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ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

ISSN 1392 1215 2011. No. 3(109)


ELEKTRONIKA IR ELEKTROTECHNIKA

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
T 190
ELEKTROS ININERIJA

Calculation and Analysis of Transformer Inrush Current Based


on Parameters of Transformer and Operating Conditions
M. Jamali, M. Mirzaie, S. Asghar Gholamian
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Babol University of Technology,
P. O. Box. 484, Shariaty Ave., Babol, Iran, phone: +981113239214, e-mail: m.jamali@stu.nit.ac.ir

Introduction energizing circuit impedance and remanent flux on the


characteristics of inrush current are investigated in detail.
Magnetizing inrush current in transformers results
from any abrupt changes of the magnetizing voltage. This Fundamentals of Inrush Current
current in transformer may be caused by energizing an
unloaded transformer, occurrence of an external fault, It is very well known that a transformer will
voltage recovery after clearing an external fault and out-of- experience magnetizing inrush current during energization.
phase synchronizing of connected generator [1-2]. Because Inrush current occurs in a transformer whenever the
the amplitude of inrush current can be as high as a short- residual flux does not match the instantaneous value of the
circuit current, a detailed analysis of the magnetizing steady-state flux which would normally be required for the
inrush current under various conditions is necessary for the particular point on the voltage waveform at which the
concerns of a protective system for the transformers. In circuit is closed [13].
this regard, some numerical and analytical methods have For the explanation of the mechanism causing inrush
been proposed in the literature. In [3], analytical current in a transformers primary winding when
expressions for the magnetic fluxes of no-load three-phase connected to an AC voltage source, we consider (1), where
transformer is presented that can be used for inrush current and v are the instantaneous flux in a transformer core and
calculation. In [4], by analytical solution of two differential voltage drop across the primary winding, respectively
equations that governs the behavior of a transformer, the dA
(1)
v= .
magnetic flux and inrush current are determined. For dt
modeling transformer core including hysteresis, [5] used
As we see from (1), the rate of change of
Jiles-Atherton theory and presented a new algorithm on a
instantaneous flux in a transformer core is proportional to
sample transformer. In [6], an analytic formula is presented
the instantaneous voltage drop in the primary winding or
to calculate the peak inrush current of a nonlinear inductor
on the other hand, the flux waveform is the integral of the
with a series resistor. In [7], a simple model for the
voltage waveform. In continuously-operating transformer,
transient period of inrush current is presented. This model
these two waveforms are shifted by 90. But a significant
is developed from the structural parameters of transformer.
difference exists between continuous-mode operation and
To avoid malfunctiom of protection system under
energization of a transformer. During continuous
magnetizing inrush current, many researches are conducted
operation, the flux level is at its negative peak when
for the discrimination of inrush current from internal fault
voltage is at its zero point, but during energization the flux
currents. For example, in [8-10], inrush current are
has to start at zero. So, for a rising voltage just started from
discriminated from internal fault current by second
zero, the magnetic flux will reach approximately twice its
harmonic criterion. For discrimination of these
normal peak as it integrates the area under the voltage
currents, [11] used the sum of active power flowing into
waveforms first half-cycle. This amount of flux, because
the transformer from each terminal. In [12], a criterion
of the nonlinear characteristic of the magnetization curve,
function in terms of difference of amplitude of wavelet
causes saturation of the transformer. During saturation,
coefficients is defined. Then by using this criterion
disproportionate amounts of mmf are needed to generate
function for three phases, the internal faults are
magnetic flux. This means the winding current, which
discriminated from the inrush current.
creates the mmf to cause flux in the core, will
In this paper, first, the fundamentals of inrush current
disproportionately rise to a value easily exceeding twice its
and the formulas that are used for calculation it, are
normal peak. Fig. 1 shows the generation of inrush current
presented. Then a one-phase transformer is simulated in
in a transformer. As seen from the figure, exceeding flux
MATLAB and the effects of switching angle variation,
17
from the knee point, results in large magnetizing current with those parameters are presented in [4], is selected. The
that in some circumstances can be ten times of the rated parameters of the equivalent circuit of this transformer
current in a transformer. referred to the 220V winding are shown in Table 1.

Fig
. 2.
Eq
uiv
ale
nt
cir
cui
t of
the
tra
nsf
or
me
r
un
der
no
loa
d

Fig. 1. Generation of inrush Table 1. Parameters of the


current in a transformer simulated transformer
Parameter Rs ()
The general equation Ls (mH) Rp ()
that gives the amplitude of Value 15.476
inrush current as a 12 7260
function of time can be
expressed as (2): Also, the
-(t-to ) magnetization curve of
the transformer is given
in (4) where i and are
magnetizing current and
flux
2 Vm=
i(t) *K * - respectively
(sin(wt
cp) - e .si
r

*K n
a
),
Zt (2)
w
s
circuit power of network.
where Vm maximum
For the purpose of
applied voltage; Zt total
designing a protective
impedance under inrush, system for transformer, the
including system;
peak value of inrush
energization angle; t
current is an important
time; t0 point at which
factor. In these cases, a
core saturates; time
simplified equation can be
constant of transformer
used to calculate the peak
winding under inrush
value of the first cycle of
conditions; function of
t0; Kw accounts for 3 the inrush current. This
equation is as follow
phase winding connection;
Ks accounts for short-
18
T and f are number of or network on the inrush
i(A) = (63.084 x In this section, the
samples in each cycle, current of a typical
10-3) period and frequency of transformer, a 120 VA,
effect of switching angle
sinh(2.43A). variation on the
the power system, 60 Hz, (220/120) V
characteristics of inrush
(4) respectively. Also, m transformer
current has been
indicates fundamental and investigated. The
It should be noted second components with remanent flux (Br) for all
that equations (5)-(8) the numbers 1 and 2, switching angles is 0.826
are used to calculate the respectively. The Wb-coil. Also the source
fundamental and second sampling rate of 30 kHz resistance has been
harmonic components of has been used in this considered to zero. Fig. 3
inrush current, where N, paper:
N
shows the effect of
2.
B different switching angles
tn+

2N+ 1 () on the amplitude of
VB 2
inrush current. As seen
m -B
R
S from the figure, the
ipeak = am ( f i . cos(m. highest amplitude of
( ), = I n inrush current is at 0 that
j(w. ( n=1 T 2rrf. x) dx, is 5.52A. Also, it can be
L)2
+2 3 (5) seen, increasing of the
R
BN t
switching angle will
)
n decrease the amplitude of
inrush current.
where Vm
N
maximum applied
voltage; L air t
core inductance of the n
transformer; R total +
1
dc resistance of the 2
transformer; BN b ( f in . sin(m.
= 2rrf. x) dx,
m
normal rated flux
density of the (6)
I t
transformer core; BR T n
n
remanent flux density
of the transformer core;
BS saturation flux
density of the core
material.
As seen from the cm 2= Jam 2 +
equations (2) and (3), bm ,
(7)
the value of inrush
current is dependent c2
to the parameters of
transformer and
operating conditions.
So a detailed
%2
nd x 100.
analysis for finding the Har (8)
mo
nic
relations between the =
inrush current c1
characteristics and these
factors are needed. Effects of
switching
Simulation results angle
Rp, Lm and Rt are series
When a transformer resistance, series
is energized under no inductance, core losses
load or lightly loaded resistance, magnetizing
conditions, inrush current inductance and source
may flow in the primary resistance respectively.
circuit. In this situation, In order to investigate
the equivalent circuit of the effects of some
transformer can be shown parameters of transformer
as Fig. 2 where Rs, Ls,
18
inrush current. Also, it causes faster decay in the amplitude
of inrush current. Therefore, it can be said that
transformers located closer to the generating plants display
higher amount of inrush currents lasting much longer than
transformer installed electrically away from generator.

Fig. 3. Effect of switching angle variation on the amplitude of


inrush current

The second harmonic content of inrush current is


shown in Fig. 4. As seen from this figure, increasing of the
switching angle causes to a decrease in the percentage
second harmonic. Fig. 5. Effect of source resistance on the amplitude of inrush
current

The effect of source resistance in the percentage of


second harmonic has been shown in Fig. 6. The results
show that the amount of percentage of second harmonic
will be decreased by increasing the source resistance.

Fig. 4. Effect of switching angles in the percentage second


harmonic

It should be noted that, although, the highest


amplitude of the inrush current appears in the first cycle
and then decays, but the highest percentage second
harmonic does not necessarily appear in the first cycle. For Fig. 6. Effect of source resistance in the percentage second
instance as seen from Fig. 3 and Fig. 4, at =90, both harmonic
amplitude and percentage second harmonic have been
Effects of the remanent flux
decreased with increasing cycle, but at =0, although the
amplitude of inrush current have been decreased, but The effect of remanent flux on the first cycle peak
second harmonic firstly increased and then decreased. This current at different switching angles is shown in Fig. 7. As
is important when using second harmonic content to seen from figure, the first cycle peak current has large
restrain the relay operation during magnetizing inrush change when the remanent flux varies. Also the results
conditions. indicate that switching at =90 or Br=0 may not
necessarily reduce the magnitude of inrush current. So, for
Effects of source resistance
reducing inrush current, an appropriate switching angle by
In this case, the switching angle () is 0. Also, the considering remanent flux must be selected.
remanent flux (Br) is the same as the previous section. The
Conclusions
effects of source resistance have been considered by
increasing Rt. Fig. 5 shows the effect of source resistance In this paper, the effects of some parameters on the
on the amplitude of inrush current. As seen from figure, characteristics of inrush current are investigated in
increasing source resistance will decrease the amplitude of MATLAB Simulink.

1
4. Vanti M. G., Bertoli S. L. Semianalytic solution for a simple
model of inrush currents in transformers // IEEE Trans.
Magnetics. June, 2008. Vol. 44. No. 6. P. 12701273.
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inrush current in transformers using JilesAtherton theory of
ferromagnetic hysteresis // IEEE Conf. Tencon, Hong Kong.
November, 2006. P. 14.
6. Wang Y., Abdulsalam S. G., Xu W. Analytical formula to
estimate the maximum inrush current // IEEE Trans. Power
Delivery. April, 2008. Vol. 23. No. 2. P. 12661268.
7. Chen S. D., Lin R. L. Magnetizing inrush model of
transformers based on structure parameters // IEEE Trans.
Power Delivery. July, 2005. Vol. 20. No. 3. P. 1947
1954.
8. Sykes J. A., Morrison I. F. A proposed method of harmonic
Fig. 7. Effect of remanent flux on first cycle peak current restraint differential protecting of transformers by digital
computer // IEEE Trans. Power App. Systems. May, 1972.
Vol. PAS91. No. 3. P. 12661272.
Results show that increasing switching angle at a
positive remanent flux or source resistance will decrease 9. Kasztenny B., Kulidjian A. An improved transformer inrush
the amplitude of inrush current. It has been shown that restraint algorithm increases security while maintaining fault
response performance // 53rd Annual Conference for
largest second harmonic content may not necessarily Protective Relay Engineers. April, 2000. P. 127.
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first cycle peak current shows that it has large changes
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884892.

Received 2010 07 04

M. Jamali, M. Mirzaie, S. Asghar Gholamian. Calculation


and Analysis of Transformer Inrush Current Based on
Parameters of Transformer and Operating Conditions //
Electronics and Electrical Engineering. Kaunas:
Technologija, 2011. No. 3(109).

P
.

1
7

2
0
.
An inrush current is a transient current with high amplitude
that may occur when a transformer is energized under no load or
lightly loaded conditions. The magnitude of inrush current may
be as high as ten times or more times of transformer rated
current. This could
result in huge mechanical and thermal stresses on transformer in
addition to inadvertent operation of the protective relay systems.
This paper represents the effects of some factors on the inrush
current of transformers. For this purpose, a one-phase v
transformer is simulated i
in MATLAB and the effects of switching angle variation, the
energizing circuit impedance and the remanent flux on the
characteristics of inrush current are investigated. The results k
show that increasing circuit resistance or switching angle will .
decrease inrush current )
amplitude. Also, it is concluded that for reducing inrush .
current, appropriate switching angle with respect to the
remanent flux must be selected. The results can be used for a
better understanding of the inrush current characteristics and
proper actions of the protective
syste
m. Ill.
7,
bibl.
13,
tabl. 1
(in
Englis
h;
abstra
cts in
Englis
h and
Lithua
nian).

M. Jamali, M. Mirzaie, S. Asghar Gholamian.


Transformatoriaus parametr ir darbo slyg takos
transformatoriaus magnetinimo srovei apskaiiavimas ir
tyrimas // Elektronika ir elektrotechnika. Kaunas:
Technologija, 2011. Nr. 3(109). P. 1720.
magnetinimo srov yra didels amplituds momentin
srov, kuri gali atsirasti, kai transformatorius susiadina, kai
nra jokios apkrovos arba kai ji maa. magnetinimo srov gali
bti daugiau nei deimt kart didesn u nominali vert. Toks
poveikis, atsirads
dl mechanini ir termini proces, neigiamai veikia reles.
Apraomi veiksniai, turintys takos magnetinimo srovei.
Atliktas vienfazio transformatoriaus modeliavimas program
paketu Matlab, vertinti pagrindiniai parametrai. Il. 7, bibl.
13, lent. 1 (angl kalba;
s
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n
t
r
a
u
k
o
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