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Test Manuals, Diagnosis, and Intervention

Test Manuals
The test manual gives all the basic information needed to administer a test, score,
and to make use of results.
Basically, this is the most detailed source for information regarding tests.
I. Purpose of Test Manuals
Provides the test users with all of the information they need to use the test in a
responsible fashion.
Enables the user to administer tests in a standardized manner.
Contains detailed scoring guidelines.
Contains detailed scoring guidelines for interpreting the test results.
II. Test manuals should include the following:
Description of the Test
What the test measures
Test Design and Construction
Validation Process
Test Administration Guide
Scoring and Interpretation
Table of Norms
III. Checklist of Questions that should be answered in the Test Manual:
Standardization Sample
o How many subjects were used to establish he reliability, validity, and norms
for the test?
o What are the demographic and personal characteristics of these subjects?
Are they similar to those you will give the test to?
Reliability
o What methods were used to estimate the reliability of the tests?
o Is the reliability high enough for your purposes (usually 0.90 or above for
tests used to make decisions about individuals and 0.70 or above for the
research purposes)?
Validity
o Is there evidence that the test is meaningful for your purposes?
o What specific criteria was the test validated against?
Scoring
o Are scoring keys available?

Reported by: Jamie V. Canauay


MA-Psychology
Test Manuals, Diagnosis, and Intervention

o If the test can be scored by machine, how much does is cost and what sort
of report is offered?
Practical Considerations
o How long does it take to administer the test?
o Does the test require reading? If so, is it at right level for the people you will
test?
o How much training is required for the test administrator? How can training
be obtained?
Test Manuals
Pros Cons
Usually the most detailed source Details regarding the tests
available for information regarding psychometric soundness are
the administration, sample and test usually self-servicing and written on
administration instructions. the basis of studies conducted by
May also contain useful information the test author and/or test
regarding the theory the test is publisher. A test manual itself may
based on, if that is the case. be difficult to obtain by students, as
Typically contains at least some its distribution may be restricted to
information regarding psychometric qualified professionals.
soundness of the test.
Diagnosis
The point of assessment is often diagnosis or classification.
Psychologists administer psychological tests and assessments for a variety of
reasons. One could be for diagnosis and to find a good treatment plan.
From administering a psychological assessment, psychologists can determine if a
person has a learning disorder, is competent to stand trial or has a traumatic brain
injury.
Basically, diagnosis is the identification of a problem which becomes the
target of the counseling intervention.
I. Making a Diagnosis
The diagnosis is the main problem.
The most common diagnostic system that professionals use is the DSM.
Some will have multiple diagnoses.
It is important to know the diagnosis before coming up with a treatment plan.
II. To make a proper diagnosis, you have to gather information. Information
about the client may include:
Reason for referral
Current symptoms and behaviors
History of the problem
Impairments in life functioning
Issues with home, school, work, relationships
Psychological/psychiatric history

Reported by: Jamie V. Canauay


MA-Psychology
Test Manuals, Diagnosis, and Intervention

Current risk and safety concerns


Current and previous medication, psychiatric or medical
Current substance use and substance use history
Family background
Personal history
Mental status
Miscellaneous
Diagnosis: Benefits and Problems
Diagnosis provides: Problems in Diagnosis:
A common language for Identifying clients by their diagnosis
professionals to describe disorders as opposed to focusing on their
or problems. unique situations and experiences.
A framework that aids in treatment Misdiagnosis.
planning and facilitates insurance Stigmatization that can impede a
reimbursement for services. clients ability to get health and
A classification system that disability insurance and may
facilitates clinical research and interfere with the possibilities of
helps to determine what treatment some types of employment.
re most effective with what types of
problems.
Intervention
The interventions are the meat of change in therapy. It is the last part of treatment
planning.
Identify types of treatment, or interventions, you might use such as:
o activity scheduling,
o cognitive-behavioral therapy and cognitive restructuring,
o behavioral experiments, assigning homework,
o teaching coping skills such as relaxation techniques, mindfulness and
grounding.
Interventions are actions performed to bring about change in people.
Treatment Planning
Mental health treatment plans are versatile, multi-faceted documents that allow
mental health care practitioners and those they are treating to design and monitor
therapeutic treatment.
Three Tiered System
o Goals are broad statements of desired short and long term outcomes.
o Observations are statements of observable and measurable outcome
targets.
o Interventions are counseling strategies designed to meet the above
objectives.

Reported by: Jamie V. Canauay


MA-Psychology