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Approach Answer: General Studies Mains Mock Test 937 (2017)

1. In India traditional theatre forms incorporate common mans interest as well as regional, local and folk
coloring derived from classical elements. Examine with examples.
Give examples of theatre incorporating common mans interests.
Further, link traditional theatre to regional, local and folk coloring derived from classical elements.
Traditional art forms reflect the ideals of the society, its determination to survive, its ethos, emotions,
fellow-feelings, and so on. In all the traditional theatre-forms, songs and the art of singing have an
important role to play. Traditional music of the theatre is an expression of the feelings of the community.
Incorporation of common mans interests in traditional theatre
Traditionally the language of ordinary people has an element of creativity, though not based on
classical or grammatical roots. This kind of creativity is spontaneous, emerging from the
circumstances. When there is intensity of emotions, there is a natural kind of rhythm in the
expressions. It is this natural rhythm from which emerges the traditional theatre-form. In this art
form, sorrow, joy, frustration, hatred and love have their role and place.
Traditional theatre forms have a common distinguishing feature that is the element of simplicity.
In different regions of India, there are religious festivals, fairs, gatherings, ritual offerings, prayers,
almost throughout the year. During these occasions, traditional theatre forms are presented. They
reflect the common mans social attitudes and perceptions. In this social portrayal, there is also the
individuals role which is given due importance.
Bhand Pather, the traditional theatre form of Kashmir, is a unique combination of dance, music and
acting. Since the actors of Bhand Pather are mainly from the farming community, the impact of their
way of living, ideals and sensitivity is discernible.
Influence of classical elements in traditional theatre
It is possible, that those associated with the classical world of Sanskrit drama, went to the neighbouring
regions after its decline and intermingled with the local theatre forms. This kind of synthesis, give-and-
take must have taken place on various levels such as written, verbal, classical, contemporary, national
and local.
Traditional art forms have influenced classical art forms and vice-versa. It is an eternal journey in the
sphere of culture.
The development of traditional theatre forms is based on local and regional peculiarities which are
not bound and restricted by social and economic divisions, limitations, etc.
Yakshagaana, traditional theatre form of Karnataka, is based on mythological stories and Puranas.
Raasleela is based exclusively on Lord Krishna legends; it is believed that Nand Das wrote the initial
plays based on the life of Krishna.
Bhavai is the traditional theatre form of Gujarat. The centers of this form are Kutch and Kathiawar. In
Bhavai, there is a rare synthesis of devotional and romantic sentiments.
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2. The evolution of temple-building in India can be attributed to factors such as changing form of
worship, improvement in the skills of the craftsmen and the increase in funding provided by kings and
rich merchants. Examine.
First, write about the practices of worship during Indus Valley civilization, Vedic period and later
times and its final culmination to the temple architecture.
In the second connect the improvement of the skills of the craftsmen with the improvisation of
temple architecture.
In the last part, give the information about the patronage provided for the temple making.
Since times immemorial India is being described and perceived as the land of temples. Architecture of
places of worship has evolved with changing form of worship, technology and skill of workers and
patronage and funding by kings and merchants.
In the Indus valley civilisation, forces of nature were primarily worshipped. Spiritual and mystical thought
have been found but there is no conclusive evidence of temples. However, during the Vedic period fire
worship yagna involving an altar, lighting fire within it and chanting of hymns while pouring
offerings, was practiced. As people began to build basic refuges with locally available material that
afforded shelter from the rain and sun, they did the same for the cult images worshipped. Wooden
beams, both flexible and bent, were used to build structures which later transformed to those of stone.
The early Buddhist stupas are foremost example of it.
After this, it was improvement in the skills that fuelled the evolution. The Sanchi Stupa is a prime
example of how the earlier existing wooden designs were copied and translated into stone. Mauryan
period is considered as the one which laid the foundation of stone architecture. Patronage and funding
of Buddhist places of worship was prominent during the times of Ashoka.
The next phase was chiselling a giant rock into a temple. The Kailashanath Temple at Ellora is epitome of
this architectural style. These simple one room structures which over centuries became elaborate
temples as the master craftsmen became more comfortable in making lofty structures by balancing stone
on stone in dry masonry.
The next stage of evolution is like the Aihole in Karnataka from rock-cut temples to freestanding ones. At
Mahabalipuram, near Chennai one can see right from the early cave temples to monolithic rocks and
finally the freestanding structures.
Several temple style were developed by funding provided by rulers in different part of the country.
Khajuraho style by Chandel rulers support, Solanki style of Gujarat and Rajasthan with the help of
Solanki rulers, Dravid style of temple architecture flourished under the patronage of Chola rulers. Jain
temples in Rajasthan and Karnataka were funded by rich merchants. Nagara style of architecture which
flourished during Gupta period was also a product of patronage and funding of kings and rich merchants.

3. Trace the roots and evolution of classical music in India. Also identifying the distinguishing features of
Carnatic Music, highlight the contribution of M.S. Subbulakshmi to this genre of music.
Give an overview of evolution of classical music in India.
State the distinguishing features of Carnatic music.
State the contribution of M. S Subbulaksmi to the genre of Carnatic music.
The earliest form of classical music in India can be traced to Sama Veda, which contained shlokas that
were put in the form of music and its upveda, Gandharva veda, the science of music
Ancient texts on performing arts like Natyashastra (2nd century BC to 2nd century AD) by Bharata
contained six chapters on music. Brihaddesi (9th and 10th century AD) by Matanga named ragas for
the first time and described them. Similarly, Sangeet Ratnakara by Sarangadeva contained 264 ragas
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Various stringed and wind instruments such as flutes, drums, veena etc developed during the period,
giving an impetus to music
Further, monarchs like Samudragupta, Bhoja of Dhara, Someshavra of Kalyana patronized music and
contributed to its spread
In the medieval period, music became an integral part of Sufi and Bhakti movements, wherein Sufi
and Bhakti saints popularized qawallis and bhajans, respectively.
Eventually, classical music took two forms, Hindustani classical music and Carnatic music, the terms
used for the first time in Haripalas Sangeeta Sudhakara (14th century AD).
Hindustani music has assimilated some features Persian and Arabic musicians who adorned the
courts of the Mughal rulers of Delhi while Carnatic music developed along its original lines in South
Features of Carnatic Music
Its compositions are collectively attributed to composers like Purandaradasa in 15th century A.D., Shyam
Shastri, Thyagaraja and Mutthuswami Dikshitar during AD 1700-1850 etc.
Carnatic music is considered to be rigid, orthodox and static as performing artists do not have the
freedom to improvise unlike Hindustani form of music.
There are musical forms belonging to Nibadha and Anibadha Sangeeta (former restricted by meaningful
words and tala while the latter is not). All these forms are generally classified under different heads, as
sacred music, Art music, etc. Various musical forms include Gitam, Suladi, Svarajati, Jatisvaram, Varnam,
Kirtanam, Kriti etc.
The Melakarta Ragams refers to the basic 72 Janaka (parent) ragams for all the other ragams in Carnatic
Music. All of these ragams have seven notes (saptaswaras).
Sapta talas form the rhythmic base for Carnatic music.
The accompanying instruments include flute, veena, nadaswaram, mridangam and ghatam.
Contribution of M.S Subbulakshmi
Her performance at Edinburgh International Festival of Music and Drama in 1963, the concert at the
United Nations in 1966, the India Festival in Britain, Soviet Union, etc. awakened the world at large to
the glories and the divinity of classical Carnatic music in its pristine purity.
MSS also gave concerts all over India and stabilised her artistic personality in terms of warm,
disciplined, yet charismatic music that rendered hard-boiled melody, devotion and sangitha sastra's
In the Hindi version of the film Meera, her glorious voice, not only swept all audience off their feet
but enabled MSS to become a national celebrity.
Her conviction was that only bhakti can plumb the depth of human heart - as she put it, her songs
have the higher purpose of directing the minds of listeners towards God and his manifestations.
As a carnatic musician, her virtuousity is unquestioned. For example, in raga alapana, she has few
peers. Ragas like Sankarabaranam, Khambodi, Todi, Bhairavi, Kirwani, Kalyani, Sriranjini, Kedaragowla
and others were explored in great detail.
Some of her most famous works include Suprabhatam (Early Morning Hymns), Bhajagovindam
(composed by Adi Shankaracharya praising Lord Krishna), Kurai Onrum Illai, Vishnu Sahasranamam,
Hanuman Chalisa, among others.

4. How did the spread of new agricultural economy lead to the rise of Buddhism and Jainism? What other
factors can be attributed to the spread of these religions? Also explain the causes for their eventual
Explain how the spread of agriculture led to the rise of Jainism and Buddhism.
State other factors that led to the rise of the two religions.
List the reasons for their eventual decline.
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One of the major factors leading to the rise of Jainism and Buddhism in the 2nd half of sixth century BC is
the spread of a new agricultural economy in North-East India the thickly forested regions of the area
were cleared using iron axes and land became suitable for agriculture and large Settlements. Agricultural
practice required use of bullocks to utilize iron ploughs. However, Vedic practice of killing cattle
indiscriminately decimated cattle wealth and hindered expansion in agriculture. Killing of cattle by the
tribals for food exacerbated it. For the new agrarian economy to be stable, the practice had to be
stopped. Since Jainism and Buddhism advocated nonviolence towards all living beings, including animals,
it found favour amongst the masses.
Other social and economic factors during that period which led to the rise of the new religions:
There was ritual unrest as the complex rituals and sacrifices were expensive and incomprehensible
to the common people. Buddhism and Jainism provided a simple, short and intelligible way towards
Entrenched caste system in the Vedic society was highly divisive. Kshatriyas resented the domination
of the Brahmins and wanted a religion that diminished their importance. Hence they extended
patronage to Buddhism and Jainism, which were founded by Kshatriyas
With the growth of trade, the economic position of the Vaishyas improved. They wanted to enhance
their social status as well. However, the orthodox Varna system did not allow it. They also wanted on-
going wars to stop for their businesses to flourish. The new religions preached nonviolence, hence,
they adopted the religions
Shudras who were discriminated by the higher castes were drawn towards religions that preached
Causes for eventual decline
Buddhist monks started using Sanskrit instead of Pali, the language of the masses, making it
exclusive. They also modified early Buddhist teachings, amassed wealth and lived luxuriously.
Buddhism and Jainism faced divisions from time to time. Division into various splinter groups viz.
Hinayana, Mahayana, Vajrayana, Tantrayana and Sahajayana in Buddhism and Swetambars &
Digambars in Jainism.
External invasions like the Huna invasion jolted Buddhism. Huna leaders like Toamana and
Mihirakula opposed non-violence and killed many Buddhists residing in the north-western part of
India. Further, kings like Pushyamitra Shunga, Shashanka of Gauda persecuted Buddhists on a large
Jainism had stringent rules and common people did not have the perseverance to follow them. There
were difficulties in comprehending concepts of Jeeva, Ajeeva, Pudgala, Syadbada.
Initial tempo of royal patronage of Jainism by Bimbisara, Ajatasatru, Udayin and Kharavela was not
kept up by kings and princes of later times. Rather the zeal and determination of Asoka, Kanishka and
Harsha to spread Buddhism came to eclipse Jainism.
The causes of decline of these religions by the early 20th century include revival of Brahmanism,
which became more flexible and rise of Bhagawatism by the 12th century AD. Threatened with
extinction, Hinduism started to re-organize itself. Attempts were now made to give up the complex
system of rites and rituals The Hindus even came to accept the Buddha as a Hindu incarnation.

5. In addition to being a network of trade routes, the ancient Silk Road played a massive role in the
integration of art and culture in several regions in Asia. Elaborate with special emphasis on
architectural techniques and arts in India.
Discuss how in addition to trade exchanges, people to people connect, cultural exchanges developed
along the Silk Road in Asia.
Discuss the influence of the silk road on the architecture and art of India( for example the Persian

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The Chinese one belt one road initiative has lately evoked the ancient silk route, which was not only a
medium of commerce for merchants but a channel for the merger of religious traditions and cultural
norms. The Silk Road which was actually an interconnected network of multiple trade routes connected
Turkey, Central and South Asia, China, Persia, and Mongolia.
Integration of art and culture in Asia
Merchants had to learn the languages and customs of the countries they travelled through, in order
to negotiate successfully. Cultural interaction was a vital aspect of material exchange.
Knowledge about science, arts and literature, as well as crafts and technologies was shared across
the Silk Roads. Examples include the technique of making paper, as well as the development of
printing press technology. Similarly, irrigation systems across Central Asia share features that were
spread by travelers.
Buddhist monks from China made pilgrimages to India to bring back sacred texts. Fa-Hien (AD 399
413) was the first Chinese monk to travel to India in search of great Buddhist scriptures. Hsuan-Tsang
or Xuanzang (AD 629-645) visited Nalanda.
Many Europeans also traversed this route. For example Marco Polos accounts, whose travels lasted
for more than 20 years between 1271 and 1292, became extremely popular in Europe.
Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Zoroastrianism and Manicheism also spread through this route. For
example, Hinduism and subsequently Islam were introduced into Indonesia and Malaysia by Silk
Road merchants travelling the maritime trade routes from India and Arabia.
It is through the Silk Road that Sufism prospered along with the culture of mysticism and zikrs.
Art and architecture
Much of the art which dispersed through the Silk Road was religious in origin. This includes not only the
extravagant visual art of Buddhism, which created a legacy of thousands of statues, murals, and
illustrated texts across much of Central and East Asia, but also the glazed tilework of Islamic mosques,
which stresses calligraphic, geometric, and other nonrepresentational artistic motifs.
In addition to sculpture and pictorial art, the other art forms which got influenced includes textiles,
ceramics, metalwork, glass, and a wide variety of decorative techniques applied to objects of beauty and
The figural tradition of Buddhist art spread through Central and East Asia and also to Southeast Asia,
taking on local and regional characteristics. Among the first images of Buddhist deities in human form
were those carved in the province of Gandhara (present-day Pakistan) in the 2nd century CE. Unlike
anthropomorphic Buddhist images carved farther south in India, these Gandharan figures, based on
provincial Roman models, wear heavy, toga-like robes and have wavy hair.
Buddhist art and shrines spread as far apart as Bamiyan in Afghanistan, Mount Wutai in China, and
Borobudur in Indonesia.
There were many other centres of art in Bamiyan, namely, Kakrak, Fondukistan, etc. which produced
many Hindu and Buddhist deities, such as Siva, Durga, Buddha, Avalokitesvara etc.

6. Metal casting in India appears to be one of the oldest sculptural traditions. Discuss the significance of
cire-perduor or lost wax technique in the sculptural tradition of India with examples from different
Explain the lost wax technique.
Discuss its role in making metal sculptures.
Elaborate its role by citing it use in Indus Valley civilization, Buddhist tradition, Chola period etc.

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Indian sculptural tradition dates back to the third millennia BCE and Indian sculptors had mastered
casting process during Indus Valley period itself. Their bronze statues were made using the lost wax or
cire-perduor technique in which wax figures are first covered with a coating of clay or dung and allowed
to dry. Then the wax is heated and molten wax is drained out through a tiny hole made in the cover. The
hollow mould thus created is filled with molten metal which takes shape of original object. Once the
metal cools, the clay cover is completely removed.
This technique has been used almost across all over India and appears to be a continuous tradition.
Bronze sculptures and statuettes of Buddhist, Hindu and Jain icons have been discovered from many
regions of India dating from second century until sixteenth century. They were required for ritual worship
and characterized by exquisite beauty and aesthetic appeal. Meanwhile, metal-casting process continued
to be used for making articles for various purposes of daily use, such as utensils for cooking, eating,
drinking, etc.
Bronze casting was popular at all major centres of Harappan Civilization. Dancing Girl in tribhanga
posture from Mohenjodaro is earliest bronze sculpture datable to 2500 BCE. Similar bronze statuettes
have been discovered at Daimabad (Maharashtra) datable to 1500 BCE. Images of Jain Trithankaras have
been discovered from Bihar, belonging to Kushana Period during second century CE.
Many standing Buddha images were cast in North India during Gupta and Post-Gupta periods. Vakataka
bronze images of Buddha have been found from Maharashtra. Himachal Pradesh and Kashmir regions
also produced bronze images of Buddhist deities as well as Hindu gods and goddesses. In Nalanda, a
school of bronze casting emerged in ninth century.
Although bronze images were modelled and cast during Pallava period in eighth and ninth centuries,
most beautiful and exquisite statues were produced during Chola Period in Tamil Nadu from tenth to
twelfth century.
This technique and art of fashioning bronze images is still practiced in South India. The lost-wax process
is today especially used in Himachal Pradesh, Odisha, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal. In each
region, a slightly different technique is used. Present day tribal communities also utilize this technique.

7. Sufism has a glorious tradition spread over centuries with unparalleled continuity. Elaborate the
statement and also highlight the main features of Sufism. Analyse the challenges faced in
contemporary times to preserve the features of Sufi music.
Briefly write about Sufism in introduction.
Discuss the features of Sufism and give examples of how there has been a continuation of Sufism.
Finally discuss the challenges faced to preserve Sufi Music in contemporary times.
Sufism is a traditional and devotional form associated with Islam. It is revered as the mystical Islamic
practice through which one seeks to find the truth of divine love and knowledge through direct personal
experience of God. By the eleventh century Sufism evolved into a well-developed movement with a body
of literature on Quranic studies and sufi practices.
Features of Sufism
Sufis believe in asceticism and do not emphasize on materialism.
Sufism is critical of the dogmatic definitions of interpreting the Quran and sunna adopted by
Instead, Sufis lay emphasis on seeking salvation through intense devotion and love for God by
following his commands, and by following the example of the Prophet Muhammad whom they
regarded as a perfect human being.

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Sufis organised communities around the hospice or khanqah controlled by a teaching master known
as Shaiskh, pir or Murshid.
When the sheikh died, his tomb-shrine known as dargah became the centre of devotion for his
followers. The dargah of Moinuddin Chishti in Ajmer, who was the first one to introduce the Chishtiya
way of life in India is a world famous religious shrines for all faiths.
Pilgrimage, called ziyarat to tombs of sufi saints is prevalent all over the Muslim world. This practice
is an occasion for seeking the sufis spiritual grace.
Part of ziyarat is the use of music and dance including mystical chants performed by specially trained
musicians or qawwals to evoke divine ecstasy. The sufis remember God either by reciting the zikr
(the Divine Names) or evoking His Presence through sama or performance of mystical music.
Contemporary Features
Sufi Silsila is still very active at many places. For example, in Delhi qawwali enthralls people every
Thursday night at the shrine of Hazrat Nizamuddin Auliya at Nizamuddin.
Today, its most popular styles are Qawwali and Kaafi and some of the most famous works are by
Rumi, Amir Khusro, Ghulam Farid and Baba Bulleh Shah.
Artists like Abida Parveen, Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan and Wadali Borthers have contributed immensely to
keep alive its legendeary traditions and cult.
In some parts of Rajasthan, folk artists use sufi hymns and poetry.
These factors have contributed to living legacy of Sufism and an unparalleled continuity to its essence.
Challenges in preserving Sufi music
Sufi music is becoming commercialized in the contemporary musical tradition. The essence of the
Sufi music lies in the tradition of Sufism however, its introduction in pop culture has diluted the main
teachings of Sufism. For example, the poems of Bulleh Shah is frequently used in many
contemporary songs, however, the four stages of Sufi music - hariat (path), tareeqat (observance),
haqeeqat (truth) and marfat (union),has been forgotten.
Though the recent commercialization has also benefited many artists and has led to more awareness
about Sufism and Sufi tradition, the need of the hour is to preserve both the annals of Sufi Literature
and its fundamental principle.
Rise of extremist groups has been a challenge to Sufi shrines, libraries, music and leaders with
increasing incidents of attack on Sufi leaders and musicians.

8. The growth of communalism after 1857 in India was a result of societal differences, communal politics
and divisive British policies. Discuss.
Elaborate on the growth of communalism after 1857.
Focus on how it was result of societal differences, communal politics and divisive British policies.
The Revolt of 1857 gave a severe jolt to the British administration in India and made its reorganization
inevitable. Consequently, after the revolt, the British followed the policy of divide and rule. Such policies
led to societal differences which fuelled communal politics in India.
Societal differences
Role of socio-religious reform movements: Reform movements such as Wahabi movements among
Muslims and Shuddhi movements among Hindus made the role of religion more vulnerable to

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Role of socio-economic differences: There was rivalry for jobs, trade and industry between Hindus
and Muslims and bourgeoisie class used the lower middle classes of the Hindus and Muslims against
each other to further their class interest. For example, the case in Western Punjab where the Muslim
landlords opposed the Hindu moneylenders and in East Bengal where the Muslim jotedars (small
landlords) opposed the Hindu zamindars.
Communal Politics
Formation of Muslim league in 1905 and of Hindu Mahashabha in 1915 further fuelled the religious
divide among communities.
Some historians had communal interpretation of Indian History with depiction of ancient India as the
Hindu phase and the medieval phase as Muslim phase. The conflicts of ruling classes during the medieval
phase were distorted and exaggerated the Hindu-Muslim conflict. This interpretation was used by the
political class to mobilize popular support of their co-religionists in their mutual struggles.
Divisive British policies
After the 1857 revolt, organization of the Indian section of the army was based on the policy of
balance and counterpoise. Soldiers from Avadh, Bihar, Central India, and South India, had taken part
in the Revolt of 1857, were declared to be non-martial. On the other hand, the Sikhs, Gurkhas and
Pathans, who had assisted in the suppression of the Revolt, were declared martial and were
recruited in large numbers.
After the 1870s, with signs of emergence of India nationalism and growing politicization of the
educated middle class government decided to rally Muslims behind it through concessions, favours
and reservations and used them against nationalist forces. For example, division of Bengal in 1905,
communal representation in Morley Minto reforms of 1909. Government also used persons like Sir
Syed Ahmed Khan to counter the influence of Congress.
All these factors led to Communalism becoming a popular movement after 1939 and in particular during
1945-47 leading to widespread riots across India and culminated into formation of Pakistan on religious

9. The outbreak of World War II in 1939 divided the nationalists over the next course of action in the
freedom struggle. Elaborate. In this context, also examine the factors that led to INC launching the
Quit India Movement.
Write about both the areas of debate of the Nationalists post beginning of WWII.
One cannot simply give the reasons why the INC launched the Quit India Movement. These reasons
have to be related to the context of the decisions taken by the INC post 1939 in respect to the
actions of the British. Building the context is important.
After the beginning of WWII, The Government of India declared India to be at war with Germany without
the consent of its people.
Indian leaders could not reconcile with this decision, however different point of view emerged among
leaders. For example, the nationalists were then divided over the following course of action:
On the question whether to support the British in their war effort or not:
o Gandhiji was sympathetic towards the allies.
o Subhas Bose, Jawaharlal Nehru and the socialists were against supporting the allies. Netaji
Shubhash Chandra Bose considered it as an opportunity to defeat the imperial British
The Congress leadership decided that India would not join the war till the two conditions of a
responsible interim government with immediate effect and promise of a constituent assembly
immediately after war to decide upon the constitution of free India are met. This was rejected by the

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British. Then differences on the question of starting a Mass Satyagraha immediately arose among
Gandhiji and other leaders were against this as they felt:
o The cause of the allies to be just and did not want to trouble them in the time of war.
o There was a lack of Hindu-Muslim unity because of which the civil disobedience movement
could degenerate into civil war or communal riots.
o The right atmosphere did not exist as masses and the Congress organisation was not ready.
The left wing groups felt that this was an opportunity to achieve freedom with an all out struggle,
and hence were in favour.
Jawaharlal Nehru was undecided about this till the last minute.
Though the Quit India Movement started in 1942, the events starting from 1939 played a role in its
The government had taken draconian measures and suppressed all civil liberties. All political
activities, even peaceful, were declared illegal.
Failure of Cripps Mission in 1942, which was unable to make any constitutional advance in favour of
the Indian people. Its empty gesture convinced even leaders like Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal
Nehru, who were unwilling to hamper Britains war effort, not to continue their silence.
Increased popular discontent made the situation ripe for a mass movement.
News of imminent British collapse due to the war
Revamped Congress, consistent propaganda campaign, individual satyagraha.
Thus the context of events beginning with the WWII played a role in the INC launching the Quit India

10. Gandhiji's struggle in South Africa saw an ideological evolution from 1894 till 1915. The methods
developed and the lessons learnt during this phase were then applied to carry out the struggle against
the British in India. Discuss with examples.
In the first part of the answer, write about the ideological changes Gandhi witnessed.
In the second part, list down the methods and lessons learned in South Africa and their application in
Gandhi entered South Africa as an inexperienced and brief-less lawyer to assist a case involving two
prominent Memon traders. South Africa was the crucible that forged Gandhis identity as a political
activist and was an important prelude to his return to India. His ideological evolution can be understood
from following points:
At that time of his life, a 24-year-old Gandhi believed that the British Empire would ensure the
freedom of its subjects in an oppressive settler colony.
He supported the British in the Boer war (1899-1902), and raised a unit of stretcher bearers to
accompany troops to the front.
He expected the British to reciprocate by protecting Indians.
However, his hope was belied as Gandhiji faced discrimination directed at people of color. He was
thrown off a train at Pietermaritzburg after refusing to move from the first-class He faced many
hardships and discrimination in various forms.
These events were a turning point in Gandhi's life and shaped his social activism and awakened him
to social injustice.
His understanding of ideas such satya and ahimsa got strengthened in this phase. He became more
inclusive to masses.

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He developed the strategy of satyagraha, in which campaigners went on peaceful marches and presented
themselves for arrest in protest against unjust laws. For example:
During 1894-1906, he used moderate methods such petitions and applications to the government.
He also published a journal Indian Opinion. Such practices he also applied in India to demand
freedom the British and to increase awareness among Indian masses through his journals such as
Young India.
He used method of Satyagraha against Registration Certificates in South Africa. This was one of his
most popular techniques which he also applied in India such as in Champaran etc.
Gandhi used civil disobedience against Restriction on Indian Migrants in South Africa. He used the
same technique in Civil Disobedience by breaking the salt laws.
He united all Indians belonging to different religions and classes, men and women alike. The same he
did in India. He spearheaded Khilafat Movement. He united people from different part of India and
also paved the way for women in politics. He took break from the active politics for the emancipation
of Harijans in India.
He learned lessons of organizational politics by playing key role in Natal Indian Congress. Likewise, he
also played major role in Indian National Congress.
During his stay in South Africa he also realized the military might of British and was convinced that it
cant be challenged through force. Hence, peaceful means were the best way to defeat the British.
Thus the experiences in South Africa transformed Gandhiji from the imperial patriot to the leader who
touched the hearts and minds of millions.

11. Though the land revenue systems introduced by the British differed in some aspects from each other,
but in essence they were designed with a singular aim. Comment.
In the first part, briefly explain various land revenue systems in way that the difference among them
becomes clear.
In the second part, discuss that all these revenue system were aimed at economic exploitation.
The major concern of the British rule in India was to collect as much revenue as possible. Since
agriculture was the main basis of economy, land revenue emerged as the main source of income.
Britishers introduced three major land revenue systems -
Permanent Settlement It was implemented by Lord Cornwallis in Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Banaras region
of UP and Northern Karnataka. Under this policy, Zamindars were given ownership rights of land and
they could enjoy these rights until they failed to provide fixed revenue (10/11 part of land revenue) to
East India Company. Zamindars could impose level of land revenue on the farmers as they deemed fit.
Traditional rights of land were snatched away from the peasants.
Ryotwari System It was introduced in Maharashtra, parts of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu by Thomas
Munro in 1820. Under a system, land ownership rights were given to ryots but
Mahalwari System This was introduced by Lord Hastings in 1822 in Punjab and other adjoining areas. In
this system a collective assessment of the entire family or the village was made and a leading family of
the village recognized as Mahaldar.
Even though these land revenue systems differed in conferring proprietary rights to different groups, a
common feature was over-assessment. For instance, under Permanent Settlement, zamindars were free
to impose the level of revenue on peasants. In Ryotwari, the revenue was as high as 48-54% of the net
value of the produced.
Moreover, the method of collection of revenue was extremely harsh. In Mahalwari system, the company
shrugged off the administrative responsibilities of collection of revenue for entire village, Mahals could
exploit peasants on their behalf.
Infact, in all the revenue systems it was the farmer who suffered. Further, these greatly accentuated the
practice of sub-infeudation. Land became a saleable commodity and the landlords earlier rooted to the
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village life and empathetic about sufferings of peasants were replaced by a new class of moneylenders or
absentee landlords who tried to extract the maximum with minimum investments.
The results were arrears of payment, mounting debt, increasing land sales and dispossession. This
illustrates that these land revenue systems though differed in letter but not in spirit. Their sole motive
was the maximum economic exploitation with least responsibility.

12. The economic policies followed by the British led to the rapid transformation of Indias economy into a
colonial economy whose nature and structure were determined by the needs of the British economy.
Describe the features of colonial economy in India.
Analyze the economic policies of the British in three phases.
Earlier India was known as sink of gold and silver. It was self-sufficient in agricultural and handicrafts
products and had steady market of finished products abroad.
However, with the coming of British rule, Indian economy was transformed into colonial economy that
suited the interests of British, not the local population. India was transformed into supplier of raw
materials, a market of British manufacturers, and a field of investment for foreign capital.
The British economic policies which led to this economic transformation are analyzed under three
Mercantile Phase (1757-1813) Under this phase the policies were introduced for the direct plunder.
East India Company used policy - Monopoly of Trades which functioned through Indian revenue to buy
Indian products at low rates. These goods were then exported back to Europe. Further, under this phase
British introduced several land revenue systems which extracted maximum share of agricultural
produced in India and drained Indias wealth to England.
Free Trade Capitalist exploitation (1813-1858) This phase coincided with Industrial revolution in
The English manufacturers were given boost by the Charter of 1813. Indian markets were opened up
for English imports and India became a source of raw materials.
Indian traditional craft industry and textile industry was systematically ruined leading to
deindustrialization and replaced by British Industrial products.
The raw material for Industries in England was exported from India. For this, they commercialized
Indian agriculture which led to the famines in India.
Infrastructure such as Railway was developed to reach and to grab the raw materials of the
hinterland. Railway was an avenue for investment of British Capitalists while interest on this
investment was high and paid through Indian exchequer.
Finance Imperialism Under this phase, financial institutions emerged in England.
This phase saw the export of capital from India through the chain of British-controlled banks, export-
import firms etc.
Most of the modern industries developed in second half of 18th century were foreign-owned and
controlled by British managing agencies.
Moreover, the industrial development under British was characterized by a lopsided patterncore
and heavy industries and power generation were neglected.
The Indian nationalists had truly recognized it and brilliantly put forward the economic critique of
colonialism. Dadabhai Naouroji gave the theory of economic drain of India. Others were Justice M G
Ranade, R C Dutt, Gokhale, Iyer and P C Ray.

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They organized intellectual agitations and advocated a complete severance of Indias economic
subservience to Britain and the development of an independent economy based on modern industries.

13. Jyotiba Phule was not only a remarkable social activist but also a gifted writer. Examine the
contribution of Phule in advocating the emancipation of the marginalised sections of Indian society.
Give a brief overview on the background of Jyotiba Phule.
State his contributions towards the emancipation of the depressed classes.
Highlight his efforts in improving the status of women.
Jyotiba Govind Phule is considered as one of the most prominent social reformers of the 19th century.
He belonged to the Mali (gardener) community and despite hailing from a humble background, he made
consistent efforts to reform the society, challenge the prevalent domination of Brahmins and emancipate
the marginalized sections of the society
Getting inspired by his personal experiences of social injustice due to the backwardness of Indian society,
he challenged to defy the prevailing caste-system and transform society instead of succumbing to
discriminatory social norms
Organisational efforts
He founded the Stayashodhak Samaj (Truth seekers' society) in 1873 with the ideals of human well-
being, happiness, unity, equality, and easy religious principles and rituals.
The aims of the Samaj included social service, spread of education among low caste people and
Leaders who belonged to backward classes such as Malis, Telis, Kunbis, Saris and Dhangars led the
Samaj. He provided a platform for people belonging to the backward classes to contribute to societal
Education to depressed class
He regarded modern education as the most important weapon for liberation of low castes.
He opened the first native library for low caste students in Maharashtra.
He and his wife were the first to open several schools for girls of low castes.
Widow Remarriage
Phule was considered as the pioneer of the widow remarriage movement in Maharashtra,
established an ashram for young widows and eventually became advocate of the idea of improving
the plight of widows
Against Caste-rigidities
He led life-long movement against Brahmanical religious authority as part of his struggle against
upper caste domination.
He urged the "peasants" and "proletariat" to defy the restrictions imposed upon them.
As a method of dissent to the Brahmins, he used the symbol of Raja Bali as opposed to the Brahmins
symbol of Rama
Literary contribution
Phule inspired the common masses through his literary works like Satyadharma, Gulamgin, Tritiya
Ratna etc.

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He played an important role in elevating self-worth of the depressed communities, who has been
exploited for generations by the dominant caste groups and aimed at complete abolition of the caste
system and socio economic inequalities. He also realised the value of female education and worked
selflessly towards it.

14. Elucidate the contributions made by the prominent figures from north eastern part of the country in
the struggle for Indian independence.
Introduce the Indias freedom struggle.
Highlight contributions of freedom fighters from north eastern part of India.
Conclude with Indian governments efforts to remember contribution of Indian freedom fighters in
the north east.
The Indians fought the British rule as a unified force, deriving their strength from all the sections and the
corners of India to gain independence in 1947.
In the Indian National Movement for Independence, North eastern states played an important role in the
freedom struggle of the country and keeping the country together.
Several women joined the freedom movement from northeast, which speaks highly of women liberation
and contribution of women to the freedom struggle against colonialism of the British.
Several prominent figures from north-east India joined at an early age:
U. Tirot Singh: He was the leader of Khasi tribes, tried to unite tribes and communities and fought
against heavily armed British army for 3 years.
Rani Gaidinlieu, Ranima, as she was popularly and affectionately called, led a movement against the
British colonialism in 1930s and the struggle soon turned into a battle to uproot British from Manipur
and Nagaland.
Kanaklata Baruah joined the freedom struggle on Gandhian principles during Quit India movement.
She was shot dead at 17; Kushal Konwar was hanged by the Britishers for derailment of a military
train at Sarupathar in Golghat district in 1942.
Gopinath Bordoloi from Assam who was also the first chief minister, played an important role in
keeping Assam united with the larger Indian mainland. He foiled the design of Muslim League to
include the Hindu-dominated state into East Pakistan during "grouping" scheme.
Bhogeswari Phukanani: she dared to attack and set free the office of Congress in Berhampur town of
Assamfrom the siege of British police.
Maniram Dewan: He was in private tea business and fierce opponent of British rule. He believed that
true industrial development in India could happen only in free India.
Tyagbir Hem Barua: He was poet, scholar, and professor, who played active role in Quit India
Several tribal leaders joined the freedom struggle especially during the Quit India movement from
states of Manipur, Nagaland and Assam thus highlighting the important role they played in the
freedom struggle.
Under the aegis of Forgotten Heroes from the northeast, the government of India lately honoured
freedom fighters on 70th independence day;

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15. The extremist-moderate debate at the beginning of 20th century not only revolved around the goals
that they wanted to pursue but also the methods to be employed for their achievement as well as the
nature of British rule in India. Comment.
Explain the concept of moderates and extremists.
Discuss their differences regarding the goals, methods and the nature of rule they aspired for.
The leadership of national movement in second half of nineteenth century was with leaders known as
moderates who had a narrow social base and believed in constitutional means of struggle.
A radical and militant approach to national movement started to emerge in the 1890s and took concrete
shape by the time of Swadeshi Movement in 1905. Nationalists holding this radical ideology were
These notions of moderates and extremists are to be seen in the context of progress of national
movement. At initial stages the conditions were suitable for petitions, then peaceful constitutional
means, then extra-constitutional measures and so on. Hence, nationalists operating in that era were
most progressive forces of the period but for later generations their views could be out-dated.
Specifically, they had differences along following dimensions:
M: Demanded constitutional reforms, greater representation to Indians in legislature, socio-economic
reforms, civil rights ands share for Indians in services. Most of the moderate leaders were inspired by the
ideas of western philosophers like Mill, Burke, Spencer and Bentham. Moderates imbibed western ideas
of liberalism, democracy, equity and freedom.
E: Wanted to establish Swaraj. For some it meant complete independence while for others it implied self-
rule as in the colonies like Canada.
M: Use of constitutional methods only. Did not have faith in capacity of masses and hence there
movement was limited to intelligentsia and urban upper class.
E: Use of extra-constitutional methods like boycott and passive resistance. Some of them even turned
into revolutionary terrorists. They believed in masses. However, their base was also limited to urban
Perception of British Rule:
M: Believed in the providential mission of British and that British were just but were unaware of the
plight of Indians. However, it did not prevent them from criticizing British for their economic exploitation,
inertia of constitutional reforms etc.
E: Believed that British rule was inherently exploitative and hence complete freedom or self-rule is only
remedy. They rejected the theory of providential mission and justice of British.
However, both of them were patriots of highest degree, ready to give sacrifices for their country.
Although separated by goals and methods, they were united by the spirit to serve the country in
whatever capacity possible.

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16. Morley's statement of 1909 and that of Montague's in 1917, in their own particular ways, were crucial
in shaping the direction of British policy towards India and influenced the political discourse in the
years to come. Discuss.
Mention the statement of Morley and Montague and its context.
Discuss how it shaped the policy of Britain.
Also, examine how it shaped the political action of the future for many years.
Secretary of State, Morley along with Lord Minto was the architect of Council Reforms of 1909. These
reforms aimed at increasing Indian representation in Central and provincial legislatures and also
increasing their powers. It also provided for separate electorates to Muslims. Morley stated that reforms
were not aimed to give self-government to India.
Through separate electorates British gave their policy of Divide and Rule a concrete shape. It remained
an issue of contention between Hindu majority and minorities as well as Congress and other parties. Its
success encouraged British to use it repeatedly as a tool to break socio-political unity of Indians. British
were convinced that through the reforms they are transferring sufficient powers to Indians which they
had not hitherto.
However, Indian perception was that it was benevolent despotism. This led to intensive political struggle
in the form of Home Rule Movement and extremist activities in next few years. This convinced British for
some time that it is the best they could give and it was Indian political class not ready to work with
government and hence this period was also the most repressive. In this, context Morley himself said that
if these reforms could not save British Rule then nothing could.
However, as a result of ensuing political upheaval, unification of Congress and Lucknow pact between
Congress and Muslim League in 1917, then Secretary of state, Montague commented, Government
policy is of an increasing participation of Indians in every branch of administration and gradual
development of self-governing institutions with a view to progressive realisation of responsible
government in India as an integral part of British empire.
Thus, it was a radical departure from previous British policy and an acceptance of the rising steam of
national movement. In line with the spirit of statement, British policy till the very last moment of their
rule was not to give sovereignty to Indians but increase the autonomy and representation of Indian in
administration and legislatures.
For Indians, it provided a hope that self-rule would be provided. Its demand was no longer seditious and
hence, the on-going Home-Rule movement was not unconstitutional. For next few years the political
activity was confined within this framework as evident from the demand of Dominion Status at All
Parties Meet for constitutional reforms in 1928. It was later that radical voices of Nehru, Subhash and
Bhagat Singh for complete independence gained traction. But British policy continued to be aimed at
establishing a dominions status for India.

17. Though it started as an anti-partition movement in 1903, the Swadeshi movement turned into a multi-
faceted mass movement after 1905. Examine. Also, discuss the reasons for its decline and its
contribution to the Indian freedom struggle.
In the first part, talk about how Swadeshi movement turned into multi-faceted mass movement after
Reasons for the decline of movement.
Its contribution to Indian freedom struggle.

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The Swadeshi Movement had its genesis in the anti-partition movement which was started to oppose the
British proposal to partition Bengal 1903. The phase 1903 to mid-1905 saw moderate techniques of
petitions, memoranda, speeches, public meetings and press campaigns with the objective to turn public
opinion against partition. However, with the announcement of the partition in 1905, it was clear that a
different kind of strategy was needed since the moderate methods had not worked.
After 1905, the character of the movement in terms of both its goals and social base had begun to
expand rapidly. The message of Swadeshi and the boycott of foreign goods soon spread to the rest of the
country: Lokamanya Tilak took the movement to different parts of India, especially Poona and Bombay;
Ajit Singh and Lala Lajpat Rai spread the Swadeshi message in Punjab and other parts of northern India.
Syed Haidar Raza led the movement in Delhi; Rawalpindi, Kangra, Jammu, Multan and Haridwar
witnessed active participation in the Swadeshi Movement; Chidambaram Pillai took the movement to
the Madras presidency.
The Swadeshi movement was not only a political movement but economic, social and cultural as well.
Practice of rakhi to reinforce Hindu Muslim unity, festivals like Ganpati and Shivaji, focus on national
education, promotion of indegenious enterprises, poems and songs (ama sonar bangla), paintings(bharat
mata by abindrabnath), scientific pursuits in the national spirit underlied its multi-faceted character.
Corps of volunteers (or samitis) were another major form of mass mobilization widely used by the
Swadeshi Movement. The aim of the movement was now Swaraj and the abrogation of partition had
become the narrowest of all political objects.
Decline of Swadeshi Movement: First, the government, seeing the revolutionary potential of the
movement, came down with a heavy hand. Repression took the form of controls and bans on public
meetings, processions and the press.
Second, the internal squabbles, and especially, the split, in 1907 in the Congress, the apex all-India
organization, weakened the movement.
Third, the Swadeshi Movement lacked an effective organization and party structure.
Lastly, the movement declined partially because of the very logic of mass movements itselfthey
cannot be sustained endlessly at the same pitch of militancy and self-sacrifice. Further, it was not
able to gamer the support of the mass of Muslims and especially of the Muslim peasantry.
Contribution of Swadeshi Movement
The movement made a major contribution in taking the idea of nationalism, in a truly creative
fashion, to many sections of the people, hitherto untouched by it. By doing so, it further eroded the
hegemony of colonial ideas and institutions.
Swadeshi influence in the realm of culture and ideas was crucial in this regard and has remained
unparalleled in Indian history, except, perhaps, for the cultural upsurge of the I93Os this time under
the influence of the Left.
The social base of the national movements extended to lower middle class in the cities and small
towns and school and college students on a massive scale. Women came out of their homes for the
first time and joined processions and picketing.
Further, the movement evolved several new methods and techniques of mass mobilization and mass
action though it was not able to put them all into practice successfully.

18. How did the Indian industrialists contribute to the freedom struggle? Did the emergence of the
socialistic trend during the later period of the struggle deter them from supporting the freedom
struggle? Analyze.
Highlight the contribution of the Indian industrialists in the Indian struggle for freedom.
Explain their relationship with the Congress and their contribution to the party.
Show how they balanced their commercial interests while supporting the national freedom
Evaluate their stand during the freedom struggle movement when socialistic trend emerged.
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The Indian Capitalist class grew from about the mid-19th century with largely an independent capital
base. The period 1914-1947 saw capitalist class growing rapidly increasing its strength and self-
confidence. This growth was achieved in spite of and in opposition to colonialism.
However, the Indian Capitalist class has its own notions of how the anti-imperialist struggle ought to be
waged. It was always in favour of not completely abandoning the constitutional path as opposed to mass
civil disobedience. Some industrialists like Jamnalal Bajaj, Samuel Aaron were actively involved in the
struggle and participated in non-cooperation movements. However, some industrialists like G. D Birla,
Ambalal Sarabhai provided financial help to the Congress but did not participate actively
The industrialists formed FICCI (Federation of Chambers of Commerce and Industry) and refused to
negotiate with the British Government on constitutional and economic issues without the approval or
participation of the Congress. They contributed to the economic critique of the British rule by exposing
the nature of their economic exploitation
Although, they were against protracted civil disobedience movements to safeguard their business
prospects, they consistently pressurized the government to stop repression of Indians, release political
prisoners and remove ban on Congress. In this regard, they acted as a pressure group which kept a check
on the governments overreach.
Emergence of Socialist trend and Indian industrialists
The emergence of the socialistic trend during the late 1920s did not deter them from participating in the
freedom struggle. In fact, it spurred the capitalists into becoming more active in the political field. They
evolved a subtle, many-sided strategy to contain the left, no part of which involved a sell-out to
While on one hand they signed the Bombay Manifesto in 1936which contained an open indictment of
Nehrus preaching of socialist ideals, they did not support bills which went against the overall national
interest such as the Public Safety Bill that was deliberated to repress the Socialists and Communists.
They industrialists played a major role in paving the developmental path of post-independent India. In
Bombay Plan, they advocated partial nationalization of the public sector, land reforms and approved
welfare schemes to make the society more egalitarian.
Therefore, the Indian Industrialists identified the long-term interests of Indians and remained united with
them when a common front was needed. However, they simultaneously worked on guarding their
commercial interests.

19. The social-religious reform movements of the 19th and 20th century in British India not only tried to
purge the Indian society of various social evils but also prepared the ground for the Indian freedom
struggle. Analyze.
In the introduction, contextualise the rise of socio-religious reform movements in the backdrop of
colonial rule and awakening of Indians to the social ills prevailing at the times.
Identify the various issues that the reform movements had to address as well as the key factors
After establishing the first part, move on to examining or establishing how these movements helped
prepare for the freedom struggle.
The impact of modern Western culture and consciousness of defeat by a foreign power gave birth to a
new awakening. There was an awarenss that a vast country like India had been colonized by a handful of

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foreigners because of internal weaknesses within the Indian social structure and culture. Many Indians
realised that social and religious reformation was an essential condition for the all round development of
the country on modern lines and for the growth of national unity and solidarity.
The reformers and reform movements addressed many ills that the Indian society suffered from, such
as, religious superstitions, social obscurantism, caste distinctions (segregation, hierarchy,
untouchability), laws of purification, high influence of priests, low social position of women (female
infanticide, Sati, Purdah, ban on widow remarriage), among others.
Prominent reformers like Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Swami Vivekanand, Sir Syed
Ahmad Khan and movements like Brahmo Samaj, Aligarh Movement, Paramhansa Mandal, Arya Samaj,
Satya Shodhak Samaj, Shri Narayana Dharma Paripalana etc. tried to eradicate these ills.
They attempted to reform the society by:
Promoting rationalism, religious transformation and universalism.
Encouraging practices such as widow remarriage and education for girls and opposing polygamy,
child marriage, female infanticide, sati, purdah system.
The cultural-ideological struggle, represented by the socio-religious movements was an integral part of
the evolving national consciousness and prepared the ground for struggle for freedom, as:
It brought about the intellectual and cultural break which made a new vision of the future possible.
It was part of the resistance against colonialism and ideological hegemony associated with it.
These movements were not isolated, but were also related to national, political and economic
considerations which were considered important by the people and helped unite them.
By emancipating the Indian women these movements made them ready for participating in the
freedom struggle.
In terms of political leadership of the freedom strugglethe likes of Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar
Tilak, Madan Mohan Malviya etc, and important role in the struggle for social and religious reforms.

20. The non-cooperation movement, which coincided with the end of the First World War, not only saw
unprecedented participation from almost all sections of the society but also marked fundamental
changes in the approach of the Indian National Congress (INC). Elaborate. Also examine the impact of
this phase of mass movement on the future of the Indian freedom struggle.
In the introduction, provide the background for the non-cooperation movement.
In the next section address two parts: a. Unprecedented participation, b. Fundamental changes in
the approach of the INC.
use features of the movement to support the arguments presented to address different parts of the
Examine how events or outcomes of this phase affected the overall freedom struggle in the long run.
The Non Cooperation movement was launched by the Indian National Congress (INC) in the backdrop of
the developments such as:
Rowlatt act,
Hunter Commission report,
Montagu Chemsford reforms and resultant discontent,

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The issue of Khilafat at the end of the First World War.
Unprecedented participation of different sections made this movement a watershed as:
Participation of the Muslim population gave the movement its mass character. In fact in some places,
two-thirds of those arrested were Muslims.
Economic boycott, part of non-cooperation course of action, was successful because of the active
peasant, trader and working class participation.
It led to large number of students leaving government schools and colleges and lawyers giving up
their legal practices.
Tribal Population also got involved, although on their own terms. For instance, Badridutt Pande of
Almora organized a militant movement against forced labour and forest laws.
Women participated in large numbers giving the movement an inclusive character.
This phase also marked changes in the approaches of the INC:
This phase saw radical restructuring of the Congress as district and village level units were
constituted to transform the party into a true mass organization.
The earlier emphasis on the use of constitutional means was substituted by all peaceful and
legitimate methods.
The emphasis was on the unifying issues and on trying to reconcile class and communal
disjunctions. For instance, for the first time an appeal was made by the Indian National Congress to
rid Hinduism of the reproach of untouchability in the Nagpur Session of 1920.
Even though the movement was withdrawn in the wake of the Chauri Chaura incident it had a significant
impact on the future of the freedom struggle-
It established Mahatma Gandhis potential as a political organizer. Gandhi ji galvanized mass
imagination in a way that was hitherto unseen. It was under his leadership that future movements
were launched. Most of INC leadership and members were now aligned to Gandhian ideology.
As the Non-Cooperation Movement was withdrawn, Khilafat movement also died down. However,
Khilafat movement was marked by overtly use of religious symbols and emotions which continued to
persist, matched by an equally militant Hindu radicalism. This set the foundation for communalism in
Indian Politics which ultimately led to the partition.
The movement generated consciousness and led to politicization and activation of millions of men
and women, which imparted a much-needed thrust to the national movement.

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