouling or replacement due to wear. RotaBeds tors(2) onto the surface of the patented ized bed(5). Scrubbing liquid with captured
packless, highly plug resistant grid cross RotaBed Coriolis induced fluidizing grid(3). pollutants then vortex drains(6) into the
section is up to 99% open in the fluid con- Single or multiple grid stages are incorpo- slump(7). The RotaBed cleaned gas pass-
tact scrubbing zone and allows the scrubber rated depending on the number of transfer es through a two stage droplet removal
to deliver exceptionally high gas throughput units required to meet the needed pollut- stage(8) and exits through the gas outlet(9).
capacity - over three times greater than com- ant removal efficiency. The high velocity www.bionomicind.com

Manage risks in hazardous areas with Facility


Siting Studies
RedGuard, known for its dedication to safety through its
blast-resistant buildings, now offers a range of turnkey
products that begin with engineering services

F acility siting studies can help manage


the risks associated with working in haz-
ardous environments and can help prevent
complete facility site studies.
A facility siting study is a companys road-
map to identify potential hazards and to de-
accidents resulting in major financial loss, velop mitigation options, so it is important Once potential hazards are identified,
injuries, and lost lives. RedGuard, known that it is performed by a company that spe- RedGuard offers a range of blast-resistant
for its best in class blast-resistant buildings, cializes in facility siting studies and hazard as- building options, including LeaseFleet, the
also offers turnkey engineering services (fa- sessment. RedGuard has developed a name largest rental fleet of blast-resistant build-
cility siting studies fall under this umbrella). in the industry for its dedication to safety and ings of its kind, and the more permanent
Facility siting studies are done to comply protecting lives and assets. SafetySuite, its custom modular building
with regulations, meet industry guidelines Since each worksite is unique, a clear offering that can include top-tier amenities
and reduce the chances of public exposure. analysis of potential hazards from explosions, like those found in brick-and-mortar build-
The OSHA 29 CFR Part 1910.119 Process fires and toxins is imperative. Once RedGuard ings. Options are also available for turnkey
Safety Management regulation (known as has completed a thorough assessment, the pre-engineered buildings. In the facility sit-
PSM) requires a facility siting study to be company then offers mitigation solutions. ing study, theres always the chance that the
carried out in a companys Process Hazard Damage levels will be illustrated with over- mitigation options recommend that existing
Analysis (PHA). Failure to conduct facility site pressure maps of a calculated explosion, buildings should be moved, replaced or ret-
studies could result in fines from OSHA, as with an analysis of the impact to onsite build- rofitted. RedGuard also offers Blast Retrofit
well as trigger actions with more far-reaching ings, from both an exterior and interior point and Upgrade Design as part of its engineer-
consequences. All refineries, petrochemical or of view. Its also important to look at offsite ing services.
other chemical operations, and other facilities areas and determine the response of each
covered by the PSM regulation are required to area to a blast. www.redguard.com

78 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017


CPI Product Review 2017 Special Advertising Section

Piping Calculations Made Easy


Chemstations offers combined process and piping modeling

C HEMCAD is not only a full featured pro-


cess simulation suite, it is also a power-
ful tool for designing and analyzing complex
tion, or a disruption with ease.

Piping and Process


piping networks. Often, engineers use two If it is necessary to integrate the piping net-
separate tools for piping calculations and work simulation into an overall process sim-
general process calculations. This can lead ulation, CHEMCAD can handle the process
to inefficiencies in reconciling and integrat- side with the same set of tools, incorporat-
ing results for a final design or for what-if ing calculated pressure changes due to re-
scenarios. Differences in low-level data, actions, distillation, vessels, and more. This
calculation methods, and even an enthalpy makes it possible to quickly evaluate the
datum create opportunities for mistakes. effects of changes in the process concept,
Combining the work into a single interface Quickly analyze piping and process or of its chemical components, on the pip-
reduces initial effort and leads to sustain- systems simultaneously. ing network.
able models that process and project engi-
neers can collaborate on for the life of the complex. CHEMCAD combines a user-friend- Further information
actual process. ly interface for building and specifying pip- To help evaluate the benefits, as well as to
ing networks with a first-principles based instruct users in the application, of these
Piping networks calculation engine to make these analyses tools, Chemstations has co-developed a
When modeling a utility system (steam, as fast and intuitive as possible. The heat white paper and several examples with Dr.
cooling water, etc.) or flare header net- and material balance is combined with a Jeffrey L. Silverstein, a noted practitioner
works, access to rigorous phase equilibrium momentum balance, and users can specify and consultant. These materials are lo-
data, physical property data, and pressure elevation(s), so that the software calculates cated at
drop calculations are crucial. Accurate per- pressure and flow (forward or reverse) at
formance data at steady state as well as every point. Pressure changers like pumps, www.chemstations.com/Landing_Pages/
dynamic analysis with actual control valve compressors, and expanders can be speci- Using_CHEMCAD_for_Piping_Network_
and controller behavior can give valuable fied with actual performance curves to Design_and_Analysis/
insights into systems from simple to very model startup, shutdown, normal opera-

Optimization of Peg Grinding Systems


N etzsch has found a way to
optimize the traditional peg
grinding system to achieve the
is facilitated, provided that the
grinding circuit is equipped with
cooled batch tanks.
highest possible throughput In addition, the agitator shafts
rate, with the lowest amount geometry was changed such that
of energy input, while respect- the circulation of the grinding
ing the highest level of quality media is improved without com-
during grinding and dispersing pression in the area of the grind-
of various products. The new ing media separation system,
Neos grinding system (see Fig. even with very high product
1) reflects a series of improve- throughput rates.
ments made possible through This means, with comparable
a redesigned grinding cham- installed motor power and grinding
ber, agitator shaft, and use of chamber sizes, a higher production ca-
smaller grinding beads. pacity is not all that can be achieved.
With the same standard Due to the ability to use smaller grind-
grinding media fill mass, the ing media and the higher product
use of smaller grinding beads throughput rates, for a variety of prod-
means the number of grinding ucts it is accompanied by a lower energy
beads and thus the number of Basic representation of the Neos grinding system requirement as well. This inevitably leads
contacts or stresses per unit to reduced wear on the grinding media,
time increases exponentially. less stress on the machine components
A higher potential product throughput the shorter residence time of the product and therefore reduced downtime, mainte-
leads to an increase in the number of cycles during one pass through the grinding cham- nance and spare parts costs relative to the
per grinding period and thus to a narrower ber from the product feed to the product manufactured product volume.
residence time distribution of the product outlet and the consequently lower energy
particles in the grinding chamber. Due to input, control of the product temperature www.netzsch.com

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017 79


CPI Product Review 2017 Special Advertising Section

Redundant Anti-Siphon A choice of solutions for


Capability: A Happy pressure regulation
Marriage of Relief Valve & Cashco has launched three new devices
for the control of gas pressure
Vacuum Breaker!
An engineering firm recently specified two T he new ULR-1 (Un-Loading
Regulator) valve from Cashco is
more than an enhanced product. It also
seemingly unrelated Plast-O-Matic valves brings clarification and new information,
to provide redundant siphon prevention in a says Clint Rogers, General Manager
of Cashcos Valve Division.
ferric chloride piping system. The ULR-1 was originally
marketed as the U1 by Kaye

T he primary valve, Series RVDT Backpressure/Relief Valve, was


selected for its PTFE diaphragm and normally-closed design.
When the pump is activated, and pressure builds above the set
MacDonald, which Cashco bought
in 1999. Unfortunately, the only
documentation for the U1 and
point, the RVDT opens and allows flow. The set point is based on similar products was the original
the total feet of head in the tank plus a safety factor. When the schematics, which showed how
pump is shut off, pressure drops below the set point. This causes the tubing and fittings were to be in-
the RVDT to automatically close bubble tight, and siphoning due to stalled, Rogers says.
tank head pressure is prevented. Previously, a customer would have had
to locate the technical bulletin, work their way through its product
coder and then a separate product coder for the correct bill of ma-
terials for the hookup, Rogers explains. Not any more. With these
new products, all of the information is in the technical bulletin and
the operating manual.
As Rogers explains, the ULR-1 is a DA4 regulator with a Cashco
CA1 back-pressure valve mounted onto it. Using the inlet pressure
from the valve, the CA1 is set to control the outlet pressure of the
main valve. Because the outlet of the CA1 constantly exhausts into
the atmosphere, the media through the valve must be environmen-
tally safe gas such as oxygen or nitrogen.
For even more choice in pressure regulation, Cashco has also in-
troduced the SLR-1 and SLR-2 Self-Loading Regulators. The SLR-1
is a high-performance, pressure-loaded, pressure-reducing regula-
tor with a self-contained regulator mounted onto it. Inlet pressure
from the main valve is diverted to the pilot, which, in turn, reduces
the loading pressure to the cover dome in order to maintain the set
point of the main valve. The pressure inside the dome is static, so
gas is only released to atmosphere when the outlet pressure set-
ting is reduced or the system is shut down.
Because of the critical nature of the application, system design-
ers required a back-up to the RVDT just in case. The valve select-
ed? Series VBM vacuum breakerand heres why:
When the pump is shut off, vacuum occurs as liquid drains from
the highest point to the lowest point in the piping system. This
downstream flow creates a vacuum, and as flow continues, it cre-
ates a siphoning effect and drains the tank of ferric chloride.
The most sensible plan was to use a normally-closed vacuum
breaker that would positively seal bubble tight under even the
lowest pressure, but open at minimal vacuum should the primary
anti-siphon valve fail. Plast-O-Matic Series VBM, by virtue of its
patented diaphragm, was the only product available to meet this
requirement.
Cashco SLR-1 (left) and SLR-2 (right)
www.plastomatic.com The new SLR-2 self-loading regulator is similar to the SLR-1,
but its loading valve is not self-relieving. Instead, the cover dome
bleeds through a filter and check valve back into the outlet of the
main valve. This feature allows the SLR-2 to be marketed for hydro-
gen gas, natural gas and sour gas (NACE) applications.
www.cashco.com

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017 81


CPI Product Review 2017 Special Advertising Section

A Superior Alternative For Heat Exchanger Tubing


Saint-Gobains Hexoloy SE SiC heat exchanger tubes offer enhanced efficiency, uptime
and reliability; outperform metals, glass and other materials.

H exoloy is a single-phase, sintered alpha


silicon carbide offering high purity,
fine grain size and extremely low porosity.
Hexoloy SiC: The material of choice for
global chemical processing industries.
Hexoloy sintered alpha silicon carbide
Hexoloy SE SiC tubes offer distinct advan- has long been the material of choice for
tages to enhance the performance of shell chemical processing industries worldwide.
and tube heat exchangers in demanding This exceptional material demonstrates su-
chemical processing and refinery applica- perior performance in harsh environments
tions including: in the chemical, mineral processing, petro-
chemical, petroleum refining, pharmaceuti-
High Thermal Conductivity cal, and pulp and paper industries.
Hexoloy SiCs thermal conductivity is
almost equal to that of commonly used Superior Performance:
graphite tubes and far better than all other Universal corrosion resistance, high
tube materials available. thermal conductivity, excellent wear resis-
The result is higher efficiency while re- tance, superior oxidation resistance, high
quiring less heat transfer. strength at high temperature, low coeffi-
Extreme Hardness & High Strength cient of friction, hardest commercially avail-
Virtually Universal Corrosion Resistance Hexoloy SiC offers density in excess of able material.
Hexoloy SiC is universally corrosion re- 98% of theoretical and is completely im-
sistant against virtually all chemicals, even pervious without the use of impregnants. It Custom Made Products:
up to 400F. Hexoloy SiC tubes have been also it offers superb wear resistance, total Vessel linings, sparger tubes, nozzles,
proven for years in HF, bromine, high con- impermeability at extreme temperature and let down valves, mechanical seal faces,
centration nitric, mixed acids, bases, oxi- pressure, allows higher velocity, improved high performance bearings, custom com-
dants and chlorinated organics. heat transfer and no contamination in high ponents and special shapes.
purity applications. http://hexoloy.com

Explosion-proof and corrosion-resistant centrifuges


from GEA
C entrifuges are used in the chemical and pharmaceu-
tical industries for clarifying and separating flam-
mable liquids. For these special applications,
excess pressure so that no oxygen is able to penetrate.
Without oxygen, fire is not possible. When processing
sensitive liquids, the necessary inert gas atmosphere in
GEA offers a series of gas-tight decanters and separa- the separator is automatically monitored throughout
tors which are explosion-proof. the entire operation.
Theoretically, applications in these indus- Explosion-proof decanters and separators can
tries can result in critical concentrations of be used in a zone 2 and zone 1 environment.
solvent vapours and oxygen inside the cen- Versions for all common international stan-
trifuge that can cause explosions or fires. dards (ATEX, IEC-Ex, NEC) are available. They
However, the vapours must also be pre- are used in a large number of processes,
vented from escaping so as not to pose such as pharmaceutical extraction, produc-
a risk to operator health. Both these tion of oil additives,plant extracts, pectin,
risks can be prevented by using gas-tight xanthan gum, specialty chemicals, perox-
centrifuges from GEA. No sparks, no static ides, catalyst recovery, agrochemicals, and
charges, no hot bearings the test crite- polymer production.
ria for all international standards are all www.gea.com
implemented in GEA explosion-protected
centrifuges.
GEA explosion-proof decanters and
separators are equipped with certified
electric equipment and with safety
interlocks for high vibration, over-
speed and other critical situations.
In addition, before the start of oper-
ation, the centrifuge is flushed with
inert gas and blanketed with a slight

82 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017


CPI Product Review 2017 Special Advertising Section

Continuous Systems for Efficient Solidification


Not Too Far into The Future, SBS Steel Belt Systems, the Pastillation Specialists, Works
with Berndorf Belt Technology, the Steel Belt Experts, to Provide the Solution for the
Newest Chemical Engineer

T he team had a dilemma. A company had


assembled their best and most creative
engineers to develop an efficient method
SBS is a
partner of the
multinational
very effective rotating outer shell. With its
high pipe wall thickness and innovative drill-
ing pattern, this newer ACCUDROP now pro-
for the solidification of their product. They Berndorf Band duced pastilles of an even better spherical
needed a way to address a well-known issue Group produces shape, and a higher mechanical strength.
in the pastillation industry: dust. Caused steel belt ma- Small, smooth and strong pastilles produce
by abrasion during handing (for instance in chinery and turn- only a negligible amount of dust, thus result-
packing, unpacking, loading, and unloading), key plants for a ing in an eco-friendly product.
dust formation is influenced by the proper- wide range of industries: chemical, petro- The combination of the ACCUDROP
ties of the product. chemical, food, rubber and Powder Coatings. pastillation head and a Berndorf steel belt
The team discussed and dismissed a few SBS Steel Belt Systems have pioneered provides an efficient and secure process.
possible options but until Urso spoke noth- the development of pastillating units for a Excellent flatness of the belt and regular ser-
ing seemed quite right. Urso, the newest wide range of products. vice from both SBS Steel Belt Systems Group
engineer to the company, had an idea. He These products include: and Berndorf Band ensure long operating life
remembered what he had learned during his pumps and piping for various liquid and lower maintenance costs.
recent visit to the Chem Show in September products; The engineers were excited. They dis-
of 2017. He remembered visiting Booth #608 water cooling systems; cussed Ursos points and reached out to SBS
and learned about the high-quality continu- solidification units equipped with continu- Steel Belt Systems USA to learn of a cus-
ous steel belt solutions that many different ous Berndorf steel belts; tomized solution to their unique problem.
international companies had been using for and, among many feeding options, Soon after, the team agreed. They had the
decades. He explained to his team what he ACCUDROP. solution.
had learned about SBS Steel Belt Systems The unique SBS pastillation head, known www.berndorfband-group.com
and Berndorf Belt Technology. as ACCUDROP, has been upgraded using a www.steelbeltsystems.com

Leading by example and by the numbers


Diamond Refractory Services has completed over 100 FCCU turnarounds, with a 90%
customer retention rate

F or Houston, Texas-based Diamond


Refractory Services, an EMCOR
Industrial Services Company and one of the
lives in and out of the plant. We look to our
field personnel for real-world solutions to
real-world safety issues. Thats one of the
countrys most prominent refractory turn- reasons we regularly began using rapid arc
around providers, the autocratic leadership welding (RAW) in the field. Its safer. RAW
style that once dominated the American eliminates fumes and lowers exposure to
business landscape is purposefully absent. hexavalent chromium vapor.
Instead, Diamond Refractory Services Drake also said that most of Diamond
focuses on immersing its API 936-certified Refractory Services regular workforce
project managers and leaders in the day-to- is now RAW trained and certified, which
day workings of the organization. This ap- makes them more efficient. He explained
proach saves clients time and money, and that a RAW-certified welder can weld refrac-
has 90% of them returning for new work. tory anchors seven times faster than a tra-
Diamond Refractory Services employs A refractory repair involving Hexmesh, ditional welder using an electrode. To date,
more than 150 certified alloy welders, noz- hex cells, and variable tabs Diamond Refractory Services personnel
zlemen, safety professionals, forklift driv- have installed more than 100,000 anchors
ers, and other skilled professionals. With an approach to turnarounds extends to safety making them one of the most experienced
average employment tenure of 10 years or the company has been four years without refractory specialists in the Gulf Coast.
more, Diamond Refractory Services super- an OSHA recordable incident. For Diamond Refractory Services, com-
visors are among the refractory industrys Chase Drake, president and engineering pleting over 100 FCCU turnarounds with a
most experienced workers. Long tenure is manager, said that much of the companys 90% customer retention rate is the result
one of the reasons the company has avoid- success with safety can be attributed to of hard work, a fierce commitment to safety
ed the drought of skilled workers that other employee involvement. We ask employ- and training, and a determined willingness
companies have had to deal with. ees for solutions to safety concerns, Drake to put words into action.
Diamond Refractory Services detailed said. That ownership becomes part of their diamondrefractory.com

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017 83


Sealing Technology 2017 Special Advertising Section

How Do I Account for ASME B16.47 Series B Drilling


When Specifying a Rubber Expansion Joint?
P iping System Designers: Have you ever
come across the need to supply a rub-
ber expansion joint/control units in a pip-
sion joint under pressure (with use of the
connecting rods). Using this design will
eliminate the complication of a traditional
ing system where the flanges you want to control rod set up on the back side of the
attach have ASME B16.47 Series B drilling? mating flange where the rod plates do not
If so then you will know that the conven- have enough webbing from the I.D. of the
tional control rod set up can be challeng- plate to the I.D. of the holes on an ASME
ing as the attachment area for a traditional B16.47 Series B flange.
triangular control rod plate is greatly re- The only other option a client might
duced. With ASME Series B16.47 Series B have when dealing with ASME B16.47 is a
Drilling the bolt circle for the flange control rod set up where thick fabricated
is closer to the I.D. of the pipe than split flange plates are supplied so that the
Series A drilling. resultant thrust loads from the rubber ex-
So what design can be used for pansion joints are evenly distributed to
ASME B16.47 Series B drilling? every bolt hold.
The best rubber expansion joint design
to consider is an Interior Tie Rod de- In conclusion the best design for ASME
sign. In this example, a system designer B16.47 Series B bolting when using a rub-
has an application for a 30 I.D. X 24 OAL ber expansion joint is the Interior Tie Rod
triple arch rubber expansion joint with one Design configuration.
end having ASME B16.47 Series A drilling
and one end having ASME B16.47 Series design where a thicker ring/rod plate con- www.procoproducts.com
B drilling. Control rods are used in this nects the rubber expansion joint to the ad-
example as the piping system is unre- jacent mating flange while containing the
strained. The use of an Interior Tie Rod thrust loads and movement of the expan-

Fluid sealing can be extremely difficult in harsh conditions.


Abrasion, strong chemicals, high temperatures
and irregular surfaces can all contribute to leaks
and short seal lifespans.
T o prevent seal failure in these conditions,
DeWAL has developed more than a dozen
durable, bondable PTFE and UHMW film and
Dynaglide 633. For seals,
gaskets or sliding bearings,
this is one of many Dynaglide
A few of the many DeWAL PTFE and UHMW films and tapes
used for gaskets, expansion joints, valves and diaphragms.
tape compositions for gaskets, expansion PTFE tapes with excellent friction
joints, valve seals and diaphragms. and abrasion properties and is used on many DW232p. DW232p is ideal for venting gases
Some examples: different soft mating substrates. It is often when holding liquids, for separating oil and
DW601. DW601 is a fiber-filled PTFE tape in a used to prevent wear on painted surfaces water, for gasketing and for filtering where
number of thicknesses. It combines flexibility high temperatures and caustic chemicals are
with very good deformation in load-carrying DW203. DW203 is an unsintered PTFE film present. It is a dimensionally stable, crush
situations and is used for running against used primarily for electrical insulation. It is resistant, low density porous skived PTFE.
hard mating surfaces like cold-rolled steel. fibrilated for high strength in the machine DW 402p & 402hp. Micro-porous, DW 402p
direction and is chemically inert, even in is specified for gas and liquid filtration, medi-
DW602. With a low coefficient of friction and extreme temperatures. With notable drape cal test kits, wicks, and low dielectric con-
reliable product stability at very high temper- characteristics, it is used for gaskets, expan- stant wrap. Even stronger and more porous,
atures, DW602 is a specially filled PTFE com- sion joints, valve seals and diaphragms. DW402hp is excellent for liquid and air filtra-
pound coated with a silicone adhesive. It is tion, vents, diagnostics, wicks and support
specified for many seal applications. Strong, DW134. DW134 is a series of PTFE impreg- media for finer membrane structures. Both
lube-free, dynamic and durable, it is resistant nated glass fabric tapes. The PTFE provides a UHMW films are chemically inert and can be
to deformation under load. smooth anti-stick surface while the glass fab- hydrophilic or hydrophobic.
ric provides extra strength and dimensional
DW611. A filled PTFE compound with special stability. In a range of widths and thickness- DeWAL, part of Rogers Corp., has de-
grades of carbon graphite, this black tape ex- es, DW134s are all coated with a high tem- signed and manufactured PTFE and UHMW
hibits low friction and excellent wear proper- perature silicone adhesive. films and tapes in its RI facility since 1974.
ties in watery applications. www.dewal.com

84 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017


Lower Operational Costs with
MCF PowerSaver Dust Collectors
Requiring no integrated plant air to function, the MCF
PowerSaver dust collector generates energy cost-savings
of up to 50% over conventional high pressure pulse jet or
reverse air cleaning systems. The MCF is built to handle
heavy dust loads including abrasive materials, and comes
in conigurations to it most industrial air quality applica-
tions.

With the patented Never Miss Controlled-Cleaning Sys-


tem, the MCF PowerSaver aligns the cleaning arm and
bag segments, which positions the air nozzles to ire di-
rectly into the bags. No air is wasted, resulting in reduced
energy consumption and extended ilter bag life.

Schenck Process
www.schenckprocess.com/us

Circle 01 on p. 98 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66433-01

Blower of Choice for Gas Applications


Tuthill has a long history of providing positive displace-
ment blowers to the chemical processing industry. PD
Plus is one of the few blowers in the industry designed to
handle specialty chemical gases with various properties
such as lammable, corrosive, hazardous, high pressure,
and high temperature gases. The versatility of PD Plus
blowers makes it ideal for the broadest range of applica-
tions, even in the most severe operating conditions. With
optimized seal pressure ratings, PD Plus is one of the most
robust blowers on the market. Contact a local Tuthill sales
representative for assistance in sizing a PD Plus into your
application.

Tuthill Vacuum & Blower Systems


www.tuthillvacuumblower.com/about/pd-plus-for-the-chemical-market/

Circle 02 on p. 98 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66433-02

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017 85


Engineering Practice
Spectroscopy: Interpreting
Measurement Data
Spectrometric technology can assess many critical characteristics about products,
but it has limits. It can be challenging to determine when the line has been crossed
Marcus Trygstad Sample chemistry
Yokogawa Corporation of America (Chemical composition)

W
ithin the technology
category of analyzers,
spectrometers provide Sample property Sample spectrum
a broad range of analyti-
cal capabilities and are available in
an extensive range of designs from
numerous suppliers. Spectroscopy Property correlation
has two main categories: atomic and FIGURE 1. The best situation is where there is a direct and distinct relationship between the spectro-
molecular. Both examine the interac- scopic analysis and the specific property being measured. In such a scenario, the spectrum accurately
tion between electromagnetic radia- reflects the property under investigation
tion and the sample being analyzed. his or her grain harvest to the local rate measurements.
Atomic spectroscopy looks for grain elevator. The buyer can take a Far more difficult is the application
specific elements that are present in sample of the corn or wheat and use of molecular spectroscopy to as-
samples without regard to their a near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer to sess the characteristics of gasoline,
chemical form. For example, refin- check for critical attributes, such as which is one of the most chemically
ers must determine and certify the moisture and food value in the form complex products. Gasoline is not a
sulfur content in diesel fuel. Though of oil and protein. The final price will single compound, but is a mixture
sulfur can be a component in doz- likely be influenced by these quality of hundreds or thousands of differ-
ens of different compounds that are measures, and the analysis can be ent hydrocarbon molecules. Trying
present in the fuel, atomic spectros- done in a matter of minutes. to measure various characteristics
copy selectively excites and detects Another example could be a phar- such as octane rating is not
all sulfur atoms regardless of how maceutical producer trying to deter- easy. This article examines the use
they are bonded in larger molecules. mine the moisture level in granules of spectroscopy for this situation.
This aggregated value satisfies the being processed in a dryer prior to
regulators objective to measure the tablet production. The technician Characteristics and spectra
overall sulfur content of the fuel. can try to calculate it by measur- Chemical producers are always
By contrast, molecular spectros- ing the humidity of the air leaving looking for better ways to measure
copy examines the chemical bonds the dryer, but the NIR spectrometer some property of interest in a prod-
that are present in compounds. In- provides a direct measurement that uct. This can take countless forms.
stead of exciting specific atoms, this is automated, rapid and precise. Picture a moonshiner loading a new
technology elicits telltale signals from Meanwhile, the device can be in- batch of fermented mash into a still.
the bonds between atoms. For ex- stalled to perform the measurement He wants to know how much etha-
ample, methane gives distinct sig- online and provide measurements nol is in the mash, so he watches
nals because of the characteristic in realtime, allowing the process to the temperature closely as it heats
way the bonds between its carbon stop immediately once the desired up. Why? Because he knows there
and four hydrogen atoms respond to level has been reached. is a direct and distinct relationship
electromagnetic radiation. These are relatively simple pro- between the boiling point of the mix-
This discussion focuses on mo- cesses. Moisture is very easy to ture and the proportion of ethanol to
lecular spectroscopy. Quantitative measure. Grain is a bit more com- water. The composition is expressed
molecular spectroscopy is used in a plex, but a kernel of corn will have a by the boiling point.
wide variety of applications in many short list of key attributes. Although A professional distiller could use
industries. Most relate to chemical there may be a variety of similar but a spectrometer instead of monitor-
quality assessments, such as exam- technically different oils, they still ing temperature, because the spec-
ining a product to ascertain the de- tend to show up together, and an trum it generates will have features
sired component proportions, or the aggregate reading is valid for the ap- that correlate clearly and directly
presence or absence of compounds plication. When the list of possible with component volumes. Similarly,
that are considered to be contami- chemical components grows, so an engineer may desire to control a
nants. Consider a farmer bringing does the difficulty of making accu- chemical process on the basis of a
86 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017
FIGURE 2. Gasoline is one of the most chemically
complex products. Different batches can contain
hundreds or thousands of individual components
mixed in various proportions. The signature shown
here represents what is coming out of a particular
known dependence of product qual- proper NCO-to-OH ratio in reactions gasoline-blending unit today. However, tomorrow
ity or performance on some specific with isocyanate. The spectrometric the signature will likely be different, as the compo-
nent streams are tweaked, but the gasoline stream
molecular property. Often, online analysis of hydroxyl number in a min- will still meet its requirements. Is it possible to de-
molecular spectroscopy can be im- ute is possible because of a direct termine critical characteristics (that is, octane rat-
plemented to measure that property. correlation with the NIR signal for the ing or Reid vapor pressure), from this signature?
A good example is a production hydroxyl group in the polyol.
unit making polyols for use in poly- Though gasoline is chemically in gasoline spectra measured by
urethane foams or sealants. The complex, benzene can be measured Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) or
hydroxyl value must be controlled because it is one of the few com- Raman spectroscopy techniques.
to tight specifications to ensure the ponents that expresses itself clearly Some compounds, because of vari-

WHERE THE INDUSTRY TURNS


FOR PRECISE CONTROL
Achieve precise control over every aspect of your chemical operation.

MODEL 521 MODEL 1049


The Model 521 is a sliding The Model 1049 Secure-Gard
stem, globe style, bellows is a pilot-operated vent valve
intended for installation
MODEL 1078 sealed, pneumatically
on atmospheric and low-
The Model 1078 actuated control valve
designed for maximum pressure storage tanks,
Vacu-Gard is a pilot- vapor recovery systems,
operated valve, corrosion resistance in pure
chemical service. and process systems.
specifically designed to
reduce blanketing gas
losses on low-pressure
storage tanks.
MODEL 3100
The Model 3100 is a
MODEL 987 pressure/vacuum vent
The Model 987 is a pneumatic control designed to vent the tank
valve designed to control moderate vapor away to atmosphere
to severe corrosive applications but and to relieve vacuum
may be applied in general service pressure within the tank.
applications also. The 3100 is a weight
loaded style.

www.cashco com
Cashco, Inc. Innovative Solutions

P.O. Box 6, Ellsworth, KS 67439-0006


Ph. (785) 472-4461, Fax: (785) 472-3539 www.cashco com
Innovative Solutions

Circle 08 on p. 98 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66433-08

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017 87


Spectrometric prediction
PROVEN
PERFORMANCE

Primary Test Method (PTM) result

FIGURE 3. The analyzer with its chemometric model may be able to find a correlation, but does the cor-
ROTOFORM relation necessarily indicate a genuine cause-and-effect relationship?

GRANULATION ous quirks of nature, are much easier The application of such chemi-
to spot than others. cal thinking leads to the reasoned
FOR PETROCHEMICALS conclusion that modeling techniques
AND OLEOCHEMICALS Hard vs soft correlations can be combined with molecu-
The examples discussed thus far lar spectroscopy techniques such
rely on distinct spectral expressions as NIR, FTIR, Raman, and nuclear
of chemistry that support hard, magnetic resonance (NMR) to pre-
first-principles correlations. Unfortu- dict octane value for gasoline (Figure
nately, measurements often arent 2). Each technique gives a spectrum
so simple. In many situations, users that encodes information about the
want to measure properties where amounts of the different hydrogen-
the spectral expression is far less carbon structures that determine
distinct. In other words, the chemical how gasoline reacts with oxygen
signals are often buried in the sam- when in burns in an engine. Model-
High productivity solidi cation of ple spectrum. Fortunately, statistical ing based on such thinking is referred
products as di erent as resins, hot modeling tools are available to help to as chemometrics. Though models
melts, waxes, fat chemicals and users infer what they need to know. for octane are soft, they neverthe-
caprolactam has made Rotoform the
Instead of being hard, the corre- less are grounded in first principles
granulation system of choice for
lations obtained by inferential spec- of chemistry and spectroscopy.
chemical processors the world over.
trometry are considered, to varying
Whatever your solidi cation
requirements, choose Rotoform for
degrees, to be empirical or soft. Circumstantial correlations
reliable, proven performance and a
Development of statistical models The same user applying the same
premium quality end product. may require data from a few dozen techniques finds it possible to gener-
samples, or a few hundred. The ate a correlation with PTM results for
High productivity modeling software extracts math- sulfur in gasoline at levels below 200
on-stream factor of 96% ematical relationships between pri- parts per million (ppm). Yet, just as
Proven Rotoform technology mary test method (PTM) values and with diesel, sulfur in gasoline can be
nearly 2000 systems installed spectra measured for samples in a measured by atomic spectroscopy
in 30+ years calibration set (Figure 1). that counts sulfur atoms, while mo-
Complete process lines or That said, there needs to be cau- lecular spectroscopy methods can
retro t of existing equipment tion, because the statistical modeling only measure bonds between sulfur
Global service / spare parts supply techniques used are extremely pow- and other atoms. Applying chemical
erful and users can get into trouble thinking, the user will conclude that
when they assume they have a valid the correlation is not grounded in first
measurement simply because they principles and is therefore unsuitable
have a correlation. Relationships can for inferring sulfur in gasoline. Appar-
be abstract; still, chemists and engi- ently the correlation with ppm values
Sandvik Process Systems neers can and should form conclu- for sulfur is not due to correlation
Division of Sandvik Materials Technology Deutschland GmbH
Salierstr. 35, 70736 Fellbach, Germany sions if they have seen sufficient evi- with signals for sulfur. Instead, it is a
Tel: +49 711 5105-0 Fax: +49 711 5105-152
info.spsde@sandvik.com
dence to indicate that components circumstantial correlation rooted in
www.processsystems.sandvik.com
responsible for a property express unknown underlying factors.
themselves spectrally. A biochemical engineer desiring to
Circle 41 on p. 98 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66433-xx

88 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017


FIGURE 4. This sampling system for an analyzer installed in a petroleum refinery provides an idea of the
complexity of measuring the critical attributes of gasoline

apply NIR or Raman spectroscopy across some range of frequencies. OKTALINE ATEX
in an effort to monitor a fermenta- Second, the purpose of the cor-
tion process used to produce an relation model is to convert the raw Magnetically coupled
antibiotic will be initially encouraged data into a concentration or property
by correlations that are generated value with specific attributes so the Roots pump combines
for nutrients or products in the fer- user is able to determine its action- a magnetic coupling with
mentation broth. But as with sulfur ability for purposes of process con- category 2 or 3 explosion
in gasoline, good statistics do not trol. Principle among them is track-
guarantee good measurements. ing process changes accurately and protection
Interestingly, both the refinery and in realtime.
the fermentation applications have a The subtlety is that a spectrometer Explosion safety due to reliable
common characteristic: it is impos- is actually not an analyzer any more construction and temperature
sible not to get a correlation, even than a temperature sensor is an ana- monitoring installation without
for chemical properties unable to lyzer. Both merely report an intensive additional flame arrester possible
express themselves spectrally. As property of the sample, though the Hermetically sealed (leakrate
Ronald Coase, 1991 Nobel laure- spectrometers response has many < 10-6 Pa m3/s) risk of zone
ate in Economics once observed: points instead of one. entrainment is minimized
Torture the data, and it will confess This idea is well understood by pro- ATEX protection in case of passive
to anything. cess engineers who use inferential rotation
Whats the culprit? Data sets that analyzers, also called soft sensors. Flexible application pump can
yield property correlations are them- This technology is applied in diverse start against atmospheric pressure
selves the product of highly corre- industries ranging from petroleum Pressure surge resistance accord-
lated processes. In the fermentation refineries and chemical plants to ing to EN 1333, PN level 16
broth example, an increase in one cement kilns, food processing, and
compound is accompanied by in- nuclear plants (http://www.springer.
creases or decreases in one or more com/us/book/9781846284793).
other compounds. The refinery is an Readings from multiple sensors in-
assemblage of interconnected units stalled throughout a process are
that produce components that can gathered to form a sort of spectrum,
be blended to make gasoline. an array of intensity values. Typically,
these readings come from simple Are you looking for a
Reading too much into the data univariate process sensors reporting perfect vacuum solution?
Before we dig further into the mat- temperature, pressure, flow, density, Please contact us:
ter, lets note two points that are both conductivity, current, motor torque,
obvious and subtle. First, the spec- opacity and more. Taken together, Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH
trometer has only one purpose these individual data values are then Headquarters/Germany
namely, to measure a sample spec- used to model a process property of T +49 6441 802-0
trum, which is simply an X-Y data interest, such as degree of conver- www.pfeiffer-vacuum.com
array comprising intensity values sion in a batch reactor, or the quality
Circle 35 on p. 98 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66433-35

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017 89


of a product stream from a distilla- model (Figure 3). ural gas measurements that are
tion process. At this point, the user must not currently performed by thousands of
For the purpose of this discussion, only consider the quality of the cor- gas chromatographs (GCs).
we have to accept one key under- relation, but also decide if the cor- The main component of natural
lying premise the job of a spec- relation is the result of a direct gas is methane, but wet gas can
trometer is to create a record of the cause-and-effect relationship. Does contain significant amounts of larger
sample spectrum precisely and re- the correlation obtained truly relate hydrocarbon molecules that liquefy
producibly. Not all technology does to the chemistry responsible for the below 100F, usually cataloged by
so equally well, and that can be very property? If the answer is yes, the the number of carbons, with meth-
problematic due to the garbage in, user can implement the new testing ane starting at C1. GCs are well
garbage out (GIGO) principle. But method with confidence and reduce known for being able to separate
assuming the equipment is not the production costs without sacrificing and quantify components in com-
issue, the problem is what happens product quality. plex mixtures. Applied to natural
to the data after it is collected. But suppose there is no direct gas, all of the C1 to C5 compounds
The difference between a spec- cause-and-effect based on first can be resolved easily; however,
trometer and an analyzer is the principles. Because of the power of things become more difficult when
model. The fact is, the model is the multivariate calibration techniques, there are hydrocarbons present with
analyzer (just as with soft sensors): it it may be impossible not to get a six or more carbons. Thats because
analyzes the data (the sample spec- correlation. It may be the inevitable the number of possible isomers in-
trum) produced by the spectrometer. consequence of a production pro- creases while the separation be-
In inferential spectrometry, the analy- cess that itself is highly correlated tween their boiling points decreases.
sis is a two-step process: the spec- rather than first principles of chemis- Still, isomers with identical carbon
trometer measures a sample spec- try and spectroscopy. The correlation numbers can be measured as a
trum, and then a correlation model, may be due indirectly to underlying group using GC. Thus, all C6 iso-
sometimes called a chemometric process constraints (boundary con- mers are grouped and measured to-
model, converts the spectrum into ditions), such as control over feed- gether. The same can be done for C7
property predictions. This effectively stocks, quality specifications and the and C8 isomers, while C9 and above
turns the spectrometer into a PTM drive to maximize profitability. are generally quantified as a single
surrogate. But if pushed too far, the The common saying that cor- group. Chromatography separates
model may suggest a relationship relation does not imply causation and measures either individual mole-
that does not actually exist. The means such circumstantial correla- cules or groups of related molecules.
question to ask is, when has the line tions will not hold up. Most often, By contrast, spectroscopic tech-
between hard science and wishful ongoing model updating is prac- niques offer a mixed bag. While C1
thinking been crossed? ticed in an effort to maintain predic- through C4 compounds in wet natu-
Analyzing gasoline is the ultimate tion accuracy. But equally often, the ral gas have distinctive infrared sig-
expression of this problem because, user concludes that the technique natures that permit them to be mea-
as mentioned before, it is the most simply doesnt work. It is abandoned sured directly, the opposite is true
chemically complex product we deal and the analyzer collects dust. Or, for C5+ compounds, due to spectral
with on a daily basis. Given its ubiq- the user decides to find a different blurring (overlap). Heavy-handed ap-
uitous consumption worldwide, it is piece of equipment and is won over plication of correlation algorithms
hugely important to make accurate by a salesperson promising that a may yield tantalizing correlations,
measurements, and any technologi- different spectrometer technology or but they are limited and cannot
cal gain would make an enormous modeling technique is the cure. produce GC-like measurements of
difference thanks to the sheer scale In reality, the root problem may heavier groups.
of production. not be either. Instead, it was simply Returning to the world of refin-
asking both to do something not ing and gasoline blending, two of
Crossing the line grounded in first principles of chem- the most critical properties are oc-
Here is how the process works: the istry and spectroscopy leaving the tane rating and Reid vapor pres-
user wants to make some determi- chemistry out of chemometrics. sure (RVP) as minimum and not-to-
nation about a product for which, at exceed measurements, respectively.
best, the spectral correlation is soft. Real-life examples Most refiners would be happy to
Over some period of time, the user Spectrometric techniques are ap- find a way to replace the traditional
applies the relevant PTM to directly pealing because they are fast com- testing methods for octane and
measure desired property values for pared with PTMs, often providing RVP. The former, measured with a
a set of samples. At the same time, a spectra with an acceptable signal- special, variable-compression en-
spectrum is measured for each sam- to-noise ratio in well under a minute. gine, is defined as the fuels ability
ple, using whatever type of molecu- When applied properly, they often to avoid pre-ignition (knocking). This
lar spectrometer is deemed best for have relatively low maintenance re- knock engine is a very expensive
the application (as shown in Figure quirements compared with PTMs and maintenance-intensive piece of
2). When this has been done for a and require little or no ongoing cali- equipment. Measuring RVP with the
sufficiently large number of samples bration. These attributes are prime test method outlined under ASTM
(to be considered statistically mean- motivators today for the increased D-323 involves measuring pressure
ingful), the spectra and PTM results used of spectrometric technologies in a cell at constant temperature.
are combined to obtain a correlation to make measurements of wet nat- In both cases, the test apparatus
90 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017
can be automated to provide contin- appealing and worth the effort. again. We cant blame the user for
uous online results. But the thought Unlike octane, the changes in trying because the payoff is too big
of having a single device capable of chemistry that produce meaning- to ignore, but the ability to reliably
measuring octane, RVP and per- ful changes in RVP do not register determine key attributes of gasoline
haps a half dozen other properties in sample spectra, locally or broadly. using molecular spectroscopy tech-
has proven irresistible for many. So, Yet, by following the same procedure niques is determined by nature and
a refiner purchases a specific spec- just described for octane, the refiner the first principles of chemistry and
trometer technology, obtains prop- still gets a correlation. Instead of in- spectroscopy, a reality that cannot
erty correlations, and confidently ferring RVP, a circumstantial correla- be overcome with statistics. Spec-
begins to use the prediction values tion has been obtained, which has trometry can do impressive things in
(Figure 4). poor predictive value. Here again, the right context when it is used to
It turns out that these two prop- the adage applies: correlation does look for things that the technique is
erties are examples of soft and cir- not imply causation. Rather, corre- capable of identifying, but it should
cumstantial correlations. In the case lation is merely a confirmation that not be driven beyond the underly-
of octane, this critical attribute does a refinery is a highly correlated and ing science into the realm of wishes
not have a clearly identifiable spec- constrained system designed to and dreams. n
tral response. Instead, octane- produce gasoline that meets specific Edited by Suzanne Shelley
ness expresses itself across a broad property specifications while maxi-
spectral window. Over the course of mizing profitability. Author
weeks and months, the refiner tests Eventually the reality becomes Marcus Trygstad is an advanced
dozens or hundreds of samples from clear: different properties support cre- analytical technology consultant
for Yokogawa Corporation of
normal production using the knock ation of models that differ in quality, America (12530 West Airport
engine and also records the spec- some being hard, octane being soft, Blvd., Sugar Land, TX 77478;
trum of each. These data get fed and most others being circumstantial. Email: marcus.trygstad@us.
into the computer for analysis, the At some point, another expert may yokogawa.com). He has B.S. and
M.S. degrees from St. Olaf College
goal being to produce a correlation come along and say Your project and the University of Utah, respec-
model that accurately reports octane didnt work because you were using tively, in chemistry, materials sci-
when applied to the spectrum of an the wrong analyzer or the wrong al- ence and chemometrics. Through most of his career,
Trygstad has been involved in chemical manufacturing
unknown sample. The promise of gorithm. This one will do the job. and spectroscopic analytical methods, and has worked
eliminating the knock engine is very The quest for an answer may begin for Yokogawa for more than five years.

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Show Preview

T
he 2017 Chem Show, tak- The following are some highlights of
ing place from October 31 to the products that will be exhibited at
November 2 at the Jacob Ja- the 2017 Chem Show.
vits Center in New York City,
will focus on all types of processing This CIP tank cleaner operates
equipment used across the breadth while fully submerged
of the chemical process industries The new TankJet 78 tank cleaner
(CPI). The show will feature over 300 (photo) provides fast, high-impact
exhibiting companies and a broad- cleaning of tanks up to 45 ft in diame-
ranging seminar program. As part of ter. TankJet 78 systems are available
its seminar program, the Chem Show in single-hub (two-nozzle) or dual-
will host presentations from the 2017 hub (four-nozzle) designs. The unit
finalists for the Kirkpatrick Chemi- is built to withstand extremely harsh
cal Engineering Achievement Award, chemicals and can operate while
which is given every two years by fully submerged. It features a thread-
Chemical Engineering to honor the less, crevice-free and self-cleaning
most noteworthy chemical engineer- design, which takes just minutes
ing technologies to reach commer- to disassemble, without tools, for
cialization. The finalists were selected easy maintenance, says the com-
by a panel of judges consisting of pany. Providing 360-deg coverage
chemical engineering department of tank interiors, the unit is suitable
heads at accredited universities. Each for clean-in-place (CIP) applications.
finalist company will give a presenta- Booth 312 Spraying Systems Co.,
tion outlining their nominated tech- Wheaton, Ill.
Spraying Systems
nology during the Chem Show on www.spray.com
November 1. The 2017 Kirkpatrick
finalists and their technologies are Use this mill in either wet or dry
summarized below: granulation processes
CB&I and Albemarle are nominated The Kek cone mill (photo) can han-
for a jointly developed solid-catalyst dle a wide range of feed material to
alkylation process that eliminates produce diverse products for inter-
the hazards associated with han- mediate sizing in both wet and dry
dling liquid acids granulation processes. According
Chemetry is nominated for the to the manufacturer, the Kek cone
eShuttle technology, which aims to mill provides a gentle, low-energy
make the chlor-alkali product chain form of size reduction and eliminates
safer and more efficient by generat- traditional milling problems, includ-
ing no chlorine ing noise, dust and heat. The gentle
Dow Coating Materials is nomi- grinding action is capable of control
nated for the Canvera polyolefin- within fine limits while maintaining a
dispersion coating technology used close particle-size distribution with
to protect against leaching from minimal fines generation, typically
metal containers grinding from 25 mm to 250 m.
Dow Coating Materials is also a Booth 215 Kemutec Group Inc.,
finalist for the new Paraloid Edge Bristol, Pa.
technology that produces urethane www.kemutecusa.com
coatings without isocyanate or
formaldehyde This metering pump is protected
Kemutec Group Microvis nominated technology against suction blockage
is the Denitrovi biocatalytic nitrate The MT8 triplex metering pump
removal process, which safely de- (photo) is the newest model in the
grades nitrates from drinking water Hydra-Cell product line. The MT8
without the formation of sludge is designed to handle a wide range
Praxair is nominated for its Op- of processing fluids at low flowrates
timelt thermochemical regenera- and features a multiple-diaphragm
tor process, which is an oxy-fuel design to provide virtually pulse-free
glass-melting technology that uses flow without the need for pulsation
endothermic chemical reactions for dampeners. It is said to exceed
Wanner Engineering waste-heat recovery API 675 performance standards
92 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017
for steady-state accuracy (1%), linearity (3%) and
repeatability (3%), according to the manufacturer.
Flow capacity for the MT8 ranges from 0.06 to 8.0
gal/h with discharge pressure ratings up to 3,500
psi (241 bars), depending on flow requirements. A
built-in pressure-relief valve and replenishment valve
system protect the pump in the event of blocked
suction. Booth 605 Wanner Engineering Inc.,
Minneapolis, Minn.
www.hydra-cell.com

Protect water tanks from


corrosion and abrasion
Stonchem 444 is a
spray-applied vertical
lining system (photo)
formulated to resist
corrosion and abra-
sion and protect un-
derlying substrates
from a broad range
of chemicals, includ-
ing most petroleum-
based products,
salts, acids and alka-
lis. Approved for po-
table water storage
tanks of 1,000 gal or
greater, Stonchem The Stonhard Group
444 is a 100% solids, two-component hybrid elasto-
mer lining system designed for vertical applications in
water and wastewater facilities, reservoirs and cooling
tower basins. Stonchem 444 is highly durable, pinhole-
free and immersion-grade waterproof. Booth 736
The Stonhard Group, Maple Shade, N.J.
www.stonhard.com

New design gives these tablet


coaters higher efficiency
The redesigned LC Series of tablet coaters features
a newly configured airflow that provides a significant
boost in throughput capacity. Advanced sensors fa-
cilitate optimized spraying and drying processes, and
simplified nozzle-arm adjustment results in easier han-
dling. In contrast to the previous forced-air feed via an
intake boot, the air to the new LC Series flows through
an air-injection manifold over a large circumference
of the coater drum in the direction of the tablet bed.
This enables even, largely turbulence-free entry of a
large volume of drying air into the drum. The concept
ensures a high drying capacity and hence high spray-
ing rates. Booth 818 Ldige Process Technology,
Paderborn, Germany
www.loedige.de

New monitoring probes for these


powder-testing systems
This companys powder-testing equipment is now
available with new technology that enables inline,

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM 93


Circle 28 on p. 98 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66433-28
Viega realtime process monitoring. Len- flow capacities. The durable filter
terra Drag Force Flow (DFF) and bodies are available in stainless or
RealShear Wall Shear Stress probes carbon steel with baked epoxy coat-
provide continuous, realtime data ing, making them suitable for harsh
via optical fibers, enabling users to applications, including those with
assess processes and make deci- high pressures or that must handle
sions without the need to interrupt difficult substances, such as sea-
operations. The company is also water. ABW filters can be installed
showcasing its FT4 powder rheom- on line sizes ranging from 2 to 24
eter, which uses a patented dynamic in. at flowrates from 10 to 20,000
methodology, automated shear cells gal/min. The filters can handle tem-
and a series of bulk property tests to peratures as high as 160F, with op-
quantify powder behavior in terms of tions for rating up to 210F. Booth
flow and processability. The comple- 428 Tekleen Automatic Filters,
mentary Uniaxial Powder Tester pro- Los Angeles, Calif.
vides an accurate and repeatable www.tekleen.com
measure of the uniaxial unconfined
yield strength (uUYS) of a powder to These fittings enable
assess and rank flowability. Booth faster pipe repairs
318 Freeman Technology Ltd., This companys MegaPress stainless-
Tewkesbury, U.K. steel press fittings (photo) are said to
www.freemantech.co.uk dramatically reduce the time required
to make pipe repairs compared to
Expandable filters for high other pipe joining systems, leading to
pressures and temperatures shorter periods of production down-
ABW Series filters are equipped time. MegaPress fittings are equipped
with stainless-steel screens and can with this companys patented Smart
be set up in parallel for expandable Connect feature, which allows install-

SPECIAL REPORT

Digitalization
in the Chemical
Process Industries

More and more, companies are talking about going digi-


tal. This includes concepts of interconnectivity described by
the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and Industry 4.0 that are
enabled by advances in sensors, data analytics, computing networks,
software and other technologies.

This special report contains recent news articles (2017) from Chemical Engineer-
ing magazine that give a timely and informative overview of digitalization as well as
a number of articles (2016) on related cybersecurity issues..

Visit store.chemengoline.com for more information.


30400

94 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017


ers and maintenance personnel to Universally compatible ing fluid. Available options for these
easily identify unpressed connec- electric valve actuators devices include: explosion-proof
tions during pressure testing. De- This companys line of compact enclosures; corrosion-resistant
signed for Iron Pipe Size (IPS) stain- electric valve actuators are compat- stainless-steel enclosures; wash-
less steel, the new line of fittings ible with any valve brand, model or down or submersible enclosures;
reportedly enables secure connec- series under 4 in. in size, thanks to spring-return failsafe mechanisms;
tions in seven seconds or less, re- a customizable mounting kit. The electronic thermal cutoffs; external
ducing installation time by up to 60% ability to control any valve stem with cooling fans; or internal heaters.
compared to welding or threading micro-positioning allows the user Booth 812 Hanbay Inc., Virginia
techniques. Booth 731 Viega LLC, to regulate flow and pressure, and Beach, Va.
Broomfield, Colo. precisely control other applications, www.hanbayinc.com
www.viega.us such as dosing, mixing or distribut- Mary Page Bailey

Strainers and filter housings


with many configuration options PARATHERM PROVIDES

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Independent research shows a preference for Paratherm
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This companys multi-basket strain- n COMPATIBILITY


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ings offer a wide range of flow ca-
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capabilities. They contain from 2 to Paratherm and begin getting all the advantages.
23 baskets. To serve as a strainer, n AVAILABILITY
a unit is equipped with perforated Global stocking
stainless-steel baskets (mesh-lined Bulk Delivery
if desired). When applied as a filter,
Short supply? Signiicant delays?
equipment is fitted with perforated
stainless-steel baskets designed to Let Paratherm deliver for you.
hold filter bags or pleated cartridges. n TECHNICAL SUPPORT
Industry-standard size bags are Expert engineering, product
used; the standard 30-in. baskets support, and training.
accept bag size 2, the optional 15-
in. baskets take size 1. The standard Comprehensive analysis program
pressure rating for all models is 150 Advanced lab capabilities
psi. Multiple housing styles are avail-
able, including standard, quick-ac- Get MORE with Paratherm
cess, low-profile or hinged. Perma- +1 877-789-0443
nently piped housings are opened www.paratherm.com/chem-eng
without tools and without disturbing 2009 Renaissance Blvd.
the piping. Flanged connections are King of Prussia, PA 19046 USA
available for for 2- through 12-in. Intl: +1 610-941-4900
pipe. Booth 319 Rosedale Prod- A Division of Lubrizol Fax: +1 610-941-9191
info@paratherm.com
ucts, Inc., Ann Arbor, Mich.
www.rosedaleproducts.com Circle 32 on p. 98 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66433-32

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017 95


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adlinks.chemengonline.com/66433-201 adlinks.chemengonline.com/66433-202

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017 97


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(please answer all the questions) Firms 31 100 to 249 Employees 49 Safety Equipment & Services
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16 Equipment Manufacturer 33 500 to 999 Employees ment
01 Food & Beverages
17 Energy incl. Co-generation 34 1,000 or more Employees 51 Solids Handling Equipment
02 Wood, Pulp & Paper
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Coal Products 44 Mixing, Blending Equipment
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Advertisers Index
Advertiser............. Page number Advertiser............. Page number Advertiser............. Page number
Phone number Reader Service # Phone number Reader Service # Phone number Reader Service #

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Bionomic Industries Inc. .......23d adlinks.chemengonline.com/66433-23 Ross, Charles & Son Co...........9
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1-800-CHEMCAD adlinks.chemengonline.com/66433-30 Vega....................................... 31
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DeWAL Industries Inc. ............67 Phone number Reader Service #
Equipment, New & Used . . . 96
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Dickow Pump Company ........36 GmbH & Co. KG ....................96 Advertiser Page number
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October 2017; VOL. 124; NO. 10
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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017 99


Economic Indicators
2015 2016 2017

Download the CEPCI two weeks sooner at www.chemengonline.com/pci

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PLANT COST INDEX (CEPCI)


625

(1957-59 = 100) July '17 June '17 July '16 Annual Index:
Prelim. Final Final
2009 = 521.9 600
CE Index ______________________________________________ 569.6 566.6 544.9
Equipment ____________________________________________ 686.7 683.2 650.4 2010 = 550.8
Heat exchangers & tanks _________________________________ 603.6 602.8 560.3
2011 = 585.7 575
Process machinery _____________________________________ 685.9 681.5 652.7
Pipe, valves & fittings ____________________________________ 876.6 867.3 822.8 2012 = 584.6
Process instruments ____________________________________ 404.0 403.6 389.2 2013 = 567.3 550
Pumps & compressors ___________________________________ 984.7 985.1 970.1
Electrical equipment ____________________________________ 520.8 513.4 510.7 2014 = 576.1
Structural supports & misc. ________________________________ 739.9 737.4 707.9 2015 = 556.8 525
Construction labor _______________________________________ 330.3 327.2 328.9
Buildings _____________________________________________ 561.6 559.6 546.8 2016 = 541.7
Engineering & supervision _________________________________ 313.8 312.9 314.4 500
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Starting with the April 2007 Final numbers, several of the data series for labor and compressors have been converted to
accommodate series IDs that were discontinued by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

CURRENT BUSINESS INDICATORS LATEST PREVIOUS YEAR AGO


CPI output index (2012 = 100) ____________________________________________________ Aug. '17 = 101.2 Jul. '17 = 102.2 Jun. '17 = 101.7 Aug. '16 = 99.1
CPI value of output, $ billions _____________________________________________________ Jul. '17 = 1,811.2 Jun. '17 = 1,800.5 May '17 = 1,803.4 Jul. '16 = 1,700.8
CPI operating rate, % __________________________________________________________ Aug. '17 = 75.8 Jul. '17 = 76.6 Jun. '17 = 76.3 Aug. '16 = 74.8
Producer prices, industrial chemicals (1982 = 100) ____________________________________ Aug. '17 = 249.9 Jul. '17 = 244.0 Jun. '17 = 251.3 Aug. '16 = 226.7
Industrial Production in Manufacturing (2012=100)* ____________________________________ Aug. '17 = 103.3 Jul. '17 = 103.6 Jun. '17 = 103.5 Aug. '16 = 101.8
Hourly earnings index, chemical & allied products (1992 = 100) ____________________________ Aug. '17 = 175.7 Jul. '17 = 179.8 Jun. '17 = 174.9 Aug. '16 = 168.4
Productivity index, chemicals & allied products (1992 = 100) ______________________________ Aug. '17 = 100.7 Jul. '17 = 103.2 Jun. '17 = 103.2 Aug. '16 = 101.0

CPI OUTPUT INDEX (2000 = 100) CPI OUTPUT VALUE ($ BILLIONS) CPI OPERATING RATE (%)
110 2300 80

105
2200 78
100
2100
95 76
2000
90
74
1900
85
72
80 1800

75 1700 70
J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D

*Due to discontinuance, the Index of Industrial Activity has been replaced by the Industrial Production in Manufacturing index from the U.S. Federal Reserve Board.
For the current months CPI output index values, the base year was changed from 2000 to 2012
Current business indicators provided by Global Insight, Inc., Lexington, Mass.

CURRENT TRENDS

T he preliminary value for the July CE


Plant Cost Index (CEPCI; top; most
recent available) increased compared to
the previous months value, and June final
FREE On Demand Webinars
CHEMICAL numbers were downwardly revised from
ENGINEERING
ESSENTIALS FOR THE CPI PROFESSIONAL
what were previously reported. The July
values for all four of the major subindices
(Equipment, Construction Labor, Build-
ings and Engineering & Supervision) saw
Learn about the industrys critical small increases from their June values.
topics by viewing the latest The preliminary overall monthly CEPCI
On Demand webinars. value for July 2017 stands at 4.5% higher
than the corresponding value from July
2016. Meanwhile, the latest Current Busi-
For a list of FREE ness Indicators (CBI; middle) saw a small
webinars, visit decline in the CPI Output Index for August
chemengonline.com/webcasts and an increase in the CPI value of out-
put for July. Producer prices for industrial
chemicals rose in August.
100 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017
Circle 31 on p. 98 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66433-31 3
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM OCTOBER 2017
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