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MkW- nso 'kadj uohu

tUe % 2 vxLr 1962 eSfFkyh rFkk fgUnh es ,e-,.] ih&,p-Mh-] HkkSfrdh es ,e-
,l&lh- rFkk iqLrd izdk'ku ,oa vuqokn es ih-th- fMIyksek] y-uk- fefFkyk fo-fo-
] njHkaxk( jkaph fo-fo-] fnYyh fo-fo-] ts-,u-;w- rFkk dsanzh; fgUnh laLFkku vkxjk la
d,ykd ckn th-,y-,- dkWyst MkyVuxat es Nvks c[kZ /kfj eSfFkyh es v/;kiu
d,yfuA fgUnh vdkneh] ubZ fnYyh la Js"B ;qok dfod iqjLdkj] ifYyok.kh vksfM+;k
lkfgfR;d laLFkk }kjk lEeku] ;w-th-lh- }kjk rFkk ekuo lalk/ku fodkl ea=kky; }kjk
dfu"B 'kks/k v/;srk o`fk izkIr d,yfuA jktdey pkS/kjhd lkfgR; rFkk rqyukRed
lkfgR; ij fo'ks"kKrk izkIr uohud izdkf'kr fr Nfu %
^vks uk ek lh* eSfFkyh rFkk fgUnh dh vH;kldkyhu ltZuk] ^pkuu dktj* eSfFkyh
dfork laxzg] ^tekuk cny x;k* fgUnh dgkuh] ^jktdey pkS/kjh dk jpukdeZ*
vkykspuk] ^izfrfufk dgkfu;ka % jktdey pkS/kjh*] ^jktdey pkSkjh dh pquh
gqbZ dgkfu;ka*] 'ko ;k=kk ds ckn nsg 'kqf)] ^mkj vkkqfudrk % dqN fopkj*] ^yksdosn
vk yky fdyk* laikfnr] ^ln~Hkko fe'ku* if=kdk d laiknuA
eqnz.kk/khu % ^vfHk/kk* fgUnh dfork laxzg] ^lkB ds ckn dh eSfFkyh ,oa fgUnh
dforvksa dk rqyukRed v/;;u* 'kks/k&xzaFk ^jktdey ds ikap miU;kl*] ^izfrfuf/
k dfork,a % jktdey pkS/kjh*] ^iRFkj ds uhps ncs gq, gkFk*] ^jk-d-pkS- dh eSfFkyh
dgkfu;ka* laikfnrA
,rn~fjDr fgUnh] eSfFkyh dh leLr izfrf"Br i=k&if=kdk es dfork] dFkk] vkykspukRed
fucak] y?kqdFkk vkfn izdkf'kr rFkk ckaXyk] rsyqxq] iatkch] vaxszth es vuwfnrA
#fp % thou vk ys[ku] Hkk"kk vk O;ogkj] jpuk vk deZ es lekurk jk[kc vk
foijhr vkpj.k d,fugkjd fojksk djcA
laidZ lw=k % us'kuy cqd VLV] ,&5 xzhu ikDZ$] ubZ fnYyh&110016
vk/kqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
vk/kqfud lkfgR;d
ifjn`';
(vkykspukRedfuca/&laxgz )

nso'kadj uohu

vafrdk izdk'ku
iqLrd % vk/kqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
vkykspukRed fuca/k&laxzg
ys[kd % nso'kadj uohu
ys[kdk/khu
izdk'kd % vafrdk izdk'ku
153ch@ikWdsV bZ
fny'kkn xkMZu] fnYyh&110095
izdk'ku o"kZ % 2000
ewY; % lk/kkj.k laLdj.k 60 Vkdk
iqLrdky; laLdj.k 120 Vkdk
eqnzd % vkj-ds- vkWQlSV izkslsl]
fnYyh&110032
Aadhunik Sahityak Paridrishya, a book of criticism
on Maithili Literature by DeoShankar Navin. Published
by Nandini for Antika Prakashan
vkykspuk lkfgR; vksdj lkoZf=kd yksdfiz;rk vk lkoZf=kd izlkjd dkj.k gksbr
vfN] ,fg rF; la eSfFkyhd yksd vifjfpr NfFkA vkykspuk deZ ysy ln;rk]
wjrk] bZekunkjh] rVLFkrk] v;;u'khyrk] ifjJe vk loksZifj izfrHkkd trck
vko';drk gksbr NSd] rrck iwath yxc* ysy eSfFkyh es fdvks rS;kj uba NfFkA
vkykspd dsa us ra lR; dgckd wjrk Nfu vk us jpukd lax U;k; djckd
ln;rk ra Qsj vkykspuk dksuk gks \
bZ iksFkh fdNq losZ{k.k vk fdNq ewY;kadud lax mifLFkr vfNA vkkqfud
eSfFkyh lkfgR;d ifjn`'; rrsd fojkV Hk* xsy vfN] ts ,d&,dVk jpukdkj ij
dgckdNyts--- ,d ,dVk laiw.kZ iksFkhd [kxrk vfN] rkfg es bZ ,dVk iksFkh iwjk ifjn`'; dsa dksuk
lesfV ldr \ lhrkjke >k] dkaphukFk >k ^fdj.k*] gfjeksgu >k] eueksgu >k]
cztfd'kksj oekZ ^ef.kin~e*] jke".k >k ^fdlqu*] khjsUnz] lksenso] galjkt] jkenso
eSfFkyh Hkk"kk&lkfgR;d x|d bfrgkl lalkjd lHk Hkk"kk la iqjku vfNA eqnk >k] jekuan js.kq] lkdsrkuUn] jkeykspu Bkdqj] lqdkUr lkse] egkizdk'k] HkheukFk
,dj vkykspuk lkfgR; lalkjd lc Hkk"kk la iNqvk,y vfNA vly es >k] mn;pUnz >k ^fouksn*] dqykuan feJ] iw.ksZUnq pkSkjh] vfXuiq"i] misUnz nks"kh]
vkykspukd vadqj ra y{k.k xzaFkd Qjewyk ij frd ijh{k.k la QwVy] eqnk ckn fouksn fcgkjh yky] uohu pkSkjh] foHkk jkuh] fl;kjke ljl] dsnkj dkuu] 'kSysUnz
es vkykspukd lkekftdrk egRoiw.kZ gksv, ykxyA lkfgR;] viuk le;d vkuUn] jkt] gjs".k >k] fo|kuUn >k lu drksd egRoiw.kZ jpukdkjd ;ksxnku
lektd fpko`fk okgd gksbr jgy vfNA dksuks dkyd bfrgkl ledkyhu dsa vafdr d,us fcuk vkkqfud eSfFkyh lkfgR;d ifjn`'; iw.kZ uba Hk* ldSr
jktkd jktikV] 'kklu& O;oLFkk] ;q)&'kkafr] vk[ksV&izse] wjrk&n;kyqrkd f[kLlk vfNA eqnk ,d O;fDrd Je vk ,d izdk'kdd lkkud ra lhek gksbr vfN]
dgSr jgy vfNA vksfg dkyd vfkla[; turk] ts jkt&ikV c<+cS es ok Hk* rkfg lhek es ;Fkklk; {kerkd mi;ksx djSr ts Hk* ldy] ls izLrqr vfNA
tkbr vfN] efj [kfi tkbr vfN] tdjk ysy dufugkj lj&dqVqed anud ys[kd vk izdk'kd izfrJqr vfN] ts vfxyk [ksi es vb deh dsa iwj d* nsy
lwpuk jkt njckj kfj igqafp;ks uba icSr vfN] rkfg leqnk;d nq[k nnZ drgq tk,rA vksuk ra dksuks uhd dkt dfgvks iw.kZ uba gksbr vfNA eqnk eSfFkyh Hkk"kk
mfYyf[kr uba gksbr vfNA jkT;kJ; izkIr O;fDrd vkrad&vR;kpkj dsa foo'krko'k lkfgR;d izfr rVLFk ftKklk j[kfugkj ikBdd dusdks r`"kk bZ iksFkh ta 'kkar d*
lgSr turkd O;Fkk drgq vafdr uba gksbr vfNA lc le;d lkfgR; vgh ldy] ra ge viu ifjJe lkFkZd cw>cA
turkd fpko`fkd bfrgkl gksbr vk,y vfNA eqnk eSfFkyh lkfgR;d bZ lu~ 1983 la vkb kfj] eSfFkyh es fy[ky izdkf'kr vizdkf'kr vkykspukRed
foMacuk fFkd ts ,dVk le`) lkfgfR;d ijaijkd vNSr] ,dj dksuks n`f"V laiUu ys[kd laikfnr ladyu fFkd bZ iksFkhA laiknud e es iqjku ys[k lc dsa
bfrgkl uba fy[ky xsyA bfrgkl&n`f"V vk vkykspuk&n`f"Vd vdky eSfFkyhd NksV&iS?k d,y xsy vfN] rsa izdk'ku o"kZ vFkok if=kdkd uke m)`r uba d,y
tfM+vk,y chekjh fFkdA jekukFk >k }kjk d,y dktd foLrkj uba HksyA xsyA 'krkCnhd vafre n'kd es drksd uke viu egRo lkfcr d,yd
jkekuqxzg >k vk yfyrs'k feJ izkjaHk dfjrs nsjh can d* nsyfuA Qsj vb vfN 'kSyUs nz dqekj >k] vjfoan Bkdqj] lat; dqna u] dkfeuh] je.k dqekj flag]
vkykspuk fn'k FkksM+sd dkt dqykuan feJ vk HkheukFk >k d,yfu] eqnk gqudks fuHkZ;] fou; Hkw"k.k] ".k eksgu >k] vuydkar] ';ke nfjgjs izHk`fk yksdfu ij
eq[; o`fk ls uba jgyfuA ,[ku eksgu Hkkj}kt vk jekuan >k ^je.k* vb deZ lsgks fopkj g,ckd pkghA eqnk] ls vkc vkxw---A trsd xksV,d vkHkkjh Nh]
es dsafnzr Hk* d, tqVy NfFkA vksuk ra eSfFkyhd vfkdka'k jpukdkj le;&le; frudj uke xuk,c vlaHkoks vfN] vuqfprksA vksuk eSfFkyh es FkksM+sd uVoj
ij vkykspuk deZ djSr jgSr NfFkA rkjkuan fo;ksxh vk f'ko'kadj Jhfuokl }kjk yky] g"kZn esgrk] lroar&csvar lc NfFk] ge gqudk yksdfud fo'ks"k :i ls
fy[ky FkksM+sd vkykspukRed ys[k] vkykspukd izfreku cuk ldy vfNA eqnk vHkkjh NhA
bZ dgck es gejk dksuks ladksp uba Hk* jgy vfN] ts eSfFkyhd jpukdkj
lekykspukd egRo dsa cM+ de otu ij y* jgykg vfNA dksugqa Hkk"kkd nso'kadj uohu
dal la Msjk, xsygqa cyjke \ 146
dFkk f'kYid fo'odekZ 151
ijaijkd j{kd eqnk uokjaHkd vkxzgh 157
dFkk lalkj es dFkkdkjd thouh 162
ifrr uk;dd ikou dFkkdkj 167
vfHkeU;qd ,dkyki 174
i{kh vk fitjkd la?k"kZd dfork 181
thoud Mk;fj, vlyh dFkk fFkd 188
fo"k;&lwph vkdqy&O;kdqy eksud jpukdkj 193
uo dF; f'kYid ekaly dFkk 198
folaxfrd HkhM+ es lgt la/kku 204
dgckd Ny ts 7 izogeku Hkk"kkd fMDVsVj 208
LokHkkfod vk LokfHkekuh thoud dFkk 212
losZ{k.k v|ru fo"k;d euekSth dfo 217
x|d fodkld :ijs[kk 11 ldkjkRed Lojd izxfrdkeh dfork 220
vk/kqfud eSfFkyh lkfgR; ij ,d utfj 18
eSfFkyh dFkk;k=kk vk dFkkdkjd la/kku 31
ledkyhu eSfFkyh dFkk 38
y{;&la/kku djSr eSfFkyh dFkk 47
ledkyhu miU;kl % iz;kl vk ifj.kke 56
vktqd eSfFkyh dfork 68
eSfFkyh ukVd % iz;ksx vk izo`fk 73
eSfFkyh xty % Lo:i vk laHkkouk 81
uXurk] udy] izxfr'khyrk 87

ewY;kadu
iqjku vk uo ;qxd lsrq 93
e/kqi vk }kn'kh 99
uorqfj, vkcvks vkxka 104
n`f"Vdks.k vk dkO; oLrqd lhek 115
fo/kkRed rksM+&QksM+d dFkk 120
ttZj vrhr la eqfDrd dFkk 127
euksoSKkfud lR;d dFkk 133
ijaijk la izxfr /kfjd vuq'khyu 140
losZ{k.k
:i es bZ Hkdjkj Hk* d, ufg vkfc ldyA dkj.k Li"V vfN ts rRdkyhu
fo}roxZ laLrkuqjkxh jgSr Nykg] yksd Hkk"kk es jpuk djck es ghurk cksk
gksbr NyfuA vksfg le; es viu iz[kj lkgfldrkd ifjp; fo|kifr nsyfuA
?kks"k.kk djSr yksdHkk"kk es jpuk d;yfuA eqnk] eSfFkyh x| gqudgq lkfgR; es
ufg iuxyA
x|d fofkor fodkl] oLrqr% dksuks lkfgR;d Js"Brk vk lkfgR;d
izek.k&i=k ekuy tkbr vfNA eSfFkyh x|d vkjafHkd lw=k Hkus gejk yksdfu
dsa pkSnge 'krkCnh es HksfV tk,] o.kZjRukdj y* d, iqjtksj nkok Bksfd yh] eqnk
x|dfodkld:ijs[kk bZgks ckr lgt :isa ekuckd fFkd ts T;ksfrjh'ojd i'pkr~ eSfFkyh x|d kkjk
#fd tdka xsy vk vktqd eSfFkyh x|d ts Lo:i gejkyksdfu dsa izkIr vfN]
eSfFkyh lkfgR;d fodkld ysy eSfFkyh x|d lHk laoxZd le`f) vko';d rdj xgu izkjaHk izk;% muSle 'krkCnhd vafre dky vk okZeku 'krkCnhd vkjafHkd
vfNA lHk fn'kk es ,dj x| lHk rjgsa ;qxhu jkx] y; ,oa rky la pfy ld,] dky es Hksy vfNA bZ ckr fHkUu] ts vktqd x| dsa ^o.kZjRukdj* la lacak dj,ck
fo"k; vk f'kYi nquw Lrj ij viu uwrurk vk ekSfydrkd LFkkiuk d, ld,] ysy chpd 'krkCnh lHk es usiky vk vklke es fy[ky eSfFkyh ukVd lHkd
ls vis{kk ra vfN eqnk ,fg es lHk la iS?k ckkd vfN izdk'kud vlqfokkA x| dsa m)`r d* yh vk vksfg {kh.k ka[kyk dsa eSfFkyh x|d fed fodkld
x| ys[ku] dfodeZd dlkSVh gksbr vfN ls loZfofnr ckr fFkdA fofnr lksiku ekfu yhA ,fg e; O;fDrxr i=k] vfkdkj i=k] nku&i=k vkfn es iz;qDr
ckr bZgks fFkd ts x|d fodkl la dksugq Hkk"kk lkfgR;d loZrksUeq[kh fodkl x|d ppkZ bfrgkldkj yksdfu djSr NfFkA lHk le;d Hkk"kk] ledkyhu laLfr
laHko vfNA izkjafHkd dky la i| es y;kRedrk] inykfyR;] Nan fokku la izHkkfor gksbr vfNA ,fg chpd lkekftd izFkkd vuqlkj Hkk"kk es ifjorZu
vkfn&vkfn rRo yksd#fp dsa viuk es yiVkSus jgy vfNA eqnk] rsa bZ ufg dgy gksbr xsyA eqnk Hkk"kk lacakh ts fdNq egRoiw.kZ ckr muSle 'krkCnh es Hksy ls
tk ldSr vfN] ts x|d izfr yksdd mis{kk Hkko dfg;ks jgy gks;rA gks,ck vusd n`f"V,a vf}rh; vfNA ,fg 'krkCnhd e; vcSr&vcSr fefFkykd
y, ra Hkkjrh; lkfgR;d vkfndkO; i|s la izkjaHk Hksy vfNA fdarq] bZ ckr lgt thou&izf;k es] lkekftd ifjos'k es] f{kiz xfr,a ifjorZu izkjaHk Hk* xsyA fefFkyk
vuqekud fFkd] ts vksgw le; es x|d mis{kk ufg gksbr gks,rA dkj.k] l`f"Vd es vusd vaxzsth Ldwyd LFkkiuk] fons'kh yksdfud }kjk Hkkjroklh ij viu
fodkl es tfg;k la ekuo lH;rkd chp vkilh vfHkO;fDrd ek;e okfpd laLfr] Hkk"kk] vkpkj&fopkj dsa Fkksfi nsckd mRlkg] bZlkbZ keZd izpkj&izlkjd
izf;k cuy vfN] lkekU;r;k yksd vkil es okkkZyki x|fg es djSr gks,rA rsth] fefFkyk jkT;d 'kklu dksVZ vkWQ okMZ~ld vanj tk,c] bZLV bafM;k daiuhd
tsuk fd dFkk&dgkuhd ekns dgy tkbr vfN] ts ifgus bZ dg* vk lqu*d izkjafHkd izksRlkgu la eqlyeku }kjk ukxjh fyfid cfg"dkj vkfn&vkfn ?kVukoyh
oLrq NyA Hkkjrd leLr vkkqfud Hkk"kkd x|d izlax b,g dgy tk ldSr laosnu'khy fo}ku yksdfu dsa mRizsfjr d,ydfuA ekr`Hkk"kkd izfr fgudk yksdfu
vfNA lkekU; laHkk"k.k] fopkj&foe'kZ] mins'k&vkns'k] dFkk&midFkk vkfnd ek;e vknjd Hkkouk c<+yA vku&vku ik'oZorhZ Hkk"kk lHk es lsgks x| izpfyr gksv,
x|s jgy gks,rA ykxyA ,fg ifjfLFkfr es ekr`Hkk"kkd ije vuqjkxh ykSg&iq#"k doh'oj pUnk
x|d fodkld ijaijk rdck es viL;kar Hksy fganhd vuqlakkukFkhZ t[ku >k] fo|kifrd iq#"k&ijh{kkd vuqokn es eSfFkyh x| iz;qDr d,yfu vk rRi'pkr~
ukFkiaFkh ;ksxh lHkd kkfeZd mins'kd va'k m)`r d* d, cztHkk"kk x|d dky eSfFkyh x| fofok lHkk lkslkbVh] laLFkk] vfkos'ku vkfnd vkyksd es fodflr
foe la- 1400 dfgvks d* larq"V ufg Hksykg] r[ku eSfFkyh lkfgfR;d egRoiw.kZ gksv, ykxyA ,r, la x|d ijaijk rhu fn'kk es pyy ifgy fn'kk es izkjafHkd
fr ^o.kZjRukdj* fnl nkSM+ykgA t[ku fd eSfFkyh x|d fodkl ijaijk rkd* ikSjkf.kd vFkok 'kkL=kh; xzaFkd vuqokn] nkslj vlgt Hkk"kkd Vhdk vk rslj
es ,gsu dksuks fQjhlkuh ufg vfNA laLrd vfrfjDr izk;% vku dksuks ,gu iksFkh lHkd Hkwfedk vkfnA eqnk] bZ fLFkfr cslh fnu ufg jgyA ^eSfFky fgr
Hkkjrh; Hkk"kk ufg gks,r] tdj x|&lkfgR; ,rsd izkphu gksA eqnk eSfFkyh x|d lkku* 1905] ^fefFkyk eksn* 1906] ^fefFkyk fefgj* 1909 vkfn if=kdkd
bZ foMacuk fFkd] ts ,rsd izkphu vk lcy ijaijkd vNSrks fyf[kr lkfgR;d izdk'ku izkjaHk Hksy vk eSfFkyh x|d izxfr csl iz[kjrk la gksv, ykxyA iqu%
x|d fodkld :ijs[kk @ 11 12 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
uo&uo if=kdkd izdk'ku c<+Sr&?kVSr jgy vk eSfFkyh x| vuqokn la ekSfydrk laLrd l?ku Nkgfj la eqDr eSfFkyh x|d izkjaHk gksbr vfN okZeku
ij vkfc xsyA vuqokn Hkkjrh; lkfgR;d vfrfjDr ik'pkR;ks lkfgR;d gksv, 'krkCnhd rslj n'kdd vafre pj.k laA ,fg ijaijkd iqjkskk NfFk jekukFk >k
ykxyA ,fg la x| ys[kud f'kYi ,oa 'kSyh es rsth ra v,cs d,y] laxfga vk Hkqous'oj flag ^Hkqou*A tsa fd lkfgR; es dksuks uohu Hkkokkjkd izkjaHk gBkr~
x|d mikaxd jpuk lHk lsgks izkjaHk HksyA ufg Hk* d* ,dVk lqfuf'pr fodkl ijaijkd varxZr gksbr vfN] eSSfFkyh x|;gqd
eSfFkyh x|d v|ru fodflr Lo:id vkkkj ij ,djk pkfj dksfV es lax ls HksyA ,fg nquw x|dkj la iwoZd x| lkfgR; dsa nw dksfV es ckaVy tk
ckaVy tk ldSr vfN l`tukRed] o.kZukRed] fo'ys"k.kkRed rFkk rF;kRedA ldSr vfN ifgy vks] ts vuqoknd dkj.ksa [kkgs jpukdkjd vuqHkoghu iz;ksxkfeZrkd
jpukRed x|d varxZr dFkk] y?kqdFkk] miU;kl] ukVd] ,dkadh( o.kZukRed dkj.ksa laLrcgqy] csyfl Hkk"kk foU;kl] laLrd foHkfDr] lkekfldrk] fDy"Vrk
x|d varxZr thouh] vkRedFkk] laLej.k] ;k=kk o`kkar] f'kdkj dFkk] js[kk fp=k] vkfn la ;qDr vfN vk nkslj vks] tdj vkkkj Hkus laLrd gks] eqnk eSfFkyhd
fjiksrkZt( fo'ys"k.kkRed x|d varxZr vuqlakku] vuq'khyu] vkykspuk] ifjppkZ( ekSfydrk] Hkk"kkd lgtrk] ljyrk] vkfn vksfg es fo|eku vfNA ga] nksljks
rF;kRed x|d varxZr bfrgkl] Hkwxksy] keZ] n'kZu] euksfoKku vkfn vcSr dksfVd x| es rRle 'kCnd ckgqY; vfN] ls kfj ekU;A fdarq] laLrd foHkfDr
vfNA la eqDr jgykd dkj.ksa vksdj ckskxE;rk ij vk?kkr ufg iM+Sr vfNA ,fg dkyd
vkb eSfFkyh x|d ts Lo:i gejkyksdfud le{k vfN ls lok'k es eSfFky izfrfufk jpukdkj es eq[;r;k doh'oj pUnk >k] egkoS;kdj.k nhucakq >k]
fgr lkku] fefFkyk eksn] fefFkykfefgj] foHkwfr] Hkkjrh] oSnsgh vkfn if=kdk lHkd eqdqUn >k ^c['kh*] f=kykspu >k] cynso feJ] rqykifr flag] thou >k] j?kquUnu
lax vkuks&vku i=k&if=kdkd nsu dgy tk,rA ,fg i=k&if=kdk lHkd laiknd nkl] eqjyhkj >k] xaxukFk >k izHk`fr yksdfu vcSr NfFkA ,gh es la es&es
yksdfu eSfFkyh x|d izxfr es viu nwjnf'kZrk vk ekr`Hkk"kkd izfr izcy vuqjkxd eSfFkyh x| viu ekSfyd ys[ku vk ekSfyd fparud lhek fnl mUeq[k HksyA
ifjp; nsyfu vfNA lu~ 1898 es ifgy csj izdkf'kr ^iq#"k&ijh{kk*d vuqokn e'k% laLrd 'kCnkfn la jpukdkj cp, ykxykg vk eSfFkyhd ekSfydrk
es doh'oj pUnk >k eSfFkyh x| es tkfg rjgsa uorkd lw=kikr d,yfu] rdj lqiq"V gksbr xsyA jekukFk >k eqnk laLrfu"B Hkk"kk la iw.kZr% eqDr ufg,a HksykgA
ijorhZ izfrQyu ,dVk lqnh?kZ] lqiq"V :isa] vk ikNw ekSfyd :isa gkse, ykxyA ,gh le;karjky es eSfFkyhd l`tukRed x| fodflr HksyA izkjaHk es
izkjafHkd dky es izdk'kud vHkko Ny vk lax&lax yksdHkk"kkd izfr dksuks laLrd ikSjkf.kd dFkkd vuqokn vk Qsj izkjafHkd xzaFkd dFkklw=k ij vkkkfjr
vfrfjDr vuqjkx ufg NyA xhr vkfn ra yksdkuqjatud Hkkouk la lsgks yksdfiz; ekSfydrkd lax dFkk&jpuk 'kq: HksyA lu~ 1914 la miU;kl ys[ku ekSfyd
gksbr xsyA eqnk] pUnk >kd le; es izdk'kud lqfokk HksV, ykxyA ys[kd :isa ekU; fFkdA vuqoknd e es jpukdkj yksdfu x|d yksdfiz;rk la ifjfpr
yksdfud mRlkgo)Zu HksyfuA fofok rjgd Hkkoukd izdk'ku la fo}ku yksdfud HksykA viu lkekftd ifjos'kd leLr thou&fokku fgudk yksdfud le{k
n`f"VQyd c<+yfuA oSKkfudrkd izos'k la yksd ik'oZokhZd vfrfjDr lqnwj ns'k NyfuA izkphu xzaFkd mins'kkRedrk vk euksjatukRedrk la vuqizsfjr Hk* d,
lHkd lH;rk&laLfr la ifjfpr gksv, ykxyA ,fg e es fpard&fopkjd bZ yksdfu ledkyhu tu&thoud dVq&ekq viu l`tu'khyrkd lax mxkg,
yksdfu dsa viu Mhg&Mkcj] ?kj&lekt Msjgh&nyku] bukj&iks[kfjd vfrfjDr yxykgA eSfFkyh ukVdd ys[ku lsgks ifgys n'kd la izkjaHk Hk, xsyA
ns'k&fons'kd laLfr vksdj vkfFkZd] 'kSf{kd] ekufld] jktuhfrd] lkaLfrd orZeku 'krkCnhd pkfje n'kd vcSr&vcSr fefFkykd lkekftd ifjos'kd
ifjn`'; lw>, yxyfuA vks viuk la vksdj rqyuk dj, yxykgA ,fg e gkyfr FkksM+sd vkvksj tfVy Hk* xsyA lkekftd foMacuk ek=k cky&fookg]
es eSfFkyh x|d izxfr vkvksj tksj idM+ydA rsa bZ dfg nsc ,dne Hkzked cgqfookg] lklq&iqrkSgqd vekuqf"kdrk] ngst vkfn ufg jfg xsyA Qyr% lkfgR;
gks,r ts eSfFkyh x|d vkkqfud :i dksuks ik'pkR; lkfgR;d vuqfr fFkdA lsgks euksjatu vk mi;qDr leL;kd vkaxu es ckSvkbr ufg jgyA fons'kh 'kkldd
ga] laLrd _.kh gks,c ,dj rKrk vo'; ekuy tk,rA oLrqr% laLrd vR;kpkj] keZd ik[kaM] lkear'kkgh fu"Bqjrk] LrqR; laLfr vk ijaijkd mis{kk]
vuqokn la izkjaHk vkkqfud eSfFkyh x|d ijaijk fdNq fnu kfj laLrd Nkgfj mPpoxZd LosPNkpkfjrk] jktuhfrd fofr] ekuoh; lacakd foxyu vkfn&vkfn
la eqDr ufg Hk, ldyA vksuk] bZgks dgy t,ckd pkgh] ts O;fDr fo'ks"kd leL;k thou&e dsa vkvksjks tfVy cukSydA vkc fo}ku yksdfu cktxrd
viu ekSfydrkd Lrjd dkj.ksa laLrd izHkkod izfr'krrk es deh&cs'kh gksbr lax&lax euq";d varHkkZouk la lsgks ifjfpr gksv, yxykgA eSfFkyhd dFkk]
jgy vfNA miU;kl] ukVd] ,dkadh vkfnd dF;d foLrkj HksyA galh&Bk] l[kh&cfguik]
x|d fodkld :ijs[kk @ 13 14 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
iwtk&ikB] fookg&nku] dkscj&vfjiu vkfn la ,dj fo"k; fudfy d, vkReneu] ,fg dksfVd nkslj vk;ke fFkd ;k=kk o`kkarA fefFkykd yksd ifgus fons'k xeu
'kks"k.k] vukpkj] egxh] csdkjh] Hkw[k] nkaiR;&ruko] nSfgd foo'krk] ekufld dsa iki cq>Sr NykgA fdarq ckn es cgqr jkl ,rqDdk fo}ku yksdfu fons'k
?khpk&rhjh] Je&voewY;u vkfnd ckV r; djSr fonzksg vk vkanksyu kfj vkfc tk, yxykgA lkfgfR;d ywfj&cqf)d yksd de xsykgA Lons'ks es rhFkkZVu vFkok
xsyA ,fg leLr fo"k;d vkyksd es fo}ku yksdfu f'kYid fn'kk es lsgks uohu f'k{kk nkud fufek d,y Hkze.k dsa fdNq fo}ku yksdfu ,fg 'krkCnhd vkjaHk
HksykgA jekukFk >k vk Hkqoud x|'kSyh dsa viu&viu ;fRdafpr ekSfydrkd es fyfic) d,yfuA ,gw fn'kk es NksV&Nhu vusd iz;kl Hksy vfNA eqnk] lqHknz
lax iq"V d,fugkj es ifjxf.kr ize[q k fo}ku lHk NfFk Hkksyk yky nkl] y{ehifr >kd ^izokl* vk misUnzukFk >k ^O;kl*d ^fons'k&Hkze.k* ,fg ijaijkd ysy foiqy
flag] bZ'kukFk >k] lqjsUnz >k ^lqeu*] ra=kukFk >k] gfjeksgu >k] t;nso feJ] vkyksd iqatd dkt d,yd vfN] ts eSfFkyh x|d ,fg izHkkx dsa fn'kkd lax&lax
t;dkUr feJ] jkkk ".k pkSkjh] dkaphukFk >k ^fdj.k*] oS|ukFk feJ ^;k=kh* ,dj lQyrk vk yksdfiz;rkd lw=k lsgks cq>cSr vfNA f'kdkj&dFkk izk;% eSfFkyh
cztfd'kksj oekZ ^ef.kin~e*] vkuUn feJ] yfyr] jktdey pkSkjh] ek;kuUn feJ] es ufg,a fy[ky xsy vfNA vis{kkr [kwc fy[ky xsy vfN ^thouh*ijd x|A
khjsUnz] lksenso izHk`frA ls [kkgs iqLrdkdkj gks vFkok fNV&QqV] eqnk ,dj vfLerk eSfFkyh x| es uhd
ns'k&fons'kd vuwfnr lkfgR;d laidZ] viu lqiq"V vk lqnh?kZ l`tu ijaijk tdka LFkkfir Hk* pqdy vfNA fefFkykd bfrgkliq#"k] lkkq] lar] fof'k"V fo}ku]
rFkk QjhN psru'khyrk] lks>jk,y n`f"Vdks.k ,oa ekSfyd l`tu'khyrkd f=kos.kh izfl) lkfgR;dkj] yksddFkkd uk;d vkfnd thou dsa la{ksi es vkadckd [kwc
es Lukrd eSfFkyhd l`tukRed x| vkc f'kYi] 'kSyh ,oa dF; lHk rjgsa iw.kZ iz;kl eSfFkyh es Hksy vfNA drsdks foHkwfr dsa dsanz es jkf[k ukVd ,dkadh lsgks
leFkZ Hk* vk,yA tsuk&tsuk lkekftd fLFkfr&ifjLFkfr cnySr xsy] jpukdkjd fy[ky xsyA ,Egj lkfgR; vdkneh vk eSfFkyh vdknehd izJ; la o.kZukRed
dF; foLr`r gksbr xsyA ,Egj vkfc d, ;k=kh vk jktdey Qsj la ,dVk x|d bZ laoxZ vkvksjks cslh iq"V HksyA vkc ra O;fDr ijd 'kksk izcak es lsgks]
uo izdk'k vuyfu] ts ijorhZ ih<+hd ysy vuqdj.kh; cfu xsy vfNA f'kYi&'kSyhd bZ ijaijk csl tdka lqn`<+ Hk, jgy vfNA laLej.k] fjiksrkZt vk js[kkfp=k 'kq)
Lrj ij bZ nquw O;fDr viuk&viuk fn'kk es fo'kky iz;ksx'kkyk NfFk] tr, 'kSyhd :i la ,[kugqa if=kds kfj lhfer vfNA ,dne la gscfu es fodflr bZ laoxZ
vkfo"dkj d,y tkbr jgy vfN vk vuqxkeh ih<+hd ysy vkyksd ckaVy tkbr vR;ar de le; es vk cgqr des fy[k,ykd i'pkr~ viu izfreku LFkkfir
jgy vfNA pkfje n'kd la izkjaHk d* d, uoe~ n'kdd var kfjd losZ{k.k d, pqdy vfN rFkk [kwc yksdfiz; HksyA yksdfiz;rkd bZ lksiku] fuf'pr :i
la lkQ&lkQ ckr lks>ka vcSr vfN ts ,fg Nvks n'kd es l`tukRed lkfgR; la ,dj ekSfydrk vk l`tu izfrHkkd rh{.krkd |ksrd fFkdA
csl fy[ky xsy ! ,dVk iS?k lu oxZ] x| ys[ku ysy rS;kj HksyA i=k&if=kdkd eSfFkyh lkfgR;d fo'ys"k.k] ijh{k.k ifgus eSfFkyh,rjs fo}ku yksdfu izkjaHk
izdk'ku la bZ kkjk mRizsfjr Hksy vk laxfg ,fg varjky es rhu Vk egoiw.kZ d,yfuA eqnk fofkor eSfFkyh es vkykspuk vkfnd izkjaHk doh'oj pUnk >k
eksM+ vk;yA ifgy eksM+ la ,fg varjkyd izkjaHk fFkd] t[ku lkekU; lkekftd la izkjaHk gksbr vfN ts vusd fo}kud ys[kuh la le`) gksbr jekukFk >kd
leL;kd lax&lax ijra=krkd =kkl vksfg dkyd jpukdkj ysdfu dsa vkanksyuksUeq[k lekykspuk i)fr es uhd tdka ekfV idM+yd vk Qsj vkuUn feJ] f'ko'kadj
l`tu fn'k mRizsfjr d,ydfuA nkslj eksM+ fFkd lkfBd cknd] t[ku Hkkjrd >k ^dkUr*] jkekuqxzg >k] dqykuUn feJ] eksgu Hkkj}kt] jekuUn >k ^je.k*
turk Lora=krkd e`xr`".kk la ifjfpr Hksy vk prqfnZd leL;kd tky ilkfj izHk`frd ys[kuh la vuqizkf.kr HksyA ,fg varjky es bZ izf;k nqb xksV vkvksj
nsy xsyA ,fg leLr vk;ked laxsa eSfFkyh x| fodflr Hksy vk e'k% dF; fn'kk la lqiq"V HksyA ,d fn'kk fFkd fo'ofo|ky; es izkjaHk f'k{k.k&i)fr vk
rFkk f'kYid Lrj ij fukks[k vk fuMj Hk* xsy vfNA nkslj fn'kk fFkd ih&,p- Mh- rFkk Mh- fyV~d mikfk gsrq fyf[kr 'kksk&izcakA
eSfFkyh x|d nkslj mikax] tdjk o.kZukRed x| dgy xsy vfN] 'kq) ,fg nquw vfHkf;k la lsgks eSfFkyh x|d vuq'khyu] vuqlakku vkykspuk vkfn
:i la gscfu es fodflr dgy tk,rA vkRedFkkd fNV&QqV ,dkk Vk ijaijk dsa ;Fks"V fodkld volj HksVySdA eqnk rRokfHkfuos'ku eSfFkyhd vkykspuk es
dsa etxwr djckd ysy vk ,fg fokk dsa le`f) nsckd ysy gfjeksgu >kd de Hksy vfNA lekykspukd vkBks rRo izfrHkk] ln;rk] varn`fZ "V] fu"i{krk]
nsu LrqR; vfNA fgudj ^thou&;k=kk* iqLrd eSfFkyh x| es vkRedFkkd fodkld lgkuqHkwfr] bZekunkjh vkSfpR;cksk] vH;kl vkfn es la dksuks&us&dksuks rRod
ijaijk ysy ekby&LVksud :i es fufoZokn :isa ifjxf.kr gks,rA vksuk ,fg la ;fRdafpr mis{kk gksbr jgy vfN vk ls Hksy izk;% mikfk gsrq fy[ky vkykspuk
iwoZgq ,fg fn'kk es iz;kl izkjaHk Hksy] eqnk ls viu ifjfpfr ufg cuk ldyA esA vksuk lkfgR;d bfrgkl ys[ku lsgks ,fg laoxZ dsa cy nsyd vfNA
x|d fodkld :ijs[kk @ 15 16 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
oLrqr% jpukdkj vk ikBdd chp iqy cu,ckd e es] lekykspd] nquw
oxZd ysy vyx&vyx lsgks f;k'khy jgSr NfFkA ,fg izf;k es jpukdkjd
fr lekykspdd ijh{k.k dlkSVh la ifj'kksfkr gksbr vfNA LokHkkfod :i la
frd xq.k vk nks"k nquwd vUos"k.k gksbr vfNA eqnk] jpukdkj ,djk cnkZ'r
ufg d* icSr NfFkA lekykspd ,fg dksiHkktu cuckd izf;k la cp, pkgSr
NfFkA t[ku fd vis{kk vfN jpukdkj la lgu'khyrkd vk lekykspd la
fuHkhZdrkdA eSfFkyh es vksuk vfkdka'k oLrqokfn, leh{kk Hksy vfN] dykoknh
leh{kk ufg,a tdkaA eqnk] oLrqoknh leh{kk es lsgks izkjaHk es lS)kafrd leh{kk
gksbr jgy vfNA eksgu Hkkj}kt] dqykuUn feJ] jekuUn >k ^je.k*] izHk`fr viu vkkqfud eSfFkyh
leh{kk dsa izof` kewyd cukSyfu vfN ls kfj iz'kaluh;A okLrfod :isa izof` kxrs
leh{kk jpukd lax mfpr U;k; d* icSr vfNA lkfgR; ij ,d utfj
eSfFkyhd rF;kRed x|d fodkl oLrqr% ,[kugqa ekSfyd :isa ufg,a tdka
izkjaHk Hksy vfNA eSfFkyhd ek;es Ldwy es i<+kSuh izkjaHk Hksyk lUrka VsDLV cqd
dfeVh iksFkh lHkd vuqokn djkSyd] rdj vfrfjDr osn&mifu"kn lHkd vuqokn dksuks lkfgfR;d fr] ledkyhu thou&kkjkd vuqfr gksbr vfNA lkekU;
Hksy vk Hk* jgy vfNA ga] bfrgkld dksfV es ifjxf.kr fdNq iqLrd vo'; tu thoud ifjos'k vk ekufldrkd ifjp; lkfgR; nSr vfNA vb ifjp;
vk;y vfN] tkfg es izeq[k fFkd e- ijes'oj >kd ^fefFkyk rRo&foe'kZ*] ^eSfFkyh nsckd e es dksugqa dykfrd ysy ^f'kYi*d mikns;rk izcy Hk* mBSr vfNA
vdkneh la izdkf'kr misUnz Bkdqjd ^fefFkykd bfrgkl* vkfnA fo"k; oLrqd p;u ra lHk jpukdkj ledkyhu lekts la djSr vfN] lektd
eqnk eSfFkyh lkfgR;d loZrksUeq[kh fodkld ysy eSfFkyh x|d lHk laoxZd leLr izk.kh viu ifjos'kd ?kVukoyh la ra ifjfpr jfgrs Vk vfN] r[ku vb
le`f) vko';d vfN vk lHk fn'kk es ,dj x| lHk rjgsa ;qxhu jkx] y;] fLFkfr es dksuks jpukdkjd jpuk fo'ks"k ta fdudks uohu yxSr Nfu] ra ewy
rky la pfy d,( fo"k; vk f'kYi nquw Lrj ij viu uwrurk vk ekSfydrkd dkj.k vksfg dF;d miLFkkiu 'kSyh gksbr vfNA f'kYi vk 'kSyh ,d Vk ,gsu
LFkkiuk d, ld, rsgu iz;kl gks,ckd pkghA eqnk i=k&if=kdk vk iqLrdd dwaph gksbr vfN] tkfg la peRr Hk* d* dksuks fo"k; izs{kdd lks>ka uohurkd
izdk'ku lqfokkd vHkko x|d fodkld izcy ckkd cfu vk;y vfNA lax mifLFkkfir gksbr vfNA mnkgj.k ysy jktdey pkSkjhd nw Vk dFkk ^pUujnkl*
vk ^dhrZfu;ka* dsa ysy tk ldSr vfNA ,Dds fo"k; ij fy[ky bZ nw Vk dFkk
ta fHkUu yxSr vfN ra ,dj ewy dkj.k f'kYis fFkdA vly es ifjos'kd leLr
?kVuk] ts jpukdkjd eksu&izk.k dsa m}sfyr djSr vfN] jpukdkjd laosnu'khy
ekufldrk dsa fuf'apr Hk* d* cSl* uab nSr vfN] ls f'kYisd la;ksx la viu
izHkko'kkyh Lo:i xzg.k djSr vfNA vb vFkZ es fo"k; la f'kYid lacak vR;ar
?kfu"B vfNA
MkW- uxsUnz 'kSyh dsa fo'ks"k Hkkf"kd lajpuk ekuSr NfFkA vly es f'kYi
dsa 'kSyhd i;kZ; ufg dgy tk ldSr vfNA eqnk fdNq vFkZ es f'kYi] dyk]
:i] 'kSyh] jhfr vkfnd fLFkfr vkil es xe jgSr vfNA vb ifjfLFkfrd
lw{erk la ifjfpr gksbr dksuks Hkk"kkd v;;u&ijh{k.k ,d Vk [kkl vFkZ j[kSr
vfNA
f'kYi vk 'kSyhd dkj.k frd ekSfydrk ns[kck ysy eSfFkyhd nw Vk

x|d fodkld :ijs[kk @ 17 18 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';


egRoiw.kZ fr doh'oj pUnk >k jfpr ^fefFkyk Hkk"kk jkek;.k* vk egkdfo d;yfuA caxykd fo}ku egkegksik;k; gjizlkn 'kkL=kh] ih- lh- ckxph] lquhfr
ykynkl jfpr ^jes'oj pfjr jkek;.k* dsa ns[ky t;ckd pkghA frd vb dqekj pVthZ] uxsUnz ukFk xqIr] [kxsUnzukFk fe=k] foeku fcgkjh etwenkj vkfn
uohurkd ewy dkj.k f'kYis fFkdA bZ ckr vU;kU;ks dSd Vk jpukd ijh{k.k yksdfu vkkqfud eSfFkyhd fodkl es vizfre ;ksxnku nsyfuA*1
es lR; gksbr vfNA
eSfFkyh es izse] o"kkZ] xzh"e] HkfDr] fofr vkfn ij fHkUu&fHkUu jpukdkjd 1- ledkyhu lkfgR; vks leh{kk@MkW- cspu@i`- 66
fHkUu&fHkUu jpuk vyx&vyx Hkko&ckskd vfN] ra rdj ewy dkj.k f'kYi vk i=kdkfjrkd fodkl ij ppkZ djSr cspu vkxw dgSr NfFk] ^i=kdkfjrkd
'kSfy, fFkdA fodkl 1905 bZ- la eSfFkyh es Hksy] t[ku fd] ^eSfFky&fgr&lkku* uked if=kdkd
fo|kifr la y* d* vkb kfjd eSfFkyh dforkd fodkl e es dSd izdk'ku Jh ekqlwnu >k t;iqj d;yfuA lu~ 1906 bZ- es ^fefFkykeksn* vk
Vk egRoiw.kZ eksM+ vk;yA lHk eksM+ ij f'kYi vk 'kSyh viu lkeF;Zoku Lo:id Qsj ^fefFkyk fefgj*d izdk'ku vkjaHk HksyA*1
lax Bk<+ HksyA eqnk eSfFkyh vkykspuk&lkfgR;d utfj vb fn'kk es uba mByA i=kdkfjrkd fodkld ekns cspud er lR; NfuA nqxkZukFk >k ^Jh'k*
f'kYi ,oa 'kSyhd lax fo"k; oLrqd varjaxrk ns[kcSr eSfFkyh dforkd lw{erj lsgks b,g xi dgSr NfFk2A eqnk vkkqfud eSfFkyh lkfgR;d lw=kikrd izlax
v;;u drsd egRoiw.kZ vfN] ls xaHkhjrk la uba cw>y xsyA twrk es [khj ijfl cspud erd la'kksku d;y tk ldSr vfNA
d* [kksvk;c drsd izHkkodkjh gks;r] ls ds uba tuSr vfN \ f'kYi vk 'kSyhd eSfFkyh lkfgR;d vkkqfudrk dsa nw :i es rkdy tk ldSr vfN ifgy
b,g egRo vfNA ra fo"k;xr vk nkslj 'kSyhxrA ,fg nquw n`f"Vdks.k la eSfFkyh lkfgR; es vkkqfudrk
f'kYi vk 'kSyhd vuq'khyu es ;ku j[kckd fFkd] ts Hkk"kk] f'kYi vk vk uorkd HkkoHkwfe doh'oj pUnk >k la iwoZfg euckskd lkfgR;d es uhd
jpuk 'kSyhd oSKkfud v;;u gksA lkekU;r;k Hkk"kkd pkfj Vk midj.k ekuy tdka ifjyf{kr gksbr vfNA
xsy vfN o.kZ] 'kCn] okD; vk vFkZA vgh vkkkj ij Hkk"kk&foKku] okD;&foKku egkdfo eucksk la iwoZ izcakkRed 'kSyh es eSfFkyh es dkO; jpukd ijaijk
vk vFkZ&foKkud v;;u gksbr vfNA eSfFkyh dfork vk vku fokkd ijh{k.k ufg NyA eqDrd dkO;d jpuk gksbrks Ny] rdj fo"k;&oLrq vfkdka'kr%
vb dlkSVh ij vko';d vfNA fcac vk izrhdd v;;u lsgks 'kSfy,d varxZr jkkk&".kd izse&fo"k;d Ny vFkok HkfDrijd NyA egkdfo eucksk ,fg ijaijk
vcSr vfNA ikBdd n; es dforkd izos'k fcac vk izrhdsd ek;es gksbr dsa rksfM+ d* ,d Vk uo ijaijkd LFkkiuk d;yfu vk ^".k&tUe* egkdkO;d
vfN vk ,djs lgk;rk la dfork] ikBdd euh"kk dsa mn~cq) djSr vfNA rsa jpuk d;yfuA ,fg fr es egkdfo viu vn~Hkqr lkgld ifjp; nsyfu
bZ ckr lgt izekf.kr vfN ts f'kYi vk 'kSyhd vuq'khyu] lkfgR;&fu"ifkd vfNA 'kCn iz;ksxd vkkqfudrk] rRlkef;d yksdksfDr vk eqgkojk iz;ksxd
vuq'khyu gks;rA mR"Vrk] BsB 'kCn&iz;ksxd 'kSyh] vyadkj ;kstukd uohurk] Nan&fuc)rkd
eSfFkyh lkfgR; es vkkqfudrkd izos'kd i'pkr trsd ifjokZu vk izxfr dkS'ky] fo"k;xr uwrurk lHk rjgd vkkqfudrk vkfu] eSfFkyh lkfgR; es ,d
vk;y vfN] rdj tfM+ idM+ck ysy ra bZ vkvksj cslh egRoiw.kZ Hk* mBy vfNA Vk uo 'kSyhd LFkkiuk d;yfu vk rdjfg cy ij eSfFkyh es bZ izo`fk c<+Sr
vksuk vkkqfud le; es vb dykoknh vuq'khyu ij vaxqjh mBsfugkj yksdd xsyA QyLo:i izcakkRed 'kSyh es lkfgR;&l`tud ,d Vk ijaijk vkfc xsy
deh ufg vfN] eqnk lR; lR; gksbr vfNA lkfgR;&leh{kk djck dky dNqvk vk eSfFkyh lkfgR;d izcakkRed fokk txft;kj Hksy] izfrf"Br Hksy] izpfyr
keZ viukSukb mfpr ufgA vkkqfud eSfFkyh lkfgR;d leh{kk djSr dky b,g Hksy] iz'kaflr HksyA dkO; dgckd] ltZuk djckd 'kSyh es vkqukru iz;ksxd
dykoknh leh{kk dksuks nw Vk jpukdkjd frd fHkUurk Li"V d* ldSr vfNA izf;k izkjaHk HksyA
^funZ;h lklq* vkfd ^dU;knku* vkfd ^ikjks*] ^uorqfjvk* vkfd ^ekqJko.kh* flikgh fonzksgd i'pkr yksd jk"VO;kih Lora=krkd izfr cslh lps"V HksyA
dksuk d* vyx& vyx jpuk Hk* ldy] rdj Li"Vrk f'kYi vk 'kSyhd enfr vaxzsth f'k{kkd izpkj&izlkj nsf[k yksd ekr`Hkk"kkd mRFkkud izfr tkx:d HksyA
la cslh laHko vfNA eSfFkfy;gq es yksdd psruk LQqfVr HksyA x| es lsgks jpuk izkjaHk HksyA uo
^eSfFkyh es vkkqfudrk ;k vkkqfud eSfFkyh lkfgR;d lw=kikr i=kdkfjrk 'kSfy,a lkfgR; es ;FkkFkZ ckrd miLFkkiuk gksv; ykxyA r[ku dksuk ufg dgy
la Hksy vfN] tdj eq[; Hkwfedk doh'oj pUnk >k ,oa tktZ fxz;lZu rS;kj tk;] ts eSfFkyh lkfgR; es vkkqfudrkd lw=kikr HksyA vkkqfudrk vk;y] vo';
vk/kqfud eSfFkyh lkfgR; ij ,d utfj @ 19 20 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
vk;y] vk ls vk;y euckskd lkfgR; la( ga] bZ ckr Qjkd] ts doh'oj pUnk vFkok vksfg la iwoZd fFkd vk rhuwd jpukdky eSfFkyh izcakdkO;d 'kS'kokoLFkk
>kd lkfgR; es bZ cslh Hkdjkj HksyA fgudj lkfgR; es FkksM+sd vkvksjks 'kSfYid fFkdA 'kSyhxr ts dksuks lkekU;ks peRdkj ,fg rhuw es HksVSr vfN] ls vrqfyr
uwrurk vk;yA dgy tk;rA bZ le; eSfFkyh&izcak dkO;d mn~Hkod le; fFkd] rFkkfi ,fg
es 'kSfYid peRdkj viwoZ vfNA lgt 'kCn] izpfyr yksdksfDr] izHkkodkjh
1- ,stu@i`- 66&67 Hkk"kk&'kSyh] ekfeZd miLFkkiu 'kSyhd izkpq;Z ,fg es loZ=k HksVSr vfNA izek.k&Lo:i
2- eS- lkfgR;d bfrgkl@MkW- nqxkZukFk >k ^Jh'k* i`- 122 fdNq va'k m)`r vfN %
uwrurk fo"k;&oLrq es lsgks vk;yA fo"k;&oLrq es ts loZizFke uohurk drks ,d fnol chfr xsy] gfj iquq gFkxj xksjxj HksyA
vk;y] ls fFkd ;qxd ;FkkrF; fp=k.kA ls dksu Bke tr, ufg tkfFk] d; csj vaxugq lkSa cgjkfFkA
viu jpuk es vfr lkkkj.k] loZizpfyr vk loZckskxE; 'kCnd iz;ksxd }kj mij lkSa kfj&kfj vkfu] gj[kfFk galfFk ;'kksnk jkuhA
dkj.ksa doh'oj pUnk >k vR;ar yksdfiz; jpukdkj lkfcr HksykgA loZfofk d; csj vkfx gkFk lkSa Nhuq] d; csj idykg rdyk chuqA
'kSyhxr uwrurkd mUuk;d g,ckd dkj.ksa ts yksdfiz;rk HksVy gksbfu] eqnk izkphu ".k tUe
ik[kaMh lHk la mis{kks de ufg HksVyfuA ckykiud papyrk dsa |ksfrr djckd 'kSyh es jpukdkjd dYiuk'khyrk vn~Hkqr
doh'oj pUnk >k dsa bfrgkldkj yksdfu ;qxlafkd dfo dgydfu vfN] NVk vkfu nsus vfNA
eqnk ewy :i la ge bZ dg* pkgSr Nh] ts eSfFkyh lkfgR; es uorkd tkfg Hkko vjs ckck nkokuy ln`'k yadk tkjS,
Hkwfed fuekZ.k eucksk d;yfu rdj loZrksUeq[kh fodkl fgudfg lkfgR; es vkEehZ yads'ks rfud lHk ikis ejS,
HksyA i| jpukd vfrfjDr vkugqa {ks=k es uo iz;ksxd iz.ksrk b,g HksykgA iM+k js js ckcw fdNq u eu dkcw ijS,
fo|kifrd x|&i| fefJr iksFkhd eSfFkyh vuqokn d*d* eSfFkyh es vuqokn fcuk ikfu yadu`ifr iVjkuh ejS,A
lkfgR; vk x| lkfgR;d ijaijk b,g pyvksyfuA fefFkyk Hkk"kk jkek;.k
eSfFkyh lkfgR; es eucksk vk pUnk >kd i'pkr~ iwoZorhZ jpukdkj la yadk tj; vukFk lu] c<+y Toky vkdk'k
izsj.kk&xzg.k] oSKkfud ;qxd izxfr] ns'k&fons'kd lkfgR; la ifjp; vk i=k&if=kdkd jfo lu dfi rfg chp es] 'kksfHkr izHkk izdk'k
izdk'kud enfr la f'kYi&'kSyh es vusd izdkjd uwrurk vk;yA ifgus izseijd vuy vfuy lkfgR; lkSa] yadk dS vuqeku
vFkok HkfDrijd eqDrd xhr fy[ky tkbr NyA eqnk izcakdkO; vk x| ys[kud Hkje dey Nu es ;Fkk f=kiqjfg :nzd ckuA
fofok Lo:i tkfg rjgsa eSfFkyh es gksv; ykxy] ls vkkqfudrsd izek.k NyA yky nkl
,fg vkkqfudrk dsa i=k&if=kdkd izdk'kud izkjaHk Hksyk la rwy HksVySd vk es&es rhuw egkdkO;d voyksdu la bZ ckr lks>ka vcSr vfN] ts bZ rhu jpukdkj
,fg lkfgR;d lHk fokk es 'kSyhd vkqukru Lo:id LFkkiuk gksv; ykxyA yksdfu viu&viu fr es dF;d vis{kk 'kSyh es dusdks de lQyrk ufg
eSfFkyh es izcak dkO;d ijaijkd izkjaHk ge ^".ktUe* la ekuSr Nh] lks izkIr d;yfu vfNA laiw.kZ fr es o.kZ] 'kCn] okD; vk vFkZd vuqie iz;ksx
bZ eSfFkyhd ifgy izcak dkO; fFkdA vksuk ^eSfFkyh lkfgR;d bfrgkl* es nqxkZukFk la y{;kFkZ izrhr dj,ckd lkeF;Z] 'kSfYid peRdkjd ;ksx la vk;y vfNA
>k ^Jh'k* euckskd ".k tUe dsa dFkkdkO;d fcuk dksuks ifjHkk"kk fLFkj d;us Jh fo|kfuokl feJd 'kCn es ^dkO; Hkk"kk ds :i es ,d rhljk Lrj
dFkkdkO; dfg nsus NfFkA iqu% ,gh iksFkh es vkxw ,djk eSfFkyhd izFke egkdkO; Hkh tqM+ tkrk gSA og Lrj gS y;cksk dkA ;g y;cksk JO;xq.k ds :i es ofu
ekuSr NfFkA dfg ufg fgudj nquw mfDr es lR; dksu fFkdA izcakkRed 'kSyh O;oLFkk ds }kjk dHkh&dHkh ;frHkax ds }kjk Hkh] dyk?kkr ;k lqjk?kkr ds }kjk
es fy[ky dkO; dsa egkdkO; vk [kaMdkO; nw dksfV es ckaVyk ij [kaMdkO;d rFkk vkaf'kd Hkhrjh ;k ckgjh rqdksa ds }kjk vkSj mlls Hkh vfkd ,d 'kCn ;k
jpukd izkjaHk bfrgkldkj yksdfud lwpukd vkkkj ij 1909 bZ- fFkdA incak ;k izR;; ;k ,d izdkj dh lajpuk dh iqujko`fk ds }kjk] ml iqujko`fk
euckskd ^".ktUe*] pUnk >kd ^fefFkyk Hkk"kk jkek;.k* vk yky nkld es Hkax ds }kjk Hkh lkFkZdrk dk ,d u;k vk;ke tksM+ nsrk gS] fdarq bl rhljs
^jes'oj&pfjr&jkek;.k* rhuw izcakdkO; chle 'krkCnhd ifgy&nkslj n'kd vk;ke dks idM+us ds fy, fo'ys"k.kh; lkexzh foiqyrk es miyCk gksuh pkfg,(
vk/kqfud eSfFkyh lkfgR; ij ,d utfj @ 21 22 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
tSls iwjh dfork] dgkuh] miU;kl ;k egkdkO;A*1 lkfgR; 'kkfCnddyk fFkdA dksuks jpuk fo'ks"k] Hkk"kkd lhek es cUgk;y ,dfu"B
,fg y;&cksk] ofu O;oLFkk] incak] iqujko`fk bR;kfnd ysy jpukdkj oLrq fFkdA fr] Hkk"kk dsa vk 'kCn dsa] us dsoy viu ek;e cucSr vfN]
dsa ;Fks"V volj HksVyfuA frd foiqy dk;k] frdkjd foiqy 'kCn&Kku] vfirq vks Hkk"kkd varLry es tUe lsgks ySr vfNA lR; ra bZgks fFkd ts Hkk"kkd
dYiuk'khyrk] 'kSyh p;ud pkrq;Z vkfnd ;ksxnku la vkIykfor Hk* d* fof'k"V lacak fopkj la vfN] fparu la vfN Hkk"kkd vHkko es euq"; lkspc can d*
nsrA jpukd lanHkZ es Hkk"kkd izfr ,oa lajpjuk dsa Li"V djckd {kers vksdj
1- jhfr foKku@Jh fo|kfuokl feJ@i`- 23 'kSyhd Lo:i gksbr vfNA
'kSyh es vuqie Lo:id lax mifLFkr HksyA egkdkO;d jpukd lanHkZ es fdafpr mnkgj.k la rRdky bZ dfg vkxw
,fg rhuw frd ckn eSfFkyh es egkdkO;d ka[kyk izkjaHk HksyA cnzhukFk c<+y t;ckd pkgh] ts eSfFkyh egkdkO;d fo"k;&oLrq iqjku jfgrgq 'kSyh,d
>kd ^,dkoyh ifj.k;*] eqa- j?kquUnu nkld ^lqHknzkgj.k*] ra=kukFk >kd ^dhpd dkj.ksa iz'kaflr vfN vk fr es jkspdrk] ,drkurk vk vkd"kZ.k vkfu ldy
ok* rFkk ^".kpfjr*] lhrkjke >kd ^vacpfjr*] thoukFk >kd ^jko.kok*] vfNA izca k dkO;d nkslj mifokk fFkd [kaMdkO;A 'kkL=kh; cakud dkj.ksa lsgks
nhukukFk ikBd ^cakq*d ^pk.kD;*] Jh y{e.k >kd ^xaxk* rFkk ^'kkafrnwr*] laHko vfN] ts eSfFkyh egkdkO;d lwph uegj ufg vfN eqnk [kaMdkO;d jpuk
dk'khdkUr feJ ^ekqi*d ^jkkk fojg*] oS|ukFk efYyd ^fokq*d ^lhrk;u*] lqjsUnz vis{kkr cslh Hksy vfNA eqnk] ts Hksy vfN] rkfg es vfkdka'kd fo"k;&oLrq
>k ^lqeu*d ^nkorh*] cqf)kkjh flag ^jekdj*d ^Le`fr lgh*] ekdZ.Ms; izoklhd oSg keZ&dFkk] uhfr dFkk] mik[;ku] egkHkkjr] iqjk.k vkfnd vkkkj ij vfNA
^vxLR;kf;uh*] fdj.kthd ^ijk'kj* izHk`fr egRoiw.kZ egkdkO; lHk fFkdA 1947 la iwoZ [kaMdkO;d ts lwph vfN] rkfg es bfrgkldkj yksdfu Nsnh >k
tsuk fd egkdkO;d ukes la Li"V vfN] izk;% lHk egkdkO;d vkkkj ^f}toj*d ^dksbyhnwrh* dsa lsgks [kaMdkO; ekfu usus NfFkA eqnk ,djk [kaMdkO;
rRo jkek;.k] egkHkkjr] Jhen~Hkkxor] osn vFkok laLrd izkphu xzaFk lHk fFkdA ekuck es gejk fojksk vfNA vksuk ts gks] ,r* gej vHkh"V 'kSyhd ppkZ djc
,fg lHk oLrqd fp=k.k izk;% laLr lkfgR; es iwoZfg Hk* pqdy NyA eqnk rS;ks] vfNA rsa ,rck dgc vko';d vfN] ts ^dksbyhnwrh* lans'k&dkO; tdka fy[ky
fo"k;d iqujko`fk ikBdd euksefLr"d dsa mfcv,ckd volj ufg nsyd vk Hkkjroklhd ijra=krkd eu'psruk fFkdA 'kSyh iz'kaluh; vfN] 'yk?kuh; vfNA
lHk fr dsa ;Fkk;ksX; iz'kalk HksVySd] rdj ,d ek=k dkj.k fFkd oLrq miLFkkiud eSfFkyh [kaMdkO;d {ks=k es vfHkuo Hkkokkjkd LFkkiuk izkjaHk Hksy vfN Jh
'kSyh] vfHkO;atukd izfofkA misUnzukFk >k ^O;kl*d ^laU;klh* laA ^laU;klh*d i'pkr mYys[kuh; [kaMdkO;
pfj=k&fp=k.k es euksfo'ys"k.k] izfr&fp=k.k es ekuohdj.k] vyadkj&;kstuk fFkd dsnkjukFk ykHkd ^yf[kek jkuh* rFkk ^Hkkjrh*] jekdjd ^'kj'k;k* vkfnA
es inykfyR; vkfn la fofok jpukdkj fofok 'kSyhd vkJ; ysyfu vfNA ^laU;klh* [kaMdkO; vaxjsth&f'kYid vkkkj ij fy[ky xsy vfNA bZ fr lxZc)
lSjUkzhd os'k es nzkSinhd vkRelaLdkj dsa |ksfrr djSr vk pk.kD;d ufg vfNA ik'pkR; 'kSyh es iafDrd x.kukd vkkkj ij ,dj jpuk Hksy vfNA
vkRefparu dsa |ksfrr djSr euksfo'ys"k.kd fdNq mnkgj.k ,uk vfN gejk cq>us euksjatu >kd ^baVm?kuh* izk;% ,lxj ,gu fr fFkd ts 'kkL=k
'kknwZyh dh d[kugqa ikc, =kkl iqjkud ifjikVh la vyx gfV d* uwru f'kYid lax mifLFkr HksyA
tacdw d \ dh Tofyr vaxkj vkd"kZd vk izHkkodkjh 'kSyh es jpy vku [kaMdkO; lHk es la izeq[k
r`.kp; ld; >kafi \ dh pEidokl vfN O;klthd ^iru*] vejsUnz feJd ^,dyO;*] y{e.k >kd ^mRlxZ* vkfnA
Hkzej rqPN d, ld, drgq miHkksx \ eqDrd dkO; es] muSle 'krkCnhd izkjaHk la vkb kfj vusd eksM+ mifLFkr
dhpd ok Hksy vfNA Nan] vyadkj] in] y;] rky vkfnd vkkkj ij fofp=k&fofp=k ifjorZu
jfo le nhIr vuy le nkgd] ifo le dfBu dBksj HksyA jl&cksk] Hkko&ckskd vn~Hkqr Lo:i mifLFkr HksyA eucksk] pank >k vk
dksuks xw<+re Hkkoexu fpark la vkRe&foHkksj ykynkld lkfgR; es fo"k;xr] Hkk"kkxr kafr vk;y ra vkxw vkfc d* vkvksjks
vax&vax la pwc, ViVi lqn`<+ vkRefo'okl uohurkd vkg~oku HksyA
ikVfyiq=kd tuiFk ij ds ?kwfe jgy xr =kkl \ lu~ 1905 es i=kdkfjrk izkjaHk HksyA yksd viu ekr`Hkk"kkd izfr tkx:d
pk.kD; Hk* pqdy NyA ns'k ijra=krkd cks> rj dqpk jgy NyA vaxzstd dq'kklu la
vk/kqfud eSfFkyh lkfgR; ij ,d utfj @ 23 24 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
leLr Hkkjrh; ukxfjd =kLr NyA vksdj Hkkoukd vfHkO;fDr gks;c vko';d jktdeyd Lojxakk] fdlqud vkReusin izdkf'kr HksyA jktdey y;] xhr]
Ny] eqnk vfHkO;Dr djckd ysy [krjkd igkM+ lks>ka Bk<+ NyA dq'kkldd Nan] ;fr vkfn lHk la cslh egRo dfork es 'kCn dsa nsyfu] f'kYi dsa nsyfu
dq'kklu ukxfjdd eqag dsa lhfc nsus NySdA ,gsu ifjfLFkfr es jpukdkjd %
nkf;Ro NySd ts vks ukxfjd dsa lgh fn'kk&funsZ'k nSfFkA lkfgR; dksugqa ,sfrgkfld dfork vkc ufg vfN ukf;dk Hksn] u[k f'k[k flaxkj
kafrd vxqvk jgy vfNA lkfgR; es ukxfjdd ;FkkfLFkfrd fp=k.k vko';d dfork ufg vfN jfrfoijhrd muVy xzhokgkj
NySdA dfork fFkd tuthoud vfXuizk.k t;?kks"k
laiw.kZ lekt es fo{kksHk vk dqaBkd okrkoj.k ilfj xsy NyA Hkk"kk&'kSyh xk,c] xkfcd, fj>k,c ufg fFkd dfork jktdey
ok 'kCn&foU;kld <ax rrsd us ifjofrZr Hk* xsy ts izkP; dfork cgqr ikNw ,fg rjgsa eSfFkyh dfork ,dckbxs f'k[kj ij igqafp xsyA vn~Hkqr :i la uohure
jfg xsyA vaxzsth es ts dfork ^fyfjd* dgcSr Ny] eSfFkyh es ,fg 'kSyhd ijaijkd izkjaHk xsyA dksuks rjgd ^okn* vFkok vkanksyu la eqDr Hk* d* uwru
dfork uohu xhfrdkO; dgkc* ykxyA vFkkZr~ caxyk] fgUnh vk vaxzsthd fefJr fcac izrhd] oksfDr] oSfp=; vkfn la dforkd uwru Lo:i cuy vk rdj
izHkko rFkk ns'k&ns'kkarjd laidZd dkj.ksa eSfFkyh dfork ij vn~Hkqr izHkko iM+yA vuq;k;h i;kZIr la[;k es HksyA fgudk laxsa dkO;&l`tud izf;k es tqVy jgykg
dforkd 'kSyh es ekSfyd ifjorZu yf{kr gksv; ykxyA ek;kuUn feJ] lksenso] js.kq] kwedsrq] khjsanz] jekuUn js.kq] izHk`frA vk fgudj
,fg lHk n`f"V,a 1925 bZ-d i'pkrd eSfFkyh dforkd 'kSyhxr fo'ys"k.k ikNka ,gh 'kSyh es dkO;&lalkjd cgko pyyA jpukdkj v,ykg xaxs'k xqatu]
d;us bZ rF; lks>ka vcSr vfN] ts izxhr&dkO;d Lo:i es pyy ,d Vk dkO;d thodkUr] dhfrZ ukjk;.k] egkizdk'k] iw.ksZUnq pkSkjh] lqdkUr lkse] HkheukFk >k]
'kSyh cgqr ckn kfj uaxjkbr&uaxjkbr vcSr jgy rk chpfg es izxfrokn] iz;ksxokn egsUnz] misUnz nks"kh] mn;pUnz >k ^fouksn*] yfyrs'k feJ] jkeykspu Bkdqj] dq.kky]
vk vkkqfud dfork vkfc xsyA vfXuiq"i foHkwfr vkuUn] v'kksd] rkjkuUn fo;ksxh] dsnkj dkuu] f'ko'kadj
vksuk uohu xhfrdkO;d vkRekfHkO;fDr ewyd rRo pUnk >kd jpuk la Jhfuokl] ukjk;.kth] gjs".k >k] ujsUnz] lkjax dqekj] jes'k] fo|kuUn >k] izHk`frA
mHkj* ykxy NyA eqnk lu~ 1925 vcSr&vcSr bZ csl Hkdjkj Hksy vk rdj eSfFkyh dforkd {ks=k es ,fg rjgsa vk;y vkkqfudrk es 'kSyh dsa vR;ar
loZJs"B mUuk;d ekuy tkbr NfFk Hkqous'oj flag ^Hkqou*A Hkqoud i'pkr dfork xaHkhjrk la ysy xsyA ,d fnl dfo yksdfud lw{e n`f"V ta lektd izR;sd
dsa vkvksjks uohuksUeq[k djckd Js; tkbr Nfu oS|ukFk feJ ^;k=kh*d ukesA ukxfjdd vry eksu es mBSr euksHkko] osnuk] kafrd cqycqyk dsa ns[kckd
;k=kh d dkO; kkjk es vn~Hkqr 'kSyh] vfHkuo iz;ksx Hksy vfNA 'kSyhd Hkk"kk ysy lkdka{k Hksykg] ra nkslj fnl vksfg euksHkko dsa lektd izR;sd ukxfjd
oSKkfud fo'ys"k.kd vkkkj ij ,fg es ofu foKku] vFkZ foKku] :i foKku] kfj igqapsckd ysy mke la mke] izHkkodkjh vk vkd"kZd 'kSyh es <kfj nsck
okD; foKku] fcac&izrhd vkfn lHk rjgsa fgudj dforkd 'kSyh vfHkuo vfNA es lQy Hk* ldykgA 'kSyhd dkj.ksa bZ dfork lHk vR;ar uksNjkg lkfcr Hksy]
Hkk"kk 'kSyhd mke izHkkoksRikndrk vk 'kCn ;kstukd dkseyrk vkg~yknd vfNA ts tuekuld lwry fonzksgh Hkkouk dsa uksNfj&uksNfj txsckd ysy vfkdkfkd
laKk] loZuke] fo'ks"k.k] f;kin] dkjd] opu] fyax vkfnd o iz;ksx la mRiUu lQy Hk*
peRdkjd ekfeZd fo'ys"k.k fgudj jpuk es ns[kkvksy tk ldSr vfNA 1941 ldyA
bZ- d fgudj dforkd ikafr nz"VO; vfN
rksgj eu nkSM+Sr Ng dksBkd fn'k eSfFkyh lkfgR; es ekSfyd dFkkys[kud ijaijk izkjaHk Hksy vfN ewy:i la orZeku
iS?k&iS?k kuhd fn'k njckj fn'k 'krkCnhd pkfje&ikape n'kd laA ,fg la iwoZ eSfFkyh es dFkkys[kud uke ij
xjhcd fn'k ddj tkbr Nb utfj laLrd dFkk lHkd vuqokns pySr NyA izks- gfjeksgu >kd ^iz.kE; nsork*d
ds rdb vfN gej uksjd kkj fn'k izdk'ku la eSfFkyh dFkk&lkfgR;d bZ vtksg Vkax ,dk,d leFkZ Hk* xsy vk
dfod LoIu fgudj Hkk"kk 'kSyh] oLrq&miLFkkiud 'kSyh] dF;&p;ud izo`fk] dFkk&ys[kud
lqeu] ;k=kh] ra=kukFk] ekqi] izHk`fr jpukdkjd jpuk'khyrk es vuqie 'kSyhd f'kYi] ,dk,d eSfFkyhd dFkk lkfgR; es vkanksyu vkfu nsydA ,fg le;
NVk la eSfFkyh dfork vuqizkf.kr gksbr jgyA ;k=khd ^fp=kk*d izdk'ku ckn kfj i=k&if=kdkd izdk'ku [kwc gksv; ykxy NyA oSnsgh if=kdkd izdk'ku izkjaHk
vk/kqfud eSfFkyh lkfgR; ij ,d utfj @ 25 26 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
HksyA vksfg la iwoZ ^fefFkyk eksn*] ^fefFkyk fefgj*] ^eSfFkyh izHkkdj*] ^fefFkyk eueksgu >k] mekukFk >k] misUnzukFk >k ^O;kl*] lqkka'kq 'ks[kj pkSkjh izHk`frA
fe=k*] ^eSfFky cakq*] ^foHkwfr*] ^Hkkjrh* vkfn if=kdk lHk NiSr NyA ,fg le; okrkoj.kd fo'ys"k.k] ik=kd euksfo'ys"k.k vk lgt Hkk"kk 'kSyh es ;FkkFkZ&fu:i.k
es ,r; dFkk&ys[ku vFkok dFkk okpud ts ijaijk Ny] ls Ny gkl&ifjgkld fgudk yksdfud dFkkd ewy ms'; jgyA
:i es] dksuks izse&izlaxd :i es mBkvksy xsy ckr dsa lks>&likV <axsa dfg lu~ 1950 d ckn rFkk 1960 d iwod Z dFkkdkj es la ize[q k NfFk ef.kin~e]
nscA ,fg dfg nsck es dksuks dykRedrk] dksuks xq.kkRedrk ns[kk;c vko';d xksfoUn >k] pUnzukFk feJ ^vej*] jkkk".k >k ^cgsM+*] 'kSysUnz eksgu >k] fdlqu]
ufg NyA ,gsu ckr ufg Ny] ts ifjos'k es dF;d vHkko NySdA dkj.k] ts yfyr] jktdey] ek;kuUn] lksenso] khjsUnz] cyjke] kwedsrq] fyyh js] galjkt]
ta vHkko jfgrSd ra vksfg le; es gfjeksgu >k dsa dksuk ,gsu&,gsu vkd"kZd jekuan js.kq] jkenso izHk`fkA ,fg le;d izk;% leLr dFkk ,dne vkqukru
dF; HksfVrfu \ 'kSyhd
lu~ 1935 la iwoZd dFkkd ekns jkteksgu >kd dgc Nfu] ^vksfg le;d
dFkk lqkkjoknh gksbr Ny] tkfg es dFkkud ok pfj=k&fp=k.k fnl ;ku nsc 1- iz.kE; nsork dFkk&laxzg d Hkwfedk@jkt eksgu >k@i`-&x
t:jh ufg cw>y tkbr NyA nSo&la;ksx vk vkdfLed ?kVukd la;kstu ij lax vkfc ldyA
dFkk vkkkfjr jgSr NyA dFkkdkj yksdfud eq[; ;ku jgSr Nyfu lkekftd ,fg dFkkdkj yksdfud dFkkd fo'ys"k.k d;yk ij bZ ckr lks>ka vkvksr]
dqjhfr ij] tdj nq"ifj.kke ns[kk d* uk;dd izfr lgkuqHkwfr txsckd iz;kl ts tr* cztfd'kksj oekZ ^ef.kin~e* viu dFkkd izHkkoksRikndrk c<+sckd ms';
es lk;kl d#.k Hk* xsukb dFkkd fu;fr Hk* tkbr NySdA*1 la rFkk ik=k ,oa okrkoj.kd ekSfydrk dsa v{kq..k j[kckd mns'; la vfkdka'kr%
eqnk gfjeksgu >kd ^iz.kE; nsork*d izdk'ku 1945 bZ- es t[ku Hksy] fuEuoxhZ; Hkk"kk] nsgkrh yksdksfDr] BsB 'kCnkoyhd iz;ksx d;yfu vfN] vksrfg
ra ,fg la eSfFkyh ikBdd lks>ka bZ ckr Li"V Hk* d* vk,y] ts pfj=kkadud 'kSysUnz eksgu >kd Hkk"kk&'kSyh fufo"V vk if.MrkeA eqnk rsa dFkkd izk.krRo
dkS'ky] dFkkudd ekalyrk] dF;d uwrurk vk ekSfydrk] miLFkkiu&'kSyhd dsa dksuks gkfu ufg Hk* ldyA vU; leLr dFkkdkj yksdfu lHk lsgks fgudfg
lkSna ;Z] vksdj dykRedrk vkfnd c cslh egRo vfN dFkk ys[ku esA ^iz.kE;&nsork* tdka ;FkkFkZd kjkry la dFkkHkwfed p;u djc viu ;s; cq>yfuA cki{k
laxzgd dFkk lHk es vusjks] vokafNr] vuko';d d#.kk mRiUu d* d* tcjnLrh vk variZ{k nwud w fu:i.k lgt] ljy vk LokHkkfod <axas d;yfu vfNA
ikBdd n; es d#.kk mRiUu djckd iz;kl ufg d;y xsy vfN vk us dksuks ik=kkuqdwy Hkk"kkd fuc)rk la dFkkd lkSan;Z es vrho o`f) Hksy vfNA jktdey]
mfpr izlaxd >kaik&rksihA lektd izR;sd vksfg fcanq ij fgrdj vk vuqHkoh yfyr vk ek;kuUn dusd vkxw cf<+ d* dFkkd ewy rRo] 'kSyh dsa izkkurk
n`f"V nsy xsy vfN] ts lektd dqjhfr Ny] vlk; ihM+k NyA vk dF;d nsyfuA fgudk yksdfud dFkk es vareZud fp=k.kd izkkkU; jgyA cfYd
n`f"Vdks.ksa rFkk miLFkkiu 'kSyhd n`f"Vdks.ksa fgudj dFkk lalkj es uwrurk vk;yA jktdey FkksM+sd vkvksj vkxw vkfc d* lektd vk lkekftd izk.khd vareZu
dFkk dgckd fgudj 'kSyh ljsl dkxt lu uksNjkg vo'; lkfcr Hksy] eqnk dsa fpf=kr d;yfu] vksdj xq.kkoxq.k] nks"kknks"k fu:i.k la viu ikBd o`Und
tfguk ljsl la dkB dsa jxfM+ d* fpDdu vk eqyk;e cukvksy tkbr vfN] utfj [kksyyfuA
rfguk fgudj miLFkkiu 'kSyh lsgks jgyA fefFkykd thou&izf;k] LFkkfir chle 'krkCnhd lkre&vkBe n'kd es mfnr dFkkdkj lHk es la izHkkl
laLdkj] laLfr vk jgu&lgu es vnkS la ts tfM+vk;y xzafFk lc Ny] gfjeksgu dqekj pkSkjh] xaxs'k xqatu] khjsUnz] thodkUr] jkteksgu >k] lqHkk"kpUnz ;kno]
>k rdjk uksfp&uksfp d* gVkSyfuA dFkk es 'kSyhxr ifjorZud bZ ekSfydrk egkizdk'k] lqdkUr lkse] yfyrs'k feJ izHk`fr fdNq ,gsu xfjeke; uke vfN]
n* d* vks ,d Vk mR"V dkt d;yfu] tdj QyLo:i eSfFkyh dFkkys[ku ts viu ifNyk ih<+h la izsj.kk] ;qxhu lekt la vuqHko vk viu izfrHkk la
es lc rjgsa ifjorZu vkfc xsyA ik'pkR; vk vkuksvku Hkkjrh; Hkk"kk lcgd dkS'ky tek d* d* dFkk ys[kud e dsa fodflr d;yfu] ts ijorhZ ih<+hd
laxsa ,Dds v[kM+gk ij mrjck ysy eSfFkyh dFkkd rsoj cu* ykxyA lqXxk&eSuk] dFkkdkj yksdfud ysy izsj.kkiqat cfu ldyA rRi'pkr~ ,fg le;d dFkkdkj
dkSvk&uf<+;kd cnyk es] jktdU;k vk _f"kdU;kd cnyk es] fdUuj vk xUkoZd yksdfu es la ize[q k NfFk egsUnz] misUnz nks"kh] mn;pUnz >k ^fouksn*] foHkwfr vkuUn]
cnyk es dFkkd ik=k vke vkneh gksv; ykxyA dsnkj dkuu] iznhi fcgkjh] fouksn fcgkjh yky] rkjkuUn fo;ksxh] 'ksQkfydk oekZ]
lu~ 1950 la iwod Z dFkkdkj es la ize[q k NfFk dkaphukFk >k ^fdj.k*] iw.ksZUnq pkSkjh] f'ko'kadj Jhfuokl] v'kksd] 'kSysUn vkuUn] jes'k] izHk`frA

vk/kqfud eSfFkyh lkfgR; ij ,d utfj @ 27 28 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';


dFkkdkjd ,fg lewgd ckn ts dFkkdkj yksdfu viu ifgpku cukSyfu ukVdd ijaijk lsgks pyyA usokjh ukVd] vafd;k ukV vkfn fy[ky xsy] eafpr
vksfg ih<+h dsa dksuks vyx la uke nsc] la[;k vk xq.kokk nquw n`f"V,a cgqr HksyA eqnk chle 'krkCnh es vkfc d* thou >kd ukVd lHk] iqjuk lHk ukVd
vko';d ufg vfNA dFkk fokk eSfFkyh lkfgR;d lokZfkd fodflr fokk fFkd] la fHkUu tdka vk;yA fdarq fgudgq ukVd es vfkdka'kr% i|s es ckr dgy
ls dF; vk f'kYi nquw n`f"Vdks.ksaA ijh{k.k&Lo:i vusd mnkgj.k rkdy tk ldSr tkbr jgyA laokn okpud 'kSyh es ts uwrurk vk;y] ls ewyr% ;qxhu izHkkod
vfNA f'kYid fodkld ifj.kke fFkd ,[kuqd y?kqdFkk] tkfg es fdNq 'kCn ek=k dkj.ksaA lkt&lTtkd ;Fks"V lqfokk] eapud lkSfo;] ukSVadhd fodkl] flusekd
es cgqr ckr dgy tk jgy vfN vFkok dksuks dFkk] tkfg es cM+h dky kfj] izknqHkkZo] oSKkfud lkkud lqfokk vkfnd dkj.ksa ukVdd Hkk"kk&'kSyh] ys[ku&izf;k]
cgqr <axsa dfu, Vk ckr dgy tk jgy vfN vFkok foKku dFkk] tkfg es lkfgR; dF; vkfn es ifjokZu HksyA vke vknehd thou ij ukVd fy[ky tk; ykxyA
es foKku }kjk dkfYg gksv; cyk lwpuk nsy tk jgy vfNA ,fg uwrurkd vkxeu Hksy bZ'kukFk >k] xksfoUn >k] dk'khukFk feJ]
ef.kin~e] fdj.k izHk`fr ukVddkj yksdfud ukVd laA eqnk egsUnz eyafx;k ,djk
izkphu dkyd vis{kk miU;kld fodkl lsgks ;Fks"V Hksy vfNA miU;kldkj lHk loZFkk uo Lo:i nsyfu ,fg ijaijkd fodkl la ,d Vk vkvksj uo ijaijkd
es la izkjafHkd uke vcSr vfN tuknZu >k ^tulhnu*] thoN feJ] iq.;kuUn tUe Hksy vk ls fFkd ,dkadh ukVdA ,dkadh ys[kdd lwph es ize[q k NfFk gfjeksgu
>k] Hkksy] dka>hukFk >k ^fdj.k*] gfjeksgu >k] y{ehifr flag] dqekj xaxkuUn >k] lqkka'kq 'ks[kj pkSkjh] vkuUn feJ] ef.kin~e] fdj.k] ra=kukFk >k] vej] xksfoUn
flag] gfjuUnu Bkdqj ljkst] ;ksxkuUn >k] cztuUnu izHk`fr yksdfu] ts eSfFkyh >k] jktdey] egsUnz eyafx;k izHk`frA [kkgs ukVd gks ok ,dkadh] ,rck vo';
es ekSfyd miU;kl ys[kud ijaijk pyvksyfuA bZ ckr Li"Vr;k dgy tk ldSr dgckd fFkd ts bZ fokk cgqr FkksM+ le; es c cslh [;kfr ivksyd vk ls
vfN] ts bZ yksdfu ;qxhu ifjfLFkfr es ts ns[kyfu] rdjk 'kSyhxr vkd"kZ.k vk ivksyd 'kSfy,d dkj.ksaA
lkSan;Zd lax ikBdd lks>ka izLrqr d;yfuA eqnk] ,fg es la nw Vk uke ,gsu vkykspuk lkfgR; dksugqa lkfgR;d ysy c vko';d vk egoiw.kZ gksbr
vfN] ts loZFkk] lHk rjgsa eSfFkyh miU;kl ys[ku dsa uo rjgsa vkxw c<+kSyfuA vfN] eqnk eSfFkyh lkfgR; es ,fg fokkd n'kk&fn'kk c n;uh; vfNA ,rsd
vk vks uke fFkd fdj.k rFkk gfjeksguA vkxw vkfc d* ts eSfFkyh miU;kld izxfr izkIr d;ykd i'pkrgq eSfFkyh lkfgR; es iz'kalk dsa vkykspuk vk vkykspuk
dks"k iq"V Hksy rdj lokZfkd Js; ,gh nquw miU;kldkj dsa nsy t;rfuA dsa fuank cw>y tk jgy vfNA vkykspuk fokk eSfFkyh lkfgR; es dksugqa vku
^dU;knku* viu 'kSyhd dkj.ksa eSfFkyh ikBdd chp iz'kLr Hksy vk ikBd eSfFkyh Hkk"kk&lkfgR; la de iq"V ufg vfN] eqnk xq.kokk vk vkykspdd fu"Bk dsa ;ku
miU;kl fnl >qdykgA rRi'pkr~ trsd uegj miU;kldkjd lewg cuy] rkfg es jkf[k t[ku ,dj voyksdu d;y tk;] ra yxSr vfN] ts eSfFkyh lkfgR;d
es vxzx.; NfFk ;k=kh] O;kl] 'kSysUnz eksgu >k] vej] ef.kin~e] yfyr] jktdey] vkykspuk jpukijd ufg] O;fDrijd gksbr vfN viokn dsa NksfM+ d*A
ek;kuUn] lksenso] js.kq] khjsUnz] lqkka'kq 'ks[kj pkSkjh] xaxs'k xqatu] thodkUr] foHkwfr eSfFkyh es ,[ku kfj vkykspukd pkfj Lo:i ns[kkbN dksuks iksFkhd Hkwfedk
vkuUn] iznhi fcgkjh] uohu pkSkjh] m"kkfdj.k [kku izHk`frA ys[ku] lkfgR;d bfrgkl ys[ku] QqVdj fucak ys[ku vk dksuks jpuk ij ikBdh;
,fg leLr miU;kldkjd laidZ fo'o lkfgR; la cuy vk r[ku izfrf;k vFkok leh{kkA Hkwfedk ys[ku dsa us izkjaHk la y* d* vkb kfj es iz'kalsd
f'kYi&'kSyhd ekSfydrkd laxsa bZ yksdfu miU;kld dk;kiyV dksu euksje <axsa laKk nsy tk;r] eqnk vU; rhu es bekunkjh iwoZd ckr dgy t,ckd pkgh]
d,us NfFk rdj mnkgj.k vkanksyu] vkfndFkk] pkuksnk;] fcgkfj&ikr&ikFkj] nw&i=k] fdarq dgy ufg tkbr vfNA ts dgyfu] ls vuko';d vksfg jpukdkj lesr
nwk&Qwy] Hkks#dck] nw dqgsld ckV vkfn miU;kl es rkdy tk ldSr vfNA gqudj lewgd dksiHkktu curkgA ,djk ewy es jpukdkjd vlfg".kqrk vfNA
euksfo'ys"k.k izkku] pfj=k&izkku] ?kVuk&izkku] o.kZu&izkku] i=kkRed] nkslj ckr bZ] ts vfkdka'k vkykspuk ,[ku ,guks vcSr vfN] tkfg es iUukd&iUuk
vkRedFkkRed vkfn 'kSyh miU;kl fokk dsa [kwc iz'kfLr nsydA ckr dfg nsykd ckngq dksuks ckr lkQ ufg gksbr vfNA vksuk Hkk"kkd nf"V,a
eSfFkyh lkfgR; es ukVdd mn~Hkod ksr ta rkdy tk;r] ra bZ fokk izkjafHkd vkykspuk la ,[kuqd vkykspuk fodflr Hksy vfNA jpukd ijh{k.kd
T;ksfrjh'ojd ^kwrZ lekxe* la 'kq#g ekuy tk,r] rfg;k ukVdd ms'; izk;% 'kSyh es vHkwriwoZ ifjorZu vk;y vfN] eqnk rdj mi;ksx de Bke gksbr vfNA
gkL; jgSr NyA ukVd] lkfgR;d loZl'kDr fokk fFkdA eqnk rkfg le; la fdNq vku fokk] tsuk js[kkfp=k] thouh] fjiksrkZt] yfyr fucak vkfn ,[ku
vkkqfud dky kfj iqu% vusd ukV~; ijaijk vk,y vk py xsyA dhrZfu;ka rrsd fodflr ufg Hksy vfNA eqnk tkfg dksuks fokkd tkfg rjgsa izxfr&izlkj
vk/kqfud eSfFkyh lkfgR; ij ,d utfj @ 29 30 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
Hksy vfN] rdj 'kSyhd iquiqZujkoyksdu c vko';d vfNA

eSfFkyh dFkk;k=k vk dFkkdkjd lakku

dFkk dgckd izFkk gejk yksdfud vksr, vksrcs iqjku vfN] trsd ekuod lH;rk]
gejk yksdfud laLfrA bZ izo`fk vnkS la izxfr'khy jgy vfN vk le;&le;
ij bZ viu vkarfjd xq.k es ;qx lkis{k ifjorZu vuSr jgy vfNA Hkkjrh;
lkfgR; es ra oSfnds dky la dFkkd ewy Lo:i izkIr Hk* tkbr vfNA osn mifu"kn
vkfn es vusd vk[;ku] mik[;ku izkIr gksbr vfN] ikSjkf.kd lkfgR; es lsgks
dFkkd lE;d fodkl ifjyf{kr gksbr vfNA dgckd vfHkizk; bZ] ts Hkkjrh;
ijaijk es dFkk&lkfgR; dksuks uo mn~Hkwr fokk ufg] vfirq ,fg vk[;kf;dk vFkok
yksd xkFkkd fodkld ,dVk iS?k lu kkjkd ifj.kke fFkdA eqnk yxys bZgks
dg* iM+Sr vfN ts ,[kuqd dFkk lkfgR;d ts :i] ts pkd~fpD; vfN] ls ,fg
ikSjkf.kd lkfgR;d dFkkRedrk vFkok yksd xkFkkRedrkd vis{kk ik'pkR; dgkuh
la fo'ks"k laifdZr cq>kbNA bZ laHko ts :id bZ vkkqfudrk vusd o"kZd fodkld
ifj.kke rFkk ns'k&ns'kkarjd c<+Sr fudVrkd Qy gksA
ewy :isa eSfFkyh es dFkk lkfgR;d vkjaHk vuwfnr dFkk la Hksy vfNA
gfjeksgu >kd izfl) dFkk&laxzg ^iz.kE;nsork*d izdk'ku o"kZ 1945 la iwoZ
eSfFkyh&dFkk lkfgfR;d uke ij vuwfnr dFkk&laxzgd uke tksM+k d, larks"k dj,
ifM+ jgy vfNA bfrgkldkj yksdfu }kjk xukvksy ta fdNq ekSfyd dFkkd uke
lks>ka vfcrks vfN ra vksfg ij bfrgkldkj yksdfu vius dF; ij viufg
vks>jk xsy NfFkA ,Egj vkfc d, ^iz.kE; nsork* dFkk laxzgd iqueqZnz.k Hksy
vfNA vb es jkteksgu >k }kjk izdk'kdh; es nsy xsy fdNq lwpuk la ckr
FkksM+sd QfjNkbr vfNA bfrgkldkj yksdfud drksd iafDr ra ,gsu Hkzekg cq>kbr
Nfu] ts dksuks vFkZ cgkj djc vlaHkoA nqxkZukFk >k ^Jh'k* ,dfg gkFksa viu
,dfg bfrgkl es ,d Bke fdj.kthd ^pUnzxzg.k* dsa miU;kl fy[kS NfFk vk
nkslj Bke ,djk nh?kZ dFkk fy[kS NfFkA vkc fgudj dksu dFku dsa izkekf.kd
eSfFkyh dFkk;k=kk vk dFkkdkjd la/kku @ 31 32 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
ekuh] ls fu.kZ; djc dfBuA Hksy ! lQyrkd b,g izfrQy fFkd ts vkb dFkk lkfgR; ,gsu le`) vfN
jkteksgu >kd fy[ky izdk'kdh; la bZ lwpuk HksVSr vfN ts ^iz.kE; nsork* vk ^iz.kE; nsork* laxzgd dSd laLdj.k cgjk,yA ^iz.kE; nsork*d vrfjDr
d ifgy laLdj.k 1945 es cgkj HksyA ,fg la iwoZ ek=k pkfj xksV ekSfyd dFkk& fgud vkvksj dFkk laxzg lc vfN ts fo'ks"k egod oLrq es xuys Vk
laxgz d ppkZ vfN pUnziHz kk Jh ".k Bkdqj] xIi&lIid [kfjgku oS|ukFk tkbN jax'kkyk] ppZjh] rhFkZ;k=kk] ,dkn'kh bR;kfnA vksuk fgudj lqifz l)
feJ ^fo|kflUkq*] dkfeuhd thou dkyhdqekj nkl rFkk chNy Qwy Jh gkL;&O;aX;kRed fucak laxzg ^[kj ddkd rjax* dFkk rRod vHkkod vNbrks
izcksk ukjk;.k pkSkjhA ,fg pk: dFkk&laxzgd] vykos gejk yksdfu vuwfnrs Hkk"kkd ljyrk vk vkuks cgqr jkl xq.kd dkj.ksa dFkk & laxzg es xuy tk,
dFkk& laxzgd uke xuk ldSr Nh] tkfg es vcSr vfN pUnk >k }kjk ^iq#"k&ijh{kk*d ykxyA
vuqokn] eqjyhkj >k }kjk fe=kykHk vk fgrksins'kd vuqoknA e- e- ijes'oj lu~ 1889 pUnk >k }kjk vuwfnr ^iq#"k&ijh{kk*d vuqokn la y* d,
>k }kjk ^lhefUruh vk[;ku*d vuqokn vkfnA 1930 kfj vuwfnr dFkk&lkfgR; vckk xfr,a pySr jgyA rkgh lax& lax ekSfyd
,fg pk: ekSfyd dFkk& laxzgd ekns bfrgkldkj yksdfu ,d la ,d dFkkys[kud ,dVk HkkoHkwfe 1940 kfj] vFkkZr~ izcksk ukjk;.k pkSkjhd ^chNy
otuh iafDr nsyfuA dsvks ^fo|k&flUkq* dsa ik'pkR; jhfrd izFke xYidkj ekuyfu Qwy* kfj jgyA rsa ,dj cknd le; dsa vFkkZr~ 1941 la vkb kfjd le;
ra dsvks dykRed lkS"Bo ns[kyfu] eqnk vlyh xIi bZ vfN ts ^pUnzizHkk* laLrd dsa Nvks n'kd es ckaVy tk ldSr vfNA tsa gsrq,a 1950 la iwoZ kfj ekSfyd
fe=kykHk&fgrksins'k tdka mins'kkRed <axsa fy[ky NksV&NksV yksddFkkd laxzg fFkd dFkk ys[ku cM+k fojy xfr,a Hksy] rsa 1950 la iwoZd dFkk ij ,d fdLr es
vk ^xIi&lIid [kfjgku* ukekuqdwy gkL;&y?kq dFkkd laxzg fFkdA ^dkfeuhd fopkj d,y tk ldSr vfNA lu~ 1947 es ns'k Lora=k HksyA eqnk Lora=krk
thou* fcuk dksuks dykRedrkd dksuks izse&izlaxd likV o.kZu fFkdA ,fg lHk izkfIr la ts vlarks"k] vkks'k] lektd dqjhfr] lkkd dqO;oLFkk ikvksy xsy]
la dusd vkxw izcksk ukjk;.k pkSkjhd dFkk& laxzg ^chNy Qwy* vo'; vfN] ls lHkVk NBe n'kd es O;Dr gksv, ykxyA
eqnk dFkkud vk f'kYid n`f"V,a cgqr izHkko'kkyh ufgA rS;ks eSfFkyh dFkk&lkfgR; ta laxzgd ckr dsa xkS.k jkf[k] i=k&if=kdk es izdkf'kr dFkk lHk la ckr
es tsa fd ekSfyd ys[ku b,g yksdfu izkjaHk d;yfu rsa fgudk yksdfud uke mBkvksy tk, ra eSfFkyhd ekSfyd dFkk ys[ku izk;% rsljs n'kd la izkjaHk Hksy
dFkk&lkfgR;d bfrgkl es J)kiowZd ysy tk,rA vk] vgh pk: laxzgd i'pkr ekuy tk,rA ,fg le;d dFkk es dqekj xaxkuUn flagd ^euq";d eksy*] Hkqous'oj
eSfFkyh dFkk&lkfgR; ij NkM+y dqgsl dsa ,dckbxs QkfM+ nsyd gfjeksgu >kd flag ^Hkqou*d ^'kwU;* vk ^jkSn Nk;k*] tys'oj flagd ^Hkxorhd ik'pkR; :i*]
^iz.kE; nsork*A vks ^fodV ikgqu* dFkkd HkkoHkwfe dsa lektd ,dne yxhp Hkhes'oj flagd ^foltZu* ok ^lkvksud jkfr* bR;kfn vcSr vfNA fgudk
tk d, mBkSyfu vk rdjk rrsd euksje <axsa ltkSyfu vfN ts lkekU;ks ikBdd yksdfud vfrfjDr vb laxzg foghu dkykofk] vFkkZr~ 1950 la iwoZd le;d
ysy bZ vrho lq[knk;h vfNA gfjeksgu >kd uke eSfFkyh lkfgR; es vxzx.; egoiw.kZ dFkkdkj lHk NfFk gfjeksgu >k] y{ehifr flag] dkaphukFk >k ^fdj.k*]
,gh Vk ysy ufg Nfu] ts vks eSfFkyh es cgqr jkl fyf[k d, lkfgR; dsa le`) izcksk ukjk;.k pkSkjh] ra=kukFk >k] eueksgu >k] misUnzukFk >k ^O;kl*] ;ksxkuUn
d,yfu] cfYd fo'ks"k ,fg ysy Nfu ts bZ eSfFkyh lkfgR;d ysy ,dVk fo'kky >k] lqkka'kq 'ks[kj pkSkjh] lqjsUnz >k ^lqeu* izHk`frA
ikBd oxZ rS;kj d,yfuA Hkk"kkd ljyrk] vfHkO;fDrd lqLi"Vrk] fo"k;d gfjeksgu >kd dFkkys[kud izkjaHk eSfFkyh lkfgR;d vksfg lae.k dky
O;kidrk] dF;d uwrurk] f'kYid vkd"kZ.k bR;kfn lHk n`f"Vdks.ksa fgudj lkfgR; es Hksy] t[ku eSfFkyh lkfgR; dsa ikBdd vHkko NySdA ikape n'kd kfjd
fo'ks"k :isa pfpZr jgyA dh miU;kl] dh dFkk---lHk es fgudj ;ksxnku fo'ks"k izdkf'kr i=k&if=kdk] ta ,d fn'k ,dVk csl iS?k ys[kd oxZ rS;kj d,yd ra
egod vfNA tfguk miU;kl es ^dU;knku* dsa i<+ckd ysy eSfFkyh Hkk"kk la gfjeksgu >k nkslj fn'k ,dVk iS?k ikBd oxZ rS;kj d,yfu vk ,rfg la iqu%
brj oxZd yksd lsgks eSfFkyh i<+c fl[kyfu] vui<+ yksd i<+ck d, lquyfu] vckk xfr,a laxzgd ys[ku&izdk'ku gksv, ykxyA tr, xaxkifr flag] y{ehifr
dFkkd {ks=k es rfguk ^iz.kE; nsork*d fLFkfr jgyA eSfFkyh dFkk&lkfgR;d dF;] flag] gfjuUnu Bkdqj ^ljkst*] ^fdj.k*] dqykuUn ^uUnu*] ijekuUn nk ^ijekFkhZ*]
f'kYi] dFkkud bR;kfn vufHkO;fDrd tkfg fo'kky pku rj nkcy Ny] rdjk dkyhdqekj nkl] uanfd'kksj yky] t;ukjk;.k efYyd] izHk`fr dFkkdkj yksdfud
,dfg csj es Tokykeq[kh ln`'k QkfM+d, iz.kE; nsork ckgj vk,y vk ijorhZ dFkk kaxkj vks d#.kjl la ifjiw.kZ jgSr Ny] vksr, gfjeksgu >kd dFkk gkL;&jld
lkfgR;dkj&ikBd yksdfu es dFkk fy[kck&i<+ckd vfHk#fp txkSyd vk lQyks McMck,y jlxqYykd lax mifLFkr Hksy] eqnk ,fg gkL;d Hkhrjh rg es O;aX;d
eSfFkyh dFkk;k=kk vk dFkkdkjd la/kku @ 33 34 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
rrsd esagh vk ekfeZd fp=k.k jgSr Ny] ts ,dj ms'; ek=k euksjatus Vk ufg] ekuorkd xq.k lHk foyhu gksbr ns[ky xsyA QyLo:i ;qxhu leL;k la vdPN
,fg lektd izR;sd vuqfpr O;ogkj vk vrkfdZd vfHkf;k fn'k lkekU; Hk* d, Bk<+ Hksykg 'kSysUnz eksgu >k] jke".k >k ^fdlqu*] izcksk ukjk;.k flag]
ikBdd ;ku vkdf"kZr djc lsgks jgyA jekdkUr >k] xksfoUn >k] yfyr] jktdey] ek;kuUn] lksenso] galjkt] jkenso
ikape n'kd kfjd ifjxf.kr dFkkdkj yksdfu es trsd uke xukvksy >k] cyjke] khjsUnz izHk`frA
tkbr vfN rkfg es Jh cS|ukFk feJ ^;k=kh*d uke foy{k.krkiwoZd ysckd fFkdA ,fg n'kdd dFkkdkj yksdfud dFkk ys[ku es fdNq izo`fkxr varj ikvksy
viu lelkef;drkd n`f"V,a bZ vfr izxfr'khy jgykgA xzkE; thoud fp=k xsyA fdNq yksdfud izo`fk jgy dFkkrRo dsa v{kq..k j[kSr] pfj=k&fp=k.kd
bZ rrsd Li"V vk lgt 'kCn la ?khpSr NfFk ts lkekU; ikBd lc rjgsa fgudj lw{erkd lax mfpr okrkoj.kd fuekZ.k d, lkekftd ;qxhu leL;k lHk dsa
dF; dsa cwf> ysck ysy mrkgqy jgSr NfFk vk cqf>, dsa foJke ySr NfFkA jlkRed mRd"kZ nsc] tsuk xksfoUn >kd ^Hkqrgh ikdfM+*] ef.kin~ed ^la;ksx*
vfr lqcksk&lgt BsaB 'kCnd iz;ksx] lkekU; tu&thoud lqPpk vfHkO;fDr] jekdkUr >kd ^jDrnku*] 'kSysUnz eksgu >kd ^izkjCk* bR;kfnA fdNq yksdfud
NksV&NksV ?kVuk ij lw{e fparud lax dFkk ys[ku] dF;d vuq:i Hkk"kk&'kSyh] izo`fk jgy lkekftd ;FkkFkZ dsa lgt ,oa ik=kkuqdwy Hkk"kk es pfj=kd euksfo'ys"k.k
lgtrk] LokHkkfodrk] ljyrk bR;kfn fgudj ys[kuhd eq[; izo`fk fFkdfuA djSr mn~?kkfVr djcA ,fg oxZd dFkkdkj yksdfu es vcS NfFk lksenso vk]
;|fi fgudj dFkkd la[;k vaxqfj, ij xu* tksx vfNA cyjke eksVjh] jkenso >k ,d [khjk % rhu Qkad] galjkt fNnz] dYiuk 'kj.k
dFkk&lkfgR; es eueksgu >kd uke J)kiwoZd ysy tkbr NfuA vksuk jaxhu inkZ izHk`frA eqnk vgw la fdNq vkxw cf<+ d, ;qxhu fDy"Vrk es ftcSr
dFkk ra bZ vufxur fy[kyfu eqnk lHk la eq[; :isa bZ ^vJqd.k*d lax pfpZr euqD[kd vry eksud nq%[k nnZ dsa cwf> d,] NksV lu dF; ij f'kYid ek;es
gksbr NfFkA dFkk es ukjh n;d xgurkiwoZd fp=k.k djckd viwoZ dkS'ky mifLFkr fo'kky la fo'kky dFkk cqufugkj es tkfg rhu xksV uke dsa eq[; :i la xuy
d,us NfFkA d#.kk fgudj dFkkd ewy izo`fk fFkdfuA dFkkdkj ;ksxkuUn >kd tkbN] rdjk yksd ^f=kiqaM* dfg d, vfHkfgr d,yfu yfyr] jktdey]
dFkk jksekapd vk kaxkfjd xq.k la vksr&izksr jgSr NfuA ^vked ty[kjh* fgudj ek;kuUnA fgudk yksdfud ysy dFkkd gsrq ewy pht f'kYi jgyA thou&txr
pfpZr dFkk es la vcSr vfN] rfguk eSfFky lektd fofok vaxd ltho vks dsa vrho xaHkhjrk iwoZd bZ yksdfu ns[kyfu ,oa eSfFkyh dFkkkkjk dsa ts fn'kk
laosnu'khy fp=k mifLFkr djck es misUnzukFk >k ^O;kl* ifgus ra ^:ly tek;* nsyfu] rdjs Qy fFkd ts eSfFkyhd dFkk lkfgR; uoe n'kd es vkfc d,
la pfpZr Hksykg] eqnk iNkfr drksd uhd&uhd dFkk fy[kyfuA ,rsd QjksZl HksyA yfyrd ^jetkuh*] ^vksHkj yksM*] ^eqfDr*] jktdeyd ^lka>d
jkenfgu feJ fy[kS NfFk dkO; niZ.k@i`- 258 ts dFkkd izkku ms'; xkN*] ^yydk ikx*] ^iuMqCch* rFkk ek;kuUnd ^xkM+hd ifg;k*] ^galhd ctV*
gksbr vfN euksjatu] eqnk ta ls ckr jfgrS ra fdj.kd ^ekqjefu* if<+ d, vk bR;kfn dFkk lHkd ppkZ n`"Vkar Lo:i d,y tk ldSNA eSfFkyh dFkkkkjk dsa
rkRdkfyd euksjatu izkIr d* d, fclfj t,ckd izo`fk cyk euqD[k tkfr ,fg f=kiqaM la ts HksVySd ls eSfFkyh dFkk lkfgR; dfgvks ufg fclfj ikvksrA
fclfj xsy jfgr, vksfg dFkk dsaA euksjatu ra gksbrs NSd] ,dj vykos vkvksjks ,fg n'kdd ckn izkjaHk gksbr vfN lkre n'kdA lkre n'kd es vkfc
cgqr jkl egoiw.kZ ms'; gksbr NSd dFkkd] ts vksdjk 'kk'orrk iznku djSr d, eSfFkyh dFkk lkfgR; cslh iq"V HksyA ys[ku f{kiz xfr,a gksv, ykxy] ifNyks
NSdA b,g 'kk'orrk vfN ekqjefu esA ,fg ikape n'kdd var vcSr&vcSr n'kdd dFkkdkjd lax& lax uoksfnr dFkkdkjd dFkk ys[ku pySr jgyA ,fg
lqkka'kq 'ks[kj pkSkjh] fody] fo'kkjn] Hkzej izHk`fr dFkkdkj izfrf"Br Hk* xsy NykgA n'kdd dFkk ys[ku es lkekftd dqO;oLFkk] vlekurk] 'kks"k.k] lhnu bR;kfnd
viu fofok dFkkd ek;es bZ yksdfu vkRela?k"kZd fp=k.kdkkZd :i es ekunaM fp=k.k cslh iz[kj gksv* ykxyA ,fg es vcS NfFk xaxs'k xqatu] izHkkl dqekj
cukSyfuA pkSkjh] jekuUn js.kq] thodkUr] mn;pUnz >k ^fouksn* izHk`fr dFkkdkj yksdfu
,fg iS?k varjky dsa ,dfg Bke lesVSr vkc dFkk&;k=kkd nkslj Msx izkjaHk ts yxkrkj vckk xfr,a dFkk fy[kSr jgykg vk lektd uXu lR; VhiSr lkekU;
gksbr vfN 1951 laA ,fg NBe n'kd es vksuk dFkkdkj lwph cM~M iS?k ufg yksdd n`f"V es jgykgA ckn es vgh ih<+h la eSfFkyh lkfgR; es jktuhfrd
cuy eqnk vis{kkr la[;k c<+yA la[;kd laxfg dFkkdkjd utfj [kqtyfuA fparkijd ys[ku iq"V g,c izkjaHk HksyA vksuk jktuhfrd fcanqd izos'k ek;kuUnd
dFkkd Qyd c<+yA oLrqd O;kidrk ns[ky xsyA Lora=krk izkfIrd ckn yksdd ys[ku es Hk* pqdy NyA jekuUn js.kqd ,d V?kkj uksj] thodkUrd ^gkfg*
ts bPNk] vkdka{kk NySd rdj iwfrZd dksuks Vk ckV iz'kLr ufg Hksy] lekt la xaxs'k xqatud ^vfHku;*] lkdsrkuUnd ^ftuxhd dkaV*] izHkkl dqekj pkSkjhd
eSfFkyh dFkk;k=kk vk dFkkdkjd la/kku @ 35 36 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
^vk,y ikfu xsy ikfu*] jkteksgu >kd ^;q)&;q)&;q)* lqHkk"k pUnz ;knod ekuoh; ewY; b,g xkSj fFkd tdj [kkst es gejk yksdfu ckSvkbr Nh] rkfd
^dkBd cuy yksd*] egkizdk'kd ^tksM+&?kVko&xq.kk&Hkkx* bR;kfn ;qxhu leL;kd] ufg icSr NhA
lkekU; tu&thoud nq%[k&nnZd okgd cuyA rkjkuUn fo;ksxhd dFkk ^mhiu* ,d fn'k lkearoknhd 'kks"k.k izo`fk vk
vkBe n'kd es dFkk] dFkk&laxzg vk dFkkdkjd la[;k csl iq"V Hksy] ls loZgkjkd lhnu lgckd izo`fk ns[kcSr vfN ra nkslj fn'k loZgkjk oxZ es nw
mR"V lkfgR; vk lkfgR;dkj la] n`f"Viw.kZ izfrHkk laA ,fg n'kdd dFkkdkj ih<+hd la?k"kZ es uwru ih<+hd fot; ns[kcSr vfNA rfguk dFkk 'kh"kZd ^dal&ok*
es vksuk dFkkdjd lwph ra iS?k vfN] eqnk ewy :i la xuy tkbr NfFk fouksn lektd ,dne vNwr oLrq dsa mBkd, pyy vfNA
fcgkjh yky ] foHkwfr vkuUn] iw.ksZUnq pkSkjh] f'ko'kadj Jhfuokl] v'kksd] rkjkuUn ,fg lHk ih<+hd dFkk&dFkkdkjd ppkZd i'pkr ,rck dgc visf{kr ts
fo;ksxh] dsnkj dkuu] iznhi fcgkjh] izHk`fr yksdfuA oSKkfud ;qxd izknqHkkZo chle 'krkCnhd ifgy pj.kd mkjk)Z vFkok nkslj pj.kd iwokZ)Z la mn~Hkwr
la ns'k&fons'kd laidZd dkj.ksa lkfgfR;d psruk c<+y vk moZeq[kh ;FkkFkZd izfr ekSfyd eSfFkyh dFkk ys[ku] NBes n'kd kfj es trsd izxfr dsyd rkfg rqyuk
jpukdkjd vkxzg c<+yA lkfgfR;d vknku&iznku la lkfgfR;d izo`fk ij izHkko es vksdj vfxyk ys[kud izxfr U;wu cq>kbNA bZ ckr fHkUu ts ,[ku eSfFkyh
iM+c LokHkkfod NyA ik'pkR; kkjk la gejk yksdfud lkfgR; izHkkfor gksv* lkfgR;d lHk la cslh lQy fokk dFks lkfgR; Hk* xsy vfN] eqnk rsa bZ dgc
ykxyA dFkk es ?kVukd izkkurkd cnyk f'kYid izkkurk Hk* xsyA dFkk mfpr ufg ts bZ fokk viu ;Fks"V fodkl d* pqdy vfNA
ns'k&ns'kkarjd ekfj&yM+kb] iz{ksikL=k] ykSgekuo] pUnzryd Hkze.k] lw;Z&i`Fohd ikape n'kd es ekSfyd dFkkys[ku uhd tdka viu IysVQkeZ rS;kj ufg
vkilh lacakd xIi dg, ykxy] csdkjh&csxkjh] Hkw[k] nq%[k] vHkko] O;fHkpkj] d,us Ny] gfjeksgu ikBd oxZ rS;kj dj* es ykxys Nykg fd NBe n'kd es
'kks"k.k&lhnud xIi lquc* ykxyA 'kksf"kr dsa vksdj rkxrd cksk djcSr yydkjk ^f=kiqaM*d dFkk es ekuod vareZud O;Fkk] f'kYid izkkkU; vkc* ykxyA eqnk
nsc* ykxy vk 'kks"kdd irud ckr dg, ykxyA vYiosru Hkksxh ifjokjd rdjk ckn drksd le; chfr jgy vfN] fdarq izxfr vis{kkr de vfNA
fofok leL;k dsa mn~?kkfVr dj, ykxy] ekuoh; bPNk vkdka{kkd nfer okluk vkc*d dFkk es ekufld la?k"kZ] laosxkRed vFkok ckSf)d dqrwgy bR;kfnd izfr
dsa mn~?kkfVr dj, ykxy vk ,fg leLr vfHkO;fDrdd lax vk,y rkjkuUn vkxzg rFkk jktk&jkuh okyk dFkk ijaijkd izfr mnklhurk jgckd pkghA dFkkd
fo;ksxhd ^fivkl*] ^fcljHkksj*] dsnkj dkuud ^ukVd*] ^rkel*] ^vkrad*] iznhi ts kkjk ,[ku pfy jgy vfN rkfg es ,[ku NksV&la&NksV dF; ij uhd la
fcgkjhd ^,dVk jksfx;kg ftuxh*] fouksn fcgkjh ykyd ^ftuxh*] foHkwfr vkuUnd uhd dFkk fy[ky tk ldSNA vkc*d dFkk ?kVuk izkku ufg jfg f'kYi izkku
^[kkifM+ egad kku* bR;kfnA Hk* xsy vfN] rsa vkc ,fg fokk la cslh&la&cslh izxfrd vk'kk d,y tk ldS,A
jkSn es jgyk la dksuks jaxhu oL=k mnkl Hk* tkbr vfN] jax mfM+d, iw.kZ
:isa mTtj ufg gksbr vfN] rfguk euqD[kks dsa viu&viu laLdkjd izfr fdNq
foo'krk jgSr NSdA fdNq xksVs izHkkfor gksbrks NfFk] fdNq ufgvksa gksbr NfFkA
vkBe&lkre n'kdd izk;% lHk dFkkdkj ij vis{kkr ;qxd izHkko cslh iM+y
vk vksgh izHkkod varxZr ys[kuks HksyA thodkUrd dFkk ^xkSj* fo'kq) :i la
izrhdkRed fFkdA vksuk izrhd ewy :isa dforkd oLrq gksbr vfN] dFkk es ikBd
dsa likV <axd xIi HksVckd pkgh] eqnk izrhdkRed jgyk la vksdj lkss';rk
Hkax ufg gks] dF;d vfHkO;fDr Hk* tk, vk izHkkoksRikndrk es drgq O;fre
ufg vkc, ra vks] dFkkd fof'k"V xq.k HksyA dFkk 'kh"kZd ^xkSj* ,fg dlkSVh
ij lksygks vkuk lqPpk mrM+Sr vfNA vnkS la ckUgy xkSj t[ku cFkku ij la
[kqft d, taxyh eos'khd gsat es py tkbN ra vksdjk phUgc vk phfUg d,
y* vkuc vksrcs dfBu vfN trsd ,[kuqd tuoknh lewg es loZgkjkd <qfd
xsyk ij vksdjk fudkfy vkucA nkslj vFkZ es gejk yksdfud gsjk,y ekuork]
eSfFkyh dFkk;k=kk vk dFkkdkjd la/kku @ 37 38 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
ksr la miyCk dFkkd o.;Z&fo"k; iqjku NyA rsa vkkqfud Hkkjrd vko';drk
vk Hkkoukd vuqdwy dFkk ufg cfu icSr NyA ,fg es fefFkykd okZeku
jhfr&dqjhfr] bZ";kZ&}s"k] eku&vieku] oxZ&la?k"kZ] 'kks"k.k] vukpkj bR;kfnd fp=k.k
HksVc nqyZHk NyA Qyr% dFkk es tu&thoud bZ fp=k.k ik'pkR; lkfgR; la
vk;yA
lkfgR; es nw rjgd ewY; gksbr vfN okZeku ewY; vk 'kk'or ewY;A
okZeku ewY; Hksy orZeku le; es O;kIr ekuo&thou la vksfg lkfgR;d rknkRE;
vk 'kk'or ewY; Hksy fpjdkyd ckn vksfg lkfgR;d fp=k.k&o.kZud mi;ksfxrkA
ledkyhu eSfFkyh dFkk lkfgR;d orZekus ewY; vksdj ledkyhurkd |ksrd fFkdA ^ledkyhurk* 'kCn
fo'ks"k :isa fopkj.kh; vfNA ts lkfgR; ledkyhu ufg gks,r vFkkZr~ tdj okZeku
ewY; mis{k.kh; gSr] vks 'kk'or ewY;d oLrq dfgvks ufg Hk* ldSr vfNA lkfgR;
tsuk fd ,tjk ikmaMd dFku Nfu A Great age of literature is perhaps always es ledkyhurkd vFkZ Hksy rRdkyhu lektd] vkfFkZd&jktuhfrd&lkekftd
a great age of translation (Mak-lit-New, Page101, 125) ifjfLFkfrd fp=kkadud lax lkekftd thoud ;FkkFkZ dsa vafdr djcA ;qx
vFkkZr~ dksuks lkfgR;d egku ;qx] vksfg es vuqokn&;qx gksbr vfNA ifjokZud lax&lax ekuo thoud fLFkfr&ifjfLFkfr] euq";d lH;rk&laLfr
eSfFkyhd dFkk&lkfgR;] ,dj viokn ufg fFkdA izkjaHk es eSfFkyhd dFkk&lkfgR; es ifj"dkj gksbr vfN] fdNq ifjokZu gksbr vfN rsa thou&izf;k dsa vFkok
ikSjkf.kd dFkk lHkd Hkkokuqokns NyA rsa ,dj bfrgkl cM+ iqjk.k ufg vfNA jgu lgu dsa vFkok lH;rk&laLfr dsa euq"; fclfj ufg tkbr vfN] vks Fkkrh
eSfFkyh es dgck&lquckd izkf;k es ih<+h&nj&ih<+h yksd] dFkk fl[kSr jgy] dksuks us dksuks :i es] fdNq us fdNq va'k es lqjf{kr jgSr vfNA vr,o] bZ
le;&ifjos'kd vuqlkj dgckd {kerk es fdNq tqVSr xsy] fdNq dVSr xsyA ckr loZFkk ekU; fFkd ts ledkyhu lkfgR; 'kk'or&ewY;d n`f"Vdks.ksa lsgks mke
dFkkokpd izk;% fuj{kjs gksbr Ny] fy[kckd {kerk vksdjk ufg jgSr NySdA gksbr vfNA vk rsa] lkfgR;d mR"Vrkd gsrq bZ vko';d vfN] ts vks ledkyhu
QyLo:i vfkdka'k dFkk f[klDdjd laxfg py xsy vk gejk yksdfud dFkk gksv;A
lkfgR;] ,gw dkj.ksa ikNka d* fodflr HksyA eSfFkyh dFkk&lkfgR;d ledkyhurk ij fopkj djck la iwoZ ,dVk leL;k
gejk yksdfu dFkk&ys[kud ekSfydrk vuqokns la fl[kygqaA laLr&lkfgR;d vkxka vcSr vfN] izdk'kud leL;kA ,fg leL;kd dkj.k ,fg ckrd iw.kZ
dFkk&midFkk la vuqokn HksyA laLr&lkfgR; es ,fg dFkk lHkd ms'; laHkkouk jgSr vfN] ts dksuks dFkkdkjd vktqd vuqHkwfr] vktqd dF;] vktqd
mins'kkRed jgSr NyA keZ'kkL=kd uhfr okD; la ikBd vFkok Jksrk dsa vfopfyr f'kYi ta la;ksx ykx;] ra chl&ckbl c[kZd ckn gejk yksdfud lks>ka vkc;A
j[kckd ysy euksjatukRed lsgks jgSr NyA lkfgR;dkj vR;ar Hkkoqd vk laosnu'khy izk.kh gksbr vfNA vks tkfg ifjos'k
eqnk] ,[ku gejk yksdfu dFkkd ts Lo:i ns[kSr Nh] rdjk us dsoy ikSjkf.kd es thcSr vfN] vksdj dVqekq vuqHko vksdjk uhd tdka izHkkfor djSr NSdA
lkfgR;d nsu dgy tk;r vk us fons'kh lkfgR;d izHkkoA dFkk&lkfgR;d okZeku lekt es fo|eku ,d&,dVk mfpr vfHkf;k vksdjk varl~ dsa lq[k nSr NSd
Lo:id Js; pkfj Vk ksr dsa tkbr vfN laLr lkfgR;] Qkjlh lkfgR;] vk ,d&,dVk vuqfpr] voSk] vokafNr vfHkf;k] vukpkj&vR;kpkj] 'kks"kdh;
yksd lkfgR; vk ik'pkR; lkfgR;A laLr lkfgR; la izkIr lkexzh gej iqjku izo`fk bR;kfn vksdj eksu&izk.k dsa O;fFkr djSr NSdA jpukdkjd bZ laosnu'khyrk
laLfr vk ledkyhu lkekftd ifjfLFkfrd >kadh izLrqr djSr vfNA kkfeZd vksdjk Hkhrj es ,dVk vn~Hkqr izf;k izkjaHk d* nSr NSdA vO;oLFkk vk folaxfrd
vk ykSfdd gksbrks ,fg es ms';xr ,drk vk thoud izfr ,dVk larqfyr bZ izR;{k n'kZu jpukdkjd eksu es vksfg ?kVukd ,dVk HkksDrkd tUe nSr vfN
n`f"Vdks.k HksVSr vfNA Qkjlh&lkfgR; nk'kZfudrk&izkku gsckd dkj.ksa fof'k"V ts vksfg ?kVuk dsa HkksxSr vfN vFkkZr~ vksfg HkksDrk la jpukdkj varjaxrk LFkkfir
:id n`f"Vdks.k iznku d;ydA e;dkyhu Hkkjrd lainkd :i es 'kkS;Ziw.kZ djSr vfN vk r[ku ,fg ;FkkFkZ&Hkksxd i'pkr~ ,fg ?kVukd ifjfLFkfr&ifjos'k&
vk jksekuh dFkklw=k gejk yksdfu dsa yksd lkfgR; la izkIr HksyA eqnk] ,fg rhuw ms';&ifj.kke bR;kfn ij fopkj dsykd ckn vuqHkwfrd ukV Lo:i rS;kj djSr
ledkyhu eSfFkyh dFkk @ 39 40 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
vfNA iqu% Hkk"kk f'kYid lkt&kaxkjd lax ikBdd vkxka izLrqr djSr vfNA dFkk fy[kc cgqr iS?k tksf[ke mBk;c fFkdA vku dksuks fokk es dusd
^dh dgh* ls trsd vko';d vfN] rkfg la cslh vko';d ^dksuk dgh* ls gqfl tk;c {kek djck ;ksX; gksbrks vfN] eqnk dFkk&ys[kud izkjaHk vk var gks;ck
vfNA ;Sg ^dksuk dgh* fFkd f'kYiA dFkkd ledkyhu Lo:i es ^f'kYi* fo'ks"k ij fdNq er ,uk vfN dgkuh og kziq n dh rku gS ftlesa xk;d egfQy
:isa pfpZr vfNA 'kq: gksrs gh viuh laiw.kZ izfrHkk fn[kk nsrk gS] ,d {k.k esa fp=k dks brus ekkq;Z
fojklr es laLr la izkIr laLdkj] oSKkfud ;qxd nsu la c<+Sr ns'k&fons'kd ls ifjiwfjr dj nsrk gS] ftruk jkr Hkj xkuk lquus ls Hkh ugha gks ldrk
lH;rk&laLfrd laidZ] vk fons'kh lkfgR;d izHkko eSfFkyh dFkkd orZeku Lo:i izes pUnz@lkfgR; dk ms'; i`-&44A jktdeyd ,dVk fucUk es ps[kod
dsa izkIr Hksy NSdA m)j.k vfN mke dksfVd dFkk viu lekfIr, LFky la izkjaHk gksbr vfN
eSfFkyh dFkk&lkfgR;d lHk la ,sfrgkfld mRFkkud le; fFkd Lora=krk fefFkyk fefgj] 6 twu 1965 i`-&20A jktdey Lo;a dgSr NfFk ^dFkk lekfIr,]
izkfIrd vkl&ikld ikap c[kZd le;A ,fg le; es lektd fofok oxZd dFkkd varjkRekd izrhd gksbr vfN] dFkkd fo"k; ufg i`-&21A ,fg fucakd
yksd ys[kuh mBkSyfu vk ls ladh.kZrk la fujis{k jfg d*A ,fg le;d jpukdkj laiknd laikndh; fVIi.kh es dgSr NfFk ^dFkkd lekfIr fdNq ,gus lu LFky
dksuks tkfroknh] oxZoknh] laiznk;oknh fopkj] :f<+xzLrrk vkfn la eqDr NykgA ij d* nsy tk, tkfg la ikBd dsa uhd tdka ckSvk; ifM+ tkbd] ra ls Hksy
fgudk yksdfud n`f"VQyd fo'kky NyfuA QyLo:i lektd fofok f;k&izf;k ,dj f'kYi] eqnk dksuks f'kYi fo'ks"kd dkj.ksa ;fn ikBd lekfIrd vFkZ dsa vuFkZd
dsa dFkk ys[kud fo"k; cukvksy tk, ykxy vk lkfgR;] lkekU; tu&thou :i es xzg.k dj, ra ls Hksy dFkkdkjd nkScZY; i`-&31A*
la tqfV ldyA vkc iz'u mBSr vfN ts dFkkd e; Hkkx dsgu gks;ckd pkgh \ ;qxhu
dFkk lu NksV jpuk es] pfj=k&fp=k.kd cslh lqfokk ufg jgSr vfNA ekufldrkd fglkc la] dFkkdkj dsa dFkkd cqukofV] Hkk"kk] okD;&foU;kl]
dFkksidFkuks dsa cslh uej;ckd 'kkSd;Zd vHkkos jgSr vfNA eqnk dFkkd izk.kro pfj=kkadu] dFkk&f'kYi] dF;] 'kCn&iz;ksx bR;kfn lHk ij ,rsd vuq'kklu j[kckd
dFkkud] ?kVuk pd vkkkj ij vk o.kZu dkS'kyd vkkkj ij c<+Sr vfN] dF;d pkgh] ts dFkk] viu ms'; la fry Hkfj fopfyr ufg gksv;A dFkk ledkyhu
foLrkj vk Li"Vhdj.k ,gh la gksbr vfNA ,fg ?kVukp dsa of.kZr djckd lektd vkfFkZd&jktuhfrd&lkekftd fp=kkofy gksv* ykxy vfN] oxZ&la?k"kZ]
ysy ifjfLFkfrfo'ks"k] ifjos'kfo'ks"k] LFkku&dky&ik=kfo'ks"k dsj [kkl&[kkl rF; dsa nSU;] foo'krk 'kks"k.k] vHkko bR;kfn dsa HkksxSr fo'kky tu leqnk;d nnZxkFkk
fpf=kr dj, iM+Sr NSdA ,fg fp=k.k es ;FkklaHko pfj=k&fp=k.k] dFkkisdFku] gksv, ykxy vfNA lektd ,gu ifjos'k es thcSr euq";d efLr"d ,fg leLr
ifjfLFkfrd fp=k.kd lkS"Bo >yfd mBSr vfNA eqnk] ,Egj vkfc d* dFkkd euksfodkj la Hkjy jgSr NSd] r[ku nq%[k ij bZ nq%[k yksd fd,d Hkksxr \ Toj
nqb, Vk ro ize[q k gksv, ykxy vfN dF; vk f'kYiA la ihfM+r euq"; viu frDr eqag dsa dquSud xksyh la vkjks frDr dksuk djr \
dFkk ys[ku es v|kofk rhu rjgd ekSfyd ifjokZu vk;y vfN dF;xr] ,fg frDrrkd fuokj.k gsrq ,fg xksyh ij euksjatdrkd feBkl ysiy jgSr vfNA
f'kYixr vk Hkk"kkxrA bZ rhuw ifjokZu gejk lektd cnySr lH;rk&laLfr] bZ euksjatdrk ikBd dsa dFkkd vk|ksikar ikjk;.k kfj ,dkxz d,us jgSr vfN]
c<+Sr jhfr&dqjhfr] fodflr Kku&izfrHkk vk ns'k&ns'kkarjd fe=krk bR;kfnd cUgus jgSr vfNA QyLo:i var es ikBd dFkkd ekSfyd ms'; kfj igqafp
vonku fFkdA tsuk&tsuk le; lljSr xsy] dFkk&ys[kud rsoj es ifjokZu vk;y icSr NfFkA izkjaHk es euksjatdrs eSfFkyh dFkkd eq[; ;s; Ny] tsuk lqkka'kq
xsyA vk vkc ,fg fu"d"kZ ij igqapy Nh] ts dFkk lkfgR; eSfFkyh, ufg vfirq 'ks[kj pkSkjh lsgks LohdkjSr NfFk lanHkZ i`- 70A
lHk Hkk"kkd loZizfl) loZiz'kaflr fokk fFkdA eSfFkyh dFkk&fokk vku lHk fokk dFkkdkj ysy vIiu thou&n'kZu( ifjiDo vuqHkwfr] lQy] fukksZ[k] dVq
dsa vR;ar ikNw NksfM+ fo'o&lkfgR;d nkSM+ es tqVy vfN] eqnk ,Egj vkfc d* vk ;FkkFkZ ifjfLFkfrd vfHkO;fDrd lkgfldrk( iz[kj izfrHkk] vkd"kZd Hkk"kk&
eSfFkyh es fdNq xksVs FkksM+sd l*[k la dFkk fy[kc izkjaHk d;yfuA lkfgR; ys[ku 'kSyh bR;kfn c vko';d 'krZ vfNA izkjaHks la gejk lekt es iwath&izFkk] Nwvk&Nwfr]
,dVk iS?k lkkuk fFkd vk rsa l*[k la dFkk fy[kfugkj dFkkdkj ,fg lkkuk cgq&fookg] cky&o`) fookg] dqfRlr ;kSukpkj iljy NyA ,rn~fjDr] Lora=krk
es ufg FkEgrkgA tsuk xngk uky ufg BksdckvksrA ,gu dFkkdkjd jpuk] izkfIrd i'pkr~ FkksM+sd vkj nqxqZ.k gejk lekt dsa lusld :i es izkIr HksySdA
lHk n`f"V,a mis{k.kh; vfNA HkRlZuksd n`f"V,a ,gu jpukd ppkZ ufg gks;ckd lqfokk lu pht iz'kklfud eqh es xuy&xwFky yksd ysy can Hk* xsyA ekSfyd
pkghA vfkdkj] dgckd ysy cuy] eqnk vks lafokku fdNq [kkl yksdd pht Hk*xsyA
ledkyhu eSfFkyh dFkk @ 41 42 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
xke] lekt] ns'k lHk [kaM&[kaM es fofok Lrj la cafV xsyA dk;kZy; es vjktdrk] rdj n`"Vkar Lo:i ^dhjrfu;ka* vk ^pUujnkl* ,oa ^vkokxeu* vk ^,dVk
pksjh] cSekuh] ?kql[kksjh cf<+ xsyA usrk&vQlj&i=kdkj&f'k{kd leLr cqf)thoh paikdyh ,dVk fo"kkj* dFkk ns[ky tk ldSr vfNA
viuk dkZO; la foeq[k Hk* xsyA lekt nqxqZ.kd [ktkuk Hk* xsyA eqnk ,gw ifjfLFkfr ikNw vkfc d* yfyr&jktdey&ek;kUnd uke la eSFkyh dFkk&kkjk es
es iwoZd dFkkdkj yksdfu lektd :f<+ xzLr djrk vk vO;oLFkk vk vukpkj f=kiqaMd izpyu HksyA eqnk jktdeyd dFkk&izf;k ijorhZ dFkkdkj yksdfud
bR;kfn la VDdj ysc okftc ufg cq>yfuA ,fg ifjfLFkfr es lektd nSfud ysy fo'ks"k :i la vuqdj.kh; Hksy ! izk;% ,gu ns[ky xsy vfN] ts lHk jpukdkj
thoud ck vk vkarfjd ;FkkFkZ dsa fpUgyfu gfjeksgu >k] ef.kin~e] fdj.k] viu iwoZorhZ jpukdkj la izsj.kk y* d*] izHkko xzg.k d* d* Msx vkxw llkjSr
O;kl] eueksgu >k] lqkka'kq 'ks[kj pkSkjh] y{ehifr flag] xksfoUn >k] 'kSysUnzeksgu NfFk] eqnk] eSfFkyh dFkk dsa vkb la rSarhl c[kZ iwoZ jktdey tr, NksfM+ d,
>k] fdlqu] izcksk ukjk;.k flag] yfyr] jktdey] ek;kuUn] lksenso] galjkt] xsykg] rr, kfj ,[kuks fdNq, dFkkdkj igqafp ldykg vfNA
dYiuk 'kj.k fyyh js] jkenso] khjsUnz] jekuUn js.kq] izHk`frA fuEuoxhZ; tu&thou ifgus eSfFkyh lkfgR; ys[kud fo"k; ufg gksbr
,fg jpukdkj es la fdNq dsj ;s; jgyfu dFkkd dFkkro dsa v{kq..k NyA ,fg ijaijk dsa izk;% 'kq#g d;yfu dkaphukFk >k ^fdj.k*A ef.kin~e dsj
j[kSr pkfjf=kd oSf'k"V~; dsa mRd"kZ nsc] ra dsNq dsj jgyfu vkRela?k"kZd gkiksg dFkk ys[kud ra fo"k;s ;Sg oxZ jgyfuA Qsj yfyr vk ckn es ,fg ij jekuUn
vk ekul fo'ys"k.kd Qsjk es dFkk ro dsa xkS.k d* nscA ,dj vykos ,fg js.kqd ys[kuhd peRdkj ns[ky tk, ykxyA fuEuoxhZ; ifjos'k dsa HkksxSr turkd
le; es FkksM+sd vkj dFkkdkjd uke xukvksy tk ldSr Ny] eqnk vksfg es vfkdka'k vkRekfHkO;fDr] pfj=kkadu] vksdj nSU;] vksdj foo'krk fgudk lkfgR; es vk,yA
uke] jfg ufg ldyA ,fg le; es eSfFkyh es drksd if=kdkd izdk'ku lsgks vksuk] dFkk es euksjatdrk vFkok mR"Vrk vuckd yksHksa ,Egj drksd dFkkdkj
gksc* ykxy vk bZ izdk'ku dFkkdkjd ,dVk lewg cu;ck es cslh leFkZ lkfcr yksdfu] ns[kk&ns[kh fuEuoxhZ; vkapfyd cksyhd lekos'k dj, yxykgA eqnk]
HksyA ,fg oxZd cksyh ij lkkukd vHkko jgykd dkj.ksa vks dFkkd nks"k cfu d,
;qxhu lanHkZ es xked mPpoxhZ;] vFkZlaiUu ifjokjd laHkzkar ukxfjd }kjk jfg xsyA
vFkZfoiUud 'kks"k.k] vksdj vHkko la ykHk ysckd izo`fk] fuEuoxhZ; yksdd L=khd dFkk&fokk es ts uwrurk jktdey vuyfu] rdj vku ts dksuks dkj.k
lax O;fHkpkj---vkfnd fp=k.k cslh vko';d NyA jgy gks] eqnk ifjos'kxr vko';drk bZ vo'; NyA dFkk fy[kckd e es vR;ar
ledkyhu lektd ,fg vkarfjd i{k dsa fpUgyfu yfyr] jktdey] NksVks lu ?kVuk e dsa fpf=kr djck dky] ik=kd iwoZdFkk] vksdj ifjos'k] vksdj
ek;kuUn] lksenso] dYiuk 'kj.kA eqnk vfHkO;fDrd tksf[ke mB;ck es jktdey pfj=k] vksdj ekufldrk] vksdj izo`fk] vksdj xq.k] vksdj voxq.k] vksdj
lHk dsa ikNw NksfM+] cf<+ xsykgA izk;% fgudj leLr dFkk&lkfgR; es vareqZ[kh lkekftd ekun.M] vksdjk ij ifjos'kd izHkko bR;kfnd o.kZu gSc vko';d
fopkjkkjk izxk<+ gksbrs xsyA vk ,r, vkfc d* jktdey] eSfFkyh&dFkk&lkfgR;d Hk* xsy vfNA ,fg o.kZud e es vkc izR;sd izk.khd ,d&,d {k.kd ?kVuk
,dVk ;qx thfr xsykg] ts eSfFkyh&dFkk es viwoZ uwrurk vuyfuA ns'k&ns'kkarjd dFkkd fuekZ.k d* ldSr vfNA ;qxhu folafxr es thcSr euq";d thou ,rsd
lkfgR; la laidZ Nyfu] nq)Z"kZ izfrHkk'kkyh] nqnkr i<+kdw NykgsA fo'o&lkfgR;d fDy"V vk oSfo;iw.kZ vfN ts euq"; ,d&,dVk lkal dFkk&ys[kud IykWV ij
ifjizs{; es vkqukru iz;ksxd tkudkjh NyfuA fgudj dFkk lkfgR; es ewy f?kpSr vfNA ,fg ifjfLFkfr dsa idM+yfu xax's k xqt a u] izHkkl dqekj pkSkjh]
LFkku f'kYi izkIr d;ydA fgudj dgc Nyfu ts vly oLrq dFkk es f'kYis kwedsrq] jkteksgu >k] thodkUr] egkizdk'k] xaxs'k xqatu] lqHkk"kpUnz ;kno] lqdkUr
gksbr vfN] dF; ra lHkd ,Dds gksbr NSd] f'kYisd uohurk ys[kdd futRo lkse] m"kkfdj.k [kku] iw.ksZUnq pkSkjh izHk`frA
gksbr vfN Le`fr la;k] i`- 153A ys[kdd ysy vks bZgks 'krZ jk[kSr NfFk ts okZeku 'krkCnhd vkBe n'kd es gejk lekt es fdNq uo leL;k viu
gqudk es ,rck izfrHkk] {kerk jgckd pkgh] tkfg la vks lkkkj.k la lkkkj.k izkcY; ij vk,yA csjkstxkjh&csdkjh vk ,djk laxs egxhA ,fg la iqu% vusd
ikBd dsa viu dFkkoLrq] viu eUrO;] viu f'kYi&iz;ksx vk viu vkarfjd vjktdrk mRiUu HksyA ekuod voewY;u HksyA vHkko c<+yA 'kks"k.k&c<+yA
ms'; la Li"V Hkkosa ifjfpr djk ld; fe- fe-( 6 twu] 65 i`-&20A viu vHkkoxzLr ;qokih<+h rukoxzLr voLFkk es thc* ykxyA ,Egj vkfc d* fdNq
f'kYi&iz;ksx vk viu ms'; la jktdey lkekU;ks ikBd dsa ifjfpr dj;ck uo ckr bZgks Hksy ts] 'kksf"kr leqnk;d chp ;qokoxZ dsa FkksM+sd vkRepsruk]
es lQy Hksykg vfN vk f'kYid uohurk ,Dds dF; dsa dksuk fHkUu djSr vfN] vfLrocksk HksyfuA ,fg leLr lkekftd f;k&vfHkf;k] fLFkfr&ifjfLFkfr
ledkyhu eSfFkyh dFkk @ 43 44 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
dsa ,fg dkyd izfrHkk'kkyh dFkkdkj yksdfu fpUgyfuA mn; pUnz >k ^fouksn*] eqnk us ra lkfgR;d okZeku ewY; dsa cq>Sr NfFk] us 'kk'or ewY; dsaA dFkk&ys[ku
fouksn fcgkjh yky] foHkwfr vkuUn] uohu pkSkjh] iznhi fcgkjh] rkjkuUn fo;ksxh] fctyhd kkjk ln`'k gks;ckd pkgh] Lohp ncy fd kkjk izokfgr gSc 'kq:] dFkkd
dsnkj dkuu] 'kSysUnz vkuUn izHk`fk dFkkdkj yksdfud ;qxcksk] vkRe&ijh{k.k ifgy iafDr i<+ygqa fd dFkkd ifjos'k es py xsygqaA
ps r u'khyrk fgudk lHkd dFkk es Hks V S r jgy vfNA ledkyhu ,[ku eSfFkyh es dFkk ys[ku [kwc Hk* jgy vfN] eqnk yxSr vfN tsuk
lkekftd&jktuhfrd&vkfFkZd ifjos'k la fgudk yksdfud dFkk cslh yxhp yxSr ekfeyk lsjk,y lu gksA ,dj ewy dkj.k izdk'kud nqnZ'kk fFkdA ,dVk le;
vfNA tu&thoud okZeku leL;k fgudk yksdfud dF; gksbr jgyfu] vksfg Ny lu~ 1950&55 d] tkfg es ^oSnsgh*d izdk'ku la eSfFkyh dFkk dsa ,dVk
leL;k dsa HkksxSr O;fDr fgudj pfj=k uk;d gksbr vfN vk rdj pfj=kkadu fn'kk HksVySdA yfyr] jktdey izHk`fr dFkkdkjd ,dVk lewg rS;kj Hksy ts
es viu iw.kZ thou&n'kZud mi;ksx d* d* ik=kd euksHkko dsa if<+ d* vksdjk eSfFkyhd dFkk&fokk dsa ,dVk ;qxhu Lo:i nsyfuA ^fefFkyk fefgj*d iquiZzdk'ku
mtkxj djSr jgykg vfNA lsok fuo`fkd i'pkr~ dksuks O;fDrd euksfo'ys"k.kkRed ,fg fn'kk dsa etxwrh nsydA eqnk] ,[ku izdk'kud vHkko es ;qxlEer dFkk]
pfj=kkadu] ;qokoxZd vkRepsruk] uohu laLdkjd fot; izkfIr] if?kySr nkaiR;&lw=k] dFkkdkjd Qkby es nkcy vfN] vk vFkZ le`)] ns[kkSafl;k dFkkdkjd dFkk&laxzg
fDy"V ftuxhd la?k"kZ] ;qxhu Ny&Nn~e] eksg&Hkax] fonzksg] csdkjhd leL;k la bR;kfn vk;y tkbr vfNA
mn~Hkwr vusd ekufld }U} la vb n'kdd dFkk ljkcksj vfNA egxh] csdkjh] vHkko] vLi`';rk] ngst] ?kql[kksjh] nkaiR; thoud dVqrk]
vly es Lora=krk izkfIrd i'pkr~ fefFkykd lH;rk&laLfr vk thou&izf;k csesy&fookg] bZ";kZ] }s"k] dqfRlr ;kSukpkj] vFkZ laiUurkd vkJ; la vFkZfoiUud
es fdNq rsuk tdka ifjokZu vcSr jgySd] ts ,fg fokkd Lo:i rqjr&rqjr cnySr 'kks"k.k] cykRdkj] pksjh] jktuhfrd vfLFkjrk] jktuhfrd vjktdrk vk vlarqyu]
xsyA izfrHkk'kkyh dFkkdkj ,fg ifjokZud vkSfpR; dsa] vk lkfgR; es ,dj jktuhfrd vijkkhdj.k] foKkud vkxeu la izkIr izxfr vk voufr bR;kfn
fp=k.kd vko';drk dsa cq>Sr jgykgA ,[ku gejk lektd okZeku leL;k vfNA ,fg es la lHk ,d nksljd tuuh
oLrqr% eSfFkyh dFkk vkc dkscj&Mgdu] pqygk&fpuckj] lksgj lenkvksu] fFkdA ,fg dVq ;FkkFkZ la eqag pksjk,c gejk dFkkdkjd fu;fr ufg fFkdA
vfjiu&iqjgjd lhek la ckgj vkfc ;qxd izfr;ksfxrk es xoZ la Bk<+ vfNA fuEuoxhZ; tkfrd loZfofk 'kks"k.k lektd mPp oxhZ; tkfrd vfkdkj tdka
dF;&f'kYi&Hkk"kk] rhuw uohurkd lax eSfFkyh dFkk ,[ku ;qxd izfrfufkRo es cfu xsy] eqnk vktqd f'k{kk iz.kkyhd izpkj&izlkj] 'kgjh&{ks=k vk f'kf{kr yksdd
layXu vfNA izsepUnd ersa lHk la mke dksfVd dFkk vks gksbr vfN] tdj lalxZ fuEutkfrd ;qok oxZd n`f"V [kksfy nsydA vksdj vkRecksk tkfx xsyA
vkkkj dksuk euksoSKkfud lR; ij gks lkfgR; dk ms';] i`-&51A euksfoKku QyLo:i vksdjk eksud fonzksg kkfd mByA vksdj bZ fonzksgh LoHkko] rFkkdfFkr
,[ku lkfgR; es fo'ks"k :isa HksVSr vfNA dFkkd Jo.k ok v;;u la izkIr mPpoxhZ; leqnk; dsa vuqfpr ykx* yxyfuA ,fg mfprkuqfprd la?k"kZ dsa
vkuUn vFkok ?kfVr fojspu] oLrqr% ,dVk ekufld izf;k fFkdA euksfo'ys"k.kkRed gej dFkkdkj misf{kr ufg d,yfuA
fp=k.k ,fg dkj.k la ikBdd gsrq fo'ks"k :i la yksdfiz; Hksy vfNA ekuo&thoud dF; dsj bZ fo'kn&fojkV Qyd dFkk lkfgR;d dk;k es lek xsy] lek
;FkkFkZ vkc la?k"kZd v[kkM+k cfu xsy vfNA thou&laxzke es rUe; euq"; dsa jgy vfNA ,djk fpf=kr djckd ysy rh{.k Hkk"kk&'kSyh vk uwru f'kYid vis{kk
vkc euksjatud ysy le;d vR;ar vHkko jg* ykxy NSdA ,fg ifjfLFkfr lgtsa d;y tk ldS,A vnkS la py vcSr Hkk"kk vk f'kYi es okZeku dF;
es vkc vko';d vfN] ts vks de le; es vfkd la vfkd euksjatu izkIr dsa] vfHkO;fDr dsa vks>j;ckd iw.kZ laHkkouk NySdA rsa f'kYi vk Hkk"kkd uohurk]
djckd ckV rkd,A euksjatu ufg;ksa gks] de la de eksud lqanj Hkkouk dsa dFkk dsa uo&uo :i es vku* ykxyA
tkxzr vo'; dj,A ,fg ysy vko';d vfN dFkk es laiUurk] cqukcfV es ,Egj vkfc d* f'kYid bZ uwrurk eSfFkyh es y?kqdFkk uked fokkd tUe
xgurk] dF; es ;FkkFkZrk] pfj=kkadu es euksoSKkfudrk] vfHkO;fDr es Li"Vrk] nsyd vfNA tdj vaxt sz h gks;r Short Short-StoryA eqnk bZ vaxzsth lkfgR;d
vk f'kYi es uwrurkA dFkkd ,d&,d 'kCn vkd"kZd gks vk vifjgk;Z gksA dFkkd izHkko la ufg vk;yA bZ vk,y vfN osn] mifu"kn] czk.k] vkj.;d] iapra=k
,fg lhek&'krZ dsa ledkyhu dFkkdkj yksfdu phfUg jgy NfFkA ,r* ge] vksgu vFkok yksdFkkd vt ksr la] tr, bZ mins'kkRed izopud chp es vFkok
dFkkdkjd ppkZ d* d* gqudk vuko';d egoiw.kZ ufg cuc* pkgSr Nh] ts yksddaB es uqdkvksy NyA vFkZ xkaHkh;Z la Hkjy] NksV dk;k es rh{.k Hkk"kk] uwru
l*[k la jpukdkj cu* pkgSr NfFk] vFkZ&laiUu NfFk ra iksfFkvks Nik ySr NfFk] f'kYi vk vR;ar eekZgr d* nsc* oyk bZ mifokk [kwc izHkkodkjh lkfcr Hksy
ledkyhu eSfFkyh dFkk @ 45 46 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
vfN vk fodkl ikfc jgy vfNA
vly es eSfFkyh es lhek {ks=k NksV jgckd dkj.ksa iS?k lkfgR;dkjd lkfUu;]
iSjoh vk njckj ilan] n`f"Vghu] vFkZlaiUu laiknd la ifjp; lgt Hk* tkbr
vfNA QyLo:i Hknckfjd csax tdka cgqr jkl fy[kfugkj vkfc tkbr NfFkA
eqnk ,gsu ys[kd lc jfgrks NfFk Hkkncs HkfjA viu thou&n'kZu] ifjos'kxr
vuqHkwfr vk izfrHkktU; vfHkO;fDr ftudk Nfu] lkfgR; es oSg LFkk;h Hk*
ldykgA
eSfFkyh dFkk&ys[ku es FkksM+sd udyh izk.kh lsgks vcSr jgykg vfN] ts
^egktuks xrsu l iUFkk%* ij pfy d* izflf) gfFk;k ysc* pkgSr NfFk] eqnk y{; lakku djSr eSfFkyh dFkk
ls Hk* ufg icSr NfuA pwafd jktdeyd dFkk es lsDl&fp=k.k Hksy vk jktdey
vHkwriwoZ [;kfr izkIr d* ysyfu] rsa] gegwa lsDl ij fyf[k d* izflf) lesVh(
,guks ekufldrk eSfFkyhd dFkkdkj yksdfud jgyfu vfNA bZ ns[kckd] ij[kckd eSfFkyh es ekSfyd dFkk okZeku 'krkCnhd rslj n'kd la izkjaHk Hk* d* kjkkfj
izfrHkk ufg Nfu] ts vks lsDl&fp=k.k dksu lanHkZ es vk dksu :i es Hksy vfN \ uo&uo vk;ke xzg.k djSr xsyA lu~ 1921 es tsa vuwi feJ viu ^ukjn&fookg*
rFkkfi] ,fg fNV&QqV leL;kd vNSrks] eSfFkyhd okZeku dFkk ledkfyd dkO;d Hkwfedk es loZizFke miU;kl ,oa dFkk dsa vyx&vyx Lora=k fokkd
ekfV&ikfu] tu&thou] thou&laxzke] Toyar leL;k] ifjfLFkfr] ;FkkFkZ&thou] :i es j[kyfu] rsa izk;% dkyh dqekj nkld ^Hkh"k.k&vU;k;* 1923 rFkk dqekj
oxZ&la?k"kZ] ;qxhu lanHkZ bR;kfnd izfrfcac ns[kcSr vfNA la[;kd fglkc la FkksM+cs xaxkuUn flagd ^euq";d eksy* 1924 dsa eSfFkyhd izkjafHkd ekSfyd dFkkd
lgh] eqnk ,guks dFkkdkj NfFk] ts [ksr es dkt djSr t*u&gjokgd] cakqvk&etnwjd :i es Lohdkjy xsy vfNA vFkkZr~] ek=k vkB n'kdd ;k=kk es eSfFkyh dFkk
'kks"k.k d* vcSr NfFk] lwn ij lwn tksfM+ d* y* vcSr NfFk vk vkil v;yk vkb kfjd fLFkfr es igqapy vfNA
ij vksdj nSU; ij] vksdj foo'krk ij dFkk fy[kSr NfFkA dFkk&ys[ku dsa ,fg izdk'kud vofk dksugqa dFkkd ledkyhurk |ksfrr djSr vfNA eSfFkyh
Nn~e izxfr'khyrk la Qjkd jk[kc vko';d vfNA jpukdkjd ys[ku vk thou] lkfgR;d bZ ,dVk leL;k jgySd vfN ts dFkkdkjd ikap&ikap nl&nl c[kZd
fl)kar vk O;ogkj es lekurk jgckd pkghA iqjku vuqHkwfrd vfHkO;fDr izdkf'kr gksbr vfN] fdaok ufgvksa gksbr vfNA
tsuk fd jkteksgu >k viu dFkk laxzg ^,dVk&rslj* es dgyfu vfN ts ^bZgks
ra eSfFkyh vdkneh,d ik fFkd ts muSl l; pkSjkflvks es vkfc d, ljlfB
la ipgkfj kfjd fy[ky dFkk laxzghr Hk* xsy] vU;Fkk vkfcvks ldSr fd
ufgA* rFkkfi] ta izdk'kus dsa ;ku es jkf[k vkkqfud eSfFkyh dFkkd v;;u
d,y tk, rS;ks ,djk rhu dksfV es ckafV ysy t,ckd pkgh 1 izkjaHk la
ikape n'kd kfjd dFkk 2 NBe n'kdd dFkk vk 3 NBe n'kd la cknd
dFkkA
uhfrijd vk lektijd dFkk lHkd vuqokn la izkjaHk Hksy eSfFkyh dFkk
^iz.kE; nsork*d izdk'ku gksbr&gksbr ikBdd chp csl izflf) ikfc ysydA
QyLo:i vkxwd dFkkdkj dsa dF; vk f'kYi es FkksM+sd vkvksj vkxw v,ck es
lqfokk HksyfuA NBe n'kdd dFkkdkj lektd ck <*c&<kapkd eksg NksfM+ lks>s
O;fDrd fparu vk thou la tqfM+ xsykgA NBe n'kdd cknd dFkkdkj lHk
dsa lsgks ta oxhZr djh ra lkQ&lkQ ns[kkbr vfN] ts lkre vk vkBe n'kd
y{; la/kku djSr eSfFkyh dFkk @ 47 48 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
es dFkkdkjd iS?k lwph rS;kj Hksy ts vpkud uoe n'kd es vksN Hk* xsyA vfN] eqnk f'kYi fuekZ.k yksd viu&viu vuqHkwfrd ifjiDorkd vkkkj ij
vksuk vb vksN g,ckd izR;{k dkj.k fFkd izdk'ku ehfM;kd vHkkoA vkWfMvks&fotqvy djSr vfNA ,gh f'kYid dkj.k ,dfg dF; la dSd rjgd dFkkd tUe nsy
vFkok vkWMhcqy ehfM;k la eSfFkyh es ,[kugqa kfj fdNq lh>&ikfd ufg jgy tk ldSr vfNA b,g f'kYi gscfu es vkfc d, dFkk dsa euksoSKkfudrk fn'k
vfNA vb iS?k lwphd lax lkre vk vkBe n'kd [kwc tks'k&[kjks'k la vk,y eksfM+ nsydA dFkk] dFkkud izkku ufg Hk* d,] ?kVuk izkku ufg Hk* d,] 'kSyh
NyA vb nquw n'kdd dFkkdkj dsa ,dVk lqfuf'pr nwjh r; d,y dFkk&e izkku gkse, ykxyA vuqHkwfrd ifjiDork la f'kYi fufeZr gksbr vfNA lu~
HksVyfu] cnyy ekgkSy HksVyfu] Lokxr y, ikBd leqnk; HksVyfu] jpukRed 1960 d n'kd es viu ifjfpfr cukSfugkj jpukdkj yksdfu uo Hkkocksk dsa
Msx jk[k* ysy if=kdkd IysV QkeZ HksVyfu] thou&n'kZu fodflr dj* ysy uo 'kSfy,a fpf=kr dj, ra yxykg] eqnk fdNq :f<+xzLr yksd dsa ls ufg ipyfuA
lkekftd fofr vk ekuoh; la?k"kZ HksVyfu vk vb leLr fLFkfrd chp es vFkZ&ra=k la izHkkfor jktdeyd ^uufn&Hkkmt* lu dFkk vksfg ih<+hd yksd dsa
dF;d oSjkV~; ,oa f'kYid oSfo; HksVyfuA bZ yksdfu vb leLr vonkud ufg vj?kyfuA vksuk] viokn lc fdNq es gksbr vfNA xksfoUn >k lu ys[kd
mi;ksx d,yfu vk viu jpuk lalkj es fojklr la izkIr izo`frd fodkl vk ikBdd la[;k de vfNA dF;d Lrj ij lsgks uos ih<+hd yksd viu Qyd
d,yfuA dsa cslh c<+k ldSr NfFk] bZ ckr ekuy t,ckd pkghA iqjku ih<+hd yksd ysy
uoe n'kd es viu l`tu'khyrkd ifjp; nsfugkj dFkkdkjd la[;k vR;ar ,[kugqa fdNq {ks=k oftZrs Nfu( t[ku fd uo ih<+hd yksd fn'kkgkjk ;qok oxZd
de vfNA eqnk trcs vfN] ls iwoZd leLr jpukdkjd eSfFkyh dFkkd f'kYi LVs'ku ij lsgks ;ku dsafnzr djSr NfFk vk ,fg ekufldrk es dScjk MkUl
vk dF; dsa le;&lkis{k cu,ckd ysy nkfpr Hk* d, tqVy NfFkA ns[kSr dky lsgks vFkok dksuks os';kd dksj es ewM+h jkf[k d, pje 'kkafr izkIr
pwafd] thou&n`f"V euq"; dsa f'k{kk la ufg] mez la ufg] vkRe&la?k"kZ la djSr dky lsgks gqudk thou la dFkk rRo fudkfy ySr NfFkA vFkkZr] uo ih<+hd
izkIr gksbr vfNA vk ;qxhu izxfr'khyrkd lkekftd] jktuhfrd ,oa vkfFkZd dFkkdkj ysy thoud dksuks {ks=k lkfgR; es ckxy ufg tkbr vfNA ,fg l`td
izHkkod {ks=k es fefFkyk] vku iz{ks=k la iNqvk,y bykdk vfNA lkfgfR;d Lo:id lewg ysy vfHkO;fDrd dksuks [krjk ufg jfg xsyA vFkZ&ra=k] jktuhfr] dwVuhfr]
izxfr'khyrk ysy ?kVuke vko';d vfNA fefFkykapy vksgquk vkRethoh yksdd ukjh&mRihM+u] Hkw[k&csjkstxkjh& vHkko&'kks"k.k] 'kSf{kd&os';ko`fk] oSpkfjd os';ko`fk]
fuokl&LFky fFkd] tr, yksd ;FkkfLFkfroknsd iks"kd cslh dky jgSr vfNA nkaiR; vk jDr lacakd foxyu] lacakd <ksax] kkfeZd ik[kaM vkfn leLr
vgh e es eSfFkyhd lkfgR;dkjks FkksM+sd fnu e;e xfr la py, yxykgA lkekftd xfrfofk dFkkd oLrq Hk* ldSr vfNA NBe n'kd la y* d, vkb
QyLo:i jktdeyd ckn dFkkd rh{.krk iz[kj ufg Hk* d, lkekU; xfr la kfjd dFkk es le;kuqlkj vk jpukdkjd dkS'kyd vuqlkj bZ lHk rkdy tk
py, ykxyA ldSr vfNA
vb rhu n'kd es tuthoud foHkhf"kdk mkjkskj fodflrs HksyA drksd ;qx lanHkZd lax jpukdkjd c varjax lacak jgSr NSdA jpukdkj dsa
izfrHkk'kkyh dFkkdkj lalkj la mfB xsykg vk 'ks"k dFkkdkj dsa vkxwd le; es ;qxkuqdwy viu n`f"Vd dSuokl ifjofrZr dj* iM+Sr NfuA vkb usrk] iqfyl]
O;oLFkk tU; fofr ukd la mij cq>k, yxyfuA vkRela?k"kZd :i ijkdk"Bk i=kdkj] f'k{kd] vQlj izHk`fr lHk O;fDroknh kkj.kk es leVk xsy NfFk] rsa
ij vkfc xsyA jpukdkj yksdfu dsa tu&thoud ,d&,d lakl es dFkk&rRo vkc tu lkekU;d vkxw iFknz"Vkd ladV vfN jktdey bZ nkf;Ro lkfgR;dkjd
HksV, yxyfuA vb la?k"kZ la mn~Hkwr dFkk&l`tu iz[kj HksyA vuqHkoh jpukdkjd ekuSr NfFkA oLrqr% mfprks l,g fFkdA l`tukehZ yksd lkektd lHk la
ekaty f'kYi vk uo dFkkdkjd uwru f'kYi es dFkk&ys[ku gksv, ykxyA laosnu'khy rarq gksbr vfN] tdjk lektd izR;sd NksV&iS?k ?kVuk izHkkfor djSr
ewy :i la dFkkd ysy nqb, Vk oLrq fopkj.kh; jfg xsy vfN dF; NSdA vk t[ku lektd O;oLFkk ra=k ,fg rjgsa LokFkZ es fyIr Hk* tk,] r[ku
vk f'kYiA ifjos'k la mBkvksy jkW eSVsfj;y dF; Hksy vk vksdjk izLrqr djckd oLrqr% bZ nkf;Ro lkfgR;dkjd gksbr Nfu ts vks tulkekU; dsa n`f"Vcksk nsfFk
ywfj f'kYi HksyA jktdey ,fg izlax ,d csj dgus NfFk ts dFkkd ysy vly vk ;qxd lax Msx feyk d, pyckd ysy izsfjr djfFkA
oLrq f'kYi gksbr vfNA dF; ra cgqrks O;fDrd ,d jax Hk* ldSr vfN] eqnk fnukuqfnu ;qx cnySr jgy vfNA jpukdkjd ifjos'kes vkewy ifjokZu
dF; dsa miLFkkfir djckd ywfj viu&viu [kkl&[kkl rjgd gksbr vfNA Hk* xsy vfNA ifjos'k la jpukdkjd HkksDrk eu izHkkfor HksyA vuqHkwfrd uo&uo
,dfg ifjos'k la mBkvksy fofok lkfgR;dkj }kjk jkW&eSVsfj;y ra ,d Hk* ldSr fn'kk izkIr dsydA oSKkfud ;qxd vkfoHkkZo la {ks=k&foLrkj Hksy] HkkSxksfyd nwjh
y{; la/kku djSr eSfFkyh dFkk @ 49 50 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
dfe xsy] fo'od lhek ?kksdfp d, de Hk* xsyA ftuxhd O;Lrrk c<+yA es fo'ks"k izHkko'kkyh <ax la dgckd vkxzg vkkqfud eSfFkyh dFkk es jg, ykxyA
euq"; jsy] gokbZ tgkt la ;k=kk izkjaHk d,ydA panzekd iwtk d,fugkj] panzek caxykd d#.kk vk vkaXy&Hkk"kkd euksoSKkfudrk eSfFkyh dFkk es jp*&ip* ykxyA
ij la Hkze.k d* vk,yA bZ lHkVk ifjokZu] lHk f;k&dyki lkfgR; lajpukd lkjax dqekjd ^fuf'par*] f'ko'kadj Jhfuokld ^kkj vk euqD[k*] rkjkuUn
{ks=k es ,dVk kafr vkfu nsydA yksd de&la&de le; ls cslh&la&cslh lq[k fo;ksxhd ^ifjfLFkfr*] fo|kuUn >kd ^tjlheu*] nso'kadj uohud ^mlkal* vkfn
Hkksxckd vH;klh cfu xsyA egkdkO; la [kaM dkO;] [kaMdkO; la eqDrd] ukVd ,dj lk{kh vfNA ^dkslh dqle*d y?kqdFkk vadd izk;% lHkVk ekSfyd y?kqdFkk
la ,dkadh] miU;kl la dFkk] dFkk la y?kqdFkk fn'k ikBdd >qdku c<+yA jpukdkj es d#.kk vk euksoSKkfudrkd bZ Loj eq[kj Hksy vfNA
dsa ikBdd ,fg izo`fk dsa phUg, iM+yfuA ,fg pje&lR; la Nkg dkV* oyk lw{erk la tkap&iM+rky d,y tk, ra bZ rF; lks>ka vcSr vfN] ts 'kq)
jpukdkjd jpuk okZeku le; es R;kT; Hk* tk,c ,dne LokHkkfod fFkdA :isa yksdkuqjatu ysy izkjaHk Hksy ekSfyd dFkk ys[ku dsa gfjeksgu >kd dFkk&l`tu
leL;k;qDr lektd tfVyre ftuxh es thfor ikBd dsa ,dVk jg, jktk] ,dVk Lo:i vk fn'kk nsyd] tdjk yfyr] jktdey] ek;kuUn] kwedsrq izHk`fr
,dVk jg, jkuh dfg d, vkc vks>jkvksy ufg tk ldSr NyA O;oLFkk la cgqr lkgl vk cgqr euks;ksx la uo f{kfrt nsyfuA cknd n'kdd dFkkdkj
mfcvk,y ,fg raxgky izk.khd euksfodkjd 'keu ysy jpuk es ^vksdj* ckr lHk ,dtqV Hk* d, ,[kugqa l`tu'khy NfFkA eqnk bZ ns[kkbr vfN ts dFkk&l`tud
dgc vko';d Ny] vU;Fkk fojspu g,c vlaHko Hk* tbr,] ts lkfgfR;d ts Lrj vkxw ufg cf<+d, {kSfrt ry ij pyy tkbr Ny] vkb lsgks ?kV,
vlQyrkd |ksrd gksbr,A ykxy vfNA eSfFkyh dFkk vkc fo'o dFkk&lkfgR;d Lrj ij Msx fey,ck es
izk;% lHk jpukdkj viu iwoZorhZ jpukdkj la dksuks&us&dksuks rjgsa vuqizsfjr l{ke Hk* ldy vfNA ,dVk vYi vofk es bZ tr, kfj igqapy] ls vku
gksbrs Vk NfFkA ;k ra vks izHkko xzg.k djSr NfFk] ;k vkus dksuks rjgd fn'kk&lwpuk dFkk&lkfgR;d ysy pqukSrhd ckr Hk* ldSr vfNA lqHkk"kpUnz ;kno lu izfrf"Br
izkIr djSr NfFkA ,fg e es iwoZd fudVorhZ jpukdkjd jpuk la izsj.kk HksVckd dFkkdkjd ^unh* vk ^dckNq*] fouksn fcgkjh ykyd ^HkksVra=k*] thodkUrd ^xaxk
cslh laHkkouk jgSr vfNA NBe la uoe n'kd kfjd dFkk es FkksM+&cgqr ,fg ykHk* vkfn lu fdNq dFkk nsf[k d, eSfFkyh dFkk&fodkld ekxZ vo#) ekuc
ed ifjp; HksVSr vfN vk vkc t[ku fd NBe n'kdd fdNq, vxzt dFkkdkj lehphu gks,rA ,r, ukeoj flag dsa m)`r djc mfpr yxSr vfN] ^dgkuh
'ks"k rhu n'kdd dFkkdkjd lax jpuk'khy NfFk] djhc&djhc viu&viu dh vlQyrk ifjJe vkSj vH;kl dh deh ds dkj.k Hkh gks ldrh gS] ysfdu
l`tu&lhek r; d* d, eSfFkyh dFkk&lalkjd Qyd&fuekZ.k es ykxy NfFkA vH;Lr ys[kdksa ds ;gka ;fn dgkuh dh ,slh :igkfu fn[kkbZ iM+s rks D;k dgk
lkekU; turk vkc gjne ekufld ruko es thcSr vfNA yksdthoud tk,xk \ ;gh dgkuh ds {ks=k es u, f'kYiokfn;ksa dh igpku gks ldrh gSA u,
bZ n`'; dFkk f'kYi dsa lksygks vkuk cnfy nsyd vfNA dFkk es vkc dFkkRed Hkko&lR; ds vuqlkj u, dgkuh&f'kYi ds uke ij ;s dgkuh es dHkh dsoy
pfj=k&fp=k.kd cnyk euksfo'ys"k.kkRed pfj=k&fp=k.k gksv, ykxy vfNA ,guk okrkjoj.k nsrs gSa] tks dHkh dsoy ,d O;fDr dk js[kkfp=k] rks dHkh jkspd O;aX;ksa
fLFkfr es ik=kd ck la?k"kZd vis{kk vkarfjd la?k"kZd izfr jpukdkjd eksg tkx* es QSykdj vk|ar fopkj ubZ dgkuh % lQyrk vkSj lkFkZdrkA*
ykxy vfNA rnuqlkj dF; vks f'kYid uohurk eq[kj HksyA dFkkd dk;k&dYi ukeoj viu bZ oDrO; ts fgUnhd ubZ dgkuhd lanHkZ es nsyfu vfN]
NksV gkse, ykxyA y?kqdFkk [kwc fy[ky tk, ykxyA v'kksd] f'ko'kadj Jhfuokl] rdjk eSfFkyhd vkkqfud dFkkd ysy lsgks vksgh :i es ns[ky tk ldSr vfNA
,e- ef.kdkUr] rkjkuUn fo;ksxh] dqekj iou] iznhi fcgkjh] nso'kadj uohu] ukeojd 'kCn es ^dgkuh dk ;g nqHkkZX; gS fd og euksjatu ds :i es i<+h
fo|kuUn >k] lkjax dqekj izHk`fr yksdfud lw{e izs{k.kh;rk] dkO;kRed dkS'ky tkrh gSA vkSj f'kYi ds :i es vkyksfpr gksrh gSA euksjatu mldh lQyrk
la dF; laizsf"kr djckd {kerk y?kqdFkk lHk es vcSr jgy vfN] le;&le; gksrh gS rks f'kYi mldh lkFkZdrkA* eSfFkyh dFkkd tkap&iM+rky lsgks vgh vankt
ij i=k&if=kdkd ek;es viu dFkk&f'kYid ifjp; bZ yksdfu nSr jgykg vfNA es g,ckd pkghA vkb kfjd eSfFkyh dFkkd miyfCk la ,dj ms'; izkfIr ufg
vokZphu dky es ik'pkR; 'kSyh la izHkkfor Hk* d, eSfFkyh&dFkk viu uo :i&jax Hk* ldSr vfNA vktqd le;kHkko vk thou&laxzked dkj.k eSfFkyh dFkk tr,
es izlkfjr&izpkfjr HksyA izphu dFkk tdka vkc ,fg es ck txrd fp=k.k kfj igqapy vfN] ls eSfFkyh dFkkd pje y{; ufg fFkd vk ,dj rh{.krk
lqfu;ksftr ufg jgy] vareZud dFkk mefM+ d, vkc, ykxyA thoud i{k&fo'ks"k vo#) djc y{;&xeu ysy vfHk'kki fFkdA vkBes n'kd la lf; foHkwfr
dsa de&la&de ik=kd vkJ; la de&la&de ?kVuk&e y* d, NksV&Nhu dk;k vkuUn] fouksn fcgkjh yky] iznhi fcgkjh] v'kksd] f'ko'kadj Jhfuokl] rkjkuUn
y{; la/kku djSr eSfFkyh dFkk @ 51 52 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
fo;ksxh] 'kSysUnz vkuUn] jes'k] nso'kadj uohu izHk`fkd dFkk i=k&if=kdk es nsf[k O;kdj.k fgudj dFkk l`tu dsa m}sfyr d,us NfuA
bZ dgy tk ldSr vfN ts eSfFkyh dFkk dsa ;qx&lkis{k cu,ck es bZ yksdfu f'ko'kadj Jhfuokld ^lhrkiqjd lqu;uk* vk ^nckb* lkekftd jgL;kRed
thrksM+ iz;kl d,yfu vfNA ^VqVrS cs<*+ vk ^fcgkfj es tM+rS nhi* nquw dFkkd ?kVukd ewyrRo dsa mn~?kkfVr djSr vfNA f'ko'kadj viu laiw.kZ dFkk ys[ku
dF; vkl&iM+ksld jfgrgq f'kYid dkj.ksa ,djk ts fHkUurk fouksn fcgkjh yky es ikBdd laxsa fopjSr NfFkA dFkked lgt fodkl] yksdthoud ikjaifjd
nsyfu] ls fgudj iz'kaluh; f'kYid |ksrd fFkd] eqnk ls vkxwd fdNq dFkk laLfrd izfr lgt laosnu fgudj dFkkd izeq[k xq.k fFkdA viu ekfVd xakd
es vius izHkko de djSr xsy vfNA fokok fookgd izfr vkxzgh] vlgk; tk;kd ekSfydrk dsa v{kq..k jk[kc fgudj dFkk dsa thouh 'kfDr nSr vfNA vfrjatuk
'kks"k.kd izfr fonzksgh dFkkdkj fouksn viu dF; p;u es lkekftd lR;d yxhp fgudj dFkk e; gqyfdvks ufg ekjSr vfNA b,g dkj.k fFkd ts lQyrk
cq>kbr NfFkA eqnk ls dksuks&dksuks dFkk es rrsd vfrjaftr Hk* tkbr Nfu] ts vk lkFkZdrk nquwd lax bZ ,dfg le; es rS;kj jgSr NfFkA
dFkk&ik=k dsa cytksjh&tuoknh cuc, yxSr vfNA jes'k okZeku tuthoud O;kogkfjd jgu&lgu es fNfM+vk,y lw{erkd
rkjkuUn fo;ksxhd ^fcljHkksj* vk ^fivkl* dks'khd rkaMo la =kLr turk dFkkdkj NfFkA ;qxhu pVd&eVd vk miHkksDrk laLfrd vkkqfudrk es
ij jktusrk vk xzkeusrkd vR;kpkj la mRiUu VVdk vuqHkwfrd vfHkO;fDr fFkdA ngkbr&Hkflvkbr ekuoksfpr laLdkjd ykseg"kZd fp=k.k fgudj dFkk es HksVSr
nfyr leqnk;d euksfo'ys"k.k vk vksfg leqnk;d yksdd lrgh ,oa lkekU; vfNA ^dSykl eaMyd fQfyIl jsfM;ks* lu drksd dFkkd uke ysy tk ldSr
vkdka{kk dsa phUgc fo;ksxhd dFkkd keZ gksbr NfuA vfNA jes'k viu ifjos'kd izfr vR;ar ltx vk lkdka{k dFkkdkj NfFkA nso'kadj
foHkwfr vkuUn ih<+hd }a} vk oxZ&la?k"kZd dFkkdkj NfFkA ^fjVk;jesaV* uohud ^ccwj* dFkk lsgks viu vfUofrd ysy le`) dFkk fFkdA
dFkk es lsokeqDr O;fDrd euksfo'ys"k.k djck es foHkwfr lQy Hksy NfFkA dsnkj dkuud ^ukVd*] ^rkel*] ^vkrad* izHk`fr dFkk lHk ;qxpsruk la
ek;kuUn feJd ^pUnzfcanq* vk fgUnh ysf[kdk m"kk fiz;Eonkd ^okilh* dFkk ljkcksj vfNA O;oLFkkd ukaxV n`'; vR;ar fuHkhZdrk la mifLFkr djck es dsnkj
dsa Lej.k jf[krks foHkwfrd ^fjVk;jesUV* dFkkd vfLerk viuk fn'kk es Lora=k k[kkbr ufg NfFkA fgudk vfHkO;fDrd iw.kZ Lora=krk izkIr NfuA mR"V
:isa tkbr ekuy t,ckd pkghA nsg lacakd jkxkRed ,izksp lsgks foHkwfrd dFkkd vfHkO;fDr ysy bZ dBksj&la&dBksj 'kCn dsa lkfgfR;d xfjek n* nSr NfFkA
ewy keZ es vcSr vfNA Hkk"kkd Lrj ij foHkwfr lkekU; tu&thoud cslh yxhp O;fDr&lR; dsa lewg&lR;d vkaf[k,a ns[kckd fgudj dkS'ky iz'kaluh; NfuA
NfFkA 'kSysUnz vkuUnd ^mB iqkk ! iqjy&iqjy* lekt lkis{k ;FkkFkZ vk ;qx lkis{k f'kYid
^ljafx;k* iznhi fcgkjhd ekufld }a}d dFkk fFkd] tr, ljafx;k cfu mnkgj.k Hk* ldSr vfNA ;|fi dFkk&ys[ku es 'kSysUnz vR;ar eaFkj NfFk] rFkkfi
Hkh[k eaxSr viu ifr dsa phfUg xsykd ckn iRuhd dk#f.kd fLFkfr QjhN Hk* rkfRod vk xq.kkRed mRd"kZ] ifjek.kkRed dehd {kfr iwfrZ djSr vfNA
d, vk,y vfNA Hkkouk vk ;FkkFkZd bZ la?k"kZ iznhid dFkk es Hkdjkj Hk* d, dFkk vk dFkkdkjd uke xuk d, eSfFkyh dFkkd fo'ys"k.k ,dVk fucak
vk,y vfNA leL;k cgqy lekt es ,[ku izse&izlax tsuk misf{kr gksv, ykxy es djc vkc laHko ufg vfNA vgw ih<+hd drksd dFkkdkj vk drksd dFkk
vfN] rdjk iznhi viu vkd"kZd f[kLlk&'kSyh es dgSr NfFkA vR;ar lkekU; ,gsu vfN] tdj vge Hkwfedk vb lakku es jgy vfNA eqnk lHkd uke xu,ck
dksfVd yksd&thoud vR;ar NksV&lu ?kVuk iznhid dFkkd dF; cuSr vfNA la cslh mi;qDr vb ih<+hd iwoZorhZ fn'k tk,c cslh vko';d vfNA rslj n'kd
^ekSfx;kg* vb dksfVd dFkk es jk[ky tk ldSr vfNA ukjh&lacakd vfuok;Zrk la vkjaHk Hksy eSfFkyhd ekSfyd dFkk dsa yfyr&jktdey&ek;kuUn ts uo fn'kk
iznhid dFkkd eq[; xq.k tdka Hk* xsy vfNA ifjek.kkRed :i es cgqr dFkk iznku d,yfu] ls ijorhZ dFkkdkj yksdfu dfgvks ufg fclfj ldrkgA
fyf[k d, xq.kkRed :isa de dFkkd laxsa eksu jgfugkj dFkkdkj es iznhi fcgkjh ek;kuUnd jpukkfeZrk la eSfFkyh dFkk ,[kugqa vuqizkf.kr gksbr jgSr vfNA
vk fouksn fcgkjh yky xuy t,rkgA eqnk bZ ckr [kwc fuHkhZdrk la dgy tk ldSr vfN ts jktdey viu dFkkd
^Msjcqd*] ^vksfgjkfrd Hkksj* vk ^fetkZlkgsc* v'kksdd dFkk&ys[kud foLrkj ek;es dFkkys[kud ts ckV fufnZ"V dsyfu rdjk idM+ck es ijorhZ dFkkdkj
dsa |ksfrr djSr vfNA ^Msjcqd* tr, xzkeh.k ckykd ekufld laosx la xgu lQy Hk* ldykg vfNA Hkk"kk vk f'kYid uwrurk rFkk rsthd dkj.k vksdjk
laidZ djcSr vfN] vksrfg ^fetkZ lkgsc* lkaiznkf;d lacakd dVqrk dsaA v'kksd ,dSle 'krkCnhd eSfFkyh dFkk dgy tk ldSr vfNA vksfg VDdjd dFkk ta
viu dFkk&ys[kud leLr fn'kk es ekuoh; lacakd nSU; ij fpafrr NfFkA lacakd vkb iw.kZ lkeF;Zd lax vkc, ykx, ra gejk cq>us vku lkfgR;d dFkk
y{; la/kku djSr eSfFkyh dFkk @ 53 54 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
izfr;ksfxrkd ckV ij eqag fckqvkSus jfg tk,rA fgudk yksdfud vfrfjDr vkfn la lac) jfg d, l`tu djckd pkfgvfuA yksd&thou la i`Fkd jfg
kwedsrq] lksenso] izHkkl dqekj pkSkjh] xaxs'k xqatu] jkteksgu >k] jekuUn js.kq] d, d,y xsy ys[ku ckyqd Hkhr Bk<+ djc g,rA
galjkt] khjsUnz] fyyh js] thodkUr] lqHkk"k pUnz ;kno] egkizdk'k] egsUnz] yfyrs'k oSKkfud ;qxd ,fg O;oLFkk la izHkkfor ifjos'k es euqD[kd O;Lrrk cf<+
feJ] ekdZ.Ms;] lqdkUr lkse] iw.ksZUnq pkSkjh] m"kkfdj.k [kku izHk`fr jpukdkjd xsy vfNA le;d vHkko] nwjhd ladqpu] ekuo efLr"d es rukod ckgqY;]
dFkk la eSfFkyh dFkk&lkfgR; le`) gksbr jgy vfNA vkkqfud eSfFkyh dFkkd jksVhd leL;k] jksVhd vHkko es ukjh&nsgd fch] 'kks"k.k] vigj.k] ywfV vkfn
lcy LraHk lHkd jpuk ^vxqjoku* kwedsrq ] ^bfUdykc*] ^rsrjh*] ^xkSM*+ thodkUr] vke ckr Hk* xsy vfNA ?kwl[kksjhd izos'k Hksy] mfprks dkt vuqfpr tdka gksv,
^vuqifLFkr egk'k;* xaxs'k xqatu ^ik[kaM ioZ* egkizdk'k] ^;q)&;q)&;q)*] ykxy] vuqfpr dsa mfprd LFkku HksfV xsyA tuekul es ,fg la vlarks"k tkxyA
^lc&ns&lc* jkteksgu >k ^dkBd cuy yksd* lqHkk"k pUnz ;kno vkfn es ifjos'kd ,fg fDy"Vrk la lkfgR; izHkkfor HksyA lapkj vk lakku ek;ed
vkRela?k"kZ la mn~Hkwr vuqHkwfrd n'kZu gksbr vfN] ;qxckskd fp=k HksVSr vfNA dkj.ksa ns'k&fons'kd laidZ c<+y] ,d ns'kd lkfgR;] laLfr] jhfr&fjokt nkslj
eSfFkyhd dFkk vk dFkkdkjd foiqy la[;kd ukeksYys[k ,r, ufg Hk* ldy ns'k es izpkfjr HksyA eSfFkyh lkfgR;d dFkk ys[ku vgw la izHkkfor HksyA bZ
vfN] eqnk r; vfN ts vks yksdfu eSfFkyh dFkkd 'kS'ko dsa cM+k euks;ksx la izHkko] tkfg :i es yksd#fpd ifjokZu d,yd] eSfFkyh dFkkd Lo:i rdj
lEgkjyfu vfN] dS'kks;Z dsa ltkSyfu vfN vk iYyfor&iqf"ir d,yfu vfNA vuq:is jg*d pkghA ts] fdafpr vfNvks] fdafpr ufgA
N=kkuUnd ^LoxZ*d laizs"k.kh;rk ikBdd varLry dsa Nwfc ySr vfN] ^vuqifLFkr vkkqfud dFkk lgh vFkZ es ?kksM+nkSM+d pqLrh la ;qDr jgd pkghA dFkkd
egk'k;* es uk;dd fons'kh lH;rkd izfr >qdku vk ekr`Hkk"kkd izfr f=ke ifgy iafDr es izos'k dfjrs ,gsu okrkoj.k cu*d pkgh] tkfg la ikBd lekfkLFk
Lusg] dFkkdkj xaxs'k xqtud [kkSa> dsa txk nSr vfN] Jh nsod ^uTe&,&y{eh* Hk* tkbFk vk dFkk lekIr gksbr&gksbr ikBd dsa iw.kZ eu%rks"k HksfV tkbuA
feF;k tkfroknd lkQ fp=k.k djSr vfN] eueksgu >kd ^tksad* O;fDrd jktdeyd dFkk ,fg fn'kk es loZlQy dFkk vfNA viu ifjos'kd loZfofk
Hkyeulkgrd vuqfpr ykHk mB,ckd dqR;d ifjp; nSr vfNA jkteksgud Kkud vHkko es] lkdka{k n`f"Vd vHkko es bZ miyfCk vlaHko vfNA tu&thou
^lc&ns&lc* es iatkch Hkk"kkd lekos'kd dkj.ksa fdNq ikBd vksdjk detksj la fujis{k jfgd, dFkk fy[kc] ?kfM+;kyd uksj cgk,c fFkdA iqu% ;qx&lR;
dgyfu] eqnk dFkkd Lrjd dlkSVh vksdj fdNq laokns Vk ufg fFkdA oLrqr% dsa phUgc&cw>c vk vksfg la tqfV d, jpuk djc trsd vko';d vfN] Hkk"kkd
dFkk es izlaxkuqdwy vku Hkk"kk vFkok cksyhd lekos'k ifjfLFkfrd ekax ij fuHkZj rsth] f'kYid uwrurk] vfHkO;fDrd Li"Vrk rFkk NksV&la&NksV dk;k es cslh&la&cslh
djSr vfNA ta dF; laizs"k.k es bZ lekos'k ckkd ufg gks] ra bZ xq.ks dgy t,ckd larqf"V nsckd {kerk lsgks vksrcs vko';d vfNA
pkgh] ,fg la dF;d fo'oluh;rk iq"V gksbr vfNA ;qx&thou vkc c xfr'khy Lo;a okrkuqdwfyr fuokld lq[k yh vk tsBd jkSn es >jdSr ok ek?kd
Hk* xsy vfNA ek=k vfjiu&iqjgj vk dkscjd fpk&fHkfk ij eSfFkyh dFkk dsa tkM+ es fBBqjSr cksfugkfjud thou ij dFkk fy[kh( ifjfLFkfr vk O;oLFkkd ekjy
jk[kc loZFkk ;qx&thou la dkVc g,rA ,fg euksoSKkfud ;qxd nzqr xfrd vlgk; ukjhd ykpkjh la ekSt eukch vk r[ku btksr es vksdj eqfDrd ysy
lax eSfFkyh dFkkd Hkk"kk dsa] fo"k; dsa] uo Vsdfud dsa nkSM+* iM+rS] r[kufg eSfFkyh ukjk yxkch( bZ jpukdkjd ?kksj cSekuh vk jpukkfeZrkd izfr [ksykSM+ dgy tk,rA
dFkk ;qxd lax pyckes leFkZ gSrA rsa okD; iz;ksxd ,fg rjgsa fojksk mfpr dFkkd lQyrk ysy dFkkdkjd ys[ku vk thou&n'kZu es lkE; g,c vksrcs
ufgA vko';d vfN] trck dFkkys[kuA ,dVk jpukdkj vla[; ykBh rS;kj djckd
,r, ,dVk ckr vkc dgd pkgh ts rFkkdfFkr usrk] iqfyl] i=kdkj lkeF;Z j[kSr NfFkA b,g dkj.k fFkd ts bfrgkld kafr nwr] lHk ;qx es
vkfn tdka iz'kfLr ikfc xsykd ckn jpukdkj dsa lkfgR; lax oapuk ufg djckd lkfgR;dkjs cuSr v,ykg vfNA lkfgR; dsa ;qx&lkis{k g,ckd ysy jpukdkj
pkgh] iz'kfLrd dekb ufg [k,ckd pkghA ,fg la gqudj ra ts FkksM+&cgqr fcxM+fu dsa dkZO;&cksk g,c vko';dA b,g dkZO;cksk tuthoud ;FkkFkZd lax
ls fcxM+fu] lkfgR;d Hkkjh vfu"V gksbr NSd vk vb ij ,dj nwjxkeh nq"izHkko jpukdkjd f'kYi ifgfj d, lkfgR; es mrjSr vfN ts turkd vkaf[k [kksySr
iM+Sr NSdA ^iwokpy* if=kdkd dFkk lHkes izfrf"Br dFkkdkj yksdfud fdjnkuh vfN] vksdj psruk dsa tkxzr djSr vfN] vksdjk vfLrRo cksk nSr vfNA varr%
ns[ky tk ldSr vfNA lkfgR;dkj yksd&thoud iFk&izn'kZd gksbr NfFk] rsa gqudk lkekftd kafr gksbr vfN] O;oLFkk&ifjokZu gksbr vfNA
de&la&de dkZO; cksk jgckd pkfgvfuA vuqHkwr lR;] tu&thoud leL;k eSfFkyh dFkk ,[ku tr, kfj igqapy vfN] ls mez&lkis{k ra Hk* xsy]
y{; la/kku djSr eSfFkyh dFkk @ 55 56 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
;qx&lkis{k ,[ku kfj ufg Hk* ldy vfNA oSKkfudrk vk vkkqfudrkd ,fg
gksM+ es ,djk ;qx&lkis{k cu,ck ysy dFkkdkj dsa viu nkf;Ro ij iw.kZ lps"V
jg* iM+rfuA fcuk ls Hksus O;oLFkk dsa xkfj i<+c vj.; jksnu g,r---A

ledkyhu miU;kl % iz;kl vk ifj.kke

eSfFkyh miU;kld ppkZ djSr bZ Lohdkfj ysck es ladksp ufg gks;ckd pkgh ts
ifjek.kkRed :i la eSfFkyh lkfgR;d bZ fokk cM+ ikNw vfN vk ,dj HkaMkj
cM+ NqNwu vfNA xq.kkRedrkd izlax bZ dgc mfpr ufg gks;r] eqnk ta fy[kys
ufg tk;] ra vksdj xq.kokkd ijh{k.k dh gks;r \
Lora=krk izkfIr la iwosZ eSfFkyh es miU;kl ys[ku fnl jpukdkjd vklfDr
ifjyf{kr gksbr vfNA O;fDr&O;fDrd n; es vkRe&dqaBk cf<+ jgy NyA
iz'kkldh; mRihM+u la tu&lkekU;d vareZu O;fFkr NyA HkkSfrd fodkl vk
ekufld Lrj ,fg nw n`f"Vdks.ks]a fefFkyk cgqr cslh iNqvk,y iz{ks=k NyA ,r*
'kkL=kh; Kkud foiqy kjksgfj Ny] KkuktZud vlhe ms'; fcanq Ny] eqnk ukxfjd
viu :f<+d tky es vks>jk;y NyA ,fg ifjfLFkfr es] turkd vkxw nw rjgd
leL;k Ny O;oLFkktU; vk ijaijktU;A euq"; tkfrd bZ LoHkko gksbr vfN
ts vks viu yM+kb NksV Lrjd izfri{kh la izkjaHk djSr vfNA O;oLFkktU; leL;k
vk fons'kh 'kkldd nkuorkd lhek foLr`r NyA eSfFkyh miU;kl es izk;% ,fg
O;oLFkk dsa vksfg le; es O;Dr ufg d;y xsyA rRdkyhu lekt es fefFkykd
tuthou csesy fookg] cgqfookg] cky fookg] lklq&iqrkSgq] gkl&ifjgkl] fuj{kjrk]
ukjh&neu vkfn&vkfn jhfr&dqjhfr la Hkjy NyA dksuks dkyd lkfgR; ledkyhu
lektd ifjHkk"kk gksbr vfNA vksfg dkyd miU;kl ,fg lHk fcanq dsa fpf=kr
djck es ykxy jgyA fefFkykd ukjhd vKku vk nSU; dsa fpf=kr djSr jgy
vFkok tkrh; oS"kE;] iathc) vgadkj vkfn la mn~Hkwr fofr dsa |ksfrr djSr
jgyA vktqd lanHkZ es ,fg dkyd miU;kld ijh{k.k d* d, ,d iafDr es
dfg nsy tk;r ts bZ varjky eSfFkyh miU;kld ysy f'kYi vk dkO; nquw n`f"V,a
vifjiDo dky fFkdA eqnk] ls vkykspukd bZekunkjh ufg gks;rA dkj.k miU;kl
ys[ku vk miU;kld v;;u nquw fn'kk es yksdklfDr dsa ge lkearh laLdkj
ledkyhu miU;kl % iz;kl vk ifj.kke @ 57 58 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
la eqDr Hk* d* fuEu&e;oxhZ; yksdd ,drkiw.kZ thou thckd vkxzg ekuSr NBe n'kdd varA lu lkfB la iwoZ izdkf'kr miU;kl lHk es la izfrfufk
NhA egkdkO;d uk;dd lhek 'krZ la eqfDr ikfc d* lektd lHk dksfVd frd :i es xuy tk;r dU;knku] f}jkxeu] ikjks] uorqfj;k] dqekj] ekqJko.kh]
ukxfjd dsa viu dkO;iq#"k cu;ckd vfkdkj jpukdkj izkIr ra d* ysyfu] fo|kifr] vkfndFkk] pkuksnkb] fcgkfM+ ikr ikFkj vkfnA ,fg leLr fr lHk
eqnk dFkk] eqDrd] ,dkadh vkfn es lekt dsa] thou dsa VqdM+h&VqdM+h es ns[kckd es ^ikjks* vk ^fo|kifr* dsa NksfM+ d* vU; lHkVk fefFkykd oSokfgd lanHkZ la
ts vkxzg ifjyf{kr gksbr vfN rdjk miU;kl vk ukVd nquw vFkZ es ,dVk lac) vfNA ^ikjks* efevkSr&fiflvkSr Hkkb&cfgud izsedFkk ij vk ^fo|kifr*
fn'kk nSr izrhr gksbr vfNA bZ ckr lHk lkfgR;d ysy ekU; Hk* ldSr vfNA ,sfrgkfld dFkk ij vkkkfjr miU;kl fFkdA tsuk fd ifgus dgygqa] jpukdkj
,fg dkyd eSfFkyh miU;kld detksj rarq dsa xhtc mfpr ufgA vksuk ,fg viu ;qxcksk] lkSan;Z&cksk la vuqizkf.kr jpuk'khyrk dsa ledkyhu dFkk&izlaxd
vofkd fdNq egoiw.kZ miU;kl dsa mDr rF; la Qjkd cw>*d pkghA dkaphukFk ek;es Li"V djSr NfFk] mDr lHk miU;kl es lSg eq[kj gksbr vfNA ;qxckskd
>k ^fdj.k*d ^pUnzxg.k*] gfjeksgu >kd ^dU;knku*] f}jkxeu*] oS|ukFk feJ Lrj ij vk ledkyhu lekkftd jgu&lgu rFkk O;fDr&O;fDrd ekuork&nkuorkd
^;k=kh*d ^ikjks* vkfn ,gus miU;kl fFkd] tdjk ij dFkkudd cqukofVd izlax] Lrj ij izs{kdd lkSan;Z psruk ifjofrZr gksbr jgSr vfNA rRdkyhu fefFkyk
tyQkaQh gks;ckd dyad ufg Fkksiy tk;rA tkfg izdkjd oSokfgd folaxfr la ;q) d* jgy Ny] ngst] vf'k{kk] ekufld
ledkyhurk vk lkSna ;Zcksk bZ nquw 'kCn le; lkis{k vfNA jpukdkyd oS"kE;] cgq&fookg] izse&fookg] izseghu fookg] ku yksyqi fookg] iathc)rkd
fglkc la ledkyhu gksbrks dfri; fr fo"k; vk miLFkkiukd n`f"V,a ledkyhu dkj.ksa izLrqr leL;k vkfn&vkfn la ,r* trsd foMacuk mRiUu Ny] rkfg
ufg Hk* icSr vfNA eqnk fdNq fr ,gsuks gksbr vfN] ts 'kk'or :isa viu ifjfLFkfr es dksuks Hkkoqd vk izcq) yksd dksuks lqo.kkZ] lq:ikd Hk`dqfV foykl
ego v{kq..k j[kus jgSr vfNA fdNq fr ,guks gksbr vfN] ts viu le;d vk vyd tky fnl tk d, ufg vks>jk ldSr NfFkA ,fg fLFkfrd voyksdu
vHkwriwoZ izHkkod dkj.ksa tuekul es rsgu LFkku cuk ySr vfN] tkfg la lnSo la viu n; es xqnxqnh ufg mBk ldSr NykgA dksuks laosnu'khy O;fDrd
vksdj ego lqjf{kr jfg tkbr vfN] iSrd ` laifk tdka vksdj iz'kfLr iq'r&nj&iq'r us=k viuk ifjos'kd ,fg foMacuk ij dsafnzr gksbr gsrfuA vk rsa ,fg varjkyd
pySr jgSr vfNA ^dU;knku* vk ^f}jkxeu* eSfFkyh lkfgR; es ,dj mnkgj.k vfkdka'k fr ,fg lHk leL;k ij vkkkfjr vfNA eqnk tsa fd ;qxckskd lax&
fFkdA gfjeksgu >kd ^dU;knku* eSfFkyh lkfgR;d bfrgkl es vkb, ufg] Hkfo";ks lax oS;fDrd n`f"Vdks.k cslh egoiw.kZ gksbr vfN] ,fg leLr miU;kld dFkk&
es ,rcs lekn`r gks;r vk ,dj l`tu ,dVk ;qxd :i es tkuy tk;rA ,fg lanHkZ ,d jfgrks viu&viu ms'; es fHkUu&fHkUu vfNA tr, gfjeksgu >k
miU;kld fo"k; ;|fi vktqd le; es rrsd lanHkZ;qDr ufg vfN] rFkkfi vaxzsth laLdkjd laked jksx la xzflr lh- lh- feJd fookg djk nSr NfFk]
viu izHkkoksRikndrk] miLFkkiu vkfn&vkfn xq.kd dkj.ksa csl tdka izfrf"Br vksrfg ^dU;knku*d izdk'kud rsjg o"kZd ckn misUnzukFk >k ^O;kl*d ^dqekj*
vfNA ;qx vk ;qxhu n`f"Vdks.k] nquw es ifjokZu gksbr jgSr vfNA ,fg ifjokZu es uk;d izse&izlax es vlQy Hksyk ij VwfV tkbr vfNA fujk'kkd tky es
la O;fDrd #fp vk n`f"Vcksk nquw es ifjokZu vcSr vfNA iphl c[kZ ifgus vks>jk d, viu fdNq jkf[k ufg icSr vfNA iNkfr fgudj dFkk uk;d viu
tkfg nyku ij dkyh] y{eh] f'ko vk jked vknedn QksVks Vkaxy jgSr Ny] izfrKk ij iNrkbrks Nfu] Qsj fookgks djSr NfuA ,fg leLr fLFkfr la laxzke
vksr* ikap c[kZ ifgus fo|kifr] ;k=kh] fujkyk vk fleksu n cqvkd QksVks vk djSr O;fDrd euksn'kk ^dqekj* es fpf=kr Hksy vfNA ,fg fp=k.k es fgudj
vkb dksuks flusekd fgjksbud iz.k;fyIr dysaMj Vkaxy tk; ykxyA O;fDrd miLFkkiud izfofk fuf'pr :i la vrho vkd"kZd vfNA eqnk dFkkuk;dd
lkSan;Z izs{k.k ,fg fglkcsa ifjofrZr HksyA ,guk fLFkfr es lkSan;Zcksk dsa ledkyhu ekufldrk grk'k jgSr NfuA t[ku fd gfjeksgud uk;d for vkkqfudrkd
lR; vk oS;fDrd n`f"Vdks.k la dkfV d* ufg ns[ky tk ldSr vfNA oS;fDrd pVd&eVd es x`ghr viu ft ij vM+y jg, oykA ^dU;knku*d cqPphnkbd
n`f"Vdks.k izR;sd jpukdkjd l`tu'khyrk dsa izHkkfor djSr vfNA bZ izHkko ew<+rk vk nsgkrh izo`fk dsa [kre d* d, lh- lh- feJd vgadkj enZu ysy
jpukdkjd lkSan;Zckskd ek;es lsgks jpuk es mrjSr vfNA vfxyk miU;kl ^f}jkxeu* es cqPphnkbd lacakh es tkx:drk ns[kcSr NfFk]
lqfokkd n`f"V,a eSfFkyhd izfrfufk miU;kl dsa ys[kudky vFkok izdk'ku t[ku fd ^lksenso* viu ^pkuksnkb* es vf'k{kkd dkj.ksa ukjh tkfrd nqjoLFkk
dkyd Lrj la nw dksfV es ckaVy tk ldSr vfNA bZ foHkktu miU;kld fo"k; dsa fpf=kr djSr NfFkA ukjh dsa iq#"kd HkksX;kd :i es Bk<+ djSr NfFk] eqnk
psrukd izlax es fo'ks"k iz;kstuh; lkfcr gksbr vfNA bZ foHkktd fcanq fFkd rdj lekkkuks viu vksgh fr es fudkfy nSr NfFkA oLrqr% ^dU;knku*d
ledkyhu miU;kl % iz;kl vk ifj.kke @ 59 60 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
vfxyk Hkkxd :i es ^f}jkxeu* dsa xuy t;ckd pkghA ls ek=k ,fg ysy fgudk lR; lHk la cslh lqanj cq>kbr jgyfu vfNA lR; ek;kuUn dsa lsgks
ufg] ts dU;knkud izeq[k ik=k f}jkxeuks es fo|eku NfFkA vfirq ,fg ysy] lqanj cq>;yfu] cfYd ,fg dkyd leLr miU;kldkjd vkkkj rRo ledkfyd
ts miU;kldkjd izxfr'khyrk vk fgudj n`f"Vcksk] ,fg nquw fr dsa feyk tulR;s fFkdA eqnk] vksfg lR;d lax jpukdkjd ckSf)drk vk lkgl dksu
d* ns[kck es iw.kZ Li"V gksbr vfNA ;k=khd ^uorqfj;k* vk ek;kuand ^fcgkfM+ Lrjd lacak LFkkfir d* icSr vfN] ls egod fo"k; fFkdA ek;kuUn viu
ikr ikFkj* ,ds jaxd leL;k dsa y* d* pySr vfNA eqnk] jpukdkjd oS;fDrd dFkk ukf;dk dsa lkekftd vuq'kklud iVjh ij pycSr&pycSr Fkdk nSr NfFk]
n`f"Vdks.k nquw miU;kl dsa nw fn'kk es eksfM+ nSr vfNA ;k=kh dsa uorqfj;kd lkgl vksdjk viu HkkX; cysa thou lakku djck ysy NksfM+ nSr NfFk] t[ku fd ;k=kh
vk 'kfDr ij rrck Hkjksl Nfu] ts ,dVk cw<+ oj la folsljhd fookgd laiw.kZ viu dFkk ukf;dkd Hkfo"; lqkkj* ysy uo'kfDrd fuekZ.k djSr NfFk] iqjku
ljatke d;ys jfg tkbr Nfu] lektd :f<+ VsafVvkbr jfg tkbr vfN vk 'kfDr dsa oLr djSr NfFk vk vksdjk leqfpr :isa n`<+ djSr NfFkA
uorqfj;k ,fg leLr <kB dsa rksfM+ d* folsljhd ;Fkksfpr fookg djk nSr vfNA ^ekqJko.kh* miU;kl lsgks cgqyka'k es oSokfgd lanHkZ la tqM+y vfNA 'kSysUnz
,r* ;k=khd vkRefo'okl] fgudj vkLFkk uo'kfDrd izfr vk'kk vkfn nf'kZr eksgu >k ,fg es dey vk ufyuhd la;ksx&fo;ksx dsa fpf=kr djSr d#.kkd
vfNA t[ku fd ek;kuan es lkekftd ;FkkfLFkfr fo|eku jgSr NfuA ^fcgkfM+ vkfkD; mRiUu djSr jgykg vfNA fo;ksxkfnd vfrfjDr fp=k.k ,fg miU;kl
ikr ikFkj*d frjcsuh dsa #nzukFk feJd gkFksa fcd;ck la jksd* ysy dksus uokadqj dsa vR;fkd dk#f.kd cuk nsyd vfNA Bke&Bke fdNq vizklkafxd vk vuqi;qDr
Bk<+ ufg gksbr vfNA ^uorqfjvk*d izdk'kud Nvks c[kZ cknks ek;kuand lektd fp=k lHk ifjyf{kr gksbr vfNA eqnk ,fg miU;kl es o.kZu] fo'ys"k.k vk [kkl
uorqfjvk ,rck lkgl ufg d* icSr NfuA vFkkZr~ ek;kuUn ,[ku kfj viu d* pfj=k&fp=k.k la tkfg =kklnhd tUe Hksy vfN] fojspu izf;k vksgh la
lektd ,fg fofr dsa] ,fg foMacuk dsa esV;ckd ysy Bk<+ gksv* okyk dksuks izkjaHk gksbr vfNA euksfo'ys"k.k dsa miU;kldkj vfkd ego nsus NfFkA fgudks
vkanksyud yqkh ufg nsf[k ldykg vk fgudj frjcsuh vle; es fokok Hk* n`f"Vdks.k fefFkykd ,fg fookg ijaijk vk nSfod la;ksxkfnd chp izrkfM+r thou
xsyfuA mez tU; ;kSouksUeknd >kaV&fcgkfM+ lgSr jgyfuA lkekftd e;kZnk dsa mckj* ysy dksuks tksf[ke ufg mBk ldyfuA feFkykd ,fg fodjky nqjkoLFkk
vk nSfgd vko';rkd jLlkd'kh es rukbr jgyfu] fdfdvkbr jgyfuA ,r* es cztfd'kksj oekZ ^ef.kin~e* fefFkykd foHkwfr] lkfgR;lsoh] bfrgkl izfl)
fuf'pr :i la bZ dgy t;ckd pkgh] ts ek;kuUn dsa t[ku viu lektd Hkk"kkfoK fo|kifrd thou e dsa dsna z es vkfu miU;kl fy[kyfu ^fo|kifr*A
,fg ik[kaMh e;kZnkd vkoj.k etxwr cq>;yfu] fgudj ukf;dk thoud ,fg eqnk miU;kl es ,sfrgkfld rF;d mis{kkd lax& lax vkSiU;kfld lajpukRedrkd
vUgj&fcgkfM+ dsa vaxsft ysydfu] r[ku ;k=kh dsa bZ lHkVk ik[kaM uo'kfDrd mis{kk lsgks Hksy vfNA 1954 bZ- es ^uorqfjvk* izdkf'kr Hksy vk 1958 es izdkf'kr
vkxw Qksafdy cq>;yfu vk fgudj uorqfj;k vksfg Qksafdy ik[kaM dsa QksfM+ d* Hksy ^vkfndFkk*A uorqfjvkd izdk'ku eSfFkyh miU;kld {ks=k es egoiw.kZ ?kVuk
folsljh dsa eqDr d* nsyfuA ;k=kh ,rck tksf[ke us dsoy fo"k;d lanHkZ es] NyA egoiw.kZ ?kVuk ^dU;knku*d izdk'ku lsgks NyA eqnk] eSfFkyh miU;kld
vfirq Hkk"kk vk miLFkkiu vkfnd lanHkZ es lsgks mBkSus NfFkA oLrqr% ;k=khd tkfg iz'kLr ckV fn'k gfjeksgu >k b'kkjk d* nsyfu] ekuqlkj vks ckV Hkksfrvk;
psruk ek=k okrkoj.k es O;kIr izR;{k n`'; kfj lhfer ufg jgSr Nfu] vfirq ykxyA ^uorqfjvk*d izdk'ku la miU;kld vk;ke dsa ts foLrkj nsy xsy] rdjk
egoghu vgadkj] "kM~;a=kiw.kZ lkekftd e;kZnk vkfnd lhM+dd dksu mBk d* ,r* la uo eksM+ ekuy tk;rA eSfFkyh miU;kld le`) psrukd mnkgj.k ekuy
vksdjk r*j es gksbr f;kdyki kfj cf<+ tkbr NfuA viu ,fg izo`fkd dkj.ksa tk;r ^vkfndFkk*A ^vkfndFkk* es jktdey pkSkjhd ;qxcksk] vkRecksk] n`f"Vcksk
vks fcjtw vk ikjksd izksekd"kZ.k dsa fpf=kr d* ldykgA vksuk ,fg miU;kld vk ;FkkFkZcksk lHk lfEefyr Hk* d* vk;y vfNA ;qx&;FkkFkZd fp=k.ks Vk
bZ lacak vfkdka'k ikBd dsa ufg vj?kyfuA dkj.k lekt dsa vks,g pht lqanj egoiw.kZ ufg gksbr vfN] egoiw.kZ gksbr vfN jpukdkjd vkRecksk vk n`f"V
yxSr NSd] ^ts gks;ckd pkgh*A eqnk] jpukdkj dsa vks pht cslh lqj yxSr cksk la vuqizkf.kr ;qx&;FkkFkZd fp=k.k] jpukdkjd lkSan;ZpsrukA gqudj vkRecksk
NSd ts gksbr vfNA tr* ^gks;ckd pkgh* ,dVk [kkl oxZd cukvksy vkn'kZd mRizsj.kk la tkxzr gksbr vfN vk rkfg ij ;qx&lR;d HkaMkj la viwoZ vk xqIr
uewuk fFkd] vksr* ^gksbr vfN* lR;A lR; dsa vkn'kZd inkZ r*j >kafi d* j[kckd rF; dsa txft;kj djckd izof` k fu[kjSr vfNA jktdeyd ^vkfndFkk* lelkef;d]
"kM~;a=k nh?kZdkfyd ijaijk fFkdA fefFkyk es ,fg ijaijk dsa laj{k.k HksVSr jgySd lkekftd thoud O;fDrfu"B foMacuk ufg fFkd] vksfg dkyd lektfu"B
vfNA ;k=kh ,djk [kafMr d;yfu vk lR; ij la vkn'kZd vks<+uk ?khfp ysyfuA Qksafdy ;FkkFkZ la vko`k O;fDr&O;fDrd van:uh =kklnh fFkdA ,dj ,d&,d
ledkyhu miU;kl % iz;kl vk ifj.kke @ 61 62 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
ik=k lektd oxZ fo'ks"kd izrhd fFkdA nsg] eksu] ifjos'k] laink] vkn'kZ lq;ksx ,dVk fucak es HksVc vlaHko vfN] rsa ^dU;knku* la iwoZd miU;kl ys[ku
vkfn&vkfnd viu&viu vfLerk es O;fDr dksuk foo'k gksbr vfN] rdj Hkdjkj dsa vH;kl dky ekfu d* vkxw c<+y tk ldSr vfNA lu~ 1933 la 1960
fp=k.k d, jktdey ,fg miU;kl dsa viwoZ mRd"kZ nsyfuA iwosZ ppkZ Hksy vfN kfj] vFkkZr~ ^dU;knku* la ^fcgkfM+ ikr ikFkj* kfjd miU;kl ys[ku dsa iz;ksxdky
ts ledkyhu lkSan;Zcksk O;fDr&O;fDrd n`f"Vdks.k ij fuHkZj djSr vfNA dgy tk;rA ,fg vofk es gfjeksgu >k] misUnzukFk >k ^O;kl*] 'kSysUnz eksgu
laosnu'khy l`tukehZd ysy lkfgR; ys[ku vksdj foo'krk gksbr vfNA dksuks >kd n`f"V&fn'kkd lw{e voyksdu ;k=kh] jktdey] lksenso vk ek;kuUn la fHkUu
le;d O;oLFkktU; folaxfr] fofr vksfg le;d lkfgR; ysy vis{kkr cq>kbr NfuA ifgy oxZd miU;kldkj uk;d dsa izokld thou nsc vko';d
vfkd egod pht gksbr vfNA dkj.k bZ ufg] ts vksfg le;d lqlaxfr vk cq>Sr NfFk] viu dsa mPp f'k{kk la vfHkHkwfr djc vko';d cq>Sr NfFkA
lqfr jpukdkj dsa nq%[k nSr gksbu] vfirq dkj.k bZ] ts lkekU; turk tkfg miU;kldkjd bZ izo`fk iq#"k f'k{kkd izfr viwoZyxkod |ksfrdk ekuy tk;rA
foMacuk la fujis{k jg* pkgSr vfN] tdjk HkksxSr vfN] ijap vksfg ij lkspc eqnk Bkefg bZgks ns[kkbr vfN ts L=kh f'k{kkd izfr gfjeksgu >kd vykos vku
vk vksdjk cw>c O;FkZ cq>Sr vfN] jpukdkj vjcSk d* vks n`'; iquiqZu% vksdjk fdudks rsgu vkidrk ufg NfuA f'k{kk vusd vakdkj la eqfDr fnvk ldSr
vkxw jkf[k] ,fg ifjfLFkfrd fujkdj.k fn'k mRlqd gks;cd izsj.kk nSr NfFkA vfN] rsa f'k{kkd izfr tkx:drk] eSfFkyh miU;kldkjd miyfCk ekuy tk;rA
lkkkj.k O;fDrd lkSan;Zcksk vk ,dVk jpukdkjd lkSan;Zcksk es ;Sg rkfRod eqnk ukjh f'k{kkd izfr mnklhurk fgudk yksdfud izxfr'khyrk dsa dyafdr
varj vfNA ^vkfndFkk*d uk;dd ekr`dd laink lkekU; ukxfjd ysy n`'; djrfuA nkslj oxZd miU;kldkj dsa viu dF;] viu n`f"Vcksk lkekU; turk
fcanq Hk* ldSr vfN] uk;dd eke vk lq'khykd nsg;f"B] gqudj n`x pkiY;] kfj igqap;ck ysy dFkkd cqukcfV es dksuks dkWyst] dksuks fo'ofo|ky;] dksuks
Hk`dqfV foykl] vyd NVk vkfn&vkfn lkSan;Zd [kku ykfx ldSr vfN( eqnk egkuxj vkfn la mPp f'kf{kr ;qod dsa idfM+ vkuc vko';d ufg cq>;yfuA
,dVk n`f"V laiUu jpukdkj dsa ,fg lkSan;Zd izfr vksgu vkd"kZ.k] vksgu tqM+ko fgudk yksdfu dsa xzkeh.k ifjos'kd ,fg fofr dsa xzkeh.ks Lrj ij lks>jk;c
ufg jfg ldSr Nfu] tsgu ,fg ifjos'k es thcSr O;fDrd varl es mBSr&[klSr mfpr izrhr HksyfuA oLrqr% fgudk yksdfud bZ rF;] lkekftd thoud xkNd
}a}d izfr] ekufld Tokjd izfr] vksdj vkarfjd [kkSa> vk NViVh vk O;kdqyrkd tfM+ es ykxy ?kwu gV;ckd izfr dgy tk;rA ;k=khd ^uorqfjvk* ,fg ckrd
izfrA lkekftd vkjksfir vkn'kZd j{kkFkZ O;fDr dksuk foo'k jgSr vfN] lekt ladsr nSr vfN] ts vkanksyud tqvk f'kf{krs O;fDr Vk mBk ldr] ls vko';d
es jgckd yksHk es O;fDr dksuk viu loZLo Lokgk d* nSr vfN] viuk dsa ufgA t[ku fd ^fcgkfM+] ikr vk ikFkj* rFkk ^vkfndFkk* lkektd e;kZnkd
cUgd jkf[k nSr vfN] dksuk viu ,d&,d lkal es ukVd djSr vfN] lekt tu?kkrh izo`fkd ladsr fFkdA lekt euq"; dsa fdNq ufg n* ldSr vfN] nq%[kd
es jfg d* tkfg lq[kd lafokku jfV ySr vfN] rdj y{kka'kksd iwfrZ nqyZHk gksbr vfrfjDr vku fdNq ufgA
NSd] eqnk rSvks ,fg lekt la eqDr gks;ckd iz;kl ufg djSr vfN] ,fg lektd o"kZ 1960d i'pkr~ eSfFkyh miU;kld miou [kwc iYyfor&iqf"ir HksyA
fodjky O;Fkk la eqDr Hk* d* taxyh thoud mUeqDrrk fnl vxzlj ufg gksbr yfyr] lqkka'kq 'ks[kj pkSkjh] jekuUn js.kq] khjsUnz] thodkar] ekdZ.Ms; izoklh] xaxs'k
vfNA bZ lHkVk ifjfLFkfr jpukdkj dsa cslh vkdf"kZr djSr vfNA vkdf"kZr xqatu] foHkwfr vkuan] iznhi fcgkjh] uohu pkSkjh] m"kkfdj.k [kku izHk`fr yksdfud
djSr vfN] ,dj voyksdu la izlUu gks;ck ysy ufg] cfYd O;fFkr gks;ck miU;kl izdk'k es vk,yA ifgyqdks miU;kldkj yksdfud uo&uo miU;kl lks>ka
ysy vk ,fg O;Fkkd lg;ksxh cfu d* nkf;Roikyud larqf"V izkIr djck ysyA vk;yA mkjkskj miU;kld la[;k c<+Sr xsyA mij of.kZr&pfpZr izfrfufk
jpukdkj viu lkSan;Z ckskd e es O;fDrd ckkMacj] vksdj vlkj&ilkj] miU;kldkjd vfrfjDr vkj cgqr jkl miU;kldkjd fr eSfFkyh lkfgR;d
vksdj os'k&Hkw"kk la cslh ego vksdj varl~txr la lapkfyr vksdjk eq[kkfr miU;kl fokk dsa iq"V d;yd vfNA lu~ 1960 la 1965 kfjd dky eSfFkyh
ij fu[kjSr Hkko dsa nSr NfFkA jktdeyd ^vkfndFkk* eSfFkyh miU;kld ;k=kk miU;kld loZfofk izxfr ysy fojy dky dgy tk;rA dkj.k] ,d r* ,fg
iFk ij ,dVk fof'k"V fr fFkd] tdj vonkud ppkZ es pqi Hk* tk;c cslh varjky es miU;kl vk;y de] nkslj tsgks vk;y rkfg es fodkl vk izfrd
visf{kr ckr gks;rA laHkkouk des n`f"Vxkspj HksyA lksensod n`f"V] ,fg le; es ns'kd jktuhfr vk
^funZ;h lklq* la ^fcgkfM+] ikr ikFkj* kfjd miU;kl viuk le;d vjktdrk ij dsafnzr Hk* pqdy NyfuA czfipkld ukes kkjkokfgd :i es
;qxckskd lax mifLFkr Hksy vfNA v|kofk izdkf'kr lHk miU;kld ppkZ djckd izdkf'kd fgudj miU;kl lu~ 1964 es ^gksVy vukjdyh*d uke la izdkf'kr
ledkyhu miU;kl % iz;kl vk ifj.kke @ 63 64 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
HksyA eSfFkyh es bZ izFke tklwlh miU;kl dgy tk;rA eqnk eSfFkyh es bZ ijaijk vk ^Hkks#dck*d fojksk fot; laA yfyr vk khjsUnz dsa viu Je'khy ik=kd
vkxw pfy ufg ldyA ijaijk lw=kd bZ foPNsn ,fg ckrd |ksrd fFkd] ts ,gw lkgl vk vfLrRocksk ij trsd fo'okl Nfu] ek;kuUn dsa rrsd ufgA Bkefg
le; kfj fefFkykd tuekul viu lrgh leL;k lHk la mcfj ufg ldy yfyrd fuEuoxhZ; L=kh ik=k nSfgd tky es trsd vks>jkbr Nfu] ek;kuUnd
NyA ,fg jktuhfrd "kM~;a=k la cslh fparuh; ,fg okrkoj.k es O;kIr izR;{k ufgA nkaiR; thoud izselw=k dsa ek;kuUn trsd eksyk;e cukSyfu vfN] rrsd
mRihM+u NyA Qyr% jpukdkjd ysy lsgks] ewy vkd"kZ.kd dsanz xzkE; thous yfyr ufg cuk ldyfFkA ek;kuUnd ukjh ik=kd n; es mBy iRuhRod ygfj]
HksyA vksuk] czt fd'kksj oekZ ^ef.kin~e*d dksczkxyZ es bZ ijaijk lqiq"V gksbr oklukd leLr fodkj dsa tjk nSr vfN] yfyrd L=khik=k ls ufg d* icSr
vfN vk fo"k;d foLrkj ns'kkarj kfj py tkbNA ef.kin~e] yksd lkfgR;d vfNA ek;kuUn tr* [ksr&iFkkj la jktuhfrd Hkou kfjd n`'; dsa rky&esy
mn~xkrkd :i es ekuy tk;oyk egku O;fDrRo NfFkA yksdlaLfr] yksddFkk] djkc* es ykxy jgSr NfFk] khjsUnz viu uk;d dsa lg;ksx fn;k d* fot;h
yksdxkFkk fgudj thoud vax cuy izrhr gksbr vfNA fgudj viu Hkk"kk cucS NfFk vk yfyr viu ik=kd ikfjokfjd ln~Hkko rFkk lkgld cy ij
'kSyh Nfu] viu fo'ys"k.k i)fr Nfu] ifjos'k la laf'y"V laLfrd izfr xgu vksdjk la lej'ks"k djk ySr NfFk] L[kfyr pfj=kd ukf;dk lsgks] fgudk utfj
tqM+ko Nfu] viu ifjos'kd 'kCn HkaMkj Nfu---bZ leLr rF; fefy d* fgudj es viu xq.k fo'ks"kd dkj.ksa egoiw.kZ Hk* tkbr vfNA
vkSiU;kfld mRd"kZ dsa vlhe djSr vfNA ^fo|kifr* lu miU;kl vk ,fg vfxyk Msx es eSfFkyh miU;kld Qyd Lor% foLr`r Hk* tkbr vfNA
fokk es izo's k djSr ^jktk lygsl* ^uSdk cfutkjk*] ^yksfjd fot;*] ^yogfj&dq'kgfj*] xke la 'kgj kfjd thou izf;k] ns'k la fons'k kfjd laLfr] vkRe&LFkkiud
^jkb&j.kiky* vkfn&vkfn yksddFkkRed miU;kl la us dsoy eSfFkyh miU;kld f'k[kj kfj igqapckd ysy mRlqd ;qokoxZd ihM+k vk foo'krk rFkk ,fg e es
HkaMkj iq"V d;yfu vfN] vfirq eSfFkyhd miU;kl&ys[ku dsa ,d Vk uo vk;ke lk{kkRdkj djSr vUk[kksgd dqRlk] ;kSu fofr] thou fofr] laLdkj fofr-
nsyfu vfNA eSfFkyhd yksdlkfgR;d ppkZ ef.kin~ed ppkZ la Qjkd Hk* d* --vkfn&vkfn rRo eSfFkyh miU;kld dFkkHkwfe cuyA LojkT; kafrd HkkoHkwfe
ufg Hk* ldS,A ra=k ij dsafnzr miU;kl ^v)Zukjh'oj* lsgks csl pfpZr Hksy ij dsafnzr Hk* d* fy[ky ;k=khd ^cypuek* vk izoklh eSfFky cakqd "kM~;a=kdkjh
eqnk ^dksczk xyZ* tklwlh miU;kl vk ^Hkkjrhd fcykfM+* izfl) cky miU;kld uhfrd cgsa] lektd fofok fcanq dsa mtkxj djSr jktdeyd ^vkanksyu* bZ
izdk'ku] ef.kin~ed vfrfjDr izfrHkkd ifjp; nSr vfNA ,fg nquw frd Li"V djSr vfN] ts lkre n'kdd mkjk)Z es eSfFkyh miU;kldkj laiw.kZ lektd
ikB la ,dj dF;xr] fopkjxr] Hkk"kkxr] fp=kxr] ?kVukxr fo'ys"k.k la fgudj dksu&dksu dsa ;ku es jkf[k l`tu'khy gksv* ykxy NykgA Lojktd i'pkr~
yksddFkkRed Lo:i drgq la ckfkr ufg gksbr vfN vk ,dj oSf'k"V~;] ,dj fl)kar vk vkn'kZd uke ij ns'kd rFkkdfFkr d.kZkkjd for ekufldrk
lkSan;Z ef.kin~ed vkSiU;kfld psrukd ifjp; nSr vfNA ^cypuek*d i`"B ij QjhN Hksy vfNA vkReLFkkiukd leL;k la viL;kar ,d
chle 'krkCnhd lkre n'kdd v)ZHkkx chrSr&chrSr ^i``Fohiq=k*] ^Hkks#dck* Vk ;qod dsa dFkk&uk;dd :i es izLrqr d* jktdey eSfFky yksdfud for
rFkk ^[kksra k vk fpM+S rhu Vk egoiw.kZ miU;kl izdk'k es vk;yA Lora=krk vk dqfRlr fopkj dsa fpf=kr d;yfu vfN] tr* eSfFky cakq Hkk"kk&izsed ukVd
izkfIrd vBkjg c[kZd i'pkr~ ,dk,d jpukdkjd ;ku oxZ&la?k"kZ fn'k xsyfuA djSr vfN] eqnk eu es vku cxy es es Nwjh j[kSr vfNA izlaxkuqdwy eSfFky
ikap o"kZ iwoZ ts ek;kuUn fefFkykd oSokfgd folaxfrd lM+y&xUgk;y rarq lHk ukjhd vfLrRo vk nsglacakd foo'krk vkfnd lkaxksikx fp=k.k HksyA vfNA
dsa rkfd jgy Nykg] gqudj utfj lektd oxZ&la?k"kZ fn'k mUeq[k HksyfuA yfyr eSfFkyh miU;kl ys[kud bZ nkSM+ jpukdkj yksdfud lkSan;Zcksk dsa ekspkfj d*
vk khjsUnz ,fg psrukd lax miU;kl ys[ku es izfo"V HksykgA ,r* fgudk yksdfu jkf[k nsydA ukjh tkfrd Hkzw&foykl] u;u dVk{k] fpdqj foU;kl] u[k&f'k[k
dsa lektd fuEuoxhZ; tuthoud nSU; vl Hk* xsyfuA Je'khy ukxfjdd kaxkj vkfn&vkfn la foeq[k Hk* d* lkSan;Zckskd lhek&fukkZj.k jpukdkj yksdfu
nqnZ'kkd fp=k.k fgudk yksdfud lw{e n`f"V dsa fpUgck es lgk;d Hksy vfNA lkekftd folaxfr es d;yfu ra ifgus eSfFkyhd miU;kldkjd utfj lektd
;|fi rhuw miU;kld dFkk ifjos'k ,Dds vfN] eqnk jpukdkjd oS;fDrd psrukd oSokfgd folaxfr ij dsafnzr HksyfuA ,fg le;d miU;kldkj yksdfu ukjh
dkj.ksa rhuw miU;kld ms'; fHkUu&fHkUu Hk* tkbr vfNA rhuw miU;kld fuEu thoud nSU;] ngstd vHkko es vksdj nqnZ'kk] vksdj nqxZfr vk loksZifj lekt
oxhZ; uk;d tq>k: vfN vk viu 'kks"kd eaMyd fojksk djckd izo`fk j[kSr }kjk ukjh tkfr dsa oLrq cq>ckd izo`fk vkfn dsa ewy fcanq ekuyfuA ,r* la
vfNA eqnk tr, ^[kksark vk fpM+S*d fojksk leUo; la 'kkar gksbr vfN] ^i`Fohiq=k* e vkxw c<+y] ra Qsj ukjh nsgd leiZ.k vFkok ; vFkok ihM+u vFkok 'kks"k.k-
ledkyhu miU;kl % iz;kl vk ifj.kke @ 65 66 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
--lkekftd foMacuk cfu xsyA ga] bZ ckr vo';] ts ledkyhu leL;k ek=k dsa pkfV d* ns'kd ;qokoxZ tkfg rjgd lqjax es viu la?k"kZ&{kerkd {k; d;yfu
ukjh&nsg vk ukjh eksu ij dsafnzr ufg jgyA ,fg dkyd lekt fofok jktuhfrd] vFkok viu la?k"kZ&'kfDr dsa ifjiDo d;yfu] ls lkQ Hk* d* fgudk yksdfud
lkekftd] izkfrd] oSKkfud] jk"Vh;] varjkZ"Vh; vkfn&vkfn ifjfLFkfr la miU;kl es vk;yA ukjh nsg vk vkRe&LFkkiud leL;k fgudk yksdfud miU;kl
ifjfpr vk izHkkfor HksyA QyLo:i lektd laxfr&folaxfr fofokeq[kh Hk* es mkjkskj eq[kj gksbr xsyA ;k=khd ts uorqfjvk iwoZorhZ ih<+hd <ksax] ik[kaM
xsyA ,fg fofokeq[kh ifjfLFkfrd ifj.kke fFkd ^cypuek*] ^vkanksyu*] ^nwkQwy*] vk :f<+ la yfM+d, vksfg ij fot; izkIr dsyd] ls lqkka'k 'ks[kj pkSkjh] thodkar]
^nw&i=k*] ^dknks vk dks;yk*] ^bZ crgk lalkj*] ^ifuir*] ^nw dqgsld ckV*] izHkkl] xaxs'k xqatu] foHkwfr] iznhi] uohu pkSkjh] m"kkfdj.k [kku izHk`frd miU;kl
^vfxucku*] ^ihvj xqykc Ny*] ^vfHk'kIr*] ^;qxiq#"k*] ^gejk yx jgc*] ^uokjaHk*] es ;qxkeZ vk ;qxpd tkar es filk; ykxyA lektd f'k{kk i)frd vkarfjd
^ifgy yksd*] ^ejhfpdk*] ^xke lquxSr*] ^folwfo;l*] ^ckV vk cVksgh*] ^glhuk Qksad vk ,dj lM+y&xUgk;y vkar la mBSr nqxk fgudk yksdfud fr es
eafty* vkfnA uhd tdka fpf=kr HksyA xaxs'k xqatud ^ifgy yksd* ,d fn'k f'k{kk vjtus
jekuUn js.kqd ^nwk&Qwy* vk khjsUnzd ^dknks vk dks;yk* fuEuoxhZ; thoud uorqfjvkd O;Fkk dgSr vfN] ra ekdZ.Ms; izoklhd ^vfHk;ku*] f'k{kk&ekfQ;k
fojkV leL;k la Hkjy miU;kl fFkdA nquw miU;kld uk;d viu ikfjokfjd dfod nUr dFkkA foHkwfrd ^xke lquxSr* f'kf{kr uo;qodd vkUnksyuh izo`fkd
thoud ihM+k la vkkar Hk* d* fn'kkgkjk ifFkd tdka xke la 'kgj kfjd nwjh xqRFkh lks>jkcSr vfN] ra iznhid ^folwfo;l* vkanksyud kkjk ij iwathd ikfu
ukfi icSr vfN] lHk Bke VkSvk vcSr vfN( fDy"V] my>u ;qDr] jgLe; vk Qsadckd foo'krk icSr vfNA uohu pkSkjhd ^ckV vk cVksgh* oSokfgd folaxfr
vcw> thou ,oa thou O;oLFkkd fHkUu&fHkUu ifjos'k&ifjfLFkfr dsa HkksxSr vfN] dsa fViSr vfN ra m"kkfdj.k [kkud ^vuqkfjr* vk ^nwokZ{kr* loZFkk v{kr] vNwr
lHk ifjfLFkfr la yM+Sr vfN] la?k"kZ djSr vfN vk var es Fkkfd tkbr vfN] fo"k; dsa Loj nSr vfNA tsuk fd pkZ Hk* pqdy vfN] oSokfgd leL;k ij izkjaHks
,fg lHk ifjLFkfr la yM+Sr&yM+Sr fujk'k Hk* tkbr vfNA ^nwk&Qwy*d uk;d la miU;kl fy[kkbr NyA eqnk uoe n'kd es vkfc d, t[ku vb fo"k; ij
cckth cfu tkbr vfN] ^dknks vk dksbyk*d uk;d dsa thou] leL;k la Hkjy bZ iqLrd vk,y] ra loZFkk uo xak] Lokn vk Hkafxek eSfFkyh miU;kld xq.kokkd
cq>kbr NSdA js.kqd uk;d ,d fnl ta vkRe&LFkkiu vFkksZiktZu vkfnd leL;k izfr vk'oLr dsydA Lora=k Hkkjrd tkxzr] eqnk fujhg Hkw[kaM es iSarkyhl o"kZd
la yfM+ d* Fkkfd Hk* tkbr Nfu] la?k"kZ'khy jfg d* fujk'k Hk* tkbr Nfu] ra Lokkhurkd vonku lkSan;Z ckskd ekunaM dsa dksu vFks for d;yd vfN]
nkslj fn'k khjsUnzd uk;d ukjh nsgd izfr iq#"k tkfrd yksyqirk vk nkuorkd rdj Cyw&fizaV fFkd bZ lHk miU;klA
voyksdu la fujk'k tkbr NfuA ^nwk&Qwy*d uk;d dsa viu la?k"kZ es loZnk O;klthd ^nw&i=k* uo f'kYid iz;ksxkRed miU;kl fFkd] tkfg es nw
vkuan HksVSr jgySd vfNA ,dj ik=k jkelju] viuk thoud lHk vUgj&fcgkfM+ laLfrd jLlkdLlh es dkr ykxSr ;qod vk Hkkjrh; ukjhd ekU;rk Li"V Hksy
dsa c lkgl vk vkSnk;Z la lgyd vfNA dksuks ukjhd ihM+k vFkok ;kSu&lacak] vfNA jpukdkjd n`f"V Qydd bZ foLrkj eSfFkyh miU;kl dsa ,d Vk uo psruk
khjsUnzd fojuh tdka ,djk ufg lrcSr NSdA bZ lHk Vk ?kVuk] jpukdkjd n`f"Vdks.k nsyd vfNA ^ejhfpdk* miU;kl es fyyh js okZeku lanHkZ la cgqr ikNw tk
dsa lsgks ofur djSr vfNA d* lkearh O;oLFkkd lekykspuk d;yfuA ^iVk{ksi* es uDlyoknh vkanksyu
thodkar vk izHkkld miU;kl&ys[kud vofk e'k% 1967&1971 rFkk dsa ego nsfugkfj fyyh js] ^ejhfpdk* es lkearh laLdkjd xq.kkoxq.kd fo'ys"k.k
1970&1979 fFkd vk miU;kl fokk dsa nquw la ifjek.kkRed rFkk xq.kkRed nquw [kwc euks;ksx la d;yfuA fo"k;d Lrj ij vrhrxkeh fgudj n`f"V f'kYi vk
vonku iw.kZ :i la HksVySd vfNA fgudk yksdfu dsa viu miU;kl dyk dsa fo'ys"k.kd Lrj ij vxzxkeh dgy t;rfuA
iq"V djckd ;Fks"V volj HksVyfuA ,d Vk O;ofLFkr vkSiU;kfld ifjos'k] mDr eSfFkyh miU;kl ysy uoe n'kd cgqr [kjkc ekuy tk;r] n'ke ra
fo"k;] rksM+y :f<+] Lora=k ns'k] oSKkfud vk jktuhfrd ifjokZu] f'k{kksUeq[k lekt] ,dnEesA eSfFkyh miU;kld osx ,fg rjgsa vo#) gks;c nq[kdj fFkdA vkBe
for O;oLFkk] l`ftr leL;k] thoud raxh] 'kks"k.k] csjkstxkjh vkfn&vkfnd n'kdd i'pkr~ miU;kldkj yksdfu dsa viu n`f"Vdks.k dsa vkj foLrkj nsckd
vonku la tu&thou dsa ns[kckd&cq>ckd QjhN n`f"V HksVyfu] bZ volj fgudk volj HksVyfu] rdj lnqi;ksx gks;ckd pkgh NyA iafMr tuknZu >k ^tulhnu*
yksdfud vuqHkwfr vk n`f"Vdks.k dsa izkekf.kd cukSydfuA vk] bZ leLr n`'; la iznhi fcgkjh vk uohu pkSkjhd miU;kl ys[kud ;k=kk e eSfFkyh miU;kl
fgudk yksdfud miU;kl es mrfj vk;yA xke la 'kgj kfjd thoud rhr&ehB dsa trsd fo"k;&foLrkj] f'kYi&iz;ksx] fcac&fokku] lkSan;Z&cksk vkfn nsyd] ls
ledkyhu miU;kl % iz;kl vk ifj.kke @ 67 68 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
vkxwd miU;kl ys[ku ysy izsj.kkd ksr fFkdA ukjh thoud nSU; la pyy
fo"k;d Qyd foLr`r gksbr&gksbr] vkanksyu vk kafr kfj igqafp xsy] ijap
,[ku kfj miU;kl fokk] eSfFkyh es viu kk[k uba tek ldyA
1993 es xksfoUn >kd ^fo|kifrd vkRedFkk* vk 1995 es m"kkfdj.k
[kkud ^glhuk eafty* uab vk,y jfgr, ra orZeku 'krkCnhd vafre n'kdd
bTtfr uba cfpr,A ,rsd miyfCkd i'pkrks chp&chp es ,uk xcnh ekjc
eSfFkyh miU;kld ysy v'kqHk lwpuk fFkdA ,gh n'kd es xksfoUn >k fyf[kr
^fo|kifrd vkRedFkk* ,sfrgkfld miU;kl fFkdA Lo;a fo|kifr, dsa ik=k cuk
d, gqudfg la gqudj thouh dgkvksy xsy vfNA ^glhuk eafty* miU;kl vktqd eSfFkyh dfork
dSd vFks egoiw.kZ vfNA eSfFkyh jpukd uk;d&ukf;dk lkekU;r;k eqfLye
laiznk; la uba vcSr vfNA yfyr vkfd jktdey lu vioknd x.kuk uba
gks ! Hkk"kk lsgks ik=kd vuqdwy vk fo"k; rFkk fo"k;d lax jpukdkjd O;ogkj 'krkCnhd pkfje n'kdd iwokZ)Z chrSr&chrSr fgUnh lkfgR; es Nk;koknd Vkax
eeRoiw.kZ vfNA ekuoh; lacak vk ekuo thoud =kklnh ,r, ekfeZd <axsa mHkjy ;qxhu Hkkockskd Hkkj ogu es yM+[kM+k, ykxy NyA 1935 es bZ- ,e- QkLVZjd
vfNA lHkkifrRo es isfjl es izksxzsflo jkbVlZ ,lksfl,'kud izFke vfkos'ku HksyA ;wjksih;
eSfFkyhd leLr miU;kl vk miU;kldkjd ppkZ djc] vkc ,d Vk fucak ns'kd ysy bZ dky vksfg fLFkfrd fFkd] t[ku vksrqDdk lekt es vk lkfgR;
es laHko ufg jfg xsy vfN] rSvks bZ dgys Vk tk;r] ts eSfFkyh dfork vk es ,d izdkjd fLFkjrk vkfc xsy NyA ,gh ne?kksaVw okrkoj.k dsa QjhN djck
dFkkd rqyuk es miU;kl cM+ iNqvk;y vfNA ,fg fokk es vkjks uo&uo iz;ksx ysy vksrqDdk jpukdkj yksdfu izxfrd ukjk nsyfuA 1936 d yxkfr Hkkjrgq
dsa iqf"V nsckd iz;kstu NSdA es Nk;koknd fodkl FkfEg xsy Ny vk dfo yksdfu uwru fopkjkfHkO;fDrd
ek;e rkd* yxykgA egkdfo fujkyk fcuk dksuks ?kks"k.kkd] dfork dsa cgqthoud
Nfo ekfu d, lkekftd ;FkkFkZ dsa viu jpuk es ifgufg la izJ; nsc, ykxy
NykgA eqYdjkt vkuUn vk lTtkn tghjd iz;kl la 1936 es izsepUnd v;{krk
es y[ku es izxfr'khy ys[kd la?kd ifgy vfkos'ku HksyA ,gh le;karjky
es Hkqouth] eSfFkyh dfork es uohu Hkkoukd LFkkiuk d* d, izxfr'khyrkd
ukjk cqyan d* nsyfuA 1936 es fgudj ^vk"kk<+* dfork&laxzg izdkf'kr HksyA
eSfFkyh lkfgR;d uSlfxZd l`tukehZ dfo yksdfu ijra=k Hkkjrd foHkhf"kdkd
vafre {k.k dsa HkksxyfuA ,Egj Hkkjr es Lora=krkd fdfj.k QwVy] vksEgj turk
}kjk Lora=krkd Qwtr clkr es mUeqDr lkal ysckd vkdka{kk iksfl ysc ,dne
LokHkkfod NyA ls yksd ikslus NyA eSfFkyhd dfo yksdfud vf}rh; izfrHkk
rrck iz[kj Ny ts lekU; tuthoud O;kdqyrk] vdqykgfV] fujk'kk vkfn dsa
fpUgck&cq>ck es dksuks dksrkgh ufg jgfuA
LokHkkfod ckr fFkd] ts dksuks vkanksyud usr`Ro xuys&xwFky yksd lEgkjSr
NfFkA vk] vkanksyud lQyrkd i'pkr~ vke tuthou vksfg oxZ dsa tulsod
ekfu viu usr`Ro gqudfg yksdfud gkFk es lkSafi nSr vfNA ls Hkkjrks es HksyA
ns'k Lora=k HksyA ukxfjd viu vkdka{kk iwfrZd izfr vk'oLr HksyA eqnk jktusrk
vktqd eSfFkyh dfork @ 69 70 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
oxZ es nkuorkd izos'k] Ny&Nn~ed chtkjksi.k] LokFkZd izknqHkkZo lkkd laxfg gksbr ;k=kh&jktdey kfjA vb pkfj uked vykok drksd ukeh&miukeh dfo
Hk* xsyA yksd fujk'k] mnkl vk {kqCk Hk* xsyA ek=k vksdj eksgHkaxs Vk] gksbr,] vb varjky es eSfFkyh es HksykgA eqnk dhrZu&Hktu vk mfprh&Mgdud vykok
ra ,d ckr Ny( vIiu ns'k vk Hkk"kkd yksd }kjk lHk vukpkj gksbr nsf[kd, fdudgq ;ku lkfgfR;d xfrdrk fn'k uba xsyA lhrkjke >k] dk'khdkUr feJ
vks Xykfud egkleqnz es Mwc, ykxyA QyLo:i tks'k&[kjks'kd cnyk vksdjk ^ekqi*] ra=kukFk >k vk dkaphukFk >k ^fdj.k* dsa vb vLFkkHkj la vyx d,y
dq.Bk nkc* ykxyA lkk oxZ dsa ,dVk uhd ckV vkvksj lq>yfuA vgh xeZ t,ckd pkghA
yksg ij pksV djc mfpr cq>,yfuA vHkko vk csdkjhd l`tu vkjaHk d* nsyfuA eksVk&eksVh ta xi 'kq#g d,y tk, ra izxfr'khy ys[kd la?kd ifgy
dkt d,fugkj dsa dkt ufg vk inklhu dsa f;k'khyrk ufgA ?kwl] cSekuh] vfkos'ku ts Hkkjr es Hksy] rdj ckn fofHkUu lkfgR;d yksd] dkO; kkjk es
'kks"k.k f{kiz xfr,a ijkdk"Bk fn'k Hkkx* ykxyA tu&thou vkvksj cslh detksj vkanksyu vk ifjokZu lHkd uke nsc, yxykg( Nk;kokn] izxfrokn] iz;ksxokn]
gksbr xsyA ,gus fonzwi O;oLFkk es eSfFkyhd uo dforkd fodkl HksyA ubZ dfork] vdfork] ledkyhu dfork vkfn&vkfn uked vuqokn gksv, ykxyA
eSfFkyh es ,[ku ts dfork fy[ky tk jgy vfN] rdj ewy ^Loj* vk eqnk vly xi bZ fFkd ts eSfFkyh es bZ lcVk ckr xe vfNA pUnk >k la
^izo`fk* tkfg egRoiw.kZ ckr dsa js[kkafdr djSr vfN] ls fFkd tufgr fojkskh Hkqou gksbr ;k=kh&jktdey kfjd eSfFkyh dforkd ifjokZu&izo`fk dksuks Hkk"kkd
ekU;rk vk O;oLFkkd [kaMu] tu'kfDrd izfr vkLFkk vk foKkud lq[kn] 'kqHkn jpukdkj dsa pkSadk ldSr vfNA ta vkaf[k jfgrfu ra ^Lojxakkd* izdk'ku ij
vonku la le`) Hkfo";d vk'kkA vktqd eSfFkyh dfo ts lks dfo NfFk viu ukd equfugkj miukeh dfo dsa vkcks xksar&xkscj xhfM+ d, izk;f'pr dj*d
ijaijk] viu ifjos'k vk ns'k&nqfu;kad rktk&rjhu fodkl&ifjokZu la voxr pkfgvfuA gqudk yksdfud o'k pfyrfu ra eSfFkyh dsa vks ,[kugqa dhrZu Hktud]
NfFkA vUgkj ?kj es lkai uba ekjS NfFk vFkok vkUgj vkaf[k,a lw;Z ns[kckd ykylk lkfgR; cukSus jfgrfFkA ts&ls---
uba djS NfFkA rsa] vktqd eSfFkyh dforkd ewy Loj vks,g fFkd] ts ,[ku ns'kd vly es pUnk >kd lkfgR; es ns'k&n'kk vk vke tuthoud ts Nfo
vku dksuks le`) Hkk"kkd Loj vfNA vkUgj vkaf[k,a vFkok vUgkj es ykBh ns[kkb iM+SN] Hkqoud xhfr vk dfork es vks [ku Nk;kokn vk [ku izxfroknd
py,ckd ykSy] ts yksdfu d* jgykg vfN eSfFkyh es cgqr xksV, ,gsu d* mijkSa> gksv, yxSr vfNA ;k=khd ^fp=kk* la ,dVk lekkuy Msx mBy vk
jgykg vfN ls vusjs ykxy NfFkA nkslj kakk djrkg ra cslh fVdrkgA jktdeyd ^Lojxakk* ra ,dckbxs] cgqr&cgqr iNqvk,y eSfFkyh dfork dsa ^fp=kk*
^eSfFkyh lkfgR;d bfrgkl* es tkfg fo}ku yksdfud er dky foHkktu la ts vkkqfudrk HksVy NySd] rdjk v|ru d* nsydSA vFkkZr~ ngst vk fc;kg
ij izdV Hksyfu vfN] gqudj rdZ es vksrcks laxfr uba vfN trck ,d Vk vk iwtk ikB ij QdM+k&Mgdu lu pht fy[kckd izo`fkd laHkouk cukSfugkj
xk; vk ,d Vk eghal dsa nw Hkkb es ckaV* dky xked iap lc j[kS NfFkA fdudgq dfo lc kkud HkqLlh tdka csjk xsykgA
ftEek es vkfndky] e;dky] vkkqfud dkyd izkjaHk vk vard ysy dksuks rdZ Lojxakkd izdk'kud i'pkrks cgqr fnu kfj eSfFkyh dfork es jktuhfrd
ufg NfuA vb es la dfork dsa NkafV d, xi djck dky fo|kifrd i'pkr~ le> cgqr fojy jgyA eSfFkyh es jktdeyd dfork es ra ufg,a] ;kf=k;ksd
ifgy eksM+ pUnk >kd vksr, ns[kkb iM+S vfNA vksuk Hkk"kk vk fo"k; ifjokZud dfork es jktuhfrd tkx:drk ufg,a tdka NyA ijofrZ;ks dkyd fdNq, dfod
n`f"V,a eucksk lsgks viuk <axsa uohu lkfcr HksykgA eqnk tu psruk vk tu fdNq, dfork es jktuhfrd psruk eq[kj HksyA ek;kuUn] xaxs'k xqatu] thodkar]
thoud fp=k fo|kifrd i'pkr~ pUnk >kd lkfgR; es uo djkSV QsjydA egkizdk'k vk egsUnzd vksr, jktuhfrckskd fdNq dfork HksV, ykxyA vkBe
Hkqous'oj flag ^Hkqou*d l`tu&lalkj es bZ ifjokZu uo fn'kk idM+ydA Qsj n'kd es tkfg l'kDr ih<+hd dfo viu ifgpku cuk ldykg] gqudk la bZ
;k=kh] jktdey vk r[ku vkxwd dfox.kA eqnk le;&le; ij eSfFkyh dkO; f'kdkbr ufg d,y tk ldS,A ;k=kh vk jktdeyd iz;klsa eSfFkyh dfork trck
;k=kk es vks,g vdeZ.;rk vk ijthfork vcSr jgy vfN ts vke eSfFkyd v|ru Hk* ldy rkfg es js[kkafdr dj* tksxj bZ ;ksxnku fFkd ts bZ uohure
LoHkko es vfNA vFkkZr~ nw&ih<+h] pkfj ih<+hd ckn [kkunku es dsvks deklqr ih<+h fefFkykd {ks=kh; vk ikfjokfjd] lkekftd leL;kd vfrfjDr jk"Vh;&varjkZ"Vh;
tufe xsy] vfxyk fdNq larfr vksgh Vksisa thfc ySr vfNA fdNq uo djckd ?kVukp vk oSKkfud ;qxd vke.k rFkk vonku dsa lsgks egRo nsydA
vFkok viuk cysa djckd lkgl uba tqVcS NfFkA nknk dsa gkFkh Ny] nyku ij QyLo:i eSfFkyh dfork vkb oLrq&cksk] Hkko&cksk vk Hkk"kk&cksk lHk rjgsa
flDdfM+ Vkaxy v,A vb es lc la yM+HkM+k,y fLFkfr jgy pUnk >k la Hkqouth v|ru vfN vk dksuks Hkk"kk dsa dnerky n* ldSr vfNA vfr iz;ksx'khy g,ckd
vktqd eSfFkyh dfork @ 71 72 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
[krjk ,dkk jpukdkj dsa vo'; vfNA eSfFkyh dforkd ra vks fdNq uba fcxkfM+ fufek "kM~;a=k jpSr jgSr vfNA tu'kfDrd ijked vkHkkl gqudk jgSr NfuA
ldfFku] gqudj vo'; fcxfM+ tsrfuA rsa vks O;fDrd vkfRed ln~Hkko dsa [kafMr djckd ysy d[kugqa pwd, ufg
vkb eSfFkyh es ts dfork fy[kk jgy vfN] rdj gejk cq>us dksuks ukedj.k pkgSr NfFkA
uba g,ckd pkghA vgh izf;k la lkfgR; es tkfrokn] oxZokn] fyaxokn vk vktqd dfork vk dfo] lekt] jktuhfr vk foKku rhuw [kaM la ifjfpr
lewgokn vk,y vfNA dfork] dfork gksbr vfN vk lc le;d dfork viuk vfNA f"k] okf.kT; vk iz'kklud rarq vk raf=kdk lHk la voxr NfFkA izfrHkkd
le;d ledkyhu gksbr vfNA lkfgR; viuk le;d vke turkd ledkyhu rdZiw.kZ lnqi;ksx ysy dfo vk lektd foosd dkt djrA ,dSle 'krkCnhd
gksbr vfN] vke turkd fpko`fkd okgd gksbr vfNA ,djk viu ;qxcksk lagkjd dYiukd ts ik[kaM fdNq kui'kq vk jktuhfrd lka<+ lHk ilkjyfu vfN]
la ifjiw.kZ ledkyhu dfork dgy t,ckd pkghA dksuks vku rjgd ukedj.k oSKkfud miknkud tkfg tksf[ke vk miyfCkd laHkkouk vfN] jktuhfrd u`'kalrk
uba d* d, eSfFkyh dsa Hkkoh [krjk la cpkvksy tk,ckd pkghA vksfguk ra dSd rFkk iz'kklfud Hkz"Vkpkjd ts vksj&Nksj vfN] lkekftd i'kqrkd ts dksuks Lo:i
[krjk f?k jgy NfFk cspkjhA vfN---vktqd dfo vksfg lHk laHkkoukd izfr lpsr] foosd'khy] lqcq) vk rSukr
fodkld e nh?kZ Hksyk la vkdyu cM+k tfVy Hk* tkbr vfNA fpEiSath NfFkA vk] tsa fd dfo] rSukr NfFk] rsa vktqd dforkd vNSr] vcSr 'krkCnhd
la fodflr euq";d fodkle ij ds fo'okl djr \ eqnk lR; ra fFkd ! lekt vk le;] nqeqZ[k vk nqoZfk la cpy jgr] rdj fo'okl d,y tk ldSr
Hkk"kkd fodkl e dksuks vFks vb la lgt uba vfNA ^lkglh* 'kCnd iz;ksx vfNA
ywfV&ekfj d,fugkj ysy gksbr Ny] ls ds fo'okl djr \ lk<+s Nvks l; c[kZd eSfFkyh dfors fd,s] eSfFkyhd laiw.kZ lkfgR;d lhek fFkd ts vks us i<+y
ijaijk es la ge dh xzg.k d,ygqa vk drsd dksu fcanq dsa fodflr d,ygqa( tkbr vfN vk us vksdj ewY;kadu gksbr vfNA lacakokn] Ldwyokn] oxZokn]
Hkkr vkfd nkfy mfkv,yk la mNySr >iuk nsf[k d, jsy baftu cuk ldygqa- tkfrokn la eSfFkyh lkfgR; eqDr gksv, ls iz;kl d,y t,ckd pkghA
--c dfBu vfN dgcA ts vfN vk tr, vfN] ls us ra 'kq) :i la ijaijk eSfFkyhd dfox.k dsa ,[ku kfj ,rsd lkgl uba HksySd vfN] ts dksuks
fFkd] us 'kq) :i la iz;ksxA lHkVk iz;ksx] viu ifNyk iz;ksxd fodkl gksbr ikBd vFkok leh{kdd lR;opu lwfu fyv,A ta nwVk izfrfufk dfod uke
vfNA vFkkZr~ viu iwoZorhZd miyfCk es ;ksxnku nSr vfNA esaMyhQ dsj vkokZ iwNy tk,] vk dfg nsy tk, ;k=kh] jktdeyA ra eSfFkyhd xqeuke dfo NVadh
rkfydk vksfg :i es Hk*, tbrfu] fcuk iwoZorhZ rkfydkd ifj.kke ns[kus] ls yky uksu lkrq ckfUg d, iVuk LVs'ku ij Bk<+ jgrkg ts ^iVuk mrfjrs uohu
dgc dfBu vfNA dforksd lacak es bZ ckr lR; vfNA lkfgR;d fodkle] dsa Qkalh p<+k nscfuA gej uke NksfM+ d, jktdeyd uke ysyfu vfN ! dfork
fjysjs'k fFkd ! iwoZorhZ tr, kfj e'kky igqapk nsyfu] vuqtorhZ rdj vkxw cw>, vcS Nfu \*---
igqapkSrkgA cslh izfrHkk gsrfu ra fdNq tYnh vk fdNq cslh nwj kfj igqapk nsrkgA dgckd ysy ra cgqr fdNq jgSr NSd] Lo;a uokxarqd jgSr] viugqa la
;qx ;FkkFkZ vktqd jpukdkjd jDr es jfp&ifp xsy vfNA bZ yksdfu cslh uokxarqd ysy ,dVk 'kkyhu lykg ts eSfFkyh jpukdkjd Ldwyckth la
ekuoh; var% ihM+k dsa fo"kik;h ln`'k ihyfu vfNA ,fg var% ihM+k la mfcvk,y cpfFkA fd,sd ra eSfFkyh lkfgR;d loZuk'k djck ysy iz.kc) ts Ldwy
euq";d dNeNh] viu leLr nqnZ'kk ij duSr vk vksdjk viu fu;fr cucSr lsUVjykbTM Ny] rdj czkap vkc dSd Bke [kqft xsy NSdA rRdky pedckd
euq";d iqlaoghurk vFkok foo'krk] O;fDr&O;fDr dsa vyx djckd "kM~;a=k] gksbu ra vksb Ldwy lHk es nhf{kr gksfFkA eqnk ta eksu la fdNq dj, pkgSr NfFk]
ekuo&ewY;d yksi vkfn lai.w kZ ifjn`';] fgudk yksdfud n`f"V Qyd la xqtjy ra lkfgfR;d "kM~;a=k la cpfFkA eSfFkyh es ,dj] vFkkZr~ ,fg ,M~l dsj i;kZIr
vfNA bZ leLr fLFkfr lekt&lR; vk ;qx&lkis{k vfNA ,djk vfrjaftr d* laHkkouk NSdA
d, dkYifud cu,ckd cSekuh] bZekunkj vk lewgd izfr fu"Bkoku jpukdkj
ufg d* ldykgA b,g ufg d* ldckd vknfr fgudj dfo dsa vke ikBdd
chp iS?k cucSr vfN vk jpuk dsa 'kk'or cucSr vfNA
izo`fkxr fo'ys"k.k djSr vktqd dfork la ekuod izHksn lHk ts cgjkbr
vfN] rkfg es la ,dVk oxZ vks oxZ fFkd] ts lnfr dky viu LokFkZ&lkkukd
eSfFkyh ukVd % iz;ksx vk izo`fk @ 73 74 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
ij vFkok nquw dsa feykd, ukVdd dFkkoLrq rS;kj d,y tkbr NyA vksgh
es fdNq ,gsu 'kq"d vFkok v'yhy va'k ta jgSr Ny] ra rdjk fo"kdaHkd] izos'kd]
pwfydk vkfn }kjk izR;{k vFkok ijks{k :isa lwfpr d* nsy tkbr NyA eqnk]
vkc ;qxd ekax ls ufg vfNA
vkc izs{kdd thou trck O;Lr vk oSfo;iw.kZ Hk* xsy vfN] foMacukd
rsgsu&rsgsu mRd"kZ vks Hkksfx pqdy vfN] ;kruk vk leL;kd ladh.kZ lqjax la
rrsd csj vkck&tkgh d* pqdy vfN] ts yksd#fp es fo'kky ifjokZu vkfc
xsy vfN] vifjfer ifjokZuA vkc ukVd es yksd vudj dFkk ufg] viu
eSfFkyh ukVd % iz;ksx vk izofk dFkk ns[k, pkgSr vfN] viu thou&izf;k rdSr vfN] ukVdd eapu es viuk
dsa rdSr vfN] oLrqr% vksrck dky vks ukVd ns[kSr ufg NfFk] ukVd HkksxSr
NfFkA ,fg ifjizs{; es ukVdd dFkkoLrq es uorkd vis{kk NySd] tdjk de
loZfofnr ckr vfN] ts lkfgR;d vku dksugqa fokk la csl jeuxj fokk ukVd xksV, fpUgyfuA QyLo:i ukVddkjd :i es foiqy yksdfiz;rk de xksV,
fFkdA n`';kRed vk JO;kRed viu nquw {kerkd dkj.kfga ,dj Js"Brk dsa HksVyfuA thou >k vkfd ykynkld ukVdd mis{kk] rsa d,y tk jgy vfN]
Lohdkjy xsy vfN izk;%A oLrqr% viu vgh fo'ks"krkd dkj.ksa bZ izs{kdd ysy ls ufgA ls ra bZ dgy tsckd pkgh] ts bZ yksdfu vksfg le; es ukVd fokk
vR;fkd n;xzkgh izHkkoksRiknd vk laizs"k.kh; cfu tkbr vfN ! izk;% rsa] vkpk;Z es ts iz;ksx d,yfu] ls b,g d* ldSr Nykg] eSfFkyh ukVd dsa bZ izkjaHk vkvksj
yksdfu ,dj jE;rk dsa LohdkjSr dgus NfFk ^dkO;s"kq ukVda jE;e~*A fdar]q dsvks dgka nsyfu \
ukVdd ts rhuVk vfuok;Z vax vfN oLrq] usrk] jl rkfg es oLrq] ,gsu oLrqr% okZeku 'krkCnhd izos'k ,dVk >a>kokrd lax HksyA ekuo thoud
vkkkjHkwr rF; fFkd] ts ukVdd es#naM ekuy xsy vfNA pwafd ,r, cgqr ckkarj cgqr f{kiz xfr,a ifjofrZr gksv, ykxyA yksd#fpd jsl rrsd rst
O;k[;k djckd lkodk'k ufg vfN] rsa eksVk&eksVh bZ ekfu d, pyckd fFkd] xfr la Hksy] ts cgqr de le; es yksd iwtk&ikB] 'kkL=k&iqjk.k] fo'okl] :f<+
ts ukVdd dFkkoLrq,] oLrq fFkdA vkkqfud eSfFkyh ukVd es dFkk&rod ekns vkfn la eqfDr y* d, tu&thoud nSU;] vksdj ;krukd i`"Bkkkjd vUos"k.k
fdNq izo`fk ewyd fo'ys"k.kkRed xIi djck la iwoZ la{ksi es dFkkoLrqd lS)kafrd vkfn ij vkfc xsyA ,fg fLFkfr es fdNq jpukdkj viu drksd foo'krkd
ifjHkk"kk dsa ,d utfj nsf[k ysc vuqi;qDr ufg gSrA dkj.ksa viu iqjku lhek la ufg cgj,ykgA mij dFkkoLrqd tkfg rhu dksfVd
dFkkoLrqd mi;ksx ukVddkj yksdfu izkjaHk la tsuk djSr v,ykg vfN] iz[;kr] mRik| vk fefJr ppkZ Hksy vfN] ls vktqd dFkkoLrqd foHkktud
rdjk vkpk;Z yksdfu O;qRifkd fglkcsa rhu dksfV es caVus NfFk iz[;kr] mRik| izf;k ufg Hk* ldSr vfNA vktqd ukVdd dFkkoLrq dsa thouewyd n`f"Vdks.k
vk fefJrA vfguk O;ogkjd n`f"Vdks.ksa lsgks lwP;] JO; vk n`'; rhu dksfV la foHkkftr d,y tk ldSr vfNA eqnk] ls foHkktu dFkh ysy \
es caVus NfFkA iqu% ,dj HksnksiHksn vfN] eqnk] ls gej vHkh"V ufgA eSfFkyh es uhd tdka vkkqfud ukVd fy[kckd iqjtksj mRlkg dus eus
eSfFkyh es ekSfyd :isa ukVd&ys[ku] okZeku 'krkCnhd laxfga izkjaHk HksyA 1960d i'pkrs ns[ky tkbr vfNA ,fg la iwoZ eSfFkyh ukVdd dFkkro osn]
1904 bZ- es thou >kd ^lqanj&la;ksx* izdk'k es vk,yA rfgvk la ngkbd ngkb iqjk.k] jkek;.k] egkHkkjr bfrgkl vkfn la mBkvksy tkbr Ny vk LFkkfir yhd
ukVd vcSr xsy] eqnk] ,d ra lekykspdd chp ppkZ es xuy&xwFky ukVd ij eSfFkyh;gq es ukVd fy[kk tkbr NyA vksuk ,fg dky es rhu xksV ukVddkjd
jgy vk nkslj] ts tulkekU;d chp vksdj la[;k vkvksjks dfe xsyA gejk uke J)kiwoZd ysy tsckd pkfgvfu] ftudk vksgh dky es] ekuo&thou es
cq>us ,dj ekSfyd dkj.k nw Vk Hksy ukV~; oLrq vk ukV~;oLrqd miLFkkiu 'kSyhA ukV~; oLrq HksfV xsyfuA bZ yksdfu NfFk eq'a kh j?kquUnu nkl fefFkyk ukVd]
oLrqr% dFkkoLrqd tkfg nw rjgsa HksnksiHksn mij ns[kkvksy xsy vfN] ls vkc leh{kkd bZ'kukFk >k phuhd yM~Mw vk xksfoUn >k clkrA ewyr% bZ dgy tk,] ts
vkkkj ufg cfu ldSr vfNA izkjaHk es dksuks iz[;kr dFkk ij] ,sfrgkfld vFkok bZ rhuw ukVddkj tkfg rjgsa dF; vk f'kYi nquw Lrj ij eSfFkyh ukVd es uohurk
ikSjkf.kd vk[;ku ij vFkok euksjatdrk mRiUu djck ysy dksuks eux<+ar dFkk Hkjyfu] rdjs vkxw foLrkj HksyA ,fg rhuw ukVdd dFkk ro ledkyhu lektd
eSfFkyh ukVd % iz;ksx vk izo`fk @ 75 76 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
fLFkfr&ifjfLFkfrd rkuh&Hkjuh la cquy xsyA lkekftd tkxj.k] bZ";kZ vk }s"ko'k Vk ukV~; ro viu ekSfydrkd lax mifLFkr vfNA rhuw ukVdd dFkkro
ekuo&gR;kd "kM~;a=k vk oSokfgd vlarqf"Vd izdj.k la mBy leL;k vkfnd lkekftd ifjos'k es cquy xsy vfNA csjkstxkjh] ngstd dqizHkko vk ih<+hd
fp=k.k je.kh; <ax la ,fg ukVd lHk es vkfc ldy vfNA fgudk yksdfud varjky ij eSfFkyh;gq es vk vkugq lkfgR; es drksd jpuk Hksy vfNA
vf}rh; vonku bZgks ekuy tk,r] ts dFkk&ro dsa bZ yksdfu rrck eatyfu] eqnk ,fg fo"k; dsa ns[kckd n`f"Vdks.k jpukdkj dsgsu j[kSr NfFk] bZ cgqr
ts lgt :isa eafpr g,ckd 'kSyh es fy[k,ck la ,dj izk.kro v{kq..ks jgyA egoiw.kZ ckr gksbr vfNA n`f"Vdks.kd b,g ekSfydrk] b,g uwrurk iqjkuks fo"k;
vksuk] 1960d i'pkr~ lsgks fefFkyk foHkwfr vkfnd thoud [kaM&fo'ks"k la foy{k.k dF; fudkfy vuSr vfNA 'ks[kj] ,fg rhuw fo"k; la fof'k"V dF;d
ij vkkkfjr dFkk ro cquy xsyA eqnk ,fg dky es cjkscfj ppkZd e es usuq cgkj d,us NfFkA vk vksfg dF; dsa lok'k :isa izs{kd kfj igqapk nsckd
ts ukVddkj yksdfu jgy NfFk] ls NfFk lqkka'kq 'ks[kj pkSkjh] cztfd'kksj oekZ ysy tsgsu foy{k.k dFkk x<+us NfFk] rsa fgudj vlkkkj.k izfrHkk] dF; vk f'kYid
^ef.kin~e*] xksfoUn >k] ufpdsrk] xaxs'k xqatu] egsUnz eyafx;k] foHkwfr vkuUn] ekSfydrkd ifjpk;d fFkdA NksV&NksV okD; foU;kld lax y?kqlaokn] lgt
vjfoUn vDdw] yYyu izlkn Bkdqj izHk`frA 'kCnkoyhd iz;ksx] lgt midFkk ,oa ?kVuk ladyu] ik=kd lgt vfHkf;k ,oa
ef.kin~ed rhu xksV ukVd ^daBgkj*] ^>qedh* vk ^rslj dfu;ka* vkfn lgt pkfjf=kd fodkl vkfnd enfr la ukVddkj ,fg ukVd lHkd dFkk&ro
ppkZd e es vcSr vfNA rhuw ukVdd ys[ku vk izdk'ku dky fHkUu&fHkUu dsa LoLFk vk lkeF;Zoku cukSus NfFkA dFkkd dF; ;qxkuqdwy <axsa mBkvksy xsy
vfNA ^daBgkj*] fo|kifrd dFkk ij vkkkfjr ukVd fFkdA vU; nquw ukVdd vfNA l`ftr csdkjhd leL;k es lfjlks tdka filkbr ;qok ih<+hd laiw.kZ euksn'kk
dFkkrRo ukVddkj lekt la mBkSus NfFkA ef.kin~ed nsu] eSfFkyh lkfgR;d dsa izrhdkRedrkd lax |ksfrr djc] ngst&yksyqi O;fDrd izfrf;koknh vfHkf;k
ysy 'kk'or :isa vuqies; jgrA eqnk ukV~;f'kYid Lrj ij ef.kin~e ,fg ukVd la mn~Hkwr nk#.k leL;k vk nw ih<+hd ekufld Lrj es gksbr ;q)] 'kkyhurkd
lHk es vlQyre ukVddkjd :i es ifjyf{kr gksbr NfFkA ga] fgudj jpukd vkoj.k r*j O;fFkr gksbr O;fDrd euksn'kkd fp=k.k vkfn&vkfn] 'ks[kjd ukVdd
la[;k c<+sck dky ,fg ukVd lHk dsa xfu ysc mfprs g,rA ^rslj dfu;ka* dFkkro dsa mRd"kZ nSr vfNA dFkk&rod lkS"Bo es f'kYid dsgsu ego gksbr
ngst lu ?kly&ihVy fo"k; ij fy[ky xsy ukVd fFkd] tdj dFkk&ro dsa vfN] rdjs mkj fFkd 'ks[kjd ukVdA fgudj ukVdd dFkk&ro cj[k] nw cj[kd
cquck es ef.kin~e vlkkkj.k =kqfV lHk d,us NfFkA ^>qedh*d dFkkro lsgks thou la Nkfu d, ufg vkuy xsy vfNA oLrqr% trck dky izs{kd fgudj
rkfg nks"k la cpy ufg vfNA ukVd dsa Hkksx,] rrcfg dkyd ?kVuk iw.kZ dkS'ky la fgudk ukVd es fpf=kr
oLrqr% ^dFkk&ro* ukVdd jh<+ fFkd ls ckr vlxjs dFkk&ro la jgSr vfN ls fgudj ukV~; f'kYi vk dFkk foU;kld vfrfjDr xq.k fFkdA
fu"ikfnr ufg Hk* tkbr vfNA ukVd dsa tk kfj ukV~;&f'kYi] pfj=k&fp=k.k] xksfoUn >kd oDrO;] ^eSfFkyh es vkkqfud ukVdd tUe---izkphu ukVd lHkd
dFkksidFku] ?kVuk ladyu] jl&ifjikd vkfn rod iw.kZ lg;ksx ufg HksVrSd] xHkZ la ufg] cfYd vksdj lekfk ij Hksy vfN* fgudfg ukVdd ysy lok'k
dFkk&ro mRd"kZ ufg ikfc ldrA vk r[ku] t[ku fd ukVdd jh<+s detksj es lR; gksbr vfNA 'ks[kj] vkkqfud eSfFkyh ukVdd dFkk&ro dsa loZFkk uohu
jgr] ukVd lks> Hk* d, dksuk cSlr \ vksdjk dwcj cgj,cs djrSdA ef.kin~ed fn'kk nsus NfFk vk ,djk lHk vFks eapksi;ksxh cuk,ckd ckV iz'kLr d,us NfFkA
ukVdd ,d ra dFkk&ros ttZj Nfu] rkfg ij vksdj leLr lg;ksxh ro bZ nqHkkZX; fFkd] ts iNkfr dky es [kwc ukVd fy[kk,y] eqnk vfkdka'k ukVddkj
viuk&viuk fn'kk es tkbr NfuA rsa fgudj ukVd es lxjs dwcj cgjk,y 'ks[kjd cSfj;j kfj igqafp ufg ldy NfFkA
NfuA gjne cq>kbr jgSr vfN] tsuk ukVd es bZ va'k ukVdh;rk vku* ysy ^clkr* ukVd fyf[k d, eSfFkyh ukVdd {ks=k es vkkqfudrkd i`"BHkwfe
nsy xsy vfNA rS;kj djck es ojs.; LFkku izkIr d,fugkj xksfoUn >kd ^vafre iz.kke* d vrfjDr
lqkka'kq 'ks[kj pkSkjhd ^HkQkbr pkgd ftuxh*] ^ysVkbr vkapj* vk ^ifgy vkvksjks ukVd NfuA eqnk] dFkkrod n`f"V,a ,r, ^vafre iz.kke* fo'ks"k :isa
lka>* rhuw ukVd lkre n'kdd ckns izdk'k es vk,yA eSfFkyhd vkkqfud mYys[; fFkdA ukVdd dFkk xzkeh.k ifjos'kd LokFkZijd "kM~;a=k] ,dVk fuj{kj
ukVddkjd :i es vksb dky kfjd iw.kZ lQy ukVddkj 'ks[kj vf}rh; vk cksfugkj O;fDrdsa xked izfr vkd"kZ.k vk Qsj oLrqfLFkfr la voxr Hksykd
ukV~;&dkS'ky d ekfyd NfFkA fgudj ukVdd izs{k.k] vuq'khyu] eSfFkyh ukV~; ckn fod"kZ.kd vkkkj ij x<+y xsy vfNA ,fg NksV lu dFkk dsa ukVdd :i
ys[kud ysy pqukSrh ufg] izsj.kknk;d ksr cfu ldSr vfN] tr, ,d&,d es lt,ckd ysy ngst leL;k] vYi&osru Hkksxh O;fDrd leL;k] izse&izlax
eSfFkyh ukVd % iz;ksx vk izo`fk @ 77 78 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
vkfn dsa vkuq"kafxd dFkkd :i es vkuy xsy vfNA y?kqlaokn] lgt 'kCn vkfnd rdjk dFkk cuk nsc ywfjd mRd"kZ fFkdA
dkj.ksa ,fg ukVdd iz'kalk d,y tk ldSr vfNA eqnk ,dVk uhd ukVdd egsUnz eyafx;kd ukV~;&ys[kud vuq'khyu djSr] ta bZ dgy tk,] ts
dFkk&lajpukd ysy tkfg rjgsa lgt vk fo'oluh; midFkkd la;ksx g,ckd 'ks[kj tkfg rjgd ukV~; uwrurk eSfFkyh es vuyfu rdjk ,d fn'kk es lQyre
pkgh] tkfg rjgsa ik=kd vorj.k g,ckd pkgh] rdj vHkko ,fg ukVd es vfNA <axsa y* tk, oyk dsvks ,dVk ukVddkj eSfFkyh es NfFk] ra ls fFkdkg egsUnz
QyLo:i] ,dVk uhd dFkk&f'kYihd dFkk&ro nqcZy Hk* xsy NfuA vlgt eyafx;k] ra dksuks vfr'k;ksfDr ufg gSrA ^y{e.k js[kk [kafMr*] ^,d dey
<axsa ik=kd vorj.k vk vfo'oluh; ?kVuk ed dkj.ksa ,dVk fnO;&lu dF; uksj es*] ^tqvk,y duduh*] ^vksdjk vkaxud ckjgeklk* vkfn fgudj izfl)
viu vHkh"V kfj t,ck es mfpr mRd"kZ ufg ikfc ldy vfNA ukVd lHk fFkdfuA viu ukVdd dFkk&ro bZ izk;% fuEuoxhZ; leqnk;d nSfud
^,d Ny jktk* ufpdsrkd csl iz'kaflr ukVd es ifjxf.kr gksbr vfNA thou es chNSr NfFkA tr, 'ks[kjd dFkkd ifjos'k lkekU;r;k e;eoxhZ;
fgudj ,fg ukVdd dFkk rod fn'kk vku dksugqa ukVddkjd ysy loZFkk leqnk;d ikfjokfjd vk vkfFkZd leL;k gksbr Nyfu] vksr, egsUnz eyafx;k
Li'kZghu jgy vfNA oSKkfudrkd izos'k la m|ksxhdj.k c<+y vk vksEgj ljdkjh fuEuoxZd pwYgk&fpuckj la ifjfpr HksykgA vksdj leLr lq[k&nq[k dsa viu
gLr{ksi la tehankjh&izFkkd var HksyA eqnk rsa 'kks"k.k&izrkj.kd var Hk* xsy] ls dFkk es LFkku nsyfuA ik=kd pkfjf=kd fo'ys"k.k] euksfo'ys"k.k] y?kqrj laokn]
fdUugqa lR; ufgA oLrqr% vksfg lkearh izFkkd gLrkarj.k Hk* xsy vfNA bZ leL;k ljy Hkk"kk] lgt 'kCnkoyh] NksV&Nhu okD;] dFkksidFkud varjaxrk vkfn la
lsgks gejk lektd iS?k leL;k fFkdA leL;k ek=k xke ?kj es ufg 'kgjh ifjos'k dFkk&rod lkS"Bo dsa bZ cy nsus NfFkA ukVd lHkd dFkk lajpuk] ,rsd
es lsgks vfNA ufpdsrk ,fg dF; dsa vR;ar xaHkhjrk la idM+yfu vk loZFkk fo'oluh; ?kVuk&e vk midFkk lHkd }kjk Hksy vfN] ts vks ukVdd ysy
uo rjgd dFkk&ro uo f'kYid laxsa eSfFkyh ukVd dsa nsyfuA eqnk] vks ls lgtfga mR"Vd ckr Hk* tkbr vfN vk vksdj laizs"k.kh;rk es fu[kkj vuSr
e cukSus ufg jkf[k ldykgA vfNA ga] bZ dgy t,ckd pkgh ts egsUnz eyafx;k viu ukV~;&ys[kud fn'kk
xaxs'k xqatu] eSfFkyh ukVdd {ks=k es ,dVk vn~Hkqr iz;ksxdkkZd :i es ek=k ,deq[kh j[kyfuA fuEuoxZd yksd ij rFkkdfFkr mPpoxhZ; yksdd
ifjxf.kr NfFkA uqDdM+&ukVdd iz;ksx eSfFkyh es iw.kZ lQyrkd lax fgudfg vR;kpkjd dFkkd lajpuk fofok vk;ke y* d, egsUnz djSr NfFk vk rsa ukVd
la ifgy csj laHko Hksy] ls dgck es dksuks O;okku ufg g,ckd pkghA uqDdM+ es vksgh oxZd thoud vkvksjks i{k lHk mHkfj vcSr vfNA lkekftd fo"kerk]
ukVd] fgUnh es [kwc fy[ky vk [ksyy tkbr vfNA eSfFkyh es ,dj loZFkk fuEuoxZd ;kruk] vR;kpkj] Hkz"Vkpkj] dqjhfr vkfn leLr foMacukd ysy egsUnzd
vdky Ny] tdj iz;ksx d* d, xqatu] eSfFkyh ukVd&ys[kud uo fn'kk iz'kLr dFkk] mPp oxZ rFkkdfFkr dsa nks"kh ekuSr vfN vk fuEu oxZ loZFkk funksZ"k
d,yfuA lkekU;r;k uqDdM+ ukVd fofok lkekftd leL;k dsa ,d lax mBcSd jgSr vfNA ts fgudj dFkk&rod yksdfiz;rk Hkufg c<+k nbu] eqnk U;k;fiz;rk
iz;kl djSr vfNA fgudj ukVd ^cqfkcfk;k* rkfg n`f"Vdks.ksa lQy ukVd ufg dgy tsrfuA
vfNA ukVdd dFkk] lkekftd ifjos'k es jktuhfrd foMacukd vkfo"dkj la ijorhZ ih<+h es ukVddkjd ts ,dVk lewg cuy] rdj ewy Js; fofok
mBkvksy xsy vfNA ukVdd dFkkoLrq lektd fofok fo?kVu] lacak fofr {ks=kd jax'kkyk dsa nsy tk,rA ,fg dky es vkfc d, ukVdd ys[ku&izdk'ku
vkfn dsa n'kZ,ckd fufeks Vk ufg vfirq ns'kd jktuhfrd Lrj] jktuhfrKd vk eapu ;Fks"V :isa gksv, ykxy vfNA fofHkUu Js"B dFkkdkjd] miU;kldkjd
vkRedsafnzr n`f"Vdks.k] vksdj Nn~e] turkd izfr vksdj fujis{krk] {kh.k LokFkZd dFkk ,oa miU;kld ukV~; :ikarj.k gksv, ykxyA drksd :ikarj.k es dFkkd
yksyqirk es lkekU; ukxfjdd pepb izo`fk] ns'kd vFkZuhfr] varjkZ"Vh; uhfr] izk.k ro jfg ldy] drksd es ifjofrZr Hk*xsy] drksd es L[kfyr Hk* xsyA
fo'o Lrjd oSKkfudrkd nqo`Zfk vkfn dsa ,df=kr d* d, ik=k&lHkd laokn ,gsu des :ikarj.k Hk* ikvksy] tkfg es dFkkdkj vk :ikarjdkj nquw viu&viu
x<+us NfFkA foiqy ?kVuked lewg es dsvks NksVks lu xi dfg ldck es vleFkZ ekSfydrkd lax gksfFkA ,Egj vkfcd, :ikarj.k vFkok ekSfyd ukVd ys[ku
Hk* tkbr vfNA t[ku fd xqatu] NksV&lu ?kVuk&e es fo'o&ns'k&jkT;&xke&O;fDr es layXu ukVddkj es ize[q k NfFk foHkwfr vkuUn] vjfoUn vDdw] yYyu izlkn
lHkd ckr [kq'kQSy la d* usus NfFkA dFkk&rod vHkko jfgrgqa] jktuhfrd Bkdqj izHk`fkA foHkwfr vkuUnd ukVd ^le; ladsr* f'kf{kr ;qodd csjkstxkj
fparuijd laHkk"k.k jfgrgqa] ukVd drgq cksf>y ufg Hksy vfN] ls xqatud thou ij vkkkfjr ukVd fFkd] tdj dFkk vksfg ;qodd laiw.kZ ifjokjd ifjos'k
vuqHkwfrd ifjiDork vk f'kYid ekSfydrkd |ksrd fFkdA ts dFkk ufg fFkd] es x<+y xsy vfNA foHkwfr viu ukVdd dFkkRedrk dsa laiw.kZ euks;ksx la
eSfFkyh ukVd % iz;ksx vk izo`fk @ 79 80 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
foLrkj nsus NfFkA csjkstxkj thou dsa HkksxSr la?k"kZjr vksfg ;qodd kS;Z vk vksdj ,dj dFkkoLrq Js"B izHkkoksRikndrk n* ldSr NyA ^cdysy* ukVd es vfo'oluh;rk
fu;fr rFkk laiw.kZ ifjokjd vis{kkd ekSfyd <kapk ij dFkk&ro dsa mRd"kZ nsck vis{kkr cslh Bke ctjSr vfNA eqnk] nquw ukVdd dFkkro vuVPM leL;kd
ysy izklkafxd :isa vU; ikfjokfjd lanHkZd fp=k lsgks lgt vk fo'oluh; <ax vkfM+ ij cquy xsy vfN] tdjk yYyu pyrkm 'kh"kZd n* d, >q>qvku d*
la tksfM+ ldykg vfNA csjkstxkjhd leL;k ij vjfoan vDdwd ukVd ^,uk nsyfu vfNA lkr o"kZd cdysy ckyd xf.kr ij jkekuqte tdka rdZ ufg
drs fnu* lsgks vfNA ,djks dFkk ,dVk csjkstxkj ;qodd leL;k la tueSr d* ldSr vfNA Hk;kud :isa Vh-ch- xzLr yksd bVk ufg f?k ldSr vfNA
vfNA eqnk NksV lu ukVd es rrsd jkl midFkk vDdw Hkfj nsus NfFk] ts dqy feyk d* bZ ra Li"V gksbr vfN] ts vktqd ukVddkj dsa fo"k;d
ewy izHkko ean Hk* tkbr vfN vk vkus izcyA foLrkj [kwc ns[ky Nfu] eqnk vxqrkb es vks vksdj dFkkro dsa lk;kl vfo'oluh;
csjkstxkjhd leL;k ij fy[ky ^HkQkbr pkgd ftuxh*] ^le; ladsr* cuk nSr NfFk] tkfg la cpckd vis{kk vfNA
vk ^,uk drs fnu* rhu Vk ukV~; f'kYi vk dFkkRed ekSfydrkd dkj.ksa rhu
fn'kk fn'k y* tkbr vfNA 'ks[kjd csjkstxkj vkRejr Hk* d, la?k"kZ djSr Nfu]
foHkwfr d csjkstxkj viu rkRdkfyd ms'; dsa NksfM+ O;oLFkk ifjokZud dkeuk
j[kSr vfN] t[ku fd vDdwd csjkstxkj [kkSa>kg Hk* d, Hkxorhd QksVks QksM+,
yxSr NfuA ukVd es ik=kd bZ vfHkf;k] bZ euksn'kk ukVddkjd oS;fDrd
fparu'khyrkd |ksrd gksbr vfNA vDdw ,dVk fufo"V Lora=krk lsukuhd
bZekunkjh vk ifo=krkd ppkZ djSr tkfg midFkk lHkd lekos'k d,us NfFk]
rkfg es vfo'oluh;rkd iqV rkdy tk ldSr vfNA vksuk dFkkrod vku&vku
lg;ksxh ?kVdd la;kstu es vks vkSlr :isa lQy Hksykg vfNA ^vUgkj taxy*
xzkeh.k ik[kaM] :f<+xzLrrk] nkuoh;rk] nq"Vrk] cSekuh] "kM~;a=k] yksHk vkfnd vkJ;
la fy[ky xsy ukVd vfNA t[ku fd ^vkfx kkfd jgy NS*] ,dVk ikxy[kkukd
n`'; es mifLFkr crkg lHkd i`"BHkwfe ij pksV djSr vfNA ukVdd yksdfiz;rk
vk ukVdd fo'oluh;rk gejk cq>us nquw nw Lrjd ckr fFkdA dksuks ukVdd
dFkkro lektd lHk fn'kk la bZ vuSr NfFk] eqnk rdj izLrqrhdj.k es t[ku
vfo'oluh;rk y* vcSr NfFk] ra eksu f[kUu gSc LokHkkfodA oLrqr% ukVd
dsa fofok vk;ke b,g Vk eSfFkyh ls n* ldykg vfNA eqnk dFkk es vfo'oluh;rk
la cpckd vis{kk fgudk la d,y tkbr vfNA ^ikrd euqD[k*d :ikarj.k
es lsgks bZ vksgh =kqfVd ysy nks"kh NfFkA
yYyu izlkn Bkdqjd ukVd ^ykSafx;k fejpkb* vk ^cdysy* nw Vk egoiw.kZ
lkekftd foMacuk dsa dsanz es jkf[k d, fy[ky xsy vfNA le`) ifjokjd csVhd
fookg t[ku dksuks bZekunkj] deZfu"B vk f'k"V ifjokj es Hk* tkbr vfN] r[kuqd
nqrjQk leL;k ij ^ykSafx;k fejpkb* vk mPp f'k{kk izkIr iq=kd }kjk cki&Hkkbd
cfg"dkj vkfnd ?kVuk la lac) ^cdysy* ukVd iz'kaflr Hk* ldSr vfN] yksdfiz;
Hk* ldSr vfN] eqnk fo'oluh; ufgA ,dj midFkk lHk es vfo'oluh;rk
Hkfj d, ,fg ukVdd izHkkoksRikndrk dsa ckfkr d,y xsy vfNA ^ykSafx;k
fejpkb* es fdNq ?kVuked vlgt vk vle; la;kstu la cpy tbr, ra
eSfFkyh xty % Lo:i vk laHkkouk @ 81 82 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
^L;kgh* dkjh jax la ta ge yky vk gfj;j nquw jaxd jks'kukbd cksk izkIr
d* ySr Nh] r[ku fcuk izsfedkd vyd&diksy&dfV o.kZud ,fg lkfgfR;d
fokk dsa ge xty fd,sd ufg dgc \ nkslj ckr bZ] ts vkb kfjd leLr
y{k.k xzaFkd jpuk y{;&xzaFkd jpukd i'pkrs Hksy vfNA r; ckr vfN] ts
vksfg le;d jpuk&fokkud vkkkj ij xtyksd vuq'kklukoyh cukvksy xsy
gSrA Li"V bZgks vfN] ts izkjaHk es fo'kq) :i la bZ mnwZ Qkjlh ek=kd fokk izHksn
Ny vk vksuk ra gscfu kfj] eqnk izkjafHkd dky es vkvksjks cslh] bZ laiznk; ,s;k'kh]
lqjkiku] lqanjhd lkfUu; vkfnd cslh cqHkq{kq jgSr NyA vksuk ta eksVk&eksVh
eSfFkyh xty % Lo:i vk laHkkouk dgh] ra Js;"dj gSr] ts vksfg le;d laiw.kZ lekts ,fg fn'k cslh vk"V
Ny] vk rsa vku lkfgfR;d fokkd lax&lax ,gw fokk&izHksn es kaxkfjd&fp=k.k
gksbr jgyA le; chry] lekt cnyy] ifjos'k cnyy] laLfrd ,dVk tksjxj
eSfFkyh xtyd okZeku fLFkfr vk laHkkouk ij fopkj djSr] xtyd i`"BHkwfe ifjorZu vk,yA iSny py* oyk vkneh gokb&tgkt la py, ykxy] panzek
ij foLr`r ppkZ djc vko';dks ufg] vk ls gej vHkh"Vks ufgA r[ku] ,d dsa nsork dgfugkj yksdd iq=k&ikS=k panzek ij la Hkze.k d* vk,y vk bZ ifjorZu
csj vksEgj gqyfd ysc] ;qfDrlaxrs cq>kbNA lekt dsa cgqr jkl ojnkud laxs vkvksjks cslh vfHk'kki n* xsyA bZ n* xsy]
ewy :i la] gscfu kfj] xty mnwZ&Qkjlhd jpukRed fokk ekuy tkbr 'kks"k.k] csjkstxkjh] dqaBk] vkReneu] leL;k] Hkw[k] vlqj{kk] lkaiznkf;d naxk]
NyA fgUnh es nq";Ur dqekj dsa gejk cq>us xtyd firk dgy t,ckd pkfgvfuA iztkrkaf=kd ljdkj] tkrh; naxk] viuRod foxyu vkfn&vkfnA vkc ,r,
mnwZ&Qkjlh es ra ,rsd vfkdkj iwoZd dksuks ,d O;fDr dsa Js; n* nsc dfBu fopkj.kh; vfN] ts izR;sd xtydkj vgh ekfV ikfu es tuey&c<+y&iksly
vfNA dky fukkZj.k ij lsgks ta n`f"Vikr d,y tk,] ra mnwZ&Qkjlh es xtyd jgSr NfFkA gqudk utfjd lks>ka es b,g leLr vfHk'kki flusekd jhy tdka
iz'kfLr 'krkfkd o"kZ la vfN] fgUnh es ,dj izknqHkkZo okZeku 'krkCnhd ikape&NBe ?kqeSr jgSr vfN] r[ku gqudk dksuks lqfurafcuhd dVk{k dksuk uhd ykxvks \
n'kd es ekuy tk,r] eqnk] eSfFkyh xtyd izkjaHk thou >kd jpuk es okZeku Hkw[kd kkg la tjSr isVd peM+h dsa] izsfedkd vkapj drsd 'khryrk nsr \ rsa
'krkCnhd ifgy vk nkslj n'kd es Hk* xsy NyA Li"V vfN] ts eSfFkyh xty xtyd eryk
fgUnhd vis{kk o`) fdarq mnwZd vis{kk f'k'kq vfNA rFkkfi] mnwZ ra nwj] fgUnhvksd tgj dsj ?kksaV Hkfj ltuh ta ihch vgkad gkFksa ge
xty tdka {kh.k Lokxrd fijgh ,djk ufg HksfV ivksySd vfNA vksuk bZgks ckr ra lks thfc ysc ftuxh vej Hk* vgkad gkFksa ge
;ku jk[k*d fFkd] ts fgUnh xty dsa lsgks ,[ku kfj eapsd pht cw>y tk ufg jkf[k d, bZ yksdfu j[kSr NfFk
jgy vfN vk rgw es] tkfg xhr es dusd izseijd O;Fkk] ukf;dkd lkSan;Zd gej fo"kiku la tqfu gksm izeqfnr] ge us ,lxj Nh
efnjk] vkaf[kd cafde du[kh vkfnd ppkZ gks] rdjfg Vk xtyd laKk nsy vgka dsj 'kku <kgr e`R;q gejs] ge us ,lxj Nh
tk jgy vfNA vk] eSfFkyh es ra lgtfgaA ,fg lkfgR; es ra lHk la iS?k foMacuk xty dsa ek=k izsfedkd vkapjd vFkZ n* d, ,djk izse&fojgd vfHkO;fDrd
bZ vfN] ts v'kD; igyeku tdka v[kkM+k dsa udkfj nsckd izo`fk vksfg leLr ek;e dgfugkj fo}ku yksdfu ,djk laxsa ,dVk vkvksjks vU;k; d,yfuA
O;fDr es lek xsy Nfu] ts ,dj Js; ysck la pwfd xsykgA pwafd ,dj Js; vk ls bZ] ts ,dj ^QkeZ* d lax&lax ,dj o.;Z&fo"k;d lsgks fukkZj.k d* nsyfu
gqudk ufg HksfV ldyfu] rsa vks dgSr NfFk] ts bZ fdNq fFkfdgs ufgA bZ ckr fHkUu] ts bZ fukkZj.k y{k.k xzaFkd i`"B ij mfYyf[kr ufg Hk* d,] fdNq
tr, kfj ^xty*d vFkZ ^izsfedkd vkapj* vk eSfFkyhd xty&jpuk es vkykspdd ekFks es mfYyf[kr vfNA eqnk ,r, fopkj.kh; fcanq bZ vfN] ts
rdj fp=k.kd vHkkod ckr mBSr vfN] rkfg izlax nw Vk ckr ;krO; fFkdA ta dFkk] dfork] miU;kl] ukVd vkfn leLr fokkd o.;Z&fo"k;] lektd cnySr
ifgy] ts Hkk"kk foKkud vFkZ&ladksp vk vFkZ&foLrkj izf;k la vk lkekftd ifjos'k&ifjfLFkfrd laxsa cnfy xsy] r[ku cnySr Hkk"kk&laLfr vk ifjos'kd
ekU;rkd fglkc la dksugq 'kCn dsa vk'kkrhr vFkZ HksfV tkbr vfNA ,dVk 'kCn laxsa xtyd o.;Z&fo"k; fd,d ufg cnyvksA nkslj ckr bZgks] ts vU;kU; leLr
eSfFkyh xty % Lo:i vk laHkkouk @ 83 84 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
Hkk"kkd xty ,dj lk{kh vfN] ts izes d vfrfjDr] ns'kHkfDr] tu&n'kk vkfn lHk eq>s dsoy mldh lkspksa ij djuh gS] yxkoksa ij djuh gS vkSj dkjxqtkfj;ksa ij
fcanq dsa ,fg es lekfgr d,y xsy vfNA cgknqj'kkg ^tQ j*d xty dsj ,dVk djuh gSA ;kuh] xtyksa dks vHkh Hkh] fcdk&vankt+ es 'kks"kdksa dh foykflrk
'ksj vfN ds fy, eqtjk xkuk pkfg,A cpdkus vkSj Hkkoqd izse&izlaxksa esa izse&i=k dk dksVs'ku
fgfUn;ksa esa cw jgsxh tc ryd bZeku dh cuuk pkfg,A QS'kuijLr] yaiV&O;fHkpkjksa esa f'kykthr dh xksyh cuuh pkfg,A
r[rs&yanu ij pysxh rsx+ fgUnqLrku dh Hkksys&Hkkys fujhg dks dScjs&gko&Hkko vkSj okXeSFkqu }kjk chekj cukuk pkfg,A
vksuk] ,dj vFkZ bZ ufg] ts vkc ^izse*] xty vFkok vkuks lkfgfR;d ;k turk ds chp vkdj lkekU; thou O;rhr djuk pkfg,A---;g ,d cgl
fokk&mifokkd pht ufg jfg xsy vfNA tsa fd thous izsed izrhd fFkd] izseks] dk eqk gS---*
lkfgR;d o.;Z&fo"k; Ny] vfN] vk jgrA eqnk] laxfg bZgks dgc vko';d] eqnk] ujsUnz ra ,dVk iz'us Vk Bk<+ d,yfu vfN] ge ,fg cgl es viu
ts tuthoud ,d&,d fcanq lsgks] xtyd o.;Z&fo"k; gSrA ,r, ge] fl;kjke Hkkxhnkjh la bZ dgc] ts fuf'pr :i la xty dsa turkd chp vkfc d, lkekU;
>k ^ljl* la iw.kZr% lger Nh] ^vktqd rhr&ehB lkfgfR;d vuqHkwfrd lQy thou O;rhr djckd pkghA ,fg thou izf;k es ,djk izsfedkd Hkzw&foykld
vfHkO;fDr gsrq ,d l'kDr ek;ed :i es xtyks fd,d us \* izlkku x`g es lsgks tk, iM+rSd] [ksrd vkfM+ ij lsgks tk, iM+rSd] laiw.kZ lektd
gej ,dVk kkj.kk vfN] ts dksugq lkfgfR;d fr dsa ekU;rk HksVSr NSd Ny&Nn~e] vkpkj&fopkj] uhfr&vuhfr lHk ns[k, iM+rSd vk ,fg lHk {ks=kd
vkykspuk lkfgR; laA izek.k&Lo:i vusd mnkgj.k rkdy tk ldSr vfNA izfrfufkRo dj, iM+rSdA ,gsu izfrfufkRo fofok dky&[kaM es fofok Hkk"kkd]
xtyd lax ,dVk bZgks nqHkkZX; vcSr jgy vfNA orZeku 'krkCnhd ifgy n'kd fofok jukdkjd xty djSr jgy vfNA xkfyc] QSt] eksfeu] bU'kk] tqjvr]
la eSfFkyh es xty fy[kkvksy tkbr jgy vfN] eqnk ,dj lekykspuk ij dfgvks] tQj] nq";Ur dqekj] ujsUnz] egkizdk'k] egsUnz] dykuUn Hk] ljl] foHkwfr vkuUn]
dksuks fo}kud ys[kuh ufg mByfuA QyLo:i lkr n'kd kfj ,djk viu khjt] uohu] fo;ksxh] jes'k izHk`fr yksdfud jpuk ,dj lk{kh vfNA
laKk ufg HksfV ldyS vk lgkuqHkwfrd vkluh Vk icSr jgyA vkBe n'kd es eSfFkyh es] thou >kd i'pkr~ xtydkj yksdfud uked lwph rS;kj dj*
vkfc d, ,fg ij ifgy csj dye mBkSyfu rkjkuUn fo;ksxhA ^fefFkyk&fefgj* es ifgy uke vvksrfu vkjlh izlkn flagdA xty fy[ksSr jgykg] eqnk vyx
es ,fg ij ;Fks"V izfrf;k O;Dr d,y xsyA ikNka ,dkk Vk vkvksjks fucak la ,fg izdkjd jpukd ysy dksuks Vk ppZ ufg d,y xsyA vkvksj yksdfu
vk,yA eqnk rkfg es bZ ns[ky xsy] ts vks yksdfu xtyd izfr vkxzgh NfFk] es la johUnzukFk Bkdqj] ekdZ.Ms; izoklh] cqf)ukFk feJ] egkizdk'k] dsnkjukFk
fdarq O;fDrijd }s"k gqudk tdM+us Nfu] rsa ,fg Qsj es viu fucak es xty ykHk] egsUnz] dykuUn Hk] rkjkuUn fo;ksxh] foHkwfr vkuUn] jke Hkjksl dkifM+
ij ppZ djck la cslh 'kCn O;fDr, ysy [kpZ d,yfuA iqu% jkenso >kd ^Hkzej*] ujsUnz] khjt] ckck oS|ukFk >k] jes'k] nso'kadj uohu izHk`fr izeq[k NfFkA
vkys[k vk,yA ,fg fucak es nw Vk vuxZy ckr bZ Hksy ts xtyd iafDr ysy] ,dj vfrfjDr fdNq ,guks uke vfN] ts iwoZd vkykspukRed fucakdkjd mfDr
Nan tdka ek=kk fukkZfjr dj, yxykg vk fdNq ,gsu O;fDrd uke eSfFkyh dsa lR; djck ysy ,dkk Vk xty lk;kl fyf[k nsyfuA ,fg lwph es fdNq
xtydkjd lwph es tksfM+ nsyfu] ts dfgvks dksuks xty ufg fy[kyfuA ek=kk ,gsuks uke vfN] ftudj xty fo'kq) :i la izsfedkd fufc&cak fugkfj jgy
fukkZj.k izk;% jkenso dksuks [kkl jpukdkjd [kkl xtyd ek=kk xfu d, d,us vfN] fdNq ,guks] ftudj xty tsBd jkSn es gjckgd laxsa [ksrd jsg es nkSfM+
gsrkgA eqnk gejk cq>us xtyd ysy ek=kkd dksuks caku ufg vfNA ,djk ysy jgy vfN] vksdj Hkw[k&I;kl vk Fkdkud vuqeku d* jgy vfN] csdkjh&Hkq[kejhd
vko';d 'krZ jnhQ] dkfQ;k] eryk vk 'ksjd vfrfjDr vkvksj fdNq ufg vfNA pku r*j nkcy yksd dsa fudky*d iz;kl d* jgy vfN( vk fdNq ,guks]
,dj vfrfjDr] eSfFkyh xty ij vkvksj drgq ta fdNq ppZ Hksy vfN] ra ls ftudj jpuk ,fg leLr {ks=k es nkSM+&cjgk d* jgy vfNA ts fdNq gks] eqnk
fFkd ,Egj izdkf'kr ,d&nwVk xty&laxgz d Hkwfedk vFkok if=kdk es xty&loDrO; xty fy[kk jgy vfNA vksuk ,fg es la fdNq xksV, ,guks NfFk] ts xty
Nkickd iz;ksxA fy[kck dky nw Vk vlkokkuh jk[kc jpuk&deZ tdka vfuok;Z cwf> ySr NfFkA
vksuk fgUnh&eSfFkyhd lQy xtydkj ujsUnzd vuqlkj ^xtyksa ds eqag&dku] ifgy] ts viu Hkk"kkd 'kCn&lkS"Bo dsa fclfj tkbr NfFk vk tkfg vfHkO;fDr
ukd&uD'k] dn&dkBh] pky&<ky ;k cksyh&opu ij eq>s dksbZ cgl ugha djuh ysy eSfFkyh es i;kZIr 'kCnkoyh vfN] rdjgq ysy vU; Hkk"kkd 'kCn&iz;ksx es
gS fd og cqdkZ Mkyrh gS ;k kksrh] guqeku pkfylk i<+rh gS ;k dyekA---cgl ikNw ufg gVSr NfFkA egsUnz vk foHkwfr vkuUn] rdj viokn fFkdkgA nkslj
eSfFkyh xty % Lo:i vk laHkkouk @ 85 86 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
eqnk okrkuosd Hkfo";ksfDr vk MkW- bfypd Mj vkc Hkkjr es lkdkj gksv,
ykxy vfNA ik'pkR; laLfrd v'yhyrk] maMrk vk Hkz"Vrk la nXk fpard
yksdfu ,d fnl Hkkjrd ifo=k laLfr es vkfc d* 'khryrk izkIr dj* pkgSr
NfFk ra nkslj fnl viu ifo=krk] 'khryrk dsa ghurkd fu'kkuh cwf> Hkkjrh;
,djk R;kfx vksfg m".krk es rsth la izos'k d* jgy vfNA
ukjhd uXu 'kjhj ns[kckd #Xu ekufldrk ,rqDdk iq#"k es rsth la lek
jgy vfNA Cyw fQYed cktkj ,r* xesZ Vk ufg] vfirq [kkSfy jgy vfNA
kud cysa fukZu tukuhd bTtfr] nsg] ;kSou dhuc( ckV pySr fHk[keaxuh]
uXurk]udy]izxfr'khyrk fujhg bR;kfn dsa kud izyksHku n* dsa vksdj nsgd ek=k Hkksxs Vk ufg] vfirq
dqHkksx djc] ,rqDdk iq#"kd gol Hksy py tk jgy vfNA u'kk lsou d*
d, ukjhd Hkksx es ik'kfod vR;kpkj djckd izo`fk rhoz xfr,a cf<+ jgy vfNA
uoacj 1981d izFke lIrkg es Vksfd;ks es ,f'k;k] vfdk vk vesfjdkd bZ lHkVk ik'pkR; laLfrd udy es fQjhlku] crkg ekufldrk fFkdA
varjkZ"Vh; ys[kd lEesyu Hksy NyA Hkkjrd izfrfufkRo izfl) dFkkdkj ukjhd vfLrRo dsa izkkurk nsfugkj] ifo=k laLfrd kuh] lH;rk es fo'od
dk'khukFk flag d* jgy NykgA tkikuhd izfl) ys[kd rFkk vkykspd ,oa Hkkjrd vku dksugqa ns'k dsa fkDdkj nsfugkj] ,fg Hkkjr es iq#"k oxZ }kjk ukjhd ,gsu
vuU; izseh] rkfr;ks okrkuos] dk'khukFk flag dsa dgyfFku ts vks gqudk vks jh izLrqrhdj.k Hk* jgy vfN] iq#"k vksfg ukjh lektd vfLrRo dsa fclfj
pht ns[ksck gsrq y* tk jgy NfFk ts Hkkjr es nqyZHk vfNA mRlqdrko'k dk'khukFk jgy vfN tdjk isV es vks dhVk.kq la tho cuy] viu lae.kdkyd ukS
flag xsykgA eqnk ,gsu nqyZHk pht ns[ksck ysy gqudk ,dVk flusek ?kj es vkuy ekl fcrkSyd] tdjk Lru dsa pwfl d* vkb ,gsu cfy"B Hk* xsy] ts vksdjfg
xsyfu] tr; fcuk dgkuh] laokn vk vfHku;d n`'; ijnk ij HksVSr jgyfuA ij vR;kpkj d* jgy vfNA bZ lHk vkj fdNq ufg] ek=k ,rck dgSr vfN]
Hkfj gkWy n'kZdA ijnk ij ukaxV tukuhd nsgA iq#"kd vksfg ij ik'kfod vR;kpkjA ts ,rqDdk uLy es iq#"kd chekj ekufldrk vkfc xsy vfNA
ewM+hd cysa muVk d, yVdy ukaxV tukuhd laosnu'khy vax] vk xqIrkax ij eqnk ,fg lHk Vk dqizo`fr dsa laj{k.k HksfV jgy NS] O;oLFkk vk cktkj }kjk
ekseckh cjdk d* Bksis&Bksis [kl,ck es vkuafnr gksbr ifjokjA--- rS;kj d;y ,dVk fo'ks"k ukjh oxZ }kjkA tdjk ikNka funksZ"k ukjhd lsgks iS?k
bZ ?k`f.kr n`'; lc nsf[k dk'khukFk flagd eksu fryfeyk;y tkbr jgfuA lewg vfNA bZ ukjh lekt Lo;a viu vfLerkd izfr tckonsg ufg vfNA
eqnk rkfg ij ?kh<kj djSr] rkfr;ks okrkuos iwfN nsydfu ts ta Hkkjrks es ,fguk vks vksgsu lH;rkd udy es cspSu vfN] tdjk la mfc;k d* MkW- bfyp Hkkjrd
flusek vFkok nksdku lc es dkWQh fivcSr ukaxV] f'kf{kr NkSaM+h] lc ij utfj laHkkfor nqnZ'kkd ckr lkspus jgfFkA Hkkjrd ukStokud bZ vkd"kZd psgjk] eLr
iM+, ykx,] ra dsgsu lkspcS \ 'kjhj] dkafr] rstfLork] pkfjf=kd ifo=krk lc Vkd ikNka jgL; vfN vksdj ^ekbd
dk'khukFk th fpdjSr] MiVSr ek=k nw pkfj 'kCn ckft ldy Nykg gejk nwkd*A iatkc f"k fo'ofo|ky; }kjk d;y xsy v;;ud vuqlkj izR;sd
ns'kd ifo=k laLfr ,fg v'yhyrk dsa cnkZ'r ufg d* ldSr vfN ! ekbd nwk es O;kid :i la dhVuk'kd vkS"kfk jgSr NS] tdjk ihfc d* gejk
;wjksid dgkuh lqucSr okrkuos iqu% dgyf[ku ts vkkqfudhdj.kd ifj.kfr ns'kd cPpk LoLFk vk cfy"B gksbr Ny ! eqnk vkc ,r* ekbd nwk ihckd
;Sg lHk fN;SA rsa Hkkjr dsa vksrfg jg* fnvkS tr* vks NS] vU;Fkk bZ lHk ns[kck lkSHkkX; ipgkfj izfr'kr cPpk dsa HksVSr NSd dgka \ ,fg lacak es yksd es Hkzked
ysy vkaf[k vk eu%fLFkfr dsa ,MtLV d* fyv*A r[ku gqudk cukjld guqeku kkj.kk bZ jgSr NS] ts lc 'kgjh ek; viu ;kSukd"kZ.k dsa dk;e jk[k*d ysy
?kkV ij Mk- bZoku bfypd mfDr eksu iM+yfu ek=k Hkkjr ! ta ,[kugqa lalkj cPpk dsa nwk ufg ihc* nsckd ,dVk QS'ku cuk ysus vfNA eqnk ckr bZ NS]
dsa dksuks ns'k cpk ldSr vfN] ra vks fFkd HkkjrA ns[kckd vfN ts vkkqfudrk ts lkekU; fLFkfr es ta ekbd Lru es nwk jgrS ra vksdjk fcuk cPpk dsa fivvksus
,fg ij dsgsu jax p<+cSr NSA viu ,fg Hkwfedk dsa fclfj ta bZgks vksfg ns'kd ufg jgy tk ldSr NSA ,dj eq[; dkj.k NS] vksdj ykpkjhA izkjaHk es es L=khd
udy dsukb 'kq#g d* nsyd ra Mj gksbr vfNA Msl ,rsd ygd&pgd oyk ufg NyA ^czsfl;j*d izpyu ,rsd ufg NySA
uXurk] udy] izxfr'khyrk @ 87 88 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
fdvks ufg ifgjSr NyA lksfo;r la?kd oSKkfudd fu.kZ;d vuqlkj gjsd izcq) fudV Hkfo"; es ,fg Qwty cktkj es] ukjhd ,fg vkksxfr dsa jksdc vlaHko
ek, dsa ,gsu psrkouh nsy xsy NS] ts vks viu csVh dsa izkjafHkd o;l es czsfl;j ykfx jgy vfNA
ufg ifgj* nSdA djhc lrjg o"kZd o;l kfj csVhd Lru fodkleku jgSr ,Egj vkfc d* Hkkjrd cqf)thoh yksdfu ^ukjhokn*d >aMk mBkSyfu vfNA
vfNA eqnk izk;% 12&13 o"kZd mezfg la [kwc f'kdLr ifgjckd ifjikVh ns[ky fleksu n cqvk d iksFkh ^n lsdsaM lsDl* if<+ d* vk if'ped ^czk cfux* tqywld
tkbr vfNA izkjafHkd voLFkk es c<+Sr Lru dsa czsfl;j la nkfc dsa ,uk tcjnLrh lekpkj la izsj.kk y* d* ukjhoknd ukjk cqyan djc izkjaHk d;yfu vfNA ,rs
jk[kc vksgus vfN] tsuk dksuks vadqjSr ch;k dsaA ,gh dkj.k la ,dj :i fcxfM+ kfj ts lkfgR;ks l`tu es ukjhoknh lkfgR;d vkj{k.k izkjaHk d;yfu vfNA fgUnh
tkbr NSA yxHkx vkB l; Lru&iku djkc* okyh efgykd losZ{k.k la bZ Kkr es bZ Loj dusd csfl, QS'ku la vk;y vfNA cfYd] fgUnhd ts lkfgR;dkj
HksyS ts] ts efgyk lc cPpk dsa nwk fi;kc* es l{ke ufg vfN] vksfg es la vis{kkr iS?k L=khHk{kh NfFk] ls bZ Loj cslh tksj la ctSr NfFk vk fy[kSr NfFkA
NCchl izfr'kr ckjg&rsjg c[kZd mez es czsfl;j ifgjc 'kq#g d* nsus NyA gejk bZ dgck es ladksp uba gksbr vfN ts ^n lsdsaM lsDl* iksFkh la cgqrks
flUFksfVd] iSM oyk rFkk jaxhu czsfl;jd lacak es] ,d vesfjdu ikap l; ^o{k fnu iwoZ egknsoh oekZd iksFkh ^k`a[kyk dh dfM+;ka* yxHkx vksgh eqk ij izdkf'kr
dSalj* jksx la xzflr efgykd tkap d* d* fu.kZ; nsyfu&ts ,fg lHkd O;ogkj Ny] r[ku bZ ppkZ uba gksbr NyA dkj.k r; vfN] ts Hkkjrd cqf)thoh dsa
la o{kd rkieku cf<+ tkbr vfN] tkfg la dSaljd Mj jgSr vfNA eqnk udyd Liwu QhfMaxd vH;kl NSd] FkksM+sd l*[k lsgksA if'peh ns'k la vk;y izkkuea=kh
ikNka crkg cuy bZ QS'kuijLr ukjh lekt bZ lHk [kwc djSr vfNA jktiFk fnYyh lu lM+d ifn~euh ukf;dkd tka?k lu fpDdu&pded ij
O;kikjd fn'kk es lsgks efgyk yksdfu viu vfLrRo esVsck es ikNka ufg dkj la tkbr dky dfg nsydS ts Hkkjr es xanxh cM~M vfN] ra fnYyhd lQkb
NfFkA fdNq xksVk vax izn'kZud O;kikj djSr vfN] ra fdNq vax xeudA fdNq gksv; ykxyA ta vks izkkuea=kh dksuks >qXxh dkWyksuh vFkok Hkkjrd dksuks xked
xksVk l*[k la djSr vfN ra fdNq ykpkjh ns[kcSrA eqnk] pkgs ukjhd l*[k gks vUughu&f;kghu Vksy \ ij tbrfFk ra dh dfgrfFk \
vFkok ykpkjh] bZ lHk ukjhd viuk izfr vU;k; fN;fuA bZ dksu l*[k ts bZ Hkkjrd jktuhfrK la fefl;ks Hkfj de ,rqDdk dfFkr lkfgR;dkj vk
iznf'kZr dj, ts ukjh] iq#"kd HkksX; oLrqd vykos vkj fdNq ufg fFkd \ vks cqf)thoh uba NfFk] ftudj vkpkj lafgrk es ,gsu fnXHkzfer ukjh lHk dsa lesfV
dksu ykpkjh tdjk ukjh ilhuk csfp ds* ufg esVk ldSr vfN] vksdjk [kkyh d* ckV ij vuckd ckr fy[ky gksA izxfrd vb mUeqDr ckV ij bZ cqf)thoh
nsgs csfp d* esVk ldSr vfN \ yksdfu gejk ns'kd ukjh dsa vfLrRockskd ikB ra ufg i<+k ldykg] ukjhd
foKkiud cktkj es ukjh mPp jkf'k izkIr d* d* viu uXu&v)ZuXu ckSf)d vk ekufld fodkl ra ufg d* ldykg] vksdjk yM+ckd voxfr fl[kk
'kjhj ns[kcSr vfNA vk bZ QksVks tukuk la enkZuk dksuks oLrq gks] vksfg ij lVSr d* rkyhe d* ysyfu] v)ZuXu Hk* d* ekWMfyax djckd fuyZTtrk fl[kk
vfNA nfer bPNk 'kfDr oyk miHkksDrkd chekj ekufldrk izsfjr Hk* d* dhuSr ysyfuA vFkkZr~] ikfjokfjd Lusg la VwVy jgr efgyk] ra ifjokj la ?k`.kk jk[kr(
vfNA ,fg la vks ekWMfyax dj* okyh] O;oLFkk] cktkj vkfd vks ukjh bZ d[kugqa uXurkd izfr #fp'khy jgr efgyk] ra vksfg L=khHk{kh dsa csl lqvolj HksVSr
ufg lkspSr vfN ts] ,uk dsyk la lekt es gej egRo ?kVSr vfNA yksd bZ jgrfu( :i] jkf'k] izfr"Bk vFkkZr~ L=kh] ku vk iz'kfLr la ?ksjk;y iq#"k viuk
cqf> ySr vfN ts ukjh nsg ewjS&HkkaVk tdka fcdk, oyk oLrq fFkdA fyfifLVdd dsa xkSjo'kkyh cq>S,A ".k lu xkSjo'kkyhA lksyg l; xksih la ?ksjk;y] dkSjo
ekWMfyax es L=khd gSc vko';d vfN] eqnk Vdd Vk;jd izpkj es v)ZuXu NkSaM+hd ikaMo dsa yM+cSr] keZ;q) djcSr] nksljd [kkunku dsa u"V djcSr---A vFkkZr~]
Bk<+ gSc \ vb L=kh dsa drgq ckV uba---
vkf[kj ukjh ek=k lqUufj vk lefiZrs Vk fd,d vfN \ bZ fonzksgh vk xq.korh
fd,d ufg vfN \ vkdf"kZr djck ysy ,djk lqanjrkd vykos vkjks cgqr fdNq
NSA y{ehckbZ dsa] ehjkckbZ dsa] bfUnjk xkakh dsa] lqUufj tukuhd :i es ds tuSr
NS \ eksVk&eksVh viuk ns'kd efgyk lekt viu vfLrRod vHksyk viufg d*
jgy vfNA udyd ikNka vius laLfr dsa NksfM+ vku laLfrd udZ es izos'k
d;us py tk jgy vfNA ifo=krk R;kfx v'yhyrk dsa viukSus tk jgy vfNA
uXurk] udy] izxfr'khyrk @ 89 90 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
ewY;kadu
vlkokuh] ts drksd xty es Nan Hkaxd ckgqY; jgSr vfNA ek=kkd lhek xty yksdfu }kjk izxfr'khy ys[kd la?kd LFkkiuk HksyA rkjlIrd izdkf'kr HksyA
es Hkus ufg gks eqnk ek=kk lqfuf'pr e es ra vcLls jgckd pkghA rkfg ed eqnk eSfFkyh es ,fg lHk rjgd fp=k.k gkSap&ikSap <ax la 1958 kfj gksbr jgyA
fuokZg cslh jpukdkj ufg d* icSr NfFkA ,fg nquw vlkokkuhd dkj.ksa jpukd vk r[ku ^Lojxakk* izdkf'kr HksyA eqnk] xty es vkkqfud okrkoj.kd fp=k
vfLerk detksj Hk* tkbr vfNA jpukdkj dsa ,fg la cpckd pkfgvfuA vksuk vkuck es jpukdkjd vuqHkwfr dsa ,rsd lh<+h ikj ufg dj, iM+ySdA ,Ddfg
fdNq uke ,guks xukvksy tk ldSr vfN ts xty fy[kckd ykSy djSr NfFk] csj viu iw.kZ rsojd laxsa vkfc xsyA bZ xtyd fo'ks"k igqap dsj ckr cw>y
cfYd jpukkfeZrs viu,ckd ykSy djSr NfFkA eSfFkyhd laiknd yksdfu fdNq t,ckd pkghA
laiknd rrsd cslh mnkj NfFk] ts fgudk yksdfu dsa euokafNr ekU;rk n* gejk yksdfud orZeku lekt es ewy :i la ,gsu O;fDr de vfN]
pqdy NfFkA vk bZgks dgc vko';d] ts xtydkjd lwph ,rcs la iw.kZ ufg ts vkfFkZd n`f"V,a le`) gksA eqnk] foMacuk bZ fFkd] ts bZ eqh Hkfj yksd] fo'kky
Hk* xsyA ftudj uke ufg xuk ldygqa] frudk la dksuks nq'euh vFkok iwokZxzg tu&leqnk;d 'kks"kd cuy Bk<+ vfNA oLrqr% mRiknu vk forj.k ,gh oxZd
ufg vfNA gkFk es vfNA vikj kujkf'k lsgks vgh oxZd gkFk es vfNA vk rsa keZ] laLfr]
tgka kfj xtyd ekU;rkd iz'u vfN] ge ra ,djk JO;dkO; es i|d lkfgR; vk dkuwud fokku&fuekZrk lsgks b,g yksdfu NfFkA vLrq] bZ yksdfu
,dVk mifokk ekuSr NhA ,dj LFkkiukd vLohfr ysy iwoZ es ,dVk dkj.kd ,fg rjgsa iki vk iq.;d ifjHkk"kk lqfLFkj d,yfu] tkfg la fgudj foiqy kujkf'k
ppZ ra d,y] nksljks dkj.k vfN( vk ls fFkd xty laxzgd vHkkoA izk;% vyx ij fdudgq utfj ufg iM+,A iwathoknd bZ fo'kky ukxjkt Qsu dk<+us vla[;
la xty laxzg d* d, dkykuUn Hkd ^dkUg ij ygkl gej* foHkwfr vkuUn yksd dsa Nkgfj nsckd Hkze n* jgy vfNA ,dVk c*M+d xkN ipkl Vk vked
d ^mBk jgy ?kks?k frfej* ljld ^'kksf.krk,y iSjd fu'kku* rkjkuUn fo;ksxhd xkNd txg Nsfd d, Bk<+ vfNA ,djk Nkgfj es vku dksuks yrk] o`{k ufg
^viu ;q)d lk{;*] jes'kd ^ukxQsuh* vk ,dVk laikfnr xty laxzg ^yksdosn cf<+ ldrA b,g ,fg le;d ;FkkFkZ fFkdA vk xty ,gh ;FkkFkZd fp=k fFkdA
vk ykyfdyk*d vfrfjDr dksuks xty laxzg ufg vfNA ^vokUrj* dfork laxzg ,dj Lo:i vk laHkkouk nquw mTToy vfNA xtydkj dsa mi;qZDr fdNq
es ek;kuUnd fdNq ,fg rjgd jpuk lc Nfu] tdjk vks ^xhry* dgSr NfFkA vlkokkuh la cp, iM+rfu vk lekykspd dsa ,fg ij ys[kuh mBkc* iM+rfuA
;|fi bZ xtys fFkdA ^xhry* ra ek;kuUns 'kq:g d,yfu vk gqudfg kfj vks eqnk lHk la iS?k foMacuk ra bZ fFkd ts] ts yksdfu xtyd vkanksyu pykSyfu]
lhfer jgyA vksgw jpuk lHk dsa ge xtys ekuSr NhA ,rn~fjDr ek=k i=k&if=kdk lSg lHk vkc xty la foeq[k Hk* xsykg vfNA foHkwfr] fo;ksxh] jes'k vkfn lHkd
es izdkf'kr Hk* d, viu vlaxfBr izHkkfUofrd dkj.ksa lEgfj d, {kerk ns[kc* xty ys[ku ,[ku BIi NfuA
es lQy ufg Hk* ldy vfNA vksuk ,r, ,dVk iz'u mBkvksy tk,r] ta ekSfyd
laxzgd vHkko es dFkk vk miU;kl dsa ekU;rk HksfV pqdy Ny] r[ku ,djk
fd,d ufg \
oLrqr% dFkk] miU;kl vk dfork lkfgR;d ekSfyd vko';drk NyA
vko';drk bZgks fFkd] eqnk nk#.k Hkw[k la vkkar O;fDr dsa ,dVk feBkb [kksvk
nh] ra gqudj Hkw[k efj tkbr Nfu vk iqu% cM+h dky kfj Hkfj eulqck la ufg
[kk gksbr NfuA lSg fLFkfr ,gw Bke xty vk y?kqdFkkd lax Hk* jgy vfNA
vksuk ,dj eryc bZ ufg] ts xtyd LFkkiuk&ewyd ckr dsa ?kksadSr&?kksadSr ge
vku fokk lHkd voekuuk d* jgy NhA r[ku ,rck voLls fo'ks"k egod
ckr fFkd] ts eSfFkyh lkfgR; es tu&thoud lax varjaxrk] vku fokkd vis{kk
xtys es 'kh?kz vk ekSfyd :isa vkfc ldyA 1920&35 bZ- fgUnh lkfgR; es
Nk;koknd dky fFkdA vgh varjky es jgL;okn dsa uka?kSr fgUnh dfork 1936&52
bZ- d chp izxfroknd {ks=k es fopj.k dsydA 1936 es okeiaFkh lkfgR;dkj
iqjku vk uo ;qxd lsrq @ 93 94 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
Hkqouth rdj vxznwr HksykgA 1936 es Hkqoud dfork&laxzg ^vk"kk<+* izdkf'kr
Hksy] tdj] Hkwfedk es dfo ijaijk la eqfDrd ?kks"k.kk d,yfu vk uo <axsa dkO;
l`tu es ykfx xsykgA eSfFkyh dfork es Hkko vk f'kYi&nquw Lrj ij bZ uo&uo
iz;ksx dj, yxykgA O;fDrd var%i{k fgudk jpuk es LFkku ikc* ykxyA
eSfFkyh dfork] dhkZu&Hktu] u[k&f'k[k o.kZu] jfr&foykl vk jkt&izokld pkSdfB
la ckgj vkfc xsyA eqnk] n`f"Vdks.ks ,gus pht fFkd] tdjk dkj.ksa ;k=kh iw.kZ
lkgld lax viu jpuk&izf;kd ,dVk fn'kk fukkZfjr d,yfu] 'kCn&;kstuk]
fo"k;&oLrq vk vfHkO;fDr 'kSyh rhuw vFkZ esA lqeu ijaijkd [kqh es ckUgy
iqjku vk uo ;qxd lsrq ^mkjk* vk ^nkorh* fy[kSr&fy[kSr r*js&r*j ^gykjks* fyf[k ysyfuA laLr es
eSfFkyhd dfork fy[kSr jgykgA eSfFkyh dsa nq:g&la&nq:grj cucSr jgykgA
,fg lHk lqvolj] dqvoljd vNSr] ra=kukFk >k viu larqfyr fopkjkkjkd
eSfFkyh lkfgR;d bfrgkl es ifjek.kkRed vk xq.kkRed nquw n`f"V,a orZeku lax n`<+ jgykgA viu p;fur ckV es vxzlj jgykgA laiw.kZ lkfgR; ,dj
'krkCnhd fo'ks"k egRo vfNA chle 'krkCnhd ifgy prqFkk'kd mkj Hkkx vk izek.k fFkd] ts bZ ^eqljh >k* dFkkdkO; es trcs vkkqfud vk <ksaxd izfr O;aX;kRed
f}rh; prqFkk'kd iwoZHkkx es eSfFkyh lkfgR;d tkfg jpukdkj yksdfud }kjk NfFk] ^".kpfjr* es lsgks vksrcsA ^dhpd ok* vFkok ^".kpfjr* es trcs
,fg lkfgR;d nsgfj uo <axsa >kM+y&cgkjy xsy] rkfg es ra=kukFk >kd LFkku ikjaifjd NfFk] viu vkuks dfork es rrcsA bZ ufg dgy tk ldS,] ts fgudk
vxzx.; NfuA ;|fi dkO;&fo"k;d vkkkj ij viu vku ledkyhu dfox.k ij fdudgq izHkko ufg Nfu( eqnk bZ dgc vuqfpr ufg gSr] ts bZ lHkd izHkko
tdka cgqr vkkqfud ufg NfFk( eqnk iqjkus fo"k; ij viu n`f"Vdks.kd dkS'ky la eqDr NfFk] fdarq viuk n`f"Vdks.k la rky&esy cSlvksyk ij mi;qDr LFkku
la rrsd dykRed dkO; lkkuk d,us NfFk] ts fr Lor% viu ikjaifjd kkjk la izsj.kk xzg.k vo'; djSr NfFkA fgudj vgh izHkkoeqDrrk vk izsj.kkxzkrkd
la Qjkd Hk* tkbNA ;k=kh tdka bZ vkikneLrd tuoknh ufg Hk* xsykg] fdj.k Qy fFkd] fgudj jpukd mRd"kZA b,g nwVk ckr fgudj fr dsa ikjaifjd
tdka nsork yksdfu dsa gqudj lkeF;Zghurkd cksk ufg djkSyfu] lqeu tdka jfgrgq vku ikjaifjd jpuk la Qjkd djSr vfNA fgudj izeq[k jpuk
ikSjkf.kd fo"k; ij vkvksjks iqjku fopkjkkjk j[kSr jpuk'khy ufg jgykg( jgykg fFkd ^dhpd&ok*] ^".kpfjr*] ijk'kj egkdkO;( ^ueL;k*] ^eaxy iapkf'kdk*
viu lkQ vk lks> ekU;rkd lax] viu uwrurkoknh n`f"Vdks.kd lax] viu dfork laxzg] ,dkadh p;fudk ,dkadh ladyuA
ekSfyd fparud lax] iwokZxzgghu] loZ=k ,djl] ,djaxA fopkjd vk n`f"Vdks.kd ^dhpdok* ra=kukFk >kd vksgsu fr fFkdfu] tdj egRo lHk vFks]
oS"kE; drgq fgudj jpuk es ufg vcSr vfNA lHkdky es] vusd frd cjkcj jgrA eSfFkyh lkfgR;d bfrgkl es ,fg frd
dkO; lkkukd ysy dksuks jpukdkj yx ,Vk QjhN n`f"Vdks.k g,ckd egRo] fo"k; ysy de] miLFkkiu 'kSyh ysy loZnk v{kq..k jgrA egkHkkjrd
pkghA n`f"Vdks.ksd vuqlkj dksuks ?kVuk fo'ks"kd izfr O;fDrd kkj.kk cuSr vfNA "kM~;a=k vkc gejk yksdfud ysy bfrgkl Hk* xsy vfNA eSfFkyhd vkkqfud
orZeku 'krkCnhd rslj n'kd izk;% fgudj jpuk'khyrkd LFkkiuk dky jgy dkyd jpuk lHkd izkjafHkd ksr lHk fokk es iqjk.ks] egkHkkjr jgy vfNA
gsrfuA ,fg le; es Hkqous'oj flag ^Hkqou* csl vkkqfud n`f"V la lkfgR; es [kkl d* d, egkdkO;d ksr ra jkek;.k] egkHkkjr vfNA laHko vfN] ,fg
vorfjr Hk* pqdy NkykgA ,fg le; kfj ;|fi fefFkyk vaxzsth 'kklud varxZr foo'krkd dkj.k egkdkO;d 'kkL=kh; vuq'kklu gksA ts ls---A eqnk] ra=kukFk >k
Ny] rFkkfi lkekftd] vkfFkZd] jktuhfrd ifjos'k es vk O;fDrd ekufldrk egkHkkjr la ikaMod vKkrokld ,dVk izlax dsa mBkd, dhpdd ok dsj dFkk
es ifjokZu vkfc xsy NySdA jpukdkj yksdfu lsgks viu iqjku fopkjkkjk R;kfx rkfg dkS'ky la dgus NfFk] ts vks 'kk'or ewY;d pht Hk* xsy vfNA ,dj
vkkqfud gksv* ykxy NykgA ls] f'kYi vk dF;] nquw n`f"V,aA vftZr vuqHkwfr izLrqfrd dykRedrkd dkj.ksa bZ vktqd lkekftd vk jktuhfrd ekgkSy ysy
dsa izHkkoksRikndrkd lax vfHkO;fDr nsy tk, ykxy] Hkkoksnzsd dsa dksuks ckUg&Nku lsgks izklafxd Hk* xsy vfNA vferk{kj Nan es ra=kukFk >k] fojkV jkt es ikaMod
es ckUg*d izf;k ?kV, ykxy] uo&uo Nan foU;kl la jpuk gksv, ykxyA vKkrokl dky es Hksy dhpdokd dFkk dsa ukS lxZ es izLrqr d,yfu vfNA
iqjku vk uo ;qxd lsrq @ 95 96 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
^dhpd&ok* egkdkO; pfj=k&fp=k.k] vfHkO;fDr dkS'ky] miLFkkiu pkrq;Z vk dusdks Vk volj HksVyfu] ra izfr dsa cM+k tkxzr :isa mBsckd iz;kl
?kVuk ladyud n`f"V,a eSfFkyhd Js"B egkdkO; lkfcr gksbr vfNA ;|fi lsgks d,yfu vfNA ls [kkgs ^dhpdok* es jktk fojkVd tuind ppkZ djSr
vyadkj] jl vkfnd fu:i.k es dfo ikSjkf.kdrkd mis{kk ufg d,us NfFk] eqnk dky gks] dksuks ik=kd ysy fcac mifLFkr djckdky gks] eqDrd dkO; fy[kckd
Nand oSfo; es vn~Hkqr oSf'k"V~;] jl&vyadkj vkfnd fu:i.k es dykRed mRd"kZ] gks vFkok ^".k&pfjr* es fofok n`';&ifjn`'; mifLFkRk djckd gksA o"kkZ&_rqd
'kCn la;kstu es ledkyhurk vkfnd dkj.ksa bZ vku egkdkO;d vis{kk cslh izfr ra dfo cslh mnkj Hk* tkbr NfFkA o"kkZd izfr bZ vkSnk;Z] dfod tulaf'y"Vrkd
lQy Hk* ikvksy vfNA dfo ,fg iqLrd es viu leUo;kRed Lo:i es larqfyr ifjpk;d fFkdA
<axsa Bk<+ NfFk vk leUo;d ,fg fcanqd p;u bZ rrsd lkokkuh la d,us NfFk] ra=kukFk >kd nkslj egRoiw.kZ fr fFkdfu ^".k pfjr* egkdkO;A lkfgR;
tr, la lansgd dksuks Vk xqatkb'k ufg jfg tkbr vfNA ,d fn'k viu ik=kd vdkneh }kjk lEekfur bZ fr] egkdfod vafre voLFkkd izfrQy fFkdA
lkSsdqek;Z dsa Bksl kjkry iznku d,us NfFk ra nkslj fn'k vksdj euksfo'ys"k.kkRed ckjg lxZ es foHkkftr ,fg fr es eaxykpj.kd i'pkr~ xq# lanhifud vkJed
fp=k.k la fr dsa uohurk nsus NfFkA egkdkO;d ysy 'kkL=kh; leLr LFkkiukd ifjos'k] O;oLFkk] vuq'kklu] f'k"Vrk vkfn la y* d, xq#dqy es ".k&cyjked
izfrikyu djSr egkdfo] dFkkd egkHkkjrh; e;kZnk dsa v{kq..k j[kck es lsgks vkxeu] v;;u vk f'k{kktZu lekfIrd i'pkr~ x`gxeu kfjd dFkk dsa vR;ar
lQy NfFk vk izLrqfr es ;qxkuqdwy okrkoj.kd iqV nsck es lsgksA vFkkZr~] lw{e lkokkuh la xqafQr d,us NfFkA viu vusd ekSfydrk vk vusd oSf'k"V~;d
o.kZu dkS'kyd izkP; ijaijk vk f'kYixr foU;kld ik'pkR; ijaijk nquw dsa dkj.ksa ^".kpfjr* egkdkO; lsgks eSfFkyh lkfgR;d bfrgkl es uo Lo:i cuk
laf'y"V d* d, fr dsa mRd"kZ iznku d,yfu vfNA ekbdsy ekqlwnud d, j[kus vfNA ".k ijaijk es vusd jpuk eSfFkyh lkfgR;gq es Hksy vfNA
es?kuknok*d f'kYid >kadhd dkj.kfga izk;% fgudk eSfFkyhd ^ekbdsy* dgy eqnk ls cky ".k vk ;qok ".k ij cslhA fd'kksj ".k ij vis{kkr de jpuk
tkbr NfuA Hksy vfN] rsa ".k pfjrd uwrurk vk fHkUurk ikBd dsa cslh izHkkfor djSNA
^dhpdok* egkdkO;d izeq[k oSf'k"V~; fFkd dFkkoLrqd p;u es egkdfod [kkl d* d, egkdkO;d dFkk&foU;kl vk o.kZu dkS'ky ,djk vkvksj cslh uwru
dkS'ky vk fr es ik=kd pkfjf=kd vaduA ukjh dsa vkfndkyfg la lwfDrokD; vk vkkqfud cuk nSr vfNA ijaijk vk vkkqfudrkd dkS'kyiw.kZ leUo; egkdfo
es iwT;k dgy tkbr jgy vfN vk O;ogkj es vksdjk vlw;ZEi';kd] HkksX;kd jax vk ikfu tdka d,us NfFkA rkgw es fgudj lQyrk] fgudj rh{.k n`f"VlaiUurkd
:i es ns[ky tkbr jgy vfNA dfo] ,fg iksFkh es lSjUkzh dsa e;;qxhu Hkkjrh; ifjpk;d fFkdA
ukjh tdka HkksX;k ufg] vfirq iq#"kd thou&iFk vkyksfdr dsfugkfj lgpfj.khd ".kd vkus o;l [kaM tdka dS'kks;Z lsgks csl oSfo; la iw.kZ vfNA eqnk
:i es fpf=kr d,us NfFkA bZ fp=k.k ukjhd izfr fgudj n`f"Vdks.k fukkZfjr xq#&dqyd dFkk dgckd e es vkJe es ".kd vkxeu la y* d, x`gxeu
djSr vfNA ukjhd izfr fgudj mnkj vk Js"B kkj.kkd lk{;] ukjh&fp=k.kd kfjd dFkk vR;ar NksV lu dk;k es dfg nsy xsy] volj HksfVrfg ik=kd pkfjf=kd
,d&,d iafDr es HksVSr vfN] tr, lSjUkzhd vkRefo'okl] 'kkS;Z vk lkgl dsa fodkl] o"kkZ o.kZu] izfr o.kZu] uxj o.kZu--- vkfn dksugqa rRo dsa ufg NksM+y
fpf=kr djSr fy[kSr NfFk] ^'kknwZyh dh d[kugqa ikc, =kkl@tEcwdd \ dh drgq xsy bZ dksuks izdkaM f'kYih;fg la laHko vfNA dksuks izlxa d o.kZu mBkSyfu vk
Tofyr vaxkj@r`.kp; ld, >kafi \ dh pEidokl@Hkzej rqPN d, ld, drgq tr, trcs vko';d] rrcs dfg d* pqi Hk* xsykgA ^".k pfjr* egkdkO;
miHkksx \* ,fg Bke ukjhd ysy O;or ,d&,dVk fcac Li"V djSr vfN] ts es ekSfyd :isa egkdfod ms';] ".kd f'k{k.k&dkyd fp=k.k jgyfu] eqnk
ukjhd izfr fgudj kkj.kk egku Nfu vk iq#"kd ysy rqPN fcacd iz;ksx fgudj izlaxkuqdwy trsd ik=k vk,y NfFk] fdudgq fp=k.k es] dfo datwlh ufg d,us
O;kogkfjd ;FkkFkZ cksk dsa |ksfrr djSr vfNA ,d fn'k ta ukjhd lkSan;Z] n{krk] NfFkA ts trcs dky y, dFkklw=k es vk,y NfFk] gqudk viu laiw.kZrk es ns[kkvksy
f;k'khyrk] ,dfu"Brk] keZ&ijk;.krk] ikfrozR;] LokfHkeku] lkgl vkfnd izfr xsy vfNA pkgs vks xq#iRuh gksFkq vFkok nsodh( dqyifr gksFkq vFkok xq#iq=k dsa
dfo tkxzr NfFk( ra nkslj fn'k dhpd lu nq"V iq#"kd dkeqdrk] k`"Vrk] rkd*d e es vk,y czk.k---lHkd pkfjf=kd fodkld lhek [kwc foLrkj
foosdghurk vkfnd izfr ?k`f.kr Hkko j[kSr NfFk] ra lqns".kkd n;k] lfg".kqrk] ivksyd vfNA ?kVukd foU;kl vk ik=kd vkSRlqD;d fp=k.k jlxj] lqnkek vk
lgkuqHkwfr vkfn ln~xq.kd lax gqudj bZ";kZ Hkkod ppkZ dj* es lsgks ufg pwdSr ".kd eS=khd o.kZu lsgks iw.kZ :isa pfpZr Hksy vfNA
NfFkA yksd O;ogkj vk yksdthou la dfod laf'y"V lacakd lokZfkd vk
iqjku vk uo ;qxd lsrq @ 97 98 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
izHkkodkjh mnkgj.k fFkd] lkre lxZ es [ksrh&ckjh] ?kj&vkaxu] ofurk&yyukd "kM~;a=k] xzkeh.k turkd vakfo'okl vkfn&vkfn dsa vR;ar lgt <axsa fpf=kr
fojg] ikofu&frgkj] fofk&O;ogkj] vkpkj&fopkj] ozr&mikluk vkfnd o.kZu es d,yfu vfN] eqnk] ys[kdd migklkRed #f[k uqdk,y ufg jfg icSr vfN]
lok'k :isa fefFkykd ukjh;gqd vk iq#"kgqd izfrfufkRoA firj i{kd ppkZ gks vksgks vksrcs lgtrkd lax mHkjSr vfNA ,dkadhd jpuk es ys[kd lkekftd
vFkok lq[kjkrhd] ftfrvk gks vFkok Hkzkr`f}rh;k---iw.kZ :isa QfjNkd, d,us NfFkA foMacuk dsa ,dVk nksljks fn'kk nsyfu vfN] vk ls fFkd ^vkRela?k"kZ*A fgudj
euq";d euksosxd dksu iz'u] t[ku tho&tarqd euksosxd ppkZ izkjaHk djSr ,dkadh laxzg eSfFkyh lkfgR;d ifgy ,dkadh ladyud fFkdA
NfFk] ra vksrgq viu peRdkfjd LoHkko la i`Fkd ufg jgSr NfFkA ^ueL;k* es eqDrd la izcak dkO; kfj] dFkkdkO; la ,dkadh kfj---ts fdNq jpuk
lax`ghr dfork 'kh"kZd ^o"kkZ&?kks"k* ?kksj&o`f"Vd dkj.k O;kIr okrkoj.kd n`';&fp=k fgudj Nfu] rkfg es bZ] lok'k es us ra ijaijkd fojkskh NfFk vk us iks"kd]
fFkd] tr, dksu&dNsj es miksmi ikfu Hkjy vfN] es?k xjft jgy vfN] Budk vkkqfudrkd ns[kkSal es crkg ufg NfFkA eqnk ,fg la kdt*jks ufg mBSr Nfu]
Bufd jgy vfN] tuin vLr&O;Lr vfN] eqnk csax [kq'kh la g"kZukn d* jgy rsa ik[kaMd fp=k.k es gkFk ufg Da$iSr NfuA oLrqr% ts NfFk] ls larqfyr fopkjd
vfN] euq";d ijkHkod vksdjk dksuks Kku ufg] dksuks laosnuk ufgA dforkd laxA us tuoknd e'kky y* d, vius ?kj Mkfg ySr NfFk] vk us eqgwkZ nsf[k
,fg y?kqdk;k es o"kkZ] bUnz] csax] lkai] xtZu] rtZu---vkfn&vkfn leLr oLrq d, fuR; f;k es tkbr NfFkA ra=kukFk >k] ;qxhu leLr ra=k&dqra=kd ln~&vln~
izrhd vFkZ es vk,y vfNA i{kd uS ; kf;d
ra=kukFk >kd ,dVk loZizpfyr] loZiz'kaflr dfork fFkd ^eqljh >k*A NfFk---A
,fg dforkd LFkku eSfFkyh lkfgR; es gfjeksgu >kd ^dU;knku* tdka vfNA
tdjk xke?kjd gjckg&pjckg kfj eksu j[kus vfNA bZ eksu jgckd dkj.k ek=k
,fg dforkd lgtrk vk inykfyR; ufg] ,dj fo"k; lsgks fFkdA vkkqfud
dky es vkfc d, :f<+d] vakfo'okld] keZ vk ik[kaMd ts Lo:i iljy Ny]
ts fd FkksM+&cgqr ,[kuks vfN] ls uo n`f"Vdks.kd yksd dsa ufg #pySdA vk
rsa ik[kaMd inkZQk'k djSr bZ dfork yksd dsa cslh pgVxj yxySdA
viu jpuk es migklkRed n`'; vku* ysy egkdfo vU;ksfDr jhfrd
iz;ksx djSr NfFkA bZ vU;ksfDr jhfr fgudj ^o"kkZ ?kks"k*] ^eqljh >k*] ^iz;k.kkyki*
lu&lu fdNq izeq[k dfork es vk,y vfNA ;|fi fgudj x| jpuk ifjek.kkRed
:isa cM~M de vfN] eqnk ^,dkadh p;fudk* fgudj ikap xksV ,dkadhd laxzg
fFkdA bZ ,DdsVk fr viu xq.kkRedrkd dkj.ksa vku vusd frd cjkcj
vfNA fgudj ,fg leLr ,dkadhd ewy es lkekftd foMacuk viu lw{e :isa
cSly vfNA tdjk ,dkadhdkj nw fn'kk nsus NfFkA ifgy fn'kk fFkd gkL;&O;aX;(
tr, O;fDr okLrfodrk la vkaf[k ewfu d, QSaVslh es thc, pkgSr NfFk vk
,fg QSaVslhd e es viu ewy ckV fclfj tkbr NfFkA lQyrkd ysy loZizFke
pkgh ms';dkeuk vk rnqijkar rnq|ksxA eqnk ,dVk ,gsu ;qod] ts ek=k Qy
izkfIrd liuk cquSr jgSr NfFk vk QSaVslh es thcSr jgSr NfFk] frudj euksn'kk
dsa vrho lkokkuh la ys[kd viu iz'kaflr ,dkadh ^dvksystd izos'k* es xqafQr
d;us NfFkA O;aX;iw.kZ migklkRed 'kSyh] lgt 'kCnkoyh] dkWyst ifjlj es
uokxarqd Nk=kd dYiukyksdd fuekZ.k vkfn&vkfn fcanqd izLrqfr eueksgd <axas
vk,y vfNA ^miu;ud Hkkst* ,dkadh es xked HkkstuHkd yksyqirk] rnFkZ
e/kqi vk }kn'kh @ 99 100 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
lekt es O;kIr vkfFkZd fo"kerkd izfr viu izcy vkks'k dsa O;Dr d,yfu
vfN] ^eq[k es Tokyke; izxfr xku* la ^lerkd 'ka[k* Qqdckd vkku d,yfu
vfNA 1938 bZ- es fgUnh lkfgR; es jksekafVd ;qxd var lsgks dgy tkbr vfNA
iar dsj ;qxok.kh 1937 rFkk xzkE;k 1940 es oLrqoknh fp=k.k [kwc Hksy] t[ku
fd dfork cgqr mPp Js.khd ufg vfNA fujkykd ^fHk{kqd* 1921 rFkk ^rksM+rh
iRFkj* 1935 oLrqoknh fp=k.kd lax&lax Js"Brkd lsgks cksk djcSr izdkf'kr
Hk* pqdy NyA 1943 bZ- es vKs;d laikndRo es ^rkj lIrd*d izdk'ku Hk*
pqdy Ny rFkk 1951 es izdkf'kr gksv* oyk ^nwljk lIrd* es laxzg.kh;
ekqi vk }kn'kh dforkd jpuk Hk* jgy NyA caxyk lkfgR; es izfl) =kSekfld if=kdk
lqkhUnzukFk nkd ^ifjp;* 1931 ;wjksih; lkfgR; vaxzsth vk sap la caxykd
ikBd dsa ifjp; dj,ckd e es uo dforkd LFkkiuk Hk* pqdy NyA 1933
eSfFkyh lkfgR; es eqDrd&dkO; fy[kckd ijaijk fo|kifr, la rFkk izcak&dkO; bZ- es baxySaM es ^uo dforkd ny* dfg d, ,dVk uo ny xfBr Hk* pqdy
fy[kckd ijaijk euckskfg la izkjaHk Hksy vfNA dk'khdkUr feJ ^ekqi* ,fg fokk NyA ,rsVk iS?k ifjos'k es ekqid ekufldrk LoPNan fopj.k djSr Nyfu vk
es ,dVk uo iz;ksx d,yfuA bZ iz;ksx fFkd] dforkd ek;es dFkk dgckd vgh okrkoj.kd fp=k.k] dfo viu ,fg laxzg es d,yfuA
ijaijk cuk,cA vxgu 1940 bZ- es fy[ky dfork ^uokUu* fgudj ,fg ,fg le;d dforkd ewy izo`fk jgy ;FkkZFkd fp=k.kA ;FkkFkZ dsa nw :isa
ijaijkd izk;% ifgy dfork gSrA ,gh rjgd ckjg xksV dforkd laxzg ^}kn'kh* ,fg le; es fpf=kr d,y xsy vfNA ifgy :i fFkd ts fuEuoxhZ; yksd dsa]
izdkf'kr vfNA ,fg es 1940 la 1950 kfjd dfork lax`ghr vfNA 'kksf"kr leqnk; dsa viu nqnZ'kkd] viu 'kks"k.kd vfHkKku gksbr Nfu vk rkfg
bZ dkykofk fefFkykapyd lkekftd ifjos'k dsa vn~Hkqr <axsa izHkkfor d,us ij vks O;fFkr Hk* d, viu nqnZ'kkd xku djSr vfN rFkk nkslj :i fFkd ts
NyA fons'kh 'kklu la =kLr tuekuld n; es fonzksgh Hkkoukd mn; la y* d, ,fg 'kksf"kr leqnk; dsa viu nqnZ'kk nsf[k d, vfLrRocksk gksbr Nfu] Luk;q es
Lora=krkd izkfIr vgh dkykofk es HksyA ekqi tuothoud ,fg izrkj.kk dsa 'kfDrd vkHkkl gksbr Nfu] tkfg la gqudk 'kks"kdd <gSr vfLrRo] ttZj cq>k,
yxhp la ns[kyfuA vFkkZHkkod tkar es filkbr tulewgd vfLerk] vksdj yxSr Nfu vk vks kafrd vkku djSr NfFk] viu lkeF;Zd nksgkb nSr NfFkA
Hkkoukd ,d&,d phRdkj dsa lquyfuA lkearh izFkk la izrkfjr fuEuoxhZ; lw{erk la voyksdu d,yk mkj ekqi vk Hkqou] fdj.k] ;k=khd jpuk es varj
yksdd nqnZ'kk ns[kyfuA bZ rdjk viu dforkd dF; cukSyfuA ,fg leLr HksVSNA t[ku ;k=kh dgSr NfFk] ^Qwfl czk&fo".kq n'k fnDiky@Qwfl Jqfr&Le`fr@
dfork es dfod fopkjkskstuk] fgudj fparu&'kSyh] fgudj ;FkkfLFkfrd vadu lHk ---lR; fFkd ekuo lektd fed mUufr@fed o`f)&fodkl@lR; fFkd
ij fopkj djck la iwoZ dusd vksfg vofkd lkekftd] lkfgfR;d ifjos'k ij la?k"kZjr turkd bZ bfrgkl---* r[ku Hkqou dgSr NfFk] ^xkSjod xoZ&x<+ <kfg
fparu d* ysc visf{kr cq>kbr vfNA nsc@ufg {kek djc] izfr'kksk ysc---dh d, ldSr vfN y?kq fucZy@ns[kr ykspu
dksuks jpukdkjd jpukkfeZrk ;qxhu okrkoj.k vk lkekftd ifjfLFkfrd Hkfj LokFkhZ] [ky@Bsgqu Vsdr rstks fgVyj@---] lerkd 'ka[k ge Qwfd nsc---* vk
okgd gksbr vfNA ekqi lsgks vksgh ifjos'kd voyksdu d,yfu] tkfg ifjos'kd t[ku ^ekfVd egknso* dfork es fdj.k dgSr NfFk] ^cyoku ekuod gkFkd cy
voyksdu vksfg le; fdj.k] lqeu] ;k=kh] Hkqou izHk`fr yksdfu d,yfuA 1949 la@cSly Ng rksa ljkb ij---* r[ku ekqi dgSr NfFk] ^lfo"kkn gkl es pUnzekd@vks
vcSr&vcSr ;k=khd ^fp=kk*d izdk'ku HksyA fuf'pr :i la ,fg es lax`ghr ?kly vBUuh ckft mBy@ge dr, tkm@voyac ikm@ds 'kj.k] ?kly tfudj
dfork 1947 la iwoZd fy[ky fFkd] ts ekqid ^}kn'kh* laxzgd dfork lHkd vn`f"V---* ,fg laiw.kZ dfork es mn~osfyr gksbr dfod ekDlZoknh psruk ,r,
ledkyhu fFkdA 1936 la Hkqoud lksyg xksV dforkd ladyu ^vk"kk<+* lsgks ijkLr Hk* tkbr vfN vk vks HkkX; vn`f"V d gFkmBkb ij vkfJr Hk* tkbr
izdkf'kr Hk* pqdy NyA 1943&1944 bZ- es ^fefFkyk fefgj* es Hkqoud fdNq vfNA }kn'kh laxzgd izk;% lHk dfork es d#.ksd fp=k.k vfNA dforkd
dfork ^dky&izokg*] ^vUrukZn*] ^;qxok.kh* bR;kfn izdkf'kr HksyA tkfg es dfo lekfIr lsgks uksjfg la gksbr vfNA ,fg laxzgd ckjgks dfork es fuEuoxhZ;
e/kqi vk }kn'kh @ 101 102 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
pfj=kd lax dfod laosnuk bZ lkfcr djSr vfN ts dfo dsa lekt es iljy VVdk ftysch] 'krny] f=kos.kh] rk.Mo] f=kdq'kk] dkscj xhr] jkkk fojg egkdkO;]
dqjhfr] vFkZ&ladV] vHkko] leL;k vkfn fo'ks"k :isa izHkkfor d,us NfuA >adkj] fo|kifr egkdkO; bR;kfnA ,d fn'k ta kaxkj jl la vksr&izksr fgud
tulkkkj.kd nqnZ'kkd gsrq fgudk eksu es lgkuqHkwfr NfuA eqnk fdj.k] ;k=khd jpuk ikBd dsa ljkcksj d* nSr vfN ra nkslj fn'k d#.k jl la ifjiw.kZ jpuk
jpuk es tsuk 'kks"k.kd ijaijkd izfr foznksg Nfu] jpukd iafDr&iafDr es kafrd lHk lsgks n; es lkkkj.khdj.k d* d, vksdjk jpukd ik=kd lax ,dkRedrk
vkfx mBSr Nfu] Hkkod clkr ij fonzksgd >aMk Qgjkbr Nfu rsuk ekqid jpuk LFkkfir djck es iw.kZ lg;ksx nSr vfNA xhr&jpuk es peRdkj iw.kZ vyadkfjd
es ufgA ekqi 'kksf"kr oxZd ysy dsoy dkub NfFk] vuqu; fou; djS NfFk] Hkk"kk&'kSyhd iz;ksx djc] fgudj izo`fk tdka cq>kbr vfNA vuqizkl vks ;ed
vksdkyfr djS NfFkA fgudj ltZuk] fgud fopkj nzksgkRed ufg Hk* d, gdUu vyadkjd ckgqY;] ikafMR;iw.kZ 'kCn&foU;kld NVk bR;kfn mifLFkr djck fn'k
duSr ifjfLFkfr dsa ;Fkkor Lohdkfj ySr NfuA fgudj ik=k 'kks"k.kd izfrjksk es fgud fo'ks"k ;ku jgyfu vfNA vis{kkr viu vku jpukd rqyuk es }kn'kh
>aMk mBkSus la?k"kZjr ufg Hk* d, leL;kd vkxka xjnfu >qdk ySr Nfu] es cslh ljy gks,ckd ps"Vk dfo d,us NfFk] eqnk ,dne lgt Hk* xsy NfFk
vkRe&leiZ.k d* nSr NfuA pkgs vks ^uokUu* d uhjl >k gksfFk vFkok ^gksjh*d ls ufgA r[ku Nanc) jpukd vis{ksa bZ cslh Li"V vfNA Li"Vrkd lHk la iS?k
enuckcw] ^nkSfuckg*d lqduk gks vFkok ^lsokd Qy*d ftruk xksaf<+---lc dkj.k vfN jpuk es dFkkrRod lgt izokgA dFkkrRo dsa dfo ,rsd ekfeZd
le;d nkl fFkdfuA le; la la?k"kZ djc fdudgq fu;fr ufg Hk* icSr NfuA vk ukVdh;rkd lax mifLFkr d,yfu vfN] ts i<+ck dky ifjfLFkfr tU; dksuks
lc] leL;kd vkxw viu izk.kkar d* nSr NfuA uhjl >k lu izcq)] f'kf{kr ik=k O;okku mifLFkr Hksygqa ij ,dkxzrk Hkax gks;ckd laHkkouk ufg jgSNA vksuk ,fg
la y* d, cqpuh vk lqduk lu fuj{kj O;fDr lHkd la?k"kZ'khy psruk esVk,y ckjgks dfork es la vfkdka'k dfork ikafMR;iw.kZ 'kCn&foU;kl vk vyadkj
NfuA vFkkZr~ dfo ;FkkFkZd ifgy i{k ek=k dsa viuk jpuk es lkdkj d* ckgqY;d dkj.k nq:g tdka lkfcr gkse* yxSr vfN] eqnk rqjarfg dFkkrRo es
ldykgA ;FkkFkZd b,g fp=k.k jpuk dsa fonzksgkRed ufg cuk d, vkks'kkRed d#.k jld fgyksj ekjSr kkjk] foo'krkd ltho fp=k.k] nSU;&dqaBk&vkReosnuk vk
cuk nSr vfNA vkks'k vk fonzksg es lw{e varj vfNA mn; nquwd gksbr vfN la=kkld vfody miLFkkiu ikBd dsa ?khfp d; ckV ij y* vcSr vfNA ^?kly
vlarks"kfg la] eqnk ,fg vlarks"k dsa nsf[k tdj ikS#"k tkfx mBSr vfN] dksuks iqjku vBUuh* dfork es d#.kkd fp=k dfo trsd ekfeZd <axsa mifLFkr d,us NfFk]
LFkkfir ekU;rk vFkok fo'okl la eksg Hkax Hksyk ij tdjk vkRecksk gksbr NSd] ls Li`g.kh; vfNA ekqithd jpukd lc la cyxj i{k fFkd fgudj o.kZu 'kSyhA
tdj Hkqtcy izfr'kkskd gsrq QM+fd mBSr vfN] vks fonzksgh dgcSr vfN vk ts viu o.kZu 'kSyhd dkj.k bZ dksugq jpuk es rrsd us ukVdh;rk y* vcSr NfFk]
viu ksk dsa vksdkyfrd tkek ifgjkcSr vfN] foyki&izykid ijnk nSr vfN] ts ikBdd le{k vks ?kVuk&fp=k Li"V :isa mifLFkr Hk* tkbr vfN vk ikBd
fonzksgd >aMk ufg mBk icSr vfN vks vkks'kh gksbr vfNA fonzksg ufg djc dsa jlcksk es dksugq Vk deh ufg jfg tkbr NfuA dfork 'kh"kZd ^uokUu* es
egkdfo ekqid ik=k dsa dk#f.kd cuk nSr vfN] n;uh; cuk nSr vfN] uhjl >kd fp=k mifLFkr djSr vksdj vYi osrud c[kjk dsa ns[kcSr NfFkA ?kj
lgkuqHkwfr i,ck ;ksX; cuk nSr vfNA dfod ys[kuh la fpf=kr ik=kd n'kk ij ?kqjyk ij vksdj euksn'kk dsa fpf=kr djSr NfFk] ^cPpkd ekb dsa dh dfgvuq@vks
ikBd ^vkgk* dgck ysy ck; Hk* tkbr NfFkA gej nq%[k dsa dh cq>rh \@pkSchl Vdk vb Nekghd@vkkk fdjkfu;sa dsa nsfy,s@vkkk
bZ ra Hksy egkdfod ,fg dfork laxzgd vks i{k tdjk dkj.k dfod la fMIVh lkgsc dsj dSygqa iwtk---*
ekDZloknh fopkjkkjk detksj iM+Sr vfN] eqnk ,djk dkj.ksa bZ ufg lkspckd fFkd] ladyud ckjgks dFkkdkO; ^uokUu*] ^nkSfuokg*] ^ikid ifj.kke*] ^gksjh*]
ts dFkkdkO;d bZ laxzg fuanuh; vfNA laxzg dSd n`f"V,a iz'kaluh; vfNA ^dksuks ?kj dkuc dksuks ?kj xhr*] ^ekqj&feyu*] ^?kly vBUuh*] ^r`Ir&fiiklk*]
dksugq jpukd vkykspuk es vksdj vkikneLrd vkWijs'ku gksbr vfNA ^lsokd Qy*] ^ykb ij ctz*] ^dkstkxjkd e[kku* rFkk ^iqjLdkj* bR;kfn d#.kk
vksfg vkWijs'ku es 'kksf.krks cgjkbr vfN vk ihtks cgjkbr vfNA leqnz eaFku es la ifjiw.kZ vfNA var izk;% lc dforkd d#.kfg la Hksy vfN] ^r`Ir&fiiklk*d
ve`rks cgkjkbr vfN vk fo"kks cgjkbr vfNA lQyre ekDlZoknh fopkjkkjkd vykosA ^r`Ir&fiiklk*d dkosjh ,[ku fefFkykapyd ?kj&?kj es vfNA dkosjhd
b,g vHkko ,fg jpuk&eaFkud ve`r ufg Hk* ldy] eqnk rsa pUnzek] ,sjkor] n; es mBSr varukZn fefFkykapyd leLr dqekfj csVhd varukZn fFkdSA dkosjhd
y{eh] bR;kfnd vHkko ufg vfNA eSfFkyh lkfgR;d lsok es bZ viu vusd iksFkh firk txUukFk ckcw vk 'kf'kdkUrd firk ';keuUnu ckcwd lsgks dksuks deh ufg
la eSfFkyhd HkaMkj HkjSr jgykg vfNA tkfg es la ize[q k fFkd viwoZ jlxqYyk] vfN] deh vfN ek=k 'kf'kdkar lu fonzksgh ;qodd] ftudk n; es ,gsu ckr
e/kqi vk }kn'kh @ 103 104 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
mBSr Nfu] ^lUrfr fo;h firkd ckr@ekucks ekuoksfpr ufg,a@i'kq tdka
euq";d gks fo;@vks tjkS jk"V ik=kd dkjh---A* vk var lsgks] ,fg dforkd
feyus la gksbr vfNA laxzgd lc la lqdksey dfork b,g vfNA
,gsu izk;% ikvksy xsy ts dfo izfr fp=k.kd cslh vkxzgh NfFk] laxzgd
vfkdka'k dfork es ra izfrd ltho fp=k vfN,] vkuks&vku Bke izfr&fp=k
f?kpck es dfo vkxw jgS NfFkA }kn'khd izk;% lHk dfork es bZ izfr dsa dksuks
us dksuks :i es vo'; mifLFkr d,yfu vfNA ^lsokd Qy*] ^?kly vBUuh*]
^nkSfuokg*] ^dksuks ?kj dkuc dksuks ?kj xhr*] ^dkstkxjkd e[kku* bR;kfn dfork
es lektd nq"pfj=krkd ukaxV fp=k mifLFkr d,y xsy vfNA 'kks"kdh; izo`fk] uorqfj, vkcvks vkxka
vLi`';rkd Hkkouk] fuEuoxhZ; yksdd izfr wjrk bR;kfnd fp=k Li"V Hksy
vfNA leLr dfork vHkko] nSU;] nq"pfj=krk] 'kks"k.k] vuhfr bR;kfnd ^'kks&ihl*
fFkdA
dksuks jpukdkjd oSjkV~; jpukd la[;k la ufg] jpukdkjd n`f"VQyd dsj foLrkj
la vkady tkbr vfNA b,g dkj.k fFkd ts eSfFkyh es ek=k rhu miU;kld
cysa ;k=kh trsd egku ys[kd NfFk] rrsd ntZu vk fd rkgw la cslh iksFkh fyf[k&Nik
d* <sfj;k nsfugkj ys[kd ufgA
;|fi dksuks miU;kld jh<+ vksdj dFkk rRos gksbr vfN] ijarq miU;kld
egRo dFkkd ?kVuk&ed mkstukRed rRo la ufg] vksdj ms'; la izfrikfnr
gksbr vfNA jpukdkj lkfgR; l`tu ^Lokar% lq[kk;* ysy vo'; djSr vfNA
eqnk vksdj lq[kd ifjdYiuk oS;fDrd lq[kd BBjh ij ufg gksbr vfNA dksuks
egku ys[kdd ^Lo* laiw.kZ lekt vk ifjos'k es O;kIr jgSr vfNA lekt&lq[k
vksdj oS;fDrd lq[k gksbr vfN] oS;fDrd ihM+k dsa vks tu&lewgd ihM+k cuk
d* ns[kSr vfN] tsuk ^ljkst Le`fr* vFkok ^prqjh pekj* fujkykd eu%yksd es
vkdkj ivksus gSrA tsuk dchjd eksu es ^lqf[k;k lc lalkj gS] nqf[k;k nkl
dchj* vFkok ^pyrh pDdh ns[k ds fn;k dchjk jks;* lu&lu Hkko mBy gSrA
;k=khd lq[k vk nq[k vgh Hkkod Ny] gqudj ^Lokar% lq[kk;* lektd tkxj.k
ysy izfrc) Hkkoukd lq[k NyA tu'kfDrd izfr vkLFkkoku ;k=khd eksu es
bZ Hkjksl Nyfu ts vkfxd yqkhd deh lekt es ufg vfN] vksfg yqkh ij iM+y
Nkmj dsa gVk;c vk vkfx dsa lquxk;c vks viu keZ cq>yfuA ,fg vkfxd
csxjrk dchjd vksr* lsgks Ny vk ijorhZ leLr izfrdkeh jpukdkjd vksr*
lsgksA vgh vkfx dsa fofok utfj,a ns[ky xsy vk dgy xsy ^gks dgha Hkh vkx]
ysfdu tyuh pkfg,*A ;k=kh bZ vkfx tjk d* vkkqfud izxfr'khy \ tdka
e'kkyckth vk ukjkckthd ukVd ufg dj* pkgSr NykgA ;k=khd vkfxd bZ
ifjdYiuk elhgk cuck ysy ufg] lekt dsa vkyksde; djckd ysy NyA vkfx

uorqfj, vkcvks vkxka @ 105 106 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';


la fudyy vkyksd vk "ek ta mfpr <axsa ^yksd* kfj igqafp xsy] ra cq>w ;k=khd ^ikjks* dsa ,fg lkekftd fLFkfrd le{k Bk<+ gks;ckd NySd tr;
ts vkfx lkFkZd Hk* xsyA vkfxd pdkpkSak cyk yiV vk vkfxd nkgd rki iSarkyhl c[kZd o;l es yksd viu csVhd mesjd dU;k la fookg djck es
vke ukxfjd ysy mi;qDr ufg fFkdA ls ta mi;ksxh gscks dj;] ra vks vUgkj ladksp ufg djSr Ny] tr; usuius la L=khx.k dsa bZ f'k{kk nsy tkbr NSd ts
ilkj*] es fyIr eqh Hkfj ujfi'kkpd vkaf[k pksUgjkc* ysy vFkok vksdj iki&O;wg ^ukaxj jgmd fd vkUgj] yqYg jgmd fd vkcSlw] ifr fFkdSd lk{kkr ijes'oj*
tjkc* ysyA ;k=kh vgh ^lq[k* vk vgh ^vkfx*d vUos"kd oxZd iqjkskk NfFk] ikjks] i`- 38A tr; csVh dsa ekb] fcuk dksuks vijkkd] vyPN vk v'kqHk dFkk
iqjkskk jgykg viu jpukdeZ es lsgks vk viu thoukeZ es lsgksA dg;A tr, csVkd eku&lEeku jRu tdka vk csVhd eksy VYgk tdka gks] tr;
;k=khd miU;kl ij ppkZ djSr dky yksd dsa bZ ckr ;ku es jkf[k ysckd csVhd c<+Sr mez nsf[k d* ek; cw>; ts gej deZ tjy vfN] tr; dksugquk
pkgh] ts ^uorqfj;k* vk ^cypuek* 'kq) d* d* eSfFkyhd miU;kl fFkdA ddjks lax csVhd fookg Hk* xsukb m)kj Hk* tk;c ekuy tk,] tr; ,d Vk
fgUnh cyk ta ^ubZ ikSk* vk ^cypuek*d ppkZ djSr NfFk ra djSr jgFkqA bZ csVk tUekc*d izrh{kk es tuh tkfr dsa nl&nl Vk csVh tUekc* iM+SdlSg
gqudk yksdfud leL;k fFkd ts vks ,fg nquw iksFkh dsa fgUnhd jpuk izekf.kr Ny fefFkykA vksuk] vkc ipkl&lkfB c[kZd le; chr xsykd ckn] f'k{kk vk
djck ysy dksu gFkdaMk viukcfFk] izdk'ku o"kZd vkJ; ysfFk vFkok ;k=khd ekufld lkeF;Zd FkksM+sd o`f) Hksykd ckn fLFkfr dusd cnyy vo'; vfN]
gLrfyfi es vksdj ikaMqfyfi izLrqr djfFkA ewy ckr bZ fFkd ts bZ nquw iksFkh eqnk ekSfyd fparu es ,[kugqa cgqr varj ufg HksySd vfNA
eSfFkyh es fy[ky xsy] fgUnh es nquwd vuqokn Niy vfNA ys[kdd gkFksa vuwfnr ra] vgh pfj=kd fefFkyk es ^ikjks* miU;kld i`"BHkwfe rS;kj gksbr vfNA
lkexzh ta y{; Hkk"kkd lkfgR; Hk* tk; ra ,[ku kfj ^[kj dkdk* dsa fgUnhd vks le; Ny ts leo;lh ojd vkdka{kk&vfHkyk"kk lkekU; ?kjd csVh ufg djSr
jpuk fd,d ufg ekuy xsy \ ckr vokarj ufg gks] ra ,r* bZ iwNckd mfpr NyA izrh{kk d;y tkbr Ny] utfj f[kjkvksy tkbr Ny ts dksuks ku&i'kqd
volj vfN ts gfj'kadj ijlkbd vkykok fgUnhd Lokra=;ksRrj dky es gfjeksgu ?kjuhd vdky e`R;q Hksy gksbd] dgquk gqud ku&chr lEgkj* ysy] gqudj
>kd le{k Bk<+ gkse; cyk O;aX;dkj d, Vk NfFk \ cky&cPpk dsa iksl* ysy] gqudj fokok ihfl vk cw<+ ek;d lsok&Vgy ysy]
vksuk] lR; iwNy tk; ra gejk utfj es ;k=khd lHk Vk miU;kl eSfFkyhd gqud iS'kkfpd oklukd r`fIr ysy yksd dksugquk viu csVh dsa lsV d* fyv,A
Hkus ufg gks] fefFkykapyd vo'; fFkdA bZ eSfFkyh ikBd&izdk'kd&ys[kdd nqHkkZX; csVh ,r; la iBkvksy ra tsrhg jkuh cfu d* jkt dj* ysy] eqnk igqafprs nsjh
fFkd ts ;k=kh dsa viuk 'kjhjd jDr&ekal&eTtk ckgj nsc* iM+yfuA vk fgUnh vksr; Hk* tsrhg cfgfdjuh] Hkufl;k] dBiqrjh] vksNkvksu] fidnkuhvkfnA
lekykspukd lkSHkkX; fFkd] ts vudj nkfy&pkmj ij Bdqjkbu cuyA dgy ^ikjksd* ^ikoZrh* vgh vfLrRod lax fefFkyk es ,d izdkaM iafMrd ?kj
t;ckd pkgh ts fefFkykapysd rhu Vk miU;kldkj ;k=kh] js.kq] jktdey fgUnhd es tUe ysyfFkA fcjtwd ihfl lu ekb NyfFku ikjks dsaA firkd nsgkolkud
dFkk lkfgR; es uo vy[k txkSyfuA eqnk vb fookn es iM+c ,[ku vHkh"V i'pkr ek;d ekFk ij cks> Hk* xsfyA fcjtw lu Hkkoqd fiflvkSr Hkkb Nfu
ufgA ts ijaijkd ckUg&Nsd es vks>jk;y izxfr'khy NfFkA fopkj la fcjtwd rqyuk
eSfFkyh es ;k=khd ek=k rhu Vk miU;kl vfN ^ikjks* 1946] ^uorqfj;k* es ikjks dusd csfl;s izxfr'khy] dYiuk'khy vk ifjorZud vkxzgh NfFkA eqnk
1954] ^cypeuk* 1967A vksuk fgUnh es ^ubZ ikSk* 1953 vk ^cypuek* rS;ks ianzg c[kZd ikjksd ysy tkfg c*jd izfr ikjksd ek; izkFkZuk djSr Nyhg]
1952 ifgus Nfi pqdy NyA eSfFkyhd leLr v;srk ifjfprs NfFk ts eSfFkyh ls ^nqrh; oj] voLFkk iSra hle eqnk voLFkk Nyfu iSra kyhlA i<+y fy[ky
es izdk'kud leL;k lHk fnu la jgy vfN \ ekewyh] tehu&ttkr i;kZIrA nyku ij xksj pkfj,d c[kkjhA twfr pyS Nfu
^ikjks*d izdk'ku la iwoZ ^funZ;h lklq*] ^iqufoZokg*] ^dU;knku*] ^f}jkxeu*] lrekb,d] vksgh fnl la oSek=ks cfgfu ek=k rkgw cspkjksd dikj nqjkxeud
^lq'khyk*] ^euq";d eksy*] ^panzxzg.k*] ^vfxygh* vkfn egRoiw.kZ miU;kld mijkars tfj xsy NyfuA lklqj es [kxrk dFkqd ufg] rb;ks ekb, yx jgS NfFkUg]
izdk'ku Hk* pqdy NyA pUnzxzg.k 1932 d vfrfjDr izk;% lHk miU;kl vkj fdNq ufg [kkyh rhFkZ djckd oS NfuA fFkdkg vks yksdfu xked Mhgh]
es oSokfgd leL;k] ukjh tkfrd nhurk] fookg es dkSfyd eku&e;kZnkd n[kyankth cqkokjs c?kkarA pqYgkb pkSkfj uke fFkdSUg] lksuefu pkSkfjd ckydA ekr`d
la thou&ed lkalr b,g lHk fpf=kr gksbr jgyA fdj.k dsj miU;kl es ddjkSM+] ekr`ekr`d fiy[kckM+A cfguksb NyfFkUg ls lkSjkBfgd vk lrek;
izk;% ifgy csj miU;kl ys[kud tfM+ uo ekfV idM+ckd uo rjgsa ps"Vk d;ydA fFkdfFkUg lq[klsukdA egs'kiqj ikaft NfuA ns[k* lqu* es ls egkHkO;] [kSck&ihck
uorqfj, vkcvks vkxka @ 107 108 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
es HkksxhUnzA ,gu ?kj&oj iM+ys ikchA* vksdjk MkafV nSr vfNA
ls] ,gsu ?kj&oj ikjks dsa HksfV, xsyfuA tkfg oj dsa ijes'oj ekuckd ^ikjks* t[ku izdkf'kr Hksy Ny] ra [kwc gks&gYyk epy NyA usr bZ] ts
f'k{kk gqudk nsy tkbr jgyfu] ikjks gqudk loZFkk ujfi'kkp ekuSr jgyhgA vk ;k=kh vuFkZ d;yfuA efe;kSr&fifl;kSr es izse lacak ns[kk d* dqdeZ d;yfuA
rb ujfi'kkp ysy ,dVk csVk dsa tUe n* d* ikjks ijyksd xsyhgA pqYgkb pkSkfj ^lqjek lxqu fopkjS uk* dFkk ij jktdey pkSkjh ij lsgks ,gus vk{ksi NyA
nkslj dksuks ikjks dsa dhu&cslkfg d* ?kj vuck ysy] vksdjk jkuh vk fd cfgfdjuh eqnk vksfg le;d eSfFkyhd ikBd bZ ufg cwf> ldykg ts ^ikjks* HkkbZ&cfgfud
vk fd kkSjch cuc* ysy eqDr Hk* xsykgA ta vb miU;kl dsa vkvksj vkxw izse dFkk ufg fFkd] vly es bZ dFkk fFkd fefFkykd ekuoh; nkfjnz~;d] eSfFkyd
c<+kvksy tkbr ra Qsj la dksuks ikjks vk fd lkcks vk fd yPNks dsj dFkk rS;kj ekufld v;ksX;rkd] csVh&iksrhd mesjd dqekfj lax fc;kg djckd jk{klh o`fkd]
Hk* ldSr NyA vb fc;kgd nykyh [kk d* ekSt&eLrh d;fugkj ?kVdjktd uh;rdA
vb O;oLFkkd chp xkSjokfUor vk vb ukyh es lg&lg djSr dhV&thou Hkkb&cfgud izse ra ,fg miU;kl esa izlaxo'k vk;y vfNA vksuk rkgw ij ta
fcrc* oyk eSfFkyd ysy] ^ikjks* lthou cwVhd :i es vk;yA tr; ianzg lkspy tk;] ra fopkj.kh; ckr bZ fFkd ts ta dksuks O;fDrd ekb] fifrvkbu]
c[kZd kh;k ysy iSarkyhl c[kZd nqrh oj dsa dU;kd ekb ,uk efgekeafMr djfFk] cfgu] Hkkmt] Hkkogqdksuks rjgd ;kSu&lacakd ijgst okyh L=kh vFkok ijnk
rr; ;k=kh ^ikjks* lu miU;kl fy[kckd lkgl d;yfu] bZ duh Vk ckr ufg jk[k* okyh L=kh lax drgq vR;kpkj Hk* xsy gks] L=kh vksr* ukaxV vk csgks'k iM+y
NyA tkfg miU;kl lekt es fcjtwd ihlk vk firkd vykok ,dks Vk iq#"k gks] ra dh vks O;fDr ,fg lkekftd f'k"Vkpkjd fopkj dj* yxrkg ts Hkkogqd
ik=k nw&rhu la de fookg ufg d;yfu] rkfg lekt es ^ikjks* vk ^fcjtw* lu 'kjhj es Li'kZ ufg djc] vk fd ekb&cfgu dsa ukaxV ufg ns[kc] vksdj Li'kZ
izxfr'khy fopkjd iks"kd dsa ijaijkd vkxw foo'k ns[kk;c LokHkkfods NyA ufg djc] vksdj ;kSukax Nqvk tk;r \ eSfFkyhd ikBd dsa Hkkx eusckd pkgh]
^ikjks* la iwoZ oSokfgd leL;k ij dsafnzr trsd lkfgR; l`tu eSfFkyh es ts tkfg ik[kaMd le; es ;k=khd leo;lh vk ledkyhu ys[kdx.k t[ku eSfFkyh
Hksy Ny vFkok Hk* jgy Ny] ls ewyr% vksfg le;d L=kh nqnZ'kk] tkfr ikaftd es dhrZu&Hktu vk jfr&lekxed dfork&dFkk fy[kSr Nykg] rkfg fodjky
dkj.k cgqfookg] cky&fookg] lklq&iqrkSgqd vkilh O;ogkj vkfn la lacafkr le; es ;k=kh ^ikjks* fy[kckd lkgl d;yfuA ^fdj.k* vksfg le;d viokn
fLFkfrd ladsr ek=k NyA ^ikjks* es ifgy csj uorkd ladsr vadqfjr HksyA laiw.kZ jgfFk] rdj izek.k ^panzxzg.k* 1932 miU;kld fo"k; vk f'kYi vfNA
miU;kl euksosxd fp=k.k es lQy Hksy vfNA ?kVukd fp=k.k de vfN] ?kVuk vly es ^ikjks* eSfFky lekt es fookg folaxfr vk csVhd izfr vekuqf"kd
la mRiUu euksHkko dsa fpf=kr djck es ;k=kh cslh ;Ru dsyfu vfNA vb euksHkkod O;ogkj esVsckd ysy rFkk jktuhfrd f'kfFkyrk rksM+* ysy ,dVk izHkkoh Loj
mn;s bZ lkfcr djSr vfN] ts le; vk lekt cnfy jgy vfN] ta lekt fFkdA ;|fi jktuhfrd xfrfofkd dksuks ldkjkRed izfrQy drgq ufg
ufgvksa cnyy vfN] ra le;d vuqlkj lekt dsa cnfy t;ckd pkghA ikjksd ns[kkvksy xsy vfNA eqnk uo ih<+h vksfg fn'k lf; vfN] iqjku ih<+h ,fg
izdk'kud ikap n'kd cknks vkbZ tkfg fefFkyk es izse&fookg viu LFkk;h vk xfrfofk dsa ^gq ys ys ys* dfg d* ,djk izfr viekutud kkj.kk izdV djSr
Lohr LFkku ufg cuk ldy vfN] rkfg izse&fookgd laHkkouk fnl ;k=kh vfNA eqnk vku nw i{k i;kZIr Li"Vrkd lax vk viu ifj.kked lax lks>ka
Lora=krkd iwoZfg ladsr d;us NfFkA bLyke keZd dksuks o;%lafkd ckfydkd vcSr vfNA laiw.kZ miU;kl if<+ xsykd ckn fcjtw dsa Mjiksd dgy tk;]
eksu dsa i<+ckd iz;kl d;y tk; ra Li"V cwf> iM+rS vfN vksdj Hkko ^viu izxfr'khy dgy tk; vk fd ik[akMh dgy tk; ls r; djc dfBu Hk*vks
tkfg fifrvkSr] efevkSr] eflvkSrd lax ge uaxVs ekfV es yksVk,y Nh] lr?kfj;k ldSr NyA eqnk ;k=khd rhuw miU;kl ikjks] uorqfj;k] cypuekd fo"k;
vk dfu;ka&iqrjk [ksyk,y Nh] ls ckyd lHk vkc toku Hk* jgy vfN vk vks foLrkjd izf;k ij ;ku nsyk la r; Hk* tkbr vfN] ts ;k=khd ^fcjtw* ,dne
lHk gejk es vkc viu fe=k ufg viu iRuh gks;ckd laHkkouk rkfd jgy la ^;k=kh*, tdka iVq vk izoh.k vfNA fcjtw dsa ,rck cksk NSd ts ,[ku yksg
vfN vk ^[kqnk* la izkFkZuk d* jgy vfN ts vksdj firk dsa gejk firk la ckr uhd tdka xjek;y ufg vfN] ,[ku ,djk ihVc O;FkZ tk;rA rsa t[ku&t[ku
pysckd ln~cqf) gksmdA* tsa fd bZ laHkkouk fganw kekZoyacu es ufg vfN] rsa miU;kl es :f<+oknh xi mBy vfN] fcjtw ek=k vksdj 'kkyhu izfrdkj d;yd
ikjksd iqNyk ij ^Hkkb, cfgu es ta fc;kg&nku gksbrSd ra dsgsu fnc gksbrS vfNA ihfl t[ku ikjks dsa MkaV&MiV djSr NfFk] ikjks dsa vHkkxfy vk vkvksj
! dr* dgka nud vufB;k dsa ts yksd mBk d* y* vcS, ls dksu cqfk;kjh \*fcjtw dh&dh us dgSr NfFk] ikSrh&ifFk;k cquckd ywfjokyh ckfydkd iz'kalk djSr
uorqfj, vkcvks vkxka @ 109 110 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
vkkqfud le;d ;qorhd fuank djSr NfFk] ra fcjtw gqudk 'kkyhurkd lax lHk efe;kSr&fiflvkSrd izse&lacak ij ,rs ra vcLls dgy t;ckd pkgh] ts
ckrd tokc nSr vfNA ?kVukd fojksk rkeld lax drgq ufg djSr vfNA ^nksuksa rjQ yxh gS vkx cjkcj&cjkcj*A eqnk fcjtw dsa bZ Li"Vr% iznf'kZr vFkok
vksuk ta lexzrk es ns[kh ra ;k=khd dksuks ik=k Hkk"k.k vk vkpj.k la relkbr ladsfrr djckd lkgl ufg gksbr NSd] fcjtw drgq ifjyf{kr ufg gkse; nSr
ufg ns[kkbr vfNA tfguk ;k=khd laiw.kZ rkel fgudj Hkk"kkd O;aX; es <fj vfNA eqnk ikjksd fph dsa vla[; csj i<+S,A euksoSKkfud fp=k.kd lgkjk la
tkbr vfN] rfguk ;k=khd ik=k dsj rkel lsgks vksdj dwVuhfr es cnfy tkbr bZ ckr ;k=kh Li"V d* ldykg vfNA eqnk fcjtwd izsed mRd"kZ drsd vykSfdd
vfN vk dk;Zflf)d ckn vksdj vlfj lks>ka vcSr vfNA fcjtw laiw.kZ dFkk vfN] ts vks ikjksd thoud lq[ke;&lqje; ekgkSyd bartke es O;Lr jgSr vfNA
es cslh Bka ukjkts jgSr vfNA eqnk lHk Bka ifjfLFkfr foijhr jgykd dkj.ksa fudfy nkslj fnl ikjksd izse es lkgl vfNA tr; fcjtw ijaijk dsa vkgr ufg djckd
t;ckd ckV rkfd ySr vfNA ;krO; fFkd ts ikjksd oj t[ku jkfr es ikjks usrsa lHk vkpj.k djSr vfN] vksrfg ikjksd izfrc)rk thou&ewY; la tqM+y vfN]
lax lekxe ysy tcjnLrh djSr NfFk vk ikjks ygw&yqgku Hk* d* iM+k tkbr ijaijk ta thoud lq[k&lkSjHk] vkdka{kk&vfHkyk"kk] ftuxhd lgtrk dsa vkgr
vfN] oj rS;ks ikjksd tku NksM+ck ysy rS;kj ufg NfFk] fulHksj uhu la tkxy dj,*] ra vksfg ijaijk dsa vkgr djck es ikjks dsa dksuks 'kkL=kh; erd lqj{kk ekU;
fcjtw t[ku ,fg n`'; la ifjfpr gksbr vfN] r[ku pkSkfj dsa ifCydyh QT>fr ufgA vksgquk] Lor% izekf.kr vfN ts tksf[ke mBsckd nqLlkgl gejk vksr; L=kh
djckd cnyk gqudk kksfi d* fonk djSr vfN vk ikjks dsa 'kkar Hk* d* le>kc* dsa trsd vfN rrsd iq#"k dsa ufgA
yxSr vfNA lok'kr% ^ikjks* bZ r; djSr vfN ts fookg lacakd ms'; t[ku izses fFkd]
bZ lHk Vk ifjfLFkfr ;k=khd nh?kZ j.kuhfrd ladsr fFkdA dgy t;ckd vk izse&izlax es fu"kskkKk vk otZukd xqatkb'k ufg vfN] r[ku bZ 'kkL=kh; fokku
pkgh ts le;kuqdwy fodkld izf;k es lektd fodkleku ifjfLFkfr ij ;k=khd thoud lgtrk ysy dksuk xzkA ,dVk for vk ?k`.kkLin ijaijkd lekukarj
rhuw miU;kl] rhu Vk vyx&vyx miU;kl ufg fFkd] cfYd rhu [kaM esa fy[ky efe;kSr&fifl;kSrd bZ izse&izlax jkf[k d* miU;kldkj ikBdd foosd dsa mn~cq)
fodkl&ijaijkd bfrgkl fFkdA fefFkykd fodkl o`{kd Fkfj ckUgy fr fFkd djckd iz;kl d;yfuA vgw Fkki la tsa fd eSfFky tuind vkaf[k ufg [kqty
^ikjks*A ,r, la i`"BHkwfe cuk d* ;k=kh vkxw c<+y NfFkA rsa ^uorqfj;k* vk;yA
nkslj n`f"V,a fopkj djh ra fefFkykd leLr tuind yksdkpkj le`) ^ikjks*d izdk'kud i'pkr ns'k Lora=k HksyA eqnk fefFkyk es O;kir csesy
vk lekn`r Hkk"kk es ,r* izHkkoh <ax la fpf=kr Hksy vfNA ^ikjks* jtLoyk Hk* fookg] csVh cspckd izFkk] lkfB c[kZd cw<+ lax Vkdkd yksHksa vk dkSfyd Js"Brkd
xsyhg vfN bZ ckr [kksfy d* dgckd dksuks foo'krk ;k=kh dsa ufg HksyfuA yksHksa ianzg c[kZd csVh@Hkrhth@iksrh@ukfru dsa fc;kfg nsckd gjDdfr cUu ufg
ikjks dgSr Nfu ts rsjges es iaanzged Hk* xsy Nh vk ihfl dgydfu ts [khjkd HksyA Lokra=;ks=kj dky es ns'k dsj vku&vku Hkk"kk lHk es tr; lkekftd&lkaLfrd&
ch;k cf<+Eek NySd rS;ks fd, ufg tueySA vk] bZ ladsr i;kZIr Hk* xsyA jktuhfrd mRFkkud rduhdh izf;k] 'kks"k.k&mRihM+u vk lkear'kkgh rFkk csdkjh&
cykRdkjd lwpuk nsck ysy ikjks 'kksf.kr la Hkhty uwvk Nqvk nsydfu] ?kVuk csjkstxkjh] vFkkZHkko&vUukHkkod dqfVy uhfr ij fopkj gksv, ykxy Ny]
laizsf"kr Hk* xsyA etnwj oxZd ts efgyk fcjtw dsa usuiu es csVk tdka lacksfkr jktuhfrd tkxj.kd ckr gksbr Ny] rr, fefFkykd yksd csVh cspckd kakk es
djSr Nyfu] ls lHk nhvj tdka O;ogkj djSr Nfu( i<+* fy[k* ykxy fcjtw fokZ NyA ,gsu fodjky le; es vksfg csVhd ekb vk ^;k=kh* nqud w O;Fkkd
ra xked Hkkmt lHk vkc fijgh ij cSlk d* xi dj* ykxyfuAvb lHk dYiuk d;y tk ldSr vfNA ;k=khd LFkku ij ta dksuks 'kkVZ&VsEiMZ vdckyh
n`"Vkard lax ^ikjks* eSfFky tuind thou&izf;kd dksykt fFkd] tr; pwfYg&fpuckj] lkekftd dk;ZdkkZ jfgrfFk ra vks fefFkykd ,gsu dqfVy dhV lHk dsa ukaxV Hk*
v;;u&v;kiu] [ksrh&ckM+h] i'kq&ikyu O;oLFkk] ?kVdSrh] fookg uhfr] lkekftd d* xfjvfcrfFk vFkok dksuks vaxzst flikgh tdka xksyh la nkfx fnrfFkA eqnk
izes &?k`.kk] jkx&}s"k] fookg& f}jkxeud fofk&O;ogkj] jkt&dktd fLFkfr] dksV&dpgjh] ;k=kh ra ls ufg NykgA vks ra uhfriw.kZ <ax la lekt dsa cny* pkgSr NykgA
uksdj&pkdj] lkSfr;k Mkg] ^Vksy&iM+ksld gLr{ksi la ikfjokfjd >a>fVd fucVkjk] ^uorqfj;k* eSfFkyh es fy[ky fgudj nkslj miU;kl fFkdA vgw miU;kld
d*j&dqVqed lg;ksx lHkVk viu&viu ewY;okk vk viu&viu oSf'k"V~;d lax dsanzh; dFkk oSokfgds leL;k fFkdA eqnk vb miU;kld uk;d dksuks ,d Vk
,fg miU;kl es mifLFkr vfNA ikjks xrZxkeh eSfFky tuind ysy ,d Vk yydkj ;qod ufg] iwjk ;qok'kfDr fFkdA tr; ^ikjks* es leL;k rkfd d* vksfg ij vaxqjh
fFkd] ts lHk dsa lh<+h ns[kk d* ij v;ckd izsj.kk nSr vfNA jkf[k nsc* kfj ;k=kh lhfer jgykg vksrfg ^uorqfj;k* es leL;kd fodYi kfj
uorqfj, vkcvks vkxka @ 111 112 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
igqapykgA [kks[kk iafMr lu fufo"V yksd ts] c l*[k la viu ukfrud uke kksrh es psQM+h yxk d* >airkg] r[ku us vaxuk es VkV yxc* fnl fokZ gsrkgA
^fo'os'ojh* j[kyfu] mPpkj.k es ,fg uke dsa fd;ks BsaB djSr ^fclsljh* dg; uorqfj;k miU;kl vb fodjky fLFkfr;ks es ledkyhu vku fo"k; kfj
ra vksfg ij dqf<+ mBfFkA ls [kks[kk iafMr] laLr vk O;kdj.kd fufo"V fo}ku dsfa nzr ufg Hk* icSr vfN ls cgqr xksVs dgrA eqnk ;k=kh O;wg es ck>y vk
[kks[kk iafMr] tehu ij vufkr dCtk dj* es] xkjk&xkjh dj* es] LokFkZ&flf)d ?ksjk;y vfHkeU;q tdka ,d lax drsd yM+kb yfM+ jgy NfFk rdj ladrs ^ikjks*
ysy viu cky&cPpk] csVk&csVh] ukfr&ukfrud xjnfu dkV* es dfu;ks ufg es lsgks nsy xsy vfN] ^uorqfj;k* es lsgks vk ^cypeuk* es ra lgtfgaA
yt,ykgA miU;kldkj {kqCk NfFkA ,fg pfj=kd fo'ys"k.k rrsd 'kkunkj <axsa ^uorqfj;kd* fo"k; iqjku vo'; vfN] eqnk uo'kfDr ij ;k=khd vkLFkk ,d Vk
miU;kl es Hksy vfN ts ikBd Nxqark es jgrkg ts ta [kks[kk iafMr fo}ku] ra uo fuekZ.kd ladsr fFkdA fo'os'ojhd izLrkfor o*j prqjk pkSkfj dsa ?kqjk d*]
dqfVy&dlkbd dh ifjHkk"kk \ tkfg ukfrud uked mPPkkj.kd izfr [kks[kk iafMr fookg jksfd iqu% dU;kd vuqdwy oj okpLifr la fookg djkSfugkj ^ce ikVhZ*d
,rsd lpsr NfFk] rkfg fo'os'ojhd thoud izfr vks ,rsd nkuoh; vkpj.k usrk vk vksdj lnL; lHkd uSfrd mRd"kZ dsa ,ds lax dSdVk vksj&Nksj ns[kkSus
dksuk djSr NfFk] ts pkSng c[kZd ukfrud fookg ipiu c[kZd cw<+ prqjk pkSkfj NfFkA ^ikjks* es tr; lHk Vk vuSfrd fLFkfr dsa tsuk&rsuk lsfn ekfj d* pyckd
lax r; djSr NfFk] ts ikap&ikap fookg iwoZfg d* pqdy NfFk ! vkxzg ns[kkvksy xsy] iSarkfyl c[kZd vkcslw lax ianzg c[kZd ikjks fuR; izfr
^ceikVhZ* vk ,fg ikVhZd usrk fnxEcj efYyd vk ,fg ;qokoxZd vku cyRrk gksb y, pys xsy] ikjks larkuorh Hksy] eqnk Lo;a ufg jgybZ lHkVk
lnL; egs'oj >k] xksumM+k] gsgqvk] cyHknz feJ] okpLifrfgudk lHkd v?kV ?kVy] miU;kld uk;d vFkok miU;kldkj fdNq ufg d* ldykgA eqnk
'kkyhurk] izxfr'khyrk] mxzrk] fgudk lHkd fonzksgh Loj] vukpkjd izfr fgudk ^uorqfj;k* es vks lHk fdNq d* ldykg] ts vks dj* pkgSr Nykg vFkok ts gqudk
lHkd fojkskbZ lHkVk fp=k ,fg miU;kl es Hkdjkj Hk* d* lks>ka vk;y vfNA djckd pkgh NyA
vb le; kfj fgUnh es fguds miU;kl ^jfrukFk dh pkph*] ^ckck cVsljukFk*] [kks[kk iafMr] ?kVdjkt] prqjk pkSkfj] eqf[k;klHk dsa ;k=khd uorqfj;k
^cypuek* vkfn vkfc pqdy NyAHkkjrd c`gr~ ifjn`'; es thoud ,fg izkphu ikfu fivk nsydfu] lHk dsa ukd es dkSM+h ckfUg nsydfu] lkekftd vk oSkkfud
dqjhfr lHk dsa fclfj d* yksd iS?k&iS?k folaxfr lHk ij fopkj dj* ykxy Ny] nquw rjgsa fgudj r#.k oxZ dqfVy iqjku ih<+h dsa ijkftr&viekfur vk lpsr
Lokkhurkd Nvks&lkr c[kZ fcrykd cknks Hkkjr es Lokkhurk lu dksuks ckr d;ydfu vfNA eqf[k;kd cSekuh ij izgkj Hksy] ?kVdjktd f?kukSu R; ij
cq>kbr ufg NyA izgkj Hksy] iafMrthd dqdeZd rkark VwVy] prqjk pkSkfj fcu fc;kgs ?kqjykg vk
vly es euq"; oS;fDrdrk la eqDr Hksus fcuk O;kid lkekftd lanHkZ la fo'os'ojhd fookg lektokn es fu"Bk j[kfugkj ;qod okpLifr la HksyA
tqfM+ ufg icSr vfNA rsa vkRefgrkFkZ euq"; lkekftd vuq'kklu Lohdkj djSr r#.k ih<+hd bZ fot; vk izlxa o'k vk;y vusd ?kVuk] mi?kVuk] ;qok'kfDrd
vfNA eqnk t[ku ifjfLFkfr vksdjk foo'k d* nSr NSd] fo{kqCk&dqafBr&viekfur la?kVu bZ lHkVk] miU;kldkjd Hkkoh ladrs dsa |ksfrr djSr vfN vk gqud
vk lekt misf{kr d* nSr NSd] r[ku vks fonzksg djSr vfNA Lokkhurk laxzke izxfrdkeh psruk dsa iq"V djSr vfNA tr; ^ikjks* es ln~&vln~ nquw rjgd ik=k
la iwoZ Hkkjrd ukxfjd ts lHk liuk ns[kus Ny] eqfDr dkeukd trsd iS?k egy viu&viu ekU;rk es lkQ Ny] ddjks eksu es dksuks }a} ufg NySd] vksrfg
cukSus Ny] rdj iwfrZ Lokra=;kskj Hkkjr es ufg Hk* ldyA vkfFkZd oS"kE;] csdkjh] ^uorqfj;k* es vkfc d* ifjfLFkfr ,d kki vkxw j[kydA ,r; uorqfj;k
vjktdrk] vuSfrdrk] vekuoh;rk] lu for n`'; lks>ka vkc* yxySdA bZ ,dne la'k;eqDr vk lkglh Hk* xsyA laxfg o`) vk vjktd ih<+h }a}xzLr
leLr fLFkfr Hkfo";d izfr yksd dsa vk'oLr ufg d* ldyA iwjk ns'k iqu% vksfg gkse; ykxy vfNA eqf[k;k] iafMr] ?kVdjkt vk prqjk pkSkfj pk: var}}xzLr
fLFkfr es py xsy] tr; ,d fnl ldy lkeF;Z la ifjiw.kZ vfkal[; turk lsgks NfFkA fgudk yksdfu dsa eksu es vkc la'k; izos'k dj* ykxy NfuA Hk[kjSr
O;oLFkktU; lqfokk la oafpr Ny] vksrfg eqh Hkfj vfkdkj izkIr O;fDr viu ijke dsa lesVckd m|e es O;Dr Hkus ufg gksfFk] eqnk eksu es la'k; gksbr
lq[k lqfokk tqVc* es fyIr NyA Lokkhurk izkfIrd cknd miU;kld oLrq] NfuA
fo"k; vk uk;d b,g ifjfLFkfr] ,gus ?kVuk vk ,gus O;fDr Hk* jgy NyA nkslj fnl ;k=khd uorqfj;k vkc iwjk iwjh lektd deku viuk gkFk es
bZ leLr fLFkfr fefFkyks es fo|eku Ny] eqnk vksr* vksgw la iwoZd leL;k vksgw y* usus NfuA vks vkc ikfjokfjd vk oS;fDrd 'kks"k.k la y* d* jk"Vh; jktuhfr
la fodjky eqag ckSus NyA ;k=khd fLFkfr ra bZ Nyfu ts ifgus iksu ij QkVy kfjd izfr] oS;fDrd varnZeu la y* d* lkekftd vukpkjd izfr] vfkdkj
uorqfj, vkcvks vkxka @ 113 114 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
gj.k la dRrZO; cksk kfjd izfr] lpsr jgSr NfuA rsa vkc ^cypuek* lu j[kSr vfN vk la?k"kZd cysa viu vfkdkj gLrxr dj* pkgSr vfN] vFkkZr
^idBksl* jktuhfrd Loj oyk ik=kd vorj.k fefFkyk es vuxZy ufg gSrA vkc cypuek gksjh la vkxw vfNA gejk cq>us yksd dusd =kqfV d* jgy vfNA vly
vku dksugq rjgd iqjku vk :f<+xzLr leL;k gks ra vksdjk uorqfj;k nsf[k ysrA es cypuek] gksjh la uba] xkscj la vkxwd pfj=k fFkdA xkscjd pfj=k fodkl es
^cypuek* vkxw c<+, gksjh }kjk ts&ts ckkk igqapy NySd] rdj xqatkb'k ;k=kh ifgufg lekir d* nSr
^cypuek* d izdk'ku eSfFkyh es 1967 es HksyA fgUnh esa 1952 es bZ Nfi NfFk] cypuekd firk izkjaHkfg es lalkj NksfM+ nsus jgSr vfNA rfguk cypuekd
pqdy NyA lu~ 1967 kfj ra ns'kd fLFkfr dh la dh Hk* xsy NyA eqnk ekb vkkqfud Hkkjrh; ukjhd izrhd ^kfu;k*d fodkl ed :i es lks>ka vcSr
dkyt;h frd le; dfg;ks lekIr ufg gksbr NSdA MkW- f=kHkqou flag vfNA vk r[ku rqyukRed <axs cypuek dsa ^xkscjd lekfk ijd vadqjh* dgy
;FkkFkZoknh lkfgR;d ifjHkk"kk fuf'pr djSr cypuek dsa ;FkkFkZoknh miU;kl tk;c mfpr fFkdA
?kksf"kr d;us NfFk% ^;FkkFkZoknh lkfgR;d lHk la iS?k fo'ks"krk b,g gksbr vfN efydkbu] Qwy ckcw] eqf[k;k] NksVdh] efydkbu] xquearh] lqf[k;k uksdjuh]
ts vks lektd ewy es lf; kafrdkjh 'kfDr lHk dsa phfUg d* vksdjk }kjk lcwjh eaMy] nkeks Bkdqj] NksVs ekfyd] gehnk] lknqYyk [kka] caHkksyk >k] ekb] nknh]
c<+kvksy vkanksyud mYys[k djSr iawthoknd uk'k vk fuEu oxZd fot; es iw.kZ jscuh] jke[ksykou vkfn ik=kd enfr,a ^cypuek*d dFkk es fodkl vk;y
vkLFkk O;Dr dj;] tkfg la fujk'kk rFkk thoud nk gkjy fuEu Lrjd yksd esa vfNA Je] f"k] bZekunkjh] fu"Bk uSfrdrk] foosd] ekuqf"kdrk] ekuo&ewY;d
vk'kkd lapkj gks vk vks yksdfu viuk dsa vksfg ;ksX; cuk ldfFk] ts lektd Js"Brk] ekuoh; laca kd mRd"kZ lHk Vk ,fg miU;kl es uk;d vk lg;ksxh
fo"ke ifjLFkfr lHk la ohjrkd lax la?k"kZ d* ldfFk fgUnh miU;kl vkSj pfj=kd pfj=kkadu es O;Dr Hksy vfNA vksdj leLr thou&p;kZ] nSfud
;FkkFkZokn] i`- 33A* vb vFkZ es cypuek lqPpk ;FkkFkZoknh miU;kl fFkdA f;kfnd laxsa rrsd euksje <axsa bZ lc rRo O;Dr vfN ts lHk ,ds lax fodkl
gsck ysy vb miU;kl es lkearh oxZd efgyk] efydkbud wjrkd vk izxfr'khyrkd izfr miU;kldkjd vkxzg] fefFkykd lkekftd izxfr]
fp=k.k( eqf[k;kd vizkfrd eSFkqud gjDdfr] nfyr oxZd nSU;] lkear oxZd lektd cnySr eu%fLFkfr] fefFkykd tuin es cly yksdkpkj] lHkd ifjp;
dqdeZ] lektd lkekU; jgu&lgu lHk fLFkfrd fp=k.k Hksy vfNA eqnk ewy nSr vfNA pfj=k fp=k.k es ;k=khd ys[kuh dsa egkjr izkIr Nfu] vks ra t[ku
:i la bZ miU;kl cypuekd thou&dFkkd cgUus eSfFkyh ikBd dsa lkeF;Z dforks es] tr; ,dkk iafDr la cslhd xqatkb'k ufg jgSr vfN] rrgq viu
nsckd dSIlwy] fn'kk ns[ksckd e'kky vk lax j[kckd ysy gfFk;kj fFkdA uk;dd pfj=k ?khfp nSr NfFk] r[ku miU;kld dksu dFkkA [kkgs cypuek gks
Lokra=;kskj Hkkjrd ts n'kk Ny] fuEu oxZd yksdd ts fLFkfr Ny] rdj fp=k.k vFkok vksdj ekb] nknh] ekfydkbu] tehankj dsvks gksm] lHkd pkfjf=kd mRd"kZ
,fg miU;kld 'kjhj fFkd] eqnk vkRek fFkd vksb nSU; es lquxSr yqkh] ts vk {kqnzrk thoar Hk* mBSr vfNA
cypuekd n; es lquxSr vfNA Hkkjrd xjhc] 'kksf"kr vk ihfM+r turkd Loj ^ikjks* vk ^uorqfj;k*d rqyuk es ^cypuekd* fo"k; fHkUu vfN] rsa
fFkd cypuekA rkd; pkgh ra ,r; ;FkkFkZokn] vkapfydrk] euq";okn] f"k LoHkkor% dFkk vk pfj=kd lax VhVesaV lsgks fHkUu vfNA eqnk tsuk fd ;k=khd
vkanksyu] nfyr vkanksyu] lkearh 'kfDrd ijkHko] lkekftd oS"kE;d lekfIrd LoHkkod ewy fn'kk Je] uSfrdrk vk euq";rkd i{kkjrk fn'k tkbr vfN] rsa
m|e lHk HksfV tk;rA ,fg miU;kl es Je'khy lektd izfr vkLFkk O;Dr vgw es ls Li"V vfNA usuius la cypuek fu}} vk viu pfj=k ,oa lakku fnl
d;y xsy vfNA ys[kd Jed izfr vkLFkk j[kfugkj lektd fuekZ.k gsrq vkxzgh m|r jgSr vfNA f"k] i'kqikyu] Je vk lkekftd O;oLFkkd izfr vkLFkk]
NfFkA fgudj fu.kZ; Nfu] ts fdNq Hk* tkmd] deklqrs Vk [kk;rA vk] vb ysy ;k=khd Hkk"kk es VidSr jgSr vfNA ^ikjks* la izkjaHk Hksy ;k=khd miU;kl&;k=kk gy
fdlku&etnwj dsa laxfBr vk la?k"kZ'khy gks;ckd vkg~oku d;y xsy vfNA ^cypues* ij fd,d vVfd xsy ,fg iz'ud tokc eSfFkyhd ikBd] izdk'kd
tehankj la MfV d* jgckd vk ,fg la?k"kZ es tqVy jgckd fLFkfrd fuekZ.k vk dfFkr egar&eBkkh'ks n* ldSNA
izkjaHkfg la ys[kd d;us NfFkA vksuk] ,rck vo'; Hksy] ts ;k=kh viu ijorhZ miU;kl ys[kdd ysy ckV
rqyuk djck ysy yksd ^cypuekd* rqyuk ^xksnkud* gksjh la djSr dg* cukSyfu vk rsa lHk rjgd fo"k; ij miU;kl fy[ky tk; ykxyA uorqfj;k la
yxSr vfN ts cuypek gksjh tdka ifjfLFkfrd nkl ufg gksbr vfN] kkfeZd vks tkfg rjgd vis{kk d;us Nykg] ls gqudj uorqfj;k ns[kk nsydfu] eqnk
vakfo'okl vk ikjaifjd :f<+ es ck>y ufg jgSr vfN] viu ckafg ij Hkjksl iqjudk rwj ,[kugqa gkfj eku* ysy rS;kj ufg vfNA ns[kk pkgh
n`f"Vdks.k vk dkO; oLrqd lhek @ 115 116 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
rkkfj fgUnh es ikap&Nvks xksV iksFkh vkfc xsy NyfuA 1958 kfj fgUnh es
rhljk lIrd* izdkf'kr Hk* pqdy NyA fgUnh dfork Nk;kokn] izxfrokn vkfnd
pkSdfB ukaf?k d, iz;ksxoknd vkaxu es fopj.k djSr NyA 1949 es ^fp=kk*
vk 1958 es ^Lojxakk*d izdk'ku eSfFkyh dfork dsa fgUnhd lekukarj pyckd
lkeF;Z n* pqdy NySd] eqnk vkjlh izlkn viu izkphu vklu ij cSly jgykgA
^ekfVd nhi*] fgudj vksfg ekU;rk la vkxw ufg lljyA 1967 bZ- es fgudj
nkslj fr vk,y ^iwtkd Qwy*A 1960 la 1967 kfjd rhl xksV dforkd
laxzg es vfkdka'k dfork 1967 bZ- d fFkdA ,fg laxzgd izk;% rhu&pkfjVk
nf"Vdks.k vk dkO; oLrqd lhek dfork ,gsu gSr] tkfg es ns'kd izfr leiZ.k vk HkfDrHkko iznf'kZr vfN] ,dkk
Vk thouksins'k la lac) lsgks] vU;Fkk leLr dfork es vks,g dhkZu&Hktu vk
fojg&izse vkfn vfNA lu~ lkfBd i'pkr~ fgUnh vk eSfFkyh nquw lkfgR;d dfork
1911 bZ- es oS|ukFk feJ ^;k=kh* vk vkjlh izlkn flagd tUe HksyA fofp=k es vkvksjks uork vk,yA fgUnh es ubZ dfork vk eSfFkyh es uo dforkd ;qx
lkE; vfN] ts nquw xksV, fgUnh vk eSfFkyh nquw Hkk"kk es l`tu'khy jgykg( nquw f{kiz xfr,a izkjaHk HksyA jktdey] uo <axsa dforkd ifjHkk"kk nsyfu] ^dfork
xksV, vis{kkr eSfFkyh es ifjek.kkRed Lrj ij de fy[kyfu( dkyes nquw vkc ufg vfN ukf;dk Hksn] u[k&f'k[k] flaxkj@dfork ufg vfN jfr foijhrd
xksV, eSfFkyh es lkfgR; vdkneh la iqjLr Hksykg( eqnk] ;k=kh tdka] vkjlh myVy xzhokgkj@dfork fFkd tuthoud vfXuizk.k t;?kks"k*A eqnk dfo vkjlh
izlkn us ra nquw Hkk"kkd fofok fokk es jpuk'khy jgykg] us fgUnh es ;k=kh tdka izlkn vksrfg vofLFkr jgykgA jksth&jksVh y, Hkksfrvkbr tu&thoud var%i{k
tfe ldykgA ;k=kh tdka vkkqfudks gSc fgudk la laHko ufg Hk* ldyfu] us dsa ufg i<+yfuA Lora=krk izkfIrd iwoZd tuthoud vfHkyk"kkd izfr viu
Hkk"kkd Lrj ij vk us fo"k;d Lrj ijA izk;% b,g dkj.k fFkd] ts ijorhZ ih<+h jpuk es laosnu'khy ufg Hksykg vk us Lokra=;kskj tuthoud 'kks"k.k&mRihM+ud
es viu dkO; fn'kkd dksuks izHkko&ksr bZ ufg NksfM+ ldykgA izfr lkdka{ks HksykgA eqnk---
vkjlh izlknd ifgy izdkf'kr jpuk fFkd ^'ksQkfydk*] ts ^Hkkjrh* eqnk] nkslj n`f"V,a vkjlh izlkn flagd ekns bZ ufg dgy tk ldS,] ts
if=kdkd lkre vad es 1937 bZ- es izdkf'kr HksyA bZ le; ns'kd ukxfjd ysy bZ euq";d laosnuk la loZFkk fujis{k jgykgA oLrqr% ekuo thoud O;Fkk dsa ek=k
ijra=krk izrkj.kkd le; NyA eqnk] vkjlh izlkn vgw fodjky le; es Nan] vksdj leL;s Vk la ufg vkady tk ldS,A ,fg leLr ifjfLFkfrd vNSrks
'kCnkMacj] kaxkj] okd~tky vkfnd lax eSfFkyh lkfgR; es izos'k d,yfuA ekuoh; laosnuk la izserRo dsa ufg dkVy tk ldSr vfNA jktdey pkSkjh]
lkfgR; vke turkd ysy thou&lakku&iFk es fdj.kekykd dkt djSr tkfg ekuoh; varjaxrk] vksdj vkReneu] vksdj vkRekaxkj vkfnd ppkZ d,us
vfN vk lkfgR;dkj vksdj iFk izn'kZd gksbr NfFkA vFkok ,uk dgh] ts NfFk] rkfg es izserRod egRo U;wu ufg vfNA vkjlh izlkn viu jpuk&lalkj
lkfgR;dkj tu lkekU;d n`f"V gksbr NfFk] lektd ltx izgjh gksbr NfFkA bZ es ,fg izse&ro dsa izPNUu :isa ns[kus NfFkA ;|fi fgUnh lkfgR; es izse ekxZ
rF; 'kk'or lR; fFkd vk vkjlh izlkn ,fg ckr la uhd tdka ifjfpr jgy vk HkfDr ekxZ HkkjrsUnq iwoZ vk eSfFkyh es eucksk la iwoZd pht fFkdA eqnk vkjlh
gsrkgA fgUnh es 1938 bZ- es fgudj fr ^dykih* vk,yA fgUnh;gq es 1936 izlkn ,fg nquw ro dsa viuk lkfgR; es uo n`f"Vdks.ksa fpf=kr d,us NfFkA
bZ- es eqYdkjkt vkuUn vk lTtkn tghjd m|ksx la izsepUnd v;{krk es fgudj jpuk es ^izse* viu foLr`r vk;ked lax vk,y vfN vk vgh
izxfr'khy ys[kd la?kd vfkos'ku HksyA Nk;koknd xHkZ la uohu lkekftd izse la fgudj HkfDr Hkkouk] kaxkj o.kZu vk izfr fp=k.k fuLlfjr Hksy vfNA
psrukd fuLlj.k HksyA izxfr'khy fopkj kkjkd dkO;l`tu izkjaHk Hk* pqdy ,fg rhuw fn'kk es izLQqfVr fgudj mn~xkj iw.kZ vkSnk;Zd lax dkseydkar Hkkoukd
NyA fdarq ckV iz'kLr Hk* xsykd vNSrks] vkjlh viu HkfDr&Hkkouk] dhkZu&Hktu] ljy&lgt&ljl vfHkO;fDr ivksyd vfNA ,fg leLr fp=k.k es dfo viu
izse&ifjdYiuk es ykxy jgykgA varl~ dsa vfHkO;Dr djck es tkfg rjgsa lQy Hksy NfFk] ls fgudj dyk vk
1958 es fgudj dfork eSfFkyh es ladfyr Hk* d, vk,y ^ekfVd nhi*A lkfgR;d izfr leiZ.k( Nan'kkL=kh;] vyadkj'kkL=kh; Kkud mRd"kZ( dYiuk'khyrkd
n`f"Vdks.k vk dkO; oLrqd lhek @ 117 118 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
pkrq;Z vk jpuk'khyrk ifjiDorkd |ksrd fFkdA dkenXkk ukf;dkd varjsPNk dsa mRd"kZ nSr NfFkA izseijd dforkd ,fg
vkjlh izlkn] oLrqr% ns'kn'kk vk lekt lkis{krk dsa fdNq gn kfj viu oxhZdj.kd ifgy dksfV es fgudj dfork ^xhr*] ^izrh{kk* vkfn vcSr vfNA
l`tu&lalkj es vuyfu vfNA ^vfHk;ku*] ^Lons'k&oUnuk*] ^ckft xsy j.kMad* ,fg nquw dfork es jkfr la Hkksj gksbr vfNA nquwd ukf;dk jkfr dsa viuk&viuk
vkfn fdNq ,gsu dfork vfN] tkfg es ns'kd izfr dfod leiZ.k Hkko viu n`f"Vdks.ksa ns[kSr NfFkA ,d dsa la;ksx Nfu] nkslj dsa fo;ksxA dfo] nquwd euksHkko
lqPpk Lo:i es of.kZr Hksy vfN] ^vkdk'k&nhid*] ^vkkqfud* vkfn fdNq ,gsu dsa viu okd~pkrq;Zd cy ij iw.kZ thoarrk iznku d,yfu vfNA ^izrh{kk*d
dfork vfN] tkfg es lektlkis{k f;k&vfHkf;k dsa fpf=kr d,y xsy vfNA ukf;dkd ^ekud ekyh jgy euksjFk ckx mtM+Sr jkfr Hkfj*] vk ^xhr*d
uohu xhfre;rk vk ekuoh; izse Hkkoukd fp=k.k fgudj dforkd fo'ks"krk ukf;dkd ^ywVy euflt pksj js ru] eu] ku] eku* nquw Hkkouk dfod
fFkdA dkO;&dkS'ky la vuqizkf.kr Hk* mBy vfNA fgudj nkslj dksfVd izseijd ts
fgudj HkfDr&jpuk dsa nw dksfV es ckaVy tk ldSr vfNA ifgy dksfV es dfork lHk vfN] rkfg es eq[; vfN ^dksuk jfg ldS Nh*] ^?kVk nsf[k dkjh*]
vks jpuk lHk vcSr vfN] tr, dfo fufyZIr Hkkosa viuk dsa fujhg] v'kD; vk ^,dVk izse&ikr* vkfnA dfooj vkjlh izlknd ,fg dksfVd dforkd laizs"k.kh;rk
'kj.kkxr cuk d, viu mikL;d izcy lkeF;Zd] f;k&dykid] iwoZ 'kkS;ZxkFkkd vlhe vfNA dfo ,fg dfork lHk es fojfg.kh ukf;dkd nXk n;d dksu la
lax tkxfrd leL;k] viu foo'krk] nSU; vkfnd ppkZ djSr NfFkA fgudj ,fg mBy mn~osx dsa vrho eeZLi'khZ cukSus NfFkA
dksfVd jpuk es ^eaxykpj.k*] ^xksgkfj*] ^'kj.kkFkhZ*] ^vJqekspu* vkfn dfork lHk dfod ,fg dksfVd dfork dsa fo'ysf"kr djck dky mnkk izse vk
vcSr vfN( tr, dfo viu vuk'kDr leiZ.k] mRdV vkLFkk vfnd lax vksgh O;oLFkktU; vHkko nquw dsa ;ku es jkf[k d, py, iM+rA ts iz'u vkkqfud
nsork dsa leLr l`f"Vd dkj.k ekuSr] gqudfg 'kj.k es jr jg, pkgSr NfFkA bZ dforkd izs{k.k es eksu es csj&csj mBSr jgSr vfN] rdj lkdkj Lo:i fgudk dfork
leiZ.k] fo"k;d n`f"V,a ;|fi fgudj vakfo'okl] HkXu f;k'khyrk vkfnd es mifLFkr vfNA vk bZ iz'u fFkd] ts dh O;oLFkktU; fonzwirk] 'kks"k.k] vukpkj
|ksrd gSr] eqnk] dforkd lajpukRedrk dsa viu leiZ.kd mn~osx es vkap ufg iziap] vHkko] csdkjh---,fg leLr oLrqfu"Brkd dkj.ksa vktqd ekuo&thou la
ykx, nsyfu vfNA laLr cgqy 'kCn okD;&foU;kld vNSrks dforkd Jqfr izse vyksfir Hk* xsy \ ---ta ls ufg] ra vktqd dfork es izserRod ysy
ekkq;Z] v{kq..k vfNA HkfDrijd fgudj nkslj dksfVd jpuk] ^oh.kk okfnuh* izlaxkuqdwyks txg fd,d ufg \ t[ku fd vktqd lkfgR; ledkyhu ekuo&thoud
dforkd dksfVd jpuk fFkdA tr, dfo vfr'k; mnkj Hk* tkbr NfFk vk ^Lo* vuqfr fFkdA dfo vkjlh izlknd ,fg dfork lHkd ukf;dk dsa foiUurk la
la lef"V es izos'k djSr ns'kd fufek izkFkZuk djSr NfFkA izdkjkarj la fgudj cslh nq%[k fojg nSr NfuA fgudk ysy ^fiz;* d vHkko lHk la iS?k foiUurk
,fg dksfVd jpuk es Nk;koknd laLdkj rkdy tk ldSr vfNA HkfDrijd fFkdfuA dfod ,fg rjgd fp=k.k euq";d jkxkRed lacakd mRd"kZ dsa vkvksjks
fgudj nquw dksfVd jpuk es dfo mikld vk mikL;d vHks| lacak LFkkfir cslh mapkb nSr vfNA ukf;dkd ,dkdhiud nnZ dsa fpf=kr djck dky dfod
djck es lQy Hksy NfFkA HkfDr es iw.kZ okRlY;d lekos'k djck es l{ke Hksy mieku lHk vn~Hkqr fp=k mifLFkr djSr vfN ^yrfj xsy ikuks@QqVy vfN
NfFkA e[kkuks@lksguxj yxS vfN xk;d cFkkuks@iksly N*y iM+ok] ls Hk* xsy tksM+k@gefg
izseijd jpuk es dfod vfHkO;fDrd ljkguk] drcks d,yk ij U;wu ,lxj] vkc pfy vkm vius*A ukjh lqyHk ykylk fFkd vksdj ekr`Ro] fi;kd
gSrA ;|fi ,fg dksfVd cgqr jkl jpuk es dfo 'kCn&foU;kl es laLrkuqjkxh lax vksdj okl... vk rdjk dfo l|% izlwrk xk; vk tksM+k iM+ckd mieku la
Hk* xsy NfFk] Hkkoksnzsdd vuqeki rkfg rjgsa vlhe Hk* mBy vfN] ts fgudj bZ |ksfrr d,us NfFkA iM+okd tksM+hd izse vfr izxk<+ gksbr vfN] ts izk;% dksugqa
vuqjkx] jllaizs"k.k es ckkd ufg cuSr vfNA lE;d~ :isa dfo vkjlh izlkn ifjfLFkfr es laxfg jg, pkgSr vfN vk xk;d ekRl;Z izk;% lHk izk.kh la cslh
flagd jpukd voyksdu la bZ rF; lks>ka vcSr vfN] ts fgudj dfork es Hkkoqd gksbr vfNA ,fg rjgd fcac mifLFkr djckd dkS'ky] dfod vxkk
HkkoukRed izse tSo :i es lHkBke fo|eku jgSr vfN] vk dfod dkO;dkS'kyd lkkukd |ksrd fFkdA ls] bZ ukf;dk vgh iM+ok tdka lHk fdNq cnkZ'r d* ysrhg]
Li'kZ la lc Bke viu ekSfyd Lo:i es thoar Hk* mBSr vfNA ,d fn'k viu ^---exj] ta vgka] ra] QkVyks iVacj@djc ge xqtj---*A izsed ,fg mRd"kZ dsa dfo
fdNq dfork es foHkko] vuqHkko dsa mifLFkr d* d, rR{k.k izseHkko vadqfjr viu vkuks dfork es O;Dr d,us NfFk] tr, ukf;dkd eksu izk.k dsa eUeFk
djcSr NfFk] ra nkslj fn'k iwoZ lafpr izse es fo;ksxd fLFkfr mRiUu d* d, vkgr d,us NfFku vk izoklh fi;kd gsrq izyki es ykxy NfFkA vksfg osnuke;
n`f"Vdks.k vk dkO; oLrqd lhek @ 119 120 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
Hkkoukd ,d&,d {k.k igkM+ cq>kbr NfuA ^vgka lax jgcS vksuk ra gtkjks@vHkkod NS] ikdy tkequ jax dsj@pedS NS fctqjh fctqou es] lqfk u jgS NS vax dsj@Nus
vUgfj;k fcgqafl [ksfi nscS* lu iafDr es ukf;dkd ts leiZ.k ns[kkbr vfN] rdj btksr vUgkj Nus es] cqf> us lka> fd Hkksj js---*
lai.w kZ fodkl vfxyk iafDr lHk es gksbr vfN ^iz.k; ta izy; kfj ijh{kk dj; ,fg leLr fp=k.kd vykos dfo FkksM+ cgqr ^xty* lsgks fy[kus NfFk] eqnk
ra@ijh{kk vuy es lnk nfg ldS Nh@eqnk ta ?kVk iFk&fotu es u eku;@dgw] ls l'kafdrs HkkosaA xtyd ts kkjk ,[ku eSfFkyh es pfy iM+y vfN] rkfg la
ekSu&eu ge dksuk jfg ldS Nh \* fHkUuA fgudj fr ^lw;Zeq[kh* dsa lkfgR; vdknehd iqjLdkj lsgks nsy xsyA
,dj vykos dfod fdNq dfork O;fDr ijd Nfu] tkfg es dfoRod
vkok es iw.kZ :isa Hkkouk ikfd ufg ldy vfNA eqnk 'kCn&foU;kl la vFkksZRd"kZ
nsckd izo`fk dsa dfo vksrgq uqdk d* ufg j[kyfuA ^yfyr&Le`fr*] ^lkURouk*
vkfn ,gus dfork lHkd izfrfufkRo djSr vfNA vksuk ^vkdk'k nhid*]
^vkkqfudk*] ^eSfFkyh* lu&lu dfork dsa lsgks O;fDrijd ekuy tk ldS,] eqnk
,fg dfork lc es dfod vuqHkwfr rrsd mRd"kZ izkIr d* ysydfu vfN] ts bZ
dfork lHk vkc O;fDroknh ufg Hk* d, oxZoknh Hk* xsy NfuA xzkeh.k ifjos'kd
dksuks gjtkfg ckykd pfj=k fu:i.k] vkkqfudrkd jaxhuh dsa vaxhdkj dj* es
vk rTtU; ukVdh;rk vku* es viu ekSfydrk fclfj tk, okyh vkkqfudkd
izo`fk] fefFkykd yyukd lkSan;Z] xkaHkh;Z vkfnd fp=k.k ,fg dksfVd dforkd
ewy Hkko vfNA ^iz'u&mkj* vk ^fo|kifr oUnuk* lsgks O;fDrijds dfork fFkd(
eqnk egkiq#"kd izfr HkfDr Hkkouk vk rkfg laxsa Lons'k xfjekd fp=k.k ,gw
dfork lHk dsa 'kk'orrk iznku djSr vfNA
izfr&izse] dfod gkfnZd mn~xkj dsa lokZfkd izHkkfor d,us vfNA b,g
dkj.k fFkd] ts izfr ijd dforkd jpukdky es dfo vis{kkr cslh eq[kj
Hk* tkbr NfFkA ^es?k iM+S NS* vk ^ikol&izlax* dfork fgudj loZ izfl) dfork
fFkdfu] tdjk lHk oxZd yksd] yksd xhr tdka daB es j[kus vfNA fuf'pr :i
la dforkd ,fg lQyrk vk iz'kfLrd dkj.k] dfod thoukuqHkwfrd izfr
ifjiDo n`f"Vdks.k vk dYiuk'khyrkd Js"Bre dkS'ky fFkdA fgudj ,fg
dksfVd dfork lHk es la fdNq ize[q k vfN ^iqfjck clkr*] ^'kkjnh;k*] ^o"kkZxe*]
^ekq;kfeuh*] ^olUr vkku*] ^Qkxqu* vkfnA iqu% bZgks dgc vko';d izrhr
gksbr vfN] ts izsed izfr fgudj mnkj Hkkoukd xgurk vlhe vfNA b,g
dkj.k fFkd] ts izfr fp=k.k djck dky lsgks bZ uSlfxZds izse es cUgk,y jgSr
NfFkA kaxkj vksrgq fgudj iNksM+ ufg NksM+Sr NfuA vk] rsa eqDr :isa bZ izfrd
lax ufg jfg icSr NfFkA izfr;gq dsa fgudk izsed mhiud :i es ysc, iM+Sr
NfuA vksfg izfrd NVkd chp dksuks izse jlflDr ukf;dkd n;ksn~xkj dsa
fpf=kr dj* yxSr NfFk vFkok vksgw es fgudk fojfguhd vkaf[k] dkekskstd iou]
eufltksnzsd la cslEgkj Hksy eksu] eUeFkd ck.k la {kr&fo{kr Hksy ukf;dk HksVSr
NfuA dfod ,fg Hkkouk lHkd ,dkk Vk fp=k ,uk vfN ^dkjh&dkjh ?kVk mBS
fo/kkRed rksM+QksM+d dFkk @ 121 122 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
vfNA tsuk fd mij ppkZ Hksy vfN] lkekU; tuthoud lokxhu Qyd
lektuhfr vk jktuhfr vgh nquw la izHkkfor] izrkfM+r vk fu;af=kr gksbr jgSr
vfNA nsfjnk vk gkojekld ppkZ djSr Hkkjrd fofHkUu Hkk"kkd lkfgR; es
mkj lajpukokn vk mkjvkkqfudrk ij fopkj gksv, ykxy vfNA eSfFkyh lekt
es ,[ku kfj Bhd la vkkqfudrks ufg vkfc ldy vfNA lkekftd thoud
vkpkj lafgrkd fuekZrkx.k ,[ku kfj eSfFky dsa ,dVk lqyHk vk euksuqdwy
thou thc, nsc* ysy rS;kj ufg NfFkA vks oxZ ts lekt dsa viuk fu;a=k.k
la pyc* pkgSr vfN] okLrfod vFkZ es vks fu;a=k.k izrkM+uk fFkdA ,guk es
fokkRed rksMQ
+ ksMd
+ dFkk eSfFky lekt ij mkjvkkqfud n`f"Vd dksu dFkk] vkkqfud n`f"V la fopkj djc
lsgks ,[ku vijkk fFkdA dgck ysy fefFkyk es vk eSfFky es cgqrks ifjorZu
vk,y vfNA eqnk ls ifjorZud Hkze fFkdA ,guk es eSfFkyh lkfgR; trsd
;qx ifjorZud ifgy pksV ekuo thou ij eq[;r;k nw fn'kk la iM+Sr vfNA vkkqfud Hk* ldy vfN] ls eSfFkyhd jpukdkjd rh{.k izfrHkk] iz[kj thoun`f"V
ifgy ra bZ] ts ns'kd jktuhfrd fLFkfr cnfy tkbr vfN vk nkslj] ts lkekftd vk izxfr'khyrkd izfr] thoud xfrdrkd izfr vnE; lkgld Qy fFkdA
ifjos'k mksly py tkbr vfNA vb mkslckd e es rrsd O;kdqyrk jgSr xksfoUn >k viu o;ld vkBe n'kd es vkfc;ks d, rrck izxfrdkeh vk
NSd ts yksd vkkqfudrkd pdkpkSak es viu tehu fclfj tkbr vfN] cspSuh vkkqfud NfFk trck vktqd dksuks ;qok jpukdkj NfFkA
es drksd uo&uo i)frd vuqlj.k d* ySr vfNA vb cspSuh es cslh dky dksuks jpukdkjd nkf;Ro pkfj Lrj ij cuSr vfN lkekftd psruk]
b,g gksbr vfN ts euq";d viu Fkkrh gsjk tkbr NSd] nkslj tehu ij dyeh ikfjokfjd psruk] ekuoh; psruk] czkaMO;kih psrukA xksfoUn >kd l`tu'khyrkd]
xkN tdka iy*c<+* yxSr vfN] tsuk uo kuk<~;d ckyduh es xeykd ekfV nkf;Ro vb pk: Lrj ij csl lko/kku NfuA iwoZ es tkfg lektuhfr vk jktuhfr
es xqykcd Mkfj c<+Sr vfN] Qqykbr vfNA vgh e es la;ksxo'k fdNq viugqa dsj ppkZ d,y vfN] rkfg izlax es bZ Li"V d* nsc vko';d vfN ts dsanzhHkwr
fojklr vksdjk lax jfg tkbr NSd] eqnk ls la;ksxo'k] lk;kl ufgA vb Hk* d, fgudj jpuk lalkj es jktuhfrd ltxrk ufg NfuA eqnk ts Nfu]
la;ksxo'krk vk iz;Ru'khyrkd izfrQyu euq"; dsa tkfg izdkjd thou nSr NSd] vFkkZr~ lektuhfrd ltxrk] ls vksgh jktuhfrd nckod vuq"kax fFkd vFkok
ls ,dVk [khapk&rkuh oyk thou gksbr NSdA xeykd thoud ladqpu t[ku&r[ku vksdj izfrQy fFkdA fcgkjd orZeku jktuhfrd fLFkfrd lwr idM+us xksfoUn
euq"; dsa cslh vklku cq>kbr NSdA fefFkykapy es izk;% b,g gksbr jgy vfNA >kd ckY;dkyd jktuhfrd fLFkfr kfj py tkm] ra Li"V Hk* tk,r ts ns'kd
;qx ifjorZu la fefFkykd ekuo thou ij b,g f}eq[k pksV iM+y vk vb misf{kr Hkw[kaM fefFkykd lkekftd ifjos'k dh Ny vk ,[ku dh vfN--
,dj vuq"kax vkuks dSd rjgd muV&Qsj HksyA vgh muV Qsjd fLFkfr es viu -A
tehu rdSr vk xeykd lq[k fn'k vkdf"kZr gksbr ekufld }a}d kjkry ij xksfoUn >kd ifgy dFkk lu~ 1947 es izdkf'kr HksyA ta izdk'ku o"kZd
xksfoUn >kd jpuk lalkj cly vfNA lalkjd dksuks Hkk"kkd jpuk fd,d us vkkkj ij x.kuk d,y tk, ra mupkl o"kZd l`tu&;k=kk es fgudj miyfCk
gks] vksdj ewy ms'; vkb b,g fFkd ts lkekU; tuthou dsa vksdj nqnZ'kkd ij ;ku nsc* iM+rA eSfFkyh dfork kkjk es fgUnhd rtZ ij vFkok viu ekSfyd
nk#.; vks ns[kk fnv,] vksdjk vksdj 'kfDrd cksk djk fnv,A fot;nso ukjk;.k n`f"V la izxfrokn] iz;ksxokn] uo dfork vkfn vkanksyu vk,yA eqnk eSfFkyh
lkghd izfl) O;k[;ku ^lkfgR; vk lkfgR;dkjd nkfR;o* es vb fo"k; ij dFkk lkfgR; es vb rjgd dksuks vkanksyud ppkZ uba vfNA fgUnhd ^ubZ dgkuh*
QSy la fopkj d,y xsy vfNA Hkkjrd fofHkUu Hkk"kk dsa lesVSr viu ,dVk tdka eSfFkyh es dksuks ^uodFkk* vFkok ^uwru dFkk* vkfn incakd izpkj&izlkj
oDrO; es ;w-vkj- vuarewfrZ dgSr NfFk ts Hkkjr ns'kd lkfgR; ckbl Hkk"kk ufg HksyA ukeoj flag viu iqLrd ^dgkuh] ubZ dgkuh* es fy[kSr NfFk] ^:i
es ,ds ckr dfg jgy vfNA rfey miU;kldkj lq- leqfkje dsj ^,d ?ksjs vk f'kYid uohurk lkekU;r% yksdd ;ku lc la ifgus vk"V djSr vfN
ls ckgj* ns[kh vFkok yfyrd ^i`Fohiq=k* viu ms'; es bZ drgq vyx ufg ---f'kYi dsa y* d, uo iz;ksx djckd izo`fk vktqd dfo, tdka dFkkdkjks es
fo/kkRed rksM+QksM+d dFkk @ 123 124 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
vfN vk dfork tdka fdNq dFkks ek=k iz;ksxd ysy fy[ky xsyA--- 'kSyhd dSdVk iksFkh vFkok iksFkhd va'k fHkUu&fHkUu Hkk"kk es vuwfnrks NfuA vksuk fy[kck
vfrfjDr dFkkd vkarfjd :iks es cgqr ifjorZu Hksy vfNA vb chp dFkkd ysy bZ <sjh jkl dfork lsgks fy[kyfuA eqnk tsa fd dfork izdkf'kr uba djkSyfu]
:i ,rsd foLr`r Hk* xsy vfN ts cgqr jkl fucak] Ldsp vk fjiksrkZtks dFkkd dfod :i es uba tkuy xsykgA cgqr de fyf[k d, ekU;rkd vb f'k[kj
lhek es vkfc xsy vfNA dkS[ku vb lkfgR;&:id lhek ,d&nksljkd Hkhrj ij igqafp tk,c] xksfoUn >kd jpukkfeZrkd Lrj dsa js[kkafdr djSr vfNA
,rs nwj kfj pfy tkbr vfN ts vksdjk vyxk,c dfBu Hk* tkbr vfNA ,Dds fo"k;d Lrj ij iwoZgq dgy tk pqdy vfN ts fgudj jpuk lalkj cslh
jpuk d[kugqa Ldsp fFkd vk d[kugqa fucakA ---ts NksV&lu ckr iqjku dFkkdkj dky lekt] ifjokj vk O;fDrd pk: dkr ?kqeSr jgSr vfNA jktuhfrd ifjos'k
ysy vi;kZIr Ny] vksdjs uo dFkkdkj dFkkd ysy i;kZIr ekfu ysyfu vfN ij fgudj ys[kuh ufg, tdka pyy vfNA ta drgq pyyks vfN ra uo kuk<~;d
vk Qsj vksdjk Hkhrj la vks yksdfu dFkkd ysy dFkkudd fofHkUu fn'kkd fodkl Qksad vgadkj vk vksfg oxZd lkaLfrd fofr dsa m?kkj dj* ysy la{ksi es
d,yfu vfNA* vksdj dq:irk] vksdj ohHkRlrk mtkxj d* nsus NfFkA bZ dgc vko';d gks,r
eSfFkyh dFkk lkfgR; es lkfgR;&:id bZ lhek gfjeksgus >k rksfM+ nsus NykgA ts ,fg dk;Z es fgudk i;kZIr lQyrk HksVyfu vfN vk rdj ewy Js; fgudj
gqudj x| ys[ku ij ta ;ku nsy tk, ra vb lw{e iBud n'kZu Hk* ldSr dFkk f'kYi dsa tkbr vfNA fgudj dFkk ys[kud cslh fo"k; fefFkykd lkaLfrd
vfNA gqudj vusd fucak vfN tdjk dFkk dgck es dksuks HkkaxB ufgA vfguk kl] ekuo ewY;d yksi] vekuoh; okrkoj.kd fujarj o`f) ij dsafnzr vfNA
gqudj dFkksd izlax dgy tk ldSr vfNA rkRi;Z bZ] ts ta fgUnh tdka eSfFkyh;gq vb e es fgudk cslh dky bfrgkl] iqjk.kd uk;d eksu iM+Sr jgSr NfuA
es dFkk&vkanksyu rkdy tk, ra f'kYid Lrj ij vk fo"k;d Lrj ij ^ubZ dgkuh* viu vfr izkphu ijaijk vk ledkyhu thoud fofr dsa feykd, dFkkdkj
d rtZd dFkk gfjeksgu >kd jpuk lalkj es HksfV tk,rA eqnk tsa fd eSfFkyh xksfoUn >k ,dVk bZekunkj vUos"kd tdka fofrd izsj.kknk;h lw=k rdSr jgSr
es vb lHk izdkjd vkykspuk uba fy[ky xsy vFkok eSfFkyhd dFkkdkj ys[ku NfFkA fgudj vfkdka'k dFkkd vfHkO;fDr f'kYi] dFkkokpud f'kYi es vfN
dk;Zd lax&lax >aMk y* y* d, tqywl uba cgkj d,yfu] rsa eSfFkyh dFkk] tkfg es okpd viu vuqHko lqucSr jgSr vfNA bZ f'kYi] ,Dds lax dFkkd
ek=k eSfFkyh dFkk jfg xsyA cgqr Hksy ra drgq&drgq ^vkkqfud eSfFkyh dFkk* dF; vk f'kYi nquw ij fopkj dj* ysy ck; djSr vfNA fgudj dFkkd dFkkokpd
fy[kk xsyA vkvksj fd;ks ufg] dFkkdkj Lo;a NfFk] ts izFke iq#"k ,d opu es ckr dgSr
lhekd bZ vfre.k vk fokkd bZ rksM+&QksM+ xksfoUn >kd x| ys[ku es jgSr vfNA dFkk es viu vuqHkwr ?kVukd fooj.k lqucSr dFkkdkj lrr viuk
csl tdka ns[kkbr vfNA vkb lHk Hkk"kk es ,gsu jpukdkjd deh ufg vfN dsa vke turkd fLFkfr es isUV djSr cq>kbr jgSr NfFkA xksfoUn >kd djhc&djhc
ts fujarj viu iksFkhd la[;k c<+c* es vke&rsrfjd dksu dFkk] xwyfj&dBtkequd leLr dFkk fgudj fe=k] dqVqac vkfnd lax ?kVy fgudj ?kVuk tdka vfNA
dFkk fyf[k&fyf[k <sfj yxk jgy NfFkA iksFkhd vb rjgsa c<+Sr dadksjfc;ku nsf[k ,gsu dFkk des vfN] tkfg es Lo;a dFkkdkjd mifLFkfr ufg gksA tkfg dFkk
d, ,dVk fo}ku dgus NfFk ifgus yksd ,xkjg xksV iksFkh if<+ d, ,d xksV es fgudj viu mifLFkfr jgSr Nfu] rkfg es bZ viuk dsa lrr vdpdk,y]
iksFkh fy[kSr Ny vk vkb yksd ,d xksV iksFkh if<+ d, ,xkjg xksV iksFkh fy[kSr {kqCk] misf{kr] fiNM+y] vkkqfudrkd \ Nwfr la nwj] fofrd lae.k la ckapy]
vfNA vksuk lR; ra bZ vfN ts vkc vksgks ,d xksV iksFkh i<+ckd vko';drk vR;kkqfud vk lqfokklaiUu ufg jfg i,ckd viu fLFkfr ij fdafpr {kqCk
yksd uba cq>Sr NfFkA ,d xksV iksFkh nsf[k d, ,dSl xksV iksFkh fy[k, cSfl eqnk larq"V] frfyLeh <axsa O;oLFkkd ;kaf=kdrk es izos'k ikfc ysfugkj dqVqackfnd
tkbr vfNA xksfoUn >k eSfFkyh ys[kud vksgsu jpukdkj es la NfFk ts vla[; pkrq;Z ij Nxqafrr eqnk Lo;a rsgsu ufg Hk* i,ckd dusdks eyky ufg] ,fg
iksFkh i<+ykd ckn ,d xksV iksFkh fy[k, lkspSr NfFkA laLr] eSfFkyh] fgUnh] peRdkjd lax lqfokk laiUu Hksy dqVqackfnd vkaf[k ij p<+Sr pchZ vk vksdj
vaxzsth Hkk"kk ij leku vfkdkj j[kfugkj jpukdkj xksfoUn >kd n[ky vkuks&vku cnySr eksu ij O;fFkr] vb lqfokk laiUu yksd }kjk vlgk; O;fDrd mM+kvksy
Hkkjrh; Hkk"kk lkfgR; vk fyfi ij NfuA mupkl o"kZd l`tu lakku es ek=k tk, oyk e[kkSy ij nzfor---izLrqr d,us NfFkA dFkk es fgudj ,fg rjgsa futh
nw xksV dFkk laxzg lkekd ikSrh] u[kniZ.k] rhu xksV ukVd clkr] #fDe.kh mifLFkfr dFkkdkjd thou n`f"Vd fp=k.kd vykok vkvksj fdNq ufg fFkdA
gj.k] vafre iz.kke] ,d xksV thouh mes'k feJ] ,d xksV miU;kl fo|kifrd vfHkizk; bZ ufg ts bZ vkkqfudrkd izfr dksuks mis{kkHkko vk ijaijk rFkk ik[kaMd
vkRedFkk rFkk ,d xksV eSfFkyh&vaxzsth 'kCndks'k izdkf'kr NfuA vb es la izfr vis{kkHkko j[kSr NfFkA vly es vkkqfudrkd izfr csl >qdko fgudj l`tu
fo/kkRed rksM+QksM+d dFkk @ 125 126 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
vk thou es cq>kbr vfNA eqnk vkkqfudrkd fofrd ikNw csrgk'kk nkSM+ck ij drksd jpukdkj fucak fy[k* yxrkg vksfg fo"k; ij xksfoUn >k csl vkd"kZd
es viL;kar ufg jgSr NfFk] vksdj for vk fonzwi vkpj.k vFkok ,izksp la vk euyXxw dFkk fyf[k d, izLrqr d* ldSr NfFkA
ijgst j[kSr NfFkA rfguk ikjaifjd :f<+] ik[kaM] kekkrk la lsgks vlafer Hkk"kkd Lrj ij fgudj dFkk lHk es viwoZ vkd"kZ.k NfuA vksuk dgck
jg, pkgSr NfFkA fdarq fgudj ,guks ,izksp HksVSr vfN tkfg la Li"V Hk* tkbr ysy fdNq iwokZxzgh ,guks HksfV tkbr NfFk ts dgSr NfFk ^xksfoUn >kd dFkkd
vfN ts bZ loZFkk ijaijkd izfr udkj cksk la vkkar ufg NfFkA ijaijk es ,[kugqa fo"k;s dh jgSr Nfu ts vksdjk i<+y tk,*A vksgsu ikBdd ysy b,g dgy
,gsu cgqr fdNq Hkjy vfN] ts cgqr mi;ksxh vk vktqd thou dsa lgt cu,ck t,ckd pkgh ts gqudk viu lksp fodflr djckd pkghA vkkqfudrk ek=k
es vR;ko';d lkfcr Hk* ldSr vfNA vkxw nkSfM+ d, py tk,c ufg fFkdA nkSM+Sr dky eksu jk[k*d pkgh ts ge
xksfoUn >kd dFkk ys[kud Qyd foLrkj gfjeksgu >k la jes'k kfjd tkfg tehu ij nkSfM+ jgy Nh] ls tehu drsd Bksl vfNA xksfoUn >k lrr~
dFkk ys[ku es rkdy tk ldSr vfNA dF; vk f'kYid leLr lhekcak dsa viu tehud fuLlurk eksu j[kSr NfFk vk fujarj vkxw ysy Msx mBkSus jgSr
rksM+Sr vk fokkRed cUgst dsa QkuSr fgudj dFkk lalkj bfrgkl] iqjk.k] xhrk NfFkA vb e es viu vkaf[kvks [kksyus jgSr NfFk ts vfxyk Msx tr, jk[kc
la y* d, ce] fiLrkSy] reapkd mi;ksx kfj iljy vfNA tknw&Vksuk] >kM+&Qwd] vksrqDdk tehu drsd Bksl vfNA vksfg iwokZxzgh dsa bZ ekfu d* py*d pkgh
ih<+hd la?k"kZ] ;qok ih<+hd izxfrdkeukd izfr ln;rk] ekuorkd leFkZu] ts xksfoUn >k ysfLc;u ,VhP;wM ij vkfd vkkqfudre lH;rk es iRuh cnyckd
vekuoh;rkd izfr ?k`.kk] kkfeZd ik[kaMd [kaMu] vlgk; oxZd izfr lnk'k;rk] izo`fk ij ra dFkk ufg fy[krkgA tkfg lalkj la gqudk us ra dksuks ljksdkj
lkaLfrd Fkkrh dsa lqjf{kr jkf[k ldckd iz;kl fgudk dFkk es viu laiw.kZ Nfu vk us jk[k, pkgSr NfFk] rkfg ij vks jpuk fd,d djFkq \ ledkyhu
'kfDrd lax mifLFkr jgSr vfNA lHk la iS?k ckr ts xksfoUn >kd dFkk ys[ku le; es cgqrjkl o;lkgq yksd ,gsu NfFk ts fd'kksj o;ld izseh tdka izxfr'khyrk
,dVk ldkjkRed ,izkspd dFkk lalkj fFkd tr, vfkdka'k dFkkd ifj.kfr vk vkkqfudrkd dgfj;k cuy fQjSr NfFkA ,d jkfr ysy iRuh cnfy d,
,dVk lq[kn fu.kZ; ij gksbr vfNA laiw.kZ foijhr ifjfLFkfrd vNSr dFkkd Lokn cnyckd izo`fk vFkok ,gsus cgqrjkl vkkqfud for izo`fk dsa vksgks
var ,dVk fu.kZ; la gksbr vfN vk vksfg fu.kZ;d ,dVk rkfdZd vkkkj gksbr iflu uba djrkgA eSfFkyhd orZeku ys[ku es xksfoUn >k lHk la tsB ih<+hd
vfNA vks fu.kZ; pkgs vkkqfudrkoknh ;qokoxZd i{k es gks vFkok ijaijkoknh jpukdkj NfFkA ifj"r ijaijkd j{kk vk mi;ksxh vkkqfudrkd vuqxeud vkxzgh
cqtqxZd i{k es] vksdj rkfdZd vkkkj loZFkk ekuoh; ljksdkj vk ekuokfkdkj jpukdkj xksfoUn >k vb ckrd leFkZd NfFk ts vks laiw.kZ vkkqfudrk vk laiw.kZ
la izsfjr jgSr vfNA ,r, ,fg ekuokfkdkj 'kCnd vFkZxzg.k dksuks jktuhfrd ijaijk f'kjkskk;Z g,ckd pkgh ts ,dVk LoLFk lektd fuekZ.k dj, vk vkc*
lw=k la ufg d,y t,ckd pkghA oyk ih<+h dsa ,dVk ikjn'khZ rFkk ifo=k laLdkjd lh[k fnv,A bZ ckr drgq
ppkZ Hk* pqdy vfN ts xksfoUn >k ,dVk lQy dFkkdkjd lax&lax ,dVk fgudj oDrO; es ufg vfN] bZ fgudj jpukd uouhr fFkdA
lQy Hkk"kkfon~ lsgks NfFkA vk rdj mnkgj.k fgudj dFkkd Hkk"kk f'kYi Hk* vkc vkfc d, xksfoUn >kd mupkl&ipkl o"kZd ys[ku ij ppkZ d,y
ldSr vfNA dFkkd f'kYi fuekZ.k es xksfoUn >k drsd fparu d,yfu ls ra tk jgy vfN eSfFkyh lkfgR;d bZ foMacus fFkdA ,gsu foMacukd eSfFkyh es
vks,g dgrkg eqnk dFkk Lo;a ts Li"V djSr vfN rkfg es 'kCn iz;ksxd Lrj deh ufg vfNA dkaphukFk >k ^fdj.k* d izlax lsgks b,g dgy tk ldSr vfNA
ij ra bZ lkQ ns[kkbr vfN ts cgqHkk"kkfon~ g,ckd dkj.ksa drksd Bke laLr] frdM+e ra=k es ta bZgks lqjsUnz >k ^lqeu* tdka iVq jfgrfFk ra vkb kfj fgudks
vaxzsth vFkok fgUnhd 'kCn vkfc Vidy vfNA eqnk 'kCnkuq'kklu rrsd lkky drksd iksFkh Niy jfgr, vk drksd iqjLdkj yqVus jfgrfFkA eSfFkyh es fcuk
Nfu ts vksdj iz;qfDr dksuks Bke voSk vFkok vuqi;qDr ufg cq>kbr vfNA ladfyr iqLrd v,us ppkZ ufg gksbr vfN vk ls v,yfu cgqr ckn esA
dSdVk dFkkd izrhdkRedrk fgudj x| dsa dkO;e; cucSr vfN] ts vksdjk QyLo:i rhl c[kZ iqjku jpuk ij yksd vkkqfud ;a=k la fopkj djc 'kq#g
csj&csj i<+ckd ysy ck; djSr vfNA lLisUl ^,d nqyZHk tarqd [kkst* lu d,ydA vksuk eSfFkyh es fopkjs dgka gksbr vfN \ nkslj] ts fxjksgokn gkoh
vkvksjks dSdVk dFkk] fujarj ftKklk c<+cSr jgckd dyk] la;ksxo'krkd frjLdkj] jgy] xksfoUn >k dfgvks fxjksg cukSyfu ufg---A
fp=k.kd dkO;kRedrk] laoknd ukVdh;rk bZ lc fefy d, dFkk dsa jkspd] viu ifjokj] fe=k] dqVqacd lax fcrk,y thoud ,d&,d rarq es xksfoUn
izHkkoksRiknd vk vkd"kZd cucSr vfNA dgy tk pqdy vfN] ts tkfg fo"k; >kd vksr, dFkkd [ktkuk lax`ghr vfNA vk rdjk laxfg fgudj iz[kj Hkk"kk
ttZj vrhr la eqfDrd dFkk @ 127 128 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
f'kYi] Js"B jpuk&dkS'ky lsgks vfNA ukVdh; izLrqfr dFkkdkjd vfHkO;fDr
dsa vn~Hkqr :isa l'kDr vk izHkkoksRiknd cukSus vfNA 'kSfYid Lrj ij fokkRed
rksM+&QksM+ fgudj l`tu lalkjd vk;ke dsa trsd foLrkj nsus vfN] ls lgt
:isa ddjgq ysy vkd"kZ.kd fo"k; Hk* ldSr vfNA fefFkykapyd loZoxhZ;]
loZnyh; vk loZtkrh; tu leqnk; es ;qx ifjorZud fofr] lqfr tkfg&tkfg
fofk,a viu izHkko NksM+yd] vkkqfudrkd fofrd pksV tr,&tr, iM+y vk
lqfrd Qwy tr,&tr, Qqyk,y] ijaijk vk vkkqfudrkd [khapk rkuh es ts&ts
ul trsd ruk,y] uSfrdrkd tkfg lhek kfj guu Hksy] izxfrd uke ij
vk uo&uo ;kstukd uke ij ifNyk mupkl o"kZd Lokkhu Hkkjr es trsd ttZj vrhr la eqfDrd dFkk
cdokliw.kZ dk;Z Hksy] ekuoh; laosnukd kl vk ekuoh; lacakd foxyu tkfg
rjgd {kqnz rFkk rkRdkfyd LokFkZd ysy Hksy ls lcVk foy{k.k Hkk"kk&f'kYi es
xksfoUn >kd dFkk&lalkj es lafpr vfNA fgudj dFkk vuqHkwr lR;d lgt dFkkdkj yfyr dsj laiw.kZ dFkk lalkj cfgjax es ekDlZoknd LFkwy ekalyrk]
laoknd isVkjk fFkd] tr, us ra Qksad dYiukd drgq xqatkb'k ns[kkbr vfN varjax es k;Md lw{erk vk y{; es mifu"knh; ve`r&iq=k g,ckd vkkkjHkwr
vk us la;ksxolkr dksuks ?kVukd vorj.kA pkal mRiUu d* d, dFkk es pdkpkSak lajpuk ij Bk<+ vfNA dgck ysy ra yfyr] jktdey] ek;kuUnd uke ,d
vuckd izo`fk fgudk vksr, drgq ufg ns[kkbNA vke tu&thou la dFkkdkjd lax dfg d, eSfFkyh es dkt pfy jgy vfNA Lo;a yfyr lsgks vb rhu
ljksdkj dsa fpfr djSr xksfoUn >kd dFkk] lrr dFkk tdka vkxwd dFkk tkfu es ,d uke vkSj tksMy + fu mxzkuUnA eqnk fgudk lc xksV, es ekSfyd fHkUurk
ysckd ftKklk c<+cSr jgSr vfN] dfork tdka Qsj&Qsj i<+ckd rxsnk djSr vfNA yfyr&jktdey&ek;kuUn dfu,a vkxw ikNwd lax ,d le; es jpuk'khy
jgSr vfNA Nykg ls fHkUu ckr] eqnk rhuw dsa drgq ,d vkfj&[ksr uba NfuA jktdey
vk yfyr dsa ra ,dnEes ubaA ,ds ?kVuk dsa rhuw] rhu utfj,a ns[kyfuA dFkk
ik=kd thoud lkSfo; ysy ts dksuks lkekftd ekU;rk jktdeyd vksr, ckkd
gksbr vfN] jktdey vksdjk rksfM+ rkfM+ d, vkxw cf<+ tkbr NfFk] ekU;rk
jg, rk[k ij] eqnk yfyrd fLFkfr ls uba NyfuA gqudk var var kfj lekt
ij FkksM+sd fo'okl Nyfu] ;|fi fgudks vksr, lektd f?kukSu :i cgqr vfN]
eqnk fgudk rS;ks lektd lR;&f'ko&lqanj :id vko';drk NfuA viu ik=kd
thoud lkSfo;d ckV vk lektd fdNq Js"B vokkj.kk fgudk vksr, lekukUrj
pySr vfNA jktdey tdka bZ ,ds udkj cyk fLFkfr es uba NfFkA vb e
es dgh ra ek;kuUn fgudj cslh yxhp NfuA vksuk ek;kuUnd ik=k lc Msjcqd
cM~M gksbr Nfu] lekt Hk; fgudk vksr, cM~M jgSr NfuA ,Dds Vk izlax]
^i`Foh iq=k* miU;kl es fctyh vk dYiukFkd nsg laca kd ysy tk, ta bZ izlxa
ek;kuUnd vksr, jfgrfu] ra nquw [kwc xqyNjkZ mM+fcr,] vk ddjks HkkQks uba
yfxrb( jktdeyd vksr, jfgrfu] ra vks nquwd fcvkg djk nsus jfgrfFku]
lBe~&lkB~;e lekpjsr] vFkkZr~ rksa lekt Hk* d, gej lq[k&lqfokkd ;ku uba
j[kcsa] ra ge O;fDr Hk* d, vIiu fu;e&dsnk viuk yscA eqnk yfyr ,gsu
LosPNkpkjh uba Hksykg] vks lekt dsa lektd Bke jg* nsyf[kUg vk lkekftd
ttZj vrhr la eqfDrd dFkk @ 129 130 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
ekU;rk la brj dkt d,fugkj viu dFkk ik=k dsa viuk BkeA fgudj jpuk es vfN] rsa ckr vksrfg la izkjaHk dj, iM+rA yfyrd dFkk Hkwfe fojkV Nfu] vR;fkd
O;fDr&lqfokk trsd QSy la LFkku vk ekU;rk ikSus vfN] vk ls fcuk dksuks mnkj NfuA fguds ledkyhu jktdey vk ek;kuUnd fo"k;&lalkj trsd ?kuhHkwr
gks&gYyk epkSus] ls yxSr vfN dFkkdjd vn~Hkqr kS;Z] bPNk'kfDr vk lkgl vfN] rrsd fgudj ubaA fgudj fo"k;&lalkj foLr`r NfuA fgudj dksuks dFkk
rFkk y{; izkfIrd vkLFkkd ifjpk;d fFkdA lkxj tdka 'kkar&/khj vkpj.k] unh vkil es ,d nksljk la dksuks rjgsa lac) uba jgSr vfNA lc dFkk ,d nkslj
tdka izogeku&lfyy Hkk"kk] vtqZud rhj tdka ,dy{; lakku] fur uo fo"k;d la vyx] vk fHkUu Hkwfe ij Bk<+ vfNA eSfFkyh dFkk es ifgy csj fguds vksr,
vuqla kku bZ lc fefyd, yfyrd dFkk lalkj dsa ,dVk vkd"kZd Qyd nSr vo.kZ tkfrd vk fuEu oxZd dFkkuk;dd izos'k Hksy] vk ls izos'k ,rsd oSjkV~;d
vfN] vk lRrs fgudj dFkk lc ekaly] lw{e vk mifu"knh; ver&iq=k cfu lax] ,rsd foLr`r thou&Qydd lax] vk rkgw es lo.kZ&laHkzkar oxZd ik=k dsa
iM+y vfNA dkr&djV yxkSus bZ yfyrd 'kSyh vk ys[ku n`f"Vd mRd"ksZ fFkd] ts vb iz;ksxd
ls yfyr t[ku cknd le; es fy[kc can d* nsyfu] ra rdj dkj.k LFkkiuk Hk* xsyA yfyrd ys[ku dky 1950&1964 kfjd vofk fFkdA Hkkjr
iqNyk ij dgSr NfFk] ^v|kofk gejk eSfFkyhd nycanh dksuks LFkku uba nsydA Lora=k ra Hk* xsy Ny] eqnk fefFkykd tuin es ys[kud fo"k; ysy vgw le;
lkfgR; vdknehd laxzg es gej dFkk uba] vU; Hkk"kk es vuwfnr gksc*oyk xzaFk kfj iqjkus vk tfM+vk,ys leL;k lc izcy NySdA rkfg le; es ;kSu vr`fIr]
es gej jpuk dsa dksuks LFkku ubafd,s fy[kw \ ikbd iz;kstu uba] thfodkd ;kSu dqaBk] vartkZrh; ;kSu lacak] ljdkjh ra=kd vjktdrk] lkear fojkskh ckr
lkku ubaA r[ku izksij IyslesaV] rkgw la vkmVdkLV \ dh vb ne?kksaVw ca;k vkfnd ppkZ lkekU;ks okrkZyki es loZLohr uba Ny] lkfgR; es rdjk izeq[krk
fLFkfr es vgka fy[kc pkyw jkf[k ldSr Nh* foHkwfr vkuUn dsa baVjO;w es nsy nsc] iS?k lkgld dkt NyA bZ lkgl yfyr d,yfu] vk tsuk fd vksfg le;d
oDrO;A bZ oDrO; if<+ d, uba yxSr vfN] ts eSfFkyhd vb ppkZdkj vk fofHkUu ys[kdd laLej.kkRed ys[k lHk la Li"V gksbr vfN] yfyr viuk lax
ladyd lHkd ifr;k&izk;f'pr lkr tue kfj xksar&xkscj fxfj;ks d* uba NqVrS \ ,dVk tksjxj vk lglxj ih<+hd fuekZ.k lsgks d* ysyfuA bZ nhxj ckr fFkd
vjs cki js] gR;kjk fFkdfFk bZ lcA t[ku yfyrd gR;k d* nS tkb xsyf[kUg] ts fdNq ^[k[kM+h* Qksafdy vk ik[kaMh lHk lsgks fgudk le; es fdNq tuksUeq[k
r[ku vkvksj fdudj uba djrkg \ [kSj dFkk x<+, ykxy Ny] ftudj pfj=k ckn es vkfc d, Li"V HksyfuA eqnk]
yfyr oLrqr% ,dVk dFkkdkj uba] eSfFkyh dFkk vkanksyud iqjkskk NfFkA jktdey] ek;kuUn] lksenso] khjsUnz] mxzkuUn izHk`frd lax fgudj ih<+h] eSfFkyh
eSfFkyh dFkk ys[ku dsa izkS<+ cu,ckd ifgy iz;kl yfyrsd vksr, Hksy vfNA dFkk dsa csl tdka v|ru d,ydfuA
fcvkg&nku] fnvj&Hkkmt vk mfprh&Mgdu la eqfDr yfyrsd vksr, eSfFkyh rb ih<+h es ta jktdey vk ek;kuUnd jpukd HkkoHkwfe l?ku vk yfyrd
dFkk dsa HksVySdA vke tuthou] fuEuoxhZ;&fuEutkrh; tuthou] thou&;kiud foLr`r Nfu] ra rdj ewy dkj.k ys[kdd futh thou&n`f"V vk vkRecksks fFkdA
foLr`r o`rkar] ijaijk la oftZr thouka'k vkfnd izos'k ifgy csj fgudfg dFkk jktdey] ek;kuUn tr, lsDVj fo'ks"k dsa idfM+ d, vksdj loZi{kh; fp=k
es Hksy] jktdey dsa ?khfp d, eSfFkyh es vuckd Js; fgudfg Nfu] ek;kuUn ?khfp ysc, pkgSr NykgA vksrfg yfyr de le; es uegj nwjh ukfi ysckd
dsa ^Hkkaxd yksVk* la foeq[k d* d, lgh fn'kk fn'k izsfjr djckd Js; fguds NfuA vxqrkgfV es eqnk gM+cM+h es uba vk dksuks vk[kMw uba viu {ks=k dsa i;kZIr
yfyrd dFkkys[ku oLrqr% ,dVk peRdkj ns[k,ckd dFkk fFkdA dksuks foLr`r d,yfuA vksuk vb ih<+hd lax iS?k nqHkkZX; ra jgy] ts jktdey jgcs
nSoh vk fd tknwxjhd peRdkj ubaA ek=k bZ ts dFkk vgka dsa lEeksfgr d,us uba dsykg] yfyr jfgvksd* uba jgykg] vk ek;uUnd dFkk ys[ku fojy Hk*
usus py tk jgy vfN] pyy tk jgy vfN] vgak eksus eksu lksfp jgy Nh] xsy] eqnk] ,[kugqa bZ ckr dgy tk ldSr vfN] ts yfyrd jpuk lalkj trsd
xqfukqfu es Nh vkc dh gsrS \ vk fd vpkud czsd] tk%] dFkk [kreA ^izrh{kk* foLr`r vfN] rdj voyksdu vkcgq yksd dsa dj*d pkfgvfuA dFkk gks fd
dFkk i<+c 'kq: d: vk ns[k fyv*] izrh{kk Vk fd,s izfrfufk] jetkuh] LoIu miU;kl] yfyrd jpukd vkdkj cM+ NksV gksbr Nfu] ,dne mfpr fFkd] jpuk
Hkax vk fd ^i`Foh iq=k* miU;kls fd,sd us gkslHkd lekfIr LFky ikBd dsa NksVs g,ckd pkgh] ea=k 'kSyh es] ea=k NksV gksbr vfN] lw=k NksV gksbr vfN]
,d Vk uo izkjaHkd lus'k nsyd vfNA dqath NksV gksbr vfN] vksdj izHkko fojkV gksbr vfN] vksdj O;k[;k foLr`r
ts ckr jkteksgu >k viu fucak ^yfyr vFkkZr* es dfg pqdy NfFk] gksbr vfN] vks izdk'k vk Kkud ,dVk fo'kky ckV dsj rkyk [kksySr vfNA
rdjfg Qsj la nksgj,ckd iz;kstud uba NyA eqnk vksgh la nkslj fu"ifk fudySr jpukd NksV g,ckd dkj.ksa gkyfg es jktsUnz ;kno viu ,dVk ys[k es ckck
ttZj vrhr la eqfDrd dFkk @ 131 132 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
;k=kh ij QCrh dlyfu vfN] eqnk gejk tuSr] tkfg jpukdkj dsa ikBdd lacak vk ds O;k[;kf;r d* ldr \ vlaHko vfN
es vU;Fkk kkj.kk Hkjy jgSr Nfu] ts ikBd dsa cwfM+ cq>Sr NfFk] ls dh ra jpuk ps[kc dsa m)`r djSr jktdey pkSkjh ,d Bke fy[kus NfFk] ts mRre
dsa eksV djck ysy okd~tky c<+cSr NfFk vFkok viu ms';d O;k[;k es vusjs dksfVd dFkk viu lekfIr Fky la 'kq#g gksbr vfNA yfyrd leLr dFkk
i`"B [kpZ djSr NfFkA eSfFkyh es ,gsu jpukdkj uba NfFkA eSfFkyhd jpukdkj vly es lekIr Hksykd ckns 'kq#g gksbr vfNA dkj.k] tk kfj dFkk pySr vfN]
viu ikBdd Kku {ks=k ij i;kZIr vkLFkkoku jgSr NfFkA rk kfj ra yfyrd ?kVuke] Hkk"kk vk 'kSyh ikBd dsa ,rck voljs uba nSr
yfyrd leLr jpuk ea=k 'kSyh es vfN] vk fgudj jpuk lalkj dFkk NSd ts vks fdNq lksfp ld,A ?kksM+k vk lokjd lacak viuk ikBdd laxs bZ
l`tud uohu Hkwfed ik;yV losZ{k.k fFkd] vk ,dVk ladsrks fFkd % ^vkxwd cukSus jgSr NfFkA tk /kfj dFkk pySr jgr] dFkkdkj lokj jgrkg] ikBd fgy
le;d jpukdkj yksdfu ! ns[kSr tkm] dr,&dr, dFkk vfN \* vk vb ea=kd uba ldSr NfFk] vk t[ku dFkk lekIr g,r] ra dFkkdkj yxke idM+us jgrkg]
mi;ksx vkxwd dSdVk jpukdkjd l`tu es Hksy vfNA jekuUn js.kq] izHkkl dqekj vgka lkspSr jgw] tsuk&tsuk dFkk vgkad Hkhrj HkhtSr tk,r] vgka lkspSr jgwA
pkSkjh] kwedsrq] lqHkk"kpUnz ;kno] foHkwfr vkuUn] rkjkuUn fo;ksxh vkfn dFkkdkjd vk] bZ fparu'khyrk ek=k L=kh ik=kd oSfp=;s Vkd ysy uba] iq#[k ik=kd foo'krkd
vksr, vksb ea=k] lw=kd O;k[;k ns[ky tk ldSr vfNA ysy lsgks pkyw jgrA loZ'kfDr&laiUu dYiw feljd laLdkj lkearh Nfu] fctyhd
HkkoHkwfed foLr`fr rkd* ysy fgudj dFkk ys[ku dsa dSd n`f"V,a ns[kckd lax ^;wt ,aM Fkzks* oyk Qjewyk yxk ldSr Nyk] dksuks Lotkrh; L=kh dsa fc;kfg
iz;kstu vfNA ,dne <yku ij cgSr y{; dsafnzr tykkjk lu cgSr vk iljSr d, vkfu ldSr Nykg] vk fd fctyh, dsa fc;kfg d, ?kj clk ldSr Nykg...A
Hkk"kk ckf<+d mke izokg lu uba] ts ckVd lcVk ekfV [kaxgkfj d, y* tkbr xtc ckr vfN] ts yfyrd dFkkd pfjr uk;d vFkok ukf;dk es leLr {kqnzrkd
vfN] tuinh; 'kCn lewgd p;u] 'kq) iapdks'khd HkkSxksfyd ifjos'k] lekt vNSr ,dVk laiw.kZ ekuork thcSr jgSr vfNA vFkkZr lektd ;FkkFkZ la mn~Hkwr
la misf{kr&frjLr vk vLohr O;fDr vk rdj thou&;kiu ij dsafnzr fo"k;] {kqnzrk lR; fFkd] vb fodjky fLFkfr es uSfrdrk vk ekuorkd voxkgu lqanj
rnuqdwy o`fk&okrkoj.k] rnuqdwy pfj=k vk ?kVukd la?kVulHk vFks rdSr fFkdA vk tsa fd lR; vk lqna j nquw fo|eku vfN] rsa bZ lcVk dFkk ^f'ko*
fgudj jpukd foLr`fr ns[kSr cuSr vfNA Lo;a dFkkdkj dgus NfFk ts fgudj dY;k.k dsj lus'k lsgks nSr vfNA laiw.kZ vjktdrkd vNSr ,dVk la'kksfkr
dFkk es ^izse vfN yM+kb ij] nqnZE; wjrk es euq";rk vfN taxy vks jLrk] laLdj.kd lektd LFkkiuk fgudj dFkk es HksVSr jgSr vfNA ^i`Foh iq=k* es
nqnkr nL;qd jDrfyIr eu&izk.k es dksuks izs;lhd Lusg Hkjy vfN LoIu Hkax] fcls[kh] xsukyky] l:i] Nkj] taxcgknqj] csuh vkfn pfj=k tkfg rjgsa yfyr
dFkkd ekfeZdrk dsa cw>* ysy ikBd Lora=k vfNA* lks] yfyrd dFkkd vafdr d,us NfFk] {kqnzrk] mnkjrk] Lohfr] ekU;rk] foo'krk vkfnd mipkj
vk;ke fgudj fHkUu&fHkUu dFkkd fo"k; vk pfjr&uk;dd izLrqfrd vkkkj tkfg <axsa Hksy vfN] Hkkmtd lax l:id fc;kg] fctyh vk csuhd okd~la?k"kZ(
ij xuy tk ldSr vfNA iap leqnk;] [ksrh&ckM+h] pkS;Z deZd O;k[;k] iqfyfl;k o`fkd lw{erkiw.kZ v;;u
cslh ra drsd xuy tk,] i`Fohiq=k d ^fctyh* vk lkjafx;kd ^csyk* tkfg rjgsa izLrqr d,us NfFk] rdj O;k[;k dksuks n'kZu 'kkL=kd O;k[;kd laxsa
dsa vFkok ^izrh{kk* vk ^eqfDr*d iRuh dsa utfj ij y* d, ns[kh ra L=kh tkfr laHko vfNA ^i`Fohiq=k* miU;kls Vk uba] yfyrd leLr dFkkfrd ewY;kadu]
}kjk ,rsd lw{e] lkFkZd vk rkfdZd fooj.k izLrqr djc dfu, Vk ckr uba ta jk"Vh; f{kfrtd dksugqa Hkk"kk lkfgR;d rqyuk es d,y tk,] ra jpuk viu
fFkdA ^fctyh* fookfgr vfN] eqnk dYiw felj lax vksdj nSfgd lacak trsd euksfo'ys"k.kd izkkurk vk lekt'kkL=kh; n`f"Vkds.kd vkkkj ij vfxyk ikar
lkglh] fufyZIr] fu}} vk bZekunkj izcy bPNk 'kfDr vk vkReh; Lohdkj es Bk<+ gks,rA Hkkjrh; lkfgR;d dksuks Hkk"kk es ,gsu jpuk de vfNA
'kfDrd vFkZ es vfN] rdj jgL;&yksd dsa vuqHko d,y tk ldS,] ,dj O;k[;k lu~ lrgRrfjd vke pqukod ckn t;izdk'k vkanksyud ifj.kfrd
vlaHko vfNA csyk u`R;kaxuk fFkd] gfjpj.k vksdjk lax ^laxr* djSr vfN] dkfj[k&pwu ykxy eqag nsf[k Hkkjrd ;qokoxZ dsa tkfg eksgHkaxd lkeuk dj,
eqnk tkfg izfrc)rk] fopkjkkjk vk Xykfuckskd lax] nqfu;kd eqag ij Fkwd Qsfd iM+y NySd] yfyrd dFkk&l`tu es rdj ladsr NBes n'kd es Hk* xsy NyA
d, vks ejy] rdj O;k[;k dksu 'kCn es gks \ ^eqfDr* dFkk es iRuh tkfg gkyr ^mM+ku* dFkkd dFkkokpd vk fxjkj Hkkbd ek;es tkfg fopkjkkjk vk tkfg
es #X.k vk v'kD; ifr la eqDr gksbr vfN vk ^izrh{kk* es tkfg rjgsa Lo;a deZkkjkd xi Hksy vfN ls vb ckrd izek.k fFkdA eksu es kafrd vkfx
#Xu vk v'kD; iRuh] ifr dsa eqDr djSr vfNvb nk'kZfud fo"k; dsa dksuk] vb ik=k lc dsa NSd] eqnk vHkko vk csdkjh dksu rjgsa vksdjk yksdfu dsa rksM+Sr
euksoSKkfud lR;d dFkk @ 133 134 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
vfN ls nsf[k {kqCk gksv, iM+rS vfNA ik=kd ifrriu vk ifrriukd chp vfNA eqnk rkfg la dh] eSfFkyhd eBkkh'k bZ eku* ysy rS;kj dgka NfFk \
es ^dey* tdka Qqykbr ,dVk laHkkouk] euq";rk vk uSfrdrkd ,dVk fdfj.k
dksuk fcgqfa l mBSr vfN bZ yfyrs d* ldSr NykgA dgc vuqfpr uba gks,r]
ts izHkkl dqekj pkSkjhd vksr, ts lkear oxZ ukaxfj lqVdk ysyfu vfN vk
kwedsrqd vksr, ts ifrr oxZ dsa ikou g,ckd xfjek HksfV xsy vfN] ls yfyrsd
dFkk fparud foLrkj vk vksb fpuxh la mBy kkjk fFkdA
fgudj ^jetkuh* dFkk es ^fdlku ;qx* la ^e'khu ;qx* es izos'k rkdy
xsyA lR; ra bZ fFkd] ts bZ ^e'khu ;qx*d vkokgu uba] O;kikj fn'k >qdkod
vkokgu Ny] tr, ikjaifjd ksr ij vkfJr f"kdeZ vk jktk&nSoh; vkiknkd
dkj.ksa O;kIr vfo'oluh;rk la ijkHkwr ekuo viu vk viu i'kq fe=kd Je
ij fo'okl d,ydA ta vku dksuks le`) lkfgR;d vkykspuk deZ tdka eSfFkyhd
vkykspuk deZ le`) jfgr,] ra Lokra=;kskj dky es fodflr leLr vkykspukRed
VwYl dsj mi;ksx] yfyrd dFkk lalkjd ewY;kadu ysy d,y tk ldSr NyA
lekt'kkL=kh; vkykspuk i)fr la ta yfyr dsj dFkk frd ewY;kadu gks] ra
r; gks,r] ts wj vk fu"V lkekftd i)fr la cngky Hksy ekuo dksuk&dksuk
nqoZfk fn'k mUeq[k gksbr vfN] vksb nqoZfk es vks drsd bZekunkjh la vk drsd&wjrk
la izksQs'kuy cuy jgSr vfN] vk vksfg izksQs'kufyTed vNSr vks dksuk viu
ekuork dsa cpkSus jgSr vfN] vk lc la ij] ts ,gsu Hk;kogrkd vNSr jpukdkj
dksu m|ksx la ,d uofuekZ.kd tksxkM+ fQV djSr jgSr vfN ! ^izfrfufk* dFkk
es euq";d nkuork] liZo`fk vkfn dksu rjgsa mxSr vfN vk vksgh nkuorkd
chp ^usdh dj nfj;k es Qsd* dksuk viu izcyrk v{kq..k j[kSr vfN !
yfyrd dFkk deZ es ppkZ [kkgs f"kdeZd gks vFkok nq"deZd] viu fooj.k
vk n`"Vkar es dFkkdkj ,dne v|ru vk iw.kZ :isa lkokku rFkk O;k[;kRed
jgSr NfFkA iVqvkd [ksrh gks vFkok pkS;Z&o`fRr gks] ikdsVekjh gks vk fd vkus
dksuks ?kVuk] lkSals jpukd ikBd i'pkr yxSr jgSr vfN] ts dFkkdkj vb deZd
lw{ere tkudkjh j[kSr NfFkA ,fg lw{erkiw.kZ fp=k.kd ifj.kke bZ gksbr vfN]
ts dFkk viu tehu idM+us jgSr vfNA viu okrkoj.k vk viu tehu la
m[kfM+ xsykd ckn] euq"; vk fopkjkkjk nquw Mxexk tkbr vfNA yfyr] viu
dksuks jpuk vk jpukd ik=k dsa vb nq?kZVukd f'kdkj uba gksv, nsyfu vfNA
vkb t[ku yfyr uba NfFk] r[kugqa gqudj frdeZ gejk yksdfud lks>ka
jk[ky vfNA gqud ewY;kadu vb leLr vkkkj ij d,y tk,ckd pkghA ,[ku
kfj ta yfyr ij de fy[ky xsy] ra ls ,dVk xksySlhd izek.k fFkdA vb
xksySlh la ckgj vkfc d, gqudj ewY;kadu g,ckd pkghA gejk ra ^i`Fohiq=k*
miU;kl kfj es laiw.kZ ^fojpukokn* vk laiw.kZ mRrj vkkqfudrkokn ns[kkb iM+Sr
euksoSKkfud lR;d dFkk @ 135 136 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
vk fgudj vlkkkj.k izfrHkk viu r#.kkb, es ,fg lHk fLFkfr ij xaHkhj fparu
dj; ykxy] ,fg lHk fLFkfrd ekfeZd i{k dsa ns[k, ykxyA Lora=krk uked
dksuks fpfM+;k] ts lektd fdNq [kkl oxZd pht Ny vk lektd vfr U;wu
la[;kd yksdd gsrq vkuy xsy Ny] jktdey dsa iflu ufg iM+yfuA lkekftd
izk.kh eksu es vks,g fujk'kk] vks,g dqaBk] vks,g vlarks"k nsf[k bZ O;fFkr Hk* mBykgA
vk ,djk bZ Lora=krk izkfIr ufg dfg d, Vksihd cnyko vFkok lkkd gLrkarj.k
cq>yfuA euq"; es O;kIr ,fg vlarks"kd fuokj.k rkd* yxykgA ,fg pquko
ra=k] ,fg vQlj'kkgh dsa cnyck ysy vko';d Ny tu&tkxj.k] turk es]
euksoK
S kfudlR;ddFkk turkd fopkjkkjk es vkewy&pwy ifjorZu( oLrqewY;] vFkZewY;] uhfr&ewY;]
opu&ewY; es vlkkkj.k ifjorZuA pwafd ifjorZu ,[ku rqjar Hksys Ny pkgs
dsguks gks vk rkgw la iS?k ckr ts] usrk] vQlj] iqfyl] f'k{kd] deZpkjh] i=kdkj]
Lora=krk izkfIrd le; kfj jktdey pkSkjh ianzg&lksyg c[kZd Hk* xsy NykgA lHk viu dkZO; la foeq[k Hk* d, lkk i{kd yYyks&pIiks es yfx xsy Ny]
bZ mez ,dVk r#.kd mez fFkdA e.khUnz ukjk;.k pkSkjh vFkkZr~ jktdey pkSkjh tkfg la lektd iFk&funsZ'kd ro] uhfr fukkZjd ro ukaxj Hk* xsy NyA
uked r#.k es vgh o;l es vlkkkj.krk] laosnu'khyrk ifjyf{kr NyA mis{kk] ,fg ifjfLFkfr es vko';d NySd ts lekt dsa dsvks funsZ'kd HksVSdA vkc bZ
'kks"k.k] frjLdkj] vlarks"k] vkks'k---bR;kfn lHk >kaV&fcgkfM+ la Vdjkbr( lHk Hkkj lEgkj* tksxj ek=k lkfgR;dkjs Vk ckapy Nykg ts tu&thou dsa mfpr
vfre.k dsa HkksxSr] ,dVk kafriw.kZ fetktd ys[kdd vorj.k Hksy] lSg funsZ'k n* d, mfpr ckV ij pyck ysy izsfjr d* ldSr NykgA ,dVk lkfgR;dkj]
NfFk jktdey pkSkjhA lSdM+ks flikghd dkt djSr vfNA dksuks lkfgfR;d laosnuk] fparu vk jpukkfeZrk
eSfFkyh lkfgR;d vkfndky la vkb kfjd bfrgkl es fofok 'krkCnhd la laiUu O;fDr jkbQy y* d, ;q) es mrfj tk, vFkok e'kky y* d, tqywl
fofok n'kdd fofok lkfgR;dkjd lkfgR; es dkO;kkjk dSd csj viu djkSV es py tk, ra vks ek=k ,d O;fDrd dkt d* ldr] eqnk ta bZ O;fDr dye
Qsjyd vfN] eqnk jktdey pkSkjhd jpukkfeZrk es lkfgR; djkSV ufg Qsfjd, y* d, lkfgR; es mrfj tkfFk ra vxf.kr ^ykBh* rS;kj djck es fgudk dksugq
,Ddfg csj] lqjQqjk d, mfB xsy] kafrd Loj vk fonzksgd ukjkd lax lfpoky;d ijs'kkuhd lkeuk ufg dj* iM+rfuA jktdey pkSkjh es jpukkfeZrk jgfu]
fdjkuh e.khUnz pkSkjh] jktdey pkSkjh cfu xsykgA ts viuk dsa dk;kZy;d laosnu'khyrk jgfu vk ,fg oLrqfLFkfrd fo'ys"k.k dj* ;ksX; {kerks jgfu] rsa
yydk lkyqd es ckUgy Qkby la loZFkk eqDr j[kckd vkxzgh NykgA bZ jktdey bZ lHk dkt NksfM+ d, ys[kuh idM+yfu vk turkd var%ihM+k] vksdj eksg&Hkax]
pkSkjh viu vle;d ckSf)drkd dkj.ksa ns'kn'kk la voxr NykgA Lora=krk vksdj vkarfjd osnuk] vksdj vlarks"kd dkj.k] vksdj nq%fLFkfrd fp=k dsa vafdr
izkfIrd i'pkr~ ns'k dsgsu gks rdj ,dVk eksVk&eksVh :ijs[kk vkus turk tdka dj* ysy turkd lehi py v,ykg] tr, la bZ oLrqfLFkfrd ekfeZd fp=k.k
fgudgq es NyfugsaA vlkkkj.k O;fDrRod yksd] fgudj fparu fdNq vtwck djck es viwoZ lQyrk izkIr d,yfuA bZ lQyrk] fgudj mnkjoknh fopkj]
<axd jgy gsrfuA b,g fparu ikjaifjd laLdkjd bukj la fudkfy d, fgudk laiw.kZ tu&ekul es ^Lo* dsj fp=k rdckd izo`fk] lektd lokxhu nq%fLFkfr
mUeqDr okrkoj.kd iks"kd jktdey pkSkjhd :i nsydA Lora=krk izkfIrd i'pkr~ dsa viuk lax tksfM+ d,] vksdjk Hkksfx d, fpf=kr djckd ifjpk;d fFkdA
iwoZ jpy LoIu egy dsa <gSr ns[kyfu] euq";d varLry es ts ,dVk uo <axd laiw.kZ lektd ,fg fofr dsa nsf[k d,] jktdey lu fonzksgh jpukdkjd fp=k.k
mRlkg Ny] 'kks"k.k la eqfDr i,ckd ,dVk dYiuk Ny( ,fg lc rjgd kkj.kkd dsgsu Hk* ldSr Ny] ls rkfg le; es dYiuk djck ;ksX; xi jgy gks,r]
{k; Hk* xsyA ifgus lekt ij vR;kpkj fons'kh djSr Ny vk ikNka Lons'kh dj, eqnk vkb ns[kck ;ksX; xi fFkdA lektd ,d&,d rarq jksx la ttZj Hk* xsy
ykxyA lkekftd tu&thoud ,fg voewY;u dsa jktdey yxhp la fpUgyfuA NyA O;oLFkk dq a B kxz L r Hk* xs y A prq f nZ d 'kks " k.k&iz i a p &vukLFkk&
ns'k es ek=k Vksih cnfy d, jfg xsy] ,dj vykos vkvksj dksuks uo ckr ufg dqO;oLFkk&vfo'okl&vlarks"kd nqxk iljy tkbr NyA eqnk lkekftd izk.kh
HksySdA bZ lHk fLFkfr r#.k jktdeyd eksu dsa O;fFkr d* d, jkf[k nsydfuA fuf'par Ny] fufoZdkj Ny] vksdjk ysy bZ dksuks vugksuh xi ufg Ny] Bhd
euksoSKkfud lR;d dFkk @ 137 138 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
vksfguk] tsuk ikbfj;k jksx la xzflr euqD[k dsa viu eqagd nqxk viuk ufg djSr vfNA lquck dky] dFkkd izkjaHk gksbrfg vks lc fdNq fclfj] viu ;ku
yxSr NSdA jktdey vgh nqxk dsa] vgh jksx dsa izdk'k es vku*d iz;kl lrr dsa dFkkd ?kVuk ij dsafnzr d* ySr vfNA viuk dsa dFkkd ?kVukd izfr vfr
djSr jgykgA lwry tuekul dsa vksdj nqnZ'kk la ifjfpr djcSr jgykgA lpsr jk[kSr vfNA eksus&eksu ,gsu kkj.kk cuk ySr vfN ts] dFkkd bZ ?kVuk
jktuhfrKd n`f"Vcksk ,rck cqf> xsy Ny] ts vkc turk dsa ek=k iziapfg Vk izk;% vksdjk lks>fga es ?kfV jgy gksA dFkk lquykd ckn vksdjk ts gkfnZd izlUurk
la [kq'k d,y tk ldS, vk vb iziap la ifjp; djkd, tuekuld vkaf[k jgSr vfN] ls vksdj iwoZd euksfodkjd 'keu d* nSr vfNA xYi] vk[;kf;dk]
[kksyc bZ viu dkZO; cq>yfuA vk ,dVk lQy ltZud BsB es lktZu :i fdaok NksV&NksV dFkk fy[kckd izFkk izkphu dkyfg la py vkfc jgy vfNA
es gejkyksdfud lektd rarq&rarq dsa phfM+ d, vksdj Hkhrjh&jksxd MkbXuksfll ,fg dFkud iqf"V keZ&xzaFk es orZeku vk[;kf;dk la gksbr vfNA dk;k&dYi
izLrqr d,yfuA la NksV jfgrgq vks izklafxd dFkk lHk mPp dksfVd vfNA egkHkkjr] mifu"kn
tuekul dsa n`f"Vcksk nsck ysy ,rcs ;Fks"V vfN] ts vks viu jksx tkfu lHk es bZ tuf'k{kkd ysy mi;qDr lkku cq>y xsy vfNA Kku vk rod ,fg
tk, vk jksxd ewy tkfu tk,A lektd tkxj.k&iFkd ifgy lh<+h b,g fFkdA ckr dsa ,rsd lgt :i es cq>k nsckd ms';fg la izk;% izkphu _f"k ,fg ek;e
jktdey viuk ftuxh es b,g djSr jgykgA ijaijk la vcSr lkfgR;&kkjk dsa viukSus gsrkgA vks ,fg n`"Vkar }kjk ek=k vk;kfRed vk uSfrd ro&fu:i.k
;qxhu nq%fLFkfr] 'kks"k.k] dqO;oLFkk] vukpkj] LokFkZ&uhfr] ekuoh; voewY;ud djSr NykgA vfHkizk; euksjatus Vk ufg jgSr NyfuA
fp=k.k ufg d* icSr NyA bZ Hkkjh cks> mBkc* es izkphu dkO;kkjk uaxjk, ykxy ,Egj vkfc d, vk[;kf;dkd vFkZ cgqr O;kid Hk* xsyA izse&dgkuh]
NyA rsa jktdey ,fg okgd dsa gVkd,] ,djk dikj ij la ,fg cks> dsa mrkfj Hkze.k&o`kkar] vn~Hkqr ?kVuk] ,rs kfj ts fe=kd chp Hksy xi&li dsa lsgks
d, uo dkO;kkjkd LFkkiuk d,yfu] ts ,fg xaHkhj fparud Hkko&cksk dsa mf?k vk[;kf;dkd ek;es dgy tk, ykxyA tr, izkphu vk[;kf;dk dqrwgy&izkku
ldck es leFkZ NyA fojksk vusd rjgsa Hksy] eqnk tsgsu gqudj izcy bPNk'kfDr gksbr Ny] v;kRe fo"k;d gksbr Ny vksr, okZeku vk[;kf;dk euksoSKkfud
Ny] rsgus gqudj LFkkfir lkfgR;kkjk---dksuks fojksk] dksuks fuankd fcuk ijokfg fo'ys"k.k vk thoud ;FkkFkZ rFkk LokHkkfod fp=k.k dsa viu ;s; cq>ydA vksfg
d,us c<+Sr jgy---c<+Sr jgy---cf<+ xsyA es dYiukd deh vk vuqHkwfrd ckgqY; jgSr vfNA ,rcs ufg] oLrqr% vuqHkwfr,
vksuk ra jktdeyd leLr lkfgfR;d fokk es b,g eksg&Hkax] b,g n`f"V jpuk'khy Hkkouk la vuqjaftr Hk* d, dFkk cfu tkbr vfNA
cksk] b,g vkRen'kZu] b,g ftuxhd dVq lR; O;Dr Hksy vfN] eqnk] eSfFkyh vuqHkwfrd vkkkj ij ;FkkFkZ Hkksfxd, vksdjk jpuk'khy Hkkouk la vuqjaftr
lkfgR; es [kkl d* d, lokZfkd lQy fokk dFkk&lkfgR; jgy vfNA dgck d,fugkj es jktdey vxzx.k NykgA fgudj dFkk es dYiuk dsa txg i,ckd
y, ra vusd vkykspd yksdfu fgudk cslh lQy dfo :i es ekuSr NfFk] xqatkb'k ufg jgSr NySdA fgudj ekU;rk Nyfu] ts dYiuk d* d, dksuks ?kVukd
eqnk gejk n`f"Vdks.ksa fgudj dFkk vk dfork nquw mijkS> a d* jgy vfNA okLrfod vk ekfeZd fp=k.k ufg d,y tk ldS,A vksuk ra orZekuks dky es
Hkkjrh; vU;kU; lkfgR; tdka eSfFkyh lkfgR; dsa lsgks] dFkk fokk fojklr lkfgR;d izR;sd fokkd jpuk es dksuks&us&dksuks rjgsa euksjatud mi;ksfxrk jfgrs
es laLrfg la HksVySd vfNA eqnk] jktdeyd dFkk&lkfgR; laLr la izkIr vfN] laxfg&lax bZ thoud xgu tfVyrkd vax lsgks cfu xsy vfNA lkfgR;
ejkSlh f[kLlk ek=k ufg] cfYd nh?kZdkyhu dFkkRedrkd fodkl ijaijk] ik'pkR; es thoud izR;{k n'kZu mifLFkr djc [kkl d* d, jktdeyd ys[kuhd
dFkk&lkfgR;d izHkko vk gqudj viu vlyh thou&n'kZu rFkk ifd;k vuqHkwfrd LokHkkfod keZ NyfuA fgudj dFkk es euksjatud ro la cslh fo'oluh;rkd
fp=k.kd f=kos.kh fFkdA viu dksuks dFkk fy[kck la iwoZ jktdey ftuxhd vkxzg ns[ky tkbr vfNA fgudj dFkk es euksjatdrkd ms';as lektd dfYir
tfVyre&xgure [kksg es ek=k gqydh ekjSr ufg izrhr gksbr NfFk] cfYd vksdj fdaok lrgh fp=k&pfj=k ufg miLFkkfir d,y xsy vfN] vfirq fo'oluh;rkd
okLrfod fLFkfrd HkksDrk yxSr NfFkA ekuoh; laosnukd ,d&,d rhr&ehB dsa kjkry ij lektd uXu vk dqfRlr fp=k dsa nkfpk Hk* d, izLrqr d,y
pkf[k d, jktdey viu izR;sd dFkk izLrqr djSr cq>kbr NfFkA xsy vfNA viu dFkkd ek;es bZ ikBdd vkxka lektd orZeku ifjfLFkfrd
Fkkrhd :i es laLr lkfgR; la izkIr dFkk&lkfgR; izkjaHkfg la thoud fp=k dsa rrsd izHkkoksRiknd <ax la izLrqr dsyfu ts ikBdd eksu fryfeyk
,dVk fo'ks"k vaxd :i es Lohdkjy tkbr jgy vfNA izR;sd cPpk viu tkbr vfNA eSfFkyh es viu ifgy izdkf'kr dFkk ^vijkftrk*d 'kh"kZd la
ekb&cki&cfgu la dksuk rUe;rkiwoZd dFkk lquSr vfN] lSg dFkkd xq.k dsa iznf'kZr dFkkoLrqd varjax rknkRE; mifLFkr d,us NfFkA vijkftrkd laKkkkjh vlyh
euksoSKkfud lR;d dFkk @ 139 140 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
ro ,gsu dh vfN tdj xq.k uke dsa lkFkZd djSr vfN--- \---,fg iz'ud nSr vfNA ,d {k.k es fpk dsa ,rsd ekkq;Z la ifjiwfjr d* nSr vfN trsd
xaHkhj rFkk [kkstiw.kZ mkj ^vijkftrk* es HksVSr vfNA dks'kh vk okxerhd rkaMo jkfr Hkfj xhr lquyk la ufg Hk* ldSr vfNA* jktdeyd dFkk es vks {kerk
es Hk;kkar turkd fLFkfrd fp=k.k] lgtfga ikBdd lks>ka es v"kk<+&lkvksud jgSr vfN ts de la de le; yxkd, ikBd cslh la cslh vkuUn izkIr d*
ckf<+d n`'; mifLFkr d* nSr vfNA osn es unh dsa euqD[kd lsfodk] euqD[kd ySr vfNA dksugq dFkkdkjd NksV la NksV dFkk viu {kh.k dk;k la ikBd dsa
iRuh dgy xsy vfNA rdjk ij fojkskkHkkl izLrqr djSr jktdey O;aX; dlSr larqf"V r[kufga n* ldSr vfN ta vks jpukdkj viuk jpuk es dYiukd frjLdkj
NfFk ^cgqvks Hk* d* dks'kh vk okxerh vijkftrk vfN---* ckf<+d d"V la xzflr] dsus gksfFk vk fo'oluh;rkd izfr vkxzg ns[kvksus gksfFkA dFkkdkj dsa lektd
vkksxfr lgSr turk] vk turk ij iqfyld ykyQhrk'kkghd izgkjd fp=k i;Zo{s kdd lax&lax Lo;a HkksDrk lsgks gks,ckd pkgh jktdey ,fg es fo'okl
mifLFkr dsus NfFkA iqfyld vukpkjd miLFkkiu es dgSr NfFk ^Qsj iqfyl djSr NykgA vks drgq ln;rk ok Hkkoqdrko'k viu ik=kd lax lgkuqHkwfrd
vkfc&vkfc d, gejk lHk dsa rax dj* ykxyA tdjk lax ikb&dkSMh+ NySd o"kkZ ufg d;yfuA viu vkarfjd osnuk dsa ekfeZd <ax la mifLFkr djSr jgykgA
ls ikb&dkSM+h n* dsa iqfyld Bksdj la cpy jgyA jkfr[ku d* ;qorh lHk xkM+hd lrr~ viu ik=kd dNeNh vk vkSukgkfV dsa viu n;xr Hkko la lac) d;yfuA
fMCck la fcyk, ykxfyA* izR;sd lkfgR;dkj ifgus lektd bdkb gksbr vfNA lektd izfrfcac dksuks
eSfFkyh es rhu ntZu la cslh dFkk jktdeyd izdkf'kr Nfu] tkfg es us dksuks :i es gqudk thou es jfgrs Vk vfNA is'kk vk lkekftd Lrj nquw
euq";d ck; la cslh varjaxd o.kZu vfNA dFkk pkgs ^yydk ikx*gks fd ^lka>d la ,d jfgrgqa ^fdjrfu;ka* es pUujnkld dkeqdh utfj fdjrfu;ka ij vVdy
xkN*( ^uufn Hkkmt* gks fd ^oS".ko*( ^Qqyijklokyh*] gks fd ^vkokxeu* lHk jgSr vfNA vk iz;kl djSr vfN ts dfgvk fdjrfu;kad ukuh efj tk,]
Bke uk;dd euksosx vk euksHkko dsa i<+ckd ps"Vk jktdeyd dFkk es vfNA fdjrfu;kad ,lxj Hk* tk,] ts ge vksdj 'kh'kk lu nsgd Hkksx djc 'kq:
euq";d ,d&,d Vk vfHkf;k vksdj euksosxfg la funsZf'kr gksbr vfNA vFkkZr~] d* nhA 'kh'kk lu >ydSr nsg okyh fdjrfu;kad nsg Hkh[k ekaxSr dky ckVd
,d&,d Vk gjDdfr la euq";d vksfg dkyd eu%;k=kk dsa O;k[;kf;r d,y mM+Sr xnkZ la eyhu Hk* tkbr NSd] eqnk vksdj ukuhd ygkl yx n;koku yksd
tk ldS,A euksfo'ys"k.ks fgudj f'kYi dsa uwrurk nsydfu vfN ls dgc izk;% }kjk Qsdy jStdh dsa xfu d, nwuwd tkfg :id f;k&dyki gksbr vfN rdj
vuxZy uba gks,rA ^[kjhn&fch* dFkk gks vk fd ^lqjek lxqu fopkjS uk* vk euksfo'ys"k.k djSr fy[kSr NfFk] ^,g ! rhu Vkdk es r* ge nquw vkB fnu rkM+h
fd vkus dksuks dFkk gks] fgudj uk;dd ekuflds ;k=kk pySr jgSr NfuA vly ih yscA* NksV&la&NksV dk;k es ,rsd xaHkhj ckr dfg nsukb fgudj LokHkkfod
es eSfFkyh es vb lR; dsa ifgy csj jktdeys pkSkjh fpUgyfu] ts mke dksfVd keZ Hk* xsy NyfuA
dFkk euksfo'ys"k.ksd kjkry ij fy[ky tk ldS,A ^,dVk pEikdyh % ,dVk fo"kkj* jktdeyd izk;% lHk dFkk euksoSKkfud lR; ij vkkkfjr vfNA dFkk
dFkkd pEikdyh Hkfj dFkk es ekuflds }a} la ijs'kku jgSr vfNA fgudj dksuks ^,dVk paikdyh ,dVk fo"kkj* es Vkdkd dkj.k n'kjFk >k }kjk viu dqekfj
dFkkd ikB dky dFkkd ik=kd O;Lrrk nsf[k d, Lo;a ikBd ijs'kku Hk* tkbr csVh paikd rk#.; dsa vkBe&lkre n'kd es iSj j[kfugkj 'kf'k ckcwd gkFk
NfFkA ,dfg laxsa] ik=k dsa efLr"d es viu vlyh ms'; ij utfj jk[k, es lkSaickd kkj.kk cuk,c] paikdyh lu viu paikd fookgd izLrko 'kf'k
iM+Sr Nfu] rnuqdwy ?kVukd ek;kyksd x<+, iM+Sr Nfu] ts f'kdkj dgha gej ckcwd lks>ka jkf[k n'kjFkd L=kh t[ku 'kf'k ckcwd vkxka Bk<+ jgSr NfFk] r[ku
y{; dsa cwf> uba tk,] f'kdkjks viuk eksus viu y{; r; d,us jgSr vfNA 'kf'k ckcw dsa n'kjFk >kd L=kh es dksuks Hk;kog fo"kkjd cksk gSc---bZ lHk
rnuqdwy gjDdfrd ukVd djSr jgSr vfNA f'kdkj vk f'kdkjhd bZ ekufld euksoSKkfud lR; fFkd] isVd gsrq nsg cspc] dkeqdrko'k vlgk; vcykd
}a}d fp=k.k tkfg oSf'k"V~;d lax fgudk vksr, mifLFkr vfN] rdj fofkor 'khygj.k djc bZ lHk lkekftd ;FkkFkZ vk euksoK S kfud lR; fFkdA iyax ij
O;k[;k ra uab Hk* ldy] eqnk ijorhZ eSfFkyh dFkk ys[ku es vks izfofk izLQqfVr cSly 'kf'k ckcw yx paik }kjk pkgd I;kyh vkuc vk vksfg dkyd gqudk
HksyA vk ls xaxs'k xqatu] jkteksgu] izHkkl vk rdj cknksd dFkkdkjd jpuk paikd fLFkfrd vkHkkl gSc drsd euksfo'ys"k.kkRed vfN] ^paikd gkFk FkjFkjk
lalkj es O;Dr Hksy vfNA jgy Nfu---paikd vax&vax dkafi jgy NfuA lkSals dikj ?kke la Hkhty---* ,fg
^lkfgR; dk ms';* i`"B&44 es izsepUn dgus NfFk] ^dFkk kzqind vks ?kVuk la] 'kf'k ckcwd fnekx es mBSr iz'u gqudk efFk d, jkf[k nSr NfuA
rku fFkd tkfg es xk;d egfQy 'kq: gks;ck la iwoZfg viu laiw.kZ izfrHkk ns[kk iyax ij vksaxBy 'kf'k ckcwd lks>ka es uhpka ih<+h ij cSly n'kjFk >kd
ijaijk la izxfr /kfjd vuq'khyu @ 141 142 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
fugksjk&feurh djc] paik dsa c v[kjSr NSdA vks lkspSr vfN] ^---ckcwth iyax
ij fd,d ufg cSly NfFkA---dksu LokFkZd dkj.ksa ,[ku 'kf'k ckcwd ysy pkg
cukvksy tkbr vfN \* dFkk ^uufn&Hkkmt* es Vgfy&cwfy d, ?kqjy] fpafrr
inqek dsa nsf[k jkexatckyhd fnekx es bZ iz'u mBc ts vkb caxV ufg HksVy
gsrfu] Hkfjld nquw uufn&Hkkmt dsa vkc Hkq[kys jg; iM+r] liZna'k la eqby caxVd
lax jfr&izlxa d,yk la inqekd vkrafdr gSc bZ lHkVk euksfo'ys"k.kkRed n`';
fFkdA dFkk ^oS".ko* es pkfj c[kZ la viu fokok iqrkSgqd lax thou O;rhr
d,fugkj Jhear ckcwd pfj=kd miLFkkiu tsgu QjhN d* d, jktdey izLrqr
d;us NfFk ls viwoZ NfuA iqrkSgq }kjk ijlSr dky Fkkjh es ekN py v;ckd ijaijk la izxfr kfjd vuq'khyu
dkj.k ftuxhd gjsd {ks=k es ekU;rk izkIr :Vhu dsa rksfM+ nsfugkj JheUr ckcw
fcxfM+ mBSr NfFk] eqnk pkfj cj[k la lwry Tokykeq[kh ,dfg csj txft;kj
Hk* d, QqVSr vfNA vks deyiqjokyh viu llqjd lHk dqdeZd cf[kvk m?kkjSr
fy[kck dky] ys[kd dsa ts fdNq gkFk ykfx tk,] vks lcVk lkFkZds uba gksbr
NfFkA bZ lHk n`'; viu&viu xfjekd lax fofok Bke mifLFkr Hksy vfNA
vfN] Bhd rfguk] ts fdNq NwfV tk,] vks lcVk fujFkZds uba gksbr vfNA
^ckcw lkgscd Vhd* es ckcw lkgscd thoar pfj=k&fp=k.k Hksy vfNA 'kgjh
,sfrgkfld fodkl] oSKkfud izxfr vk lkekftd ifjorZud e es fojkskh
pVd&eVd la jaxy ;qorh gksLihVyd ulZ cjek dsa nsf[kd, vksdj 'kjhjd Hkksx
'kfDrd ikjLifjd la?k"kZ la ftuxhd uoy&uwru vk;ke ifjyf{kr gksbr jgSr
djckd ikNka] vksdjk lax fc;kg djckd ikNka viu iSr`d laLdkj fclfj tkbr
vfNA le; ifjokZud vb kkjk es cgqr jkl ,gsu lkekftd varfoZjksk lc
NfFkA e`x&ejhfpdk es iM+y ckcwlkgsc vksfg NkSaM+hd dgyk ij viu Vhd dVkcSr
mBSr vfN] ts ;krO; gksbr vfN] O;k[;s; gksbr vfNA Lokkhurkd rRdky
NfFk] iqu% t[ku dkeqdrkd [kqekjh VqVSr Nfu ra vks dVygk Vhdd xsBjh ?kkV
cknd ts le; Ny] vFkkZr NBe n'kdd izkjaHk] ls eSfFkyh dFkkd fofp=krkd
ij rkd, nkSM+Sr NfFkA vkfFkZd ttZjrk es VwVy ifjfLFkfrd ukjhd Hkksx vktqd
le; NyA eSfFkyhd laiw.kZ dFkk kkjk] gkL;&d#.k jld lfjrk esa Mwcy Ny]
iq#"k dksu rjgsa djSr NfFk] vksdj ykpkjhd Qk;nk bZ dqdehZ lektd rFkkdfFkr
fefFkykd oSokfgd ik[kaM es vks>jk,y NyA vgh le; es yfyr&jktdey&ek;kuUn
laHkzkar yksd dksuk ySr NfFk] rkfg oLrqd ltho fp=k.k rhu pkfj okD; es
lu lcy dFkkdkjd Vhe eSfFkyh es izxV HksyA vk] eSfFkyh dFkk viu :<+
^[kjhn&fch* es 'kj.kkFkhZd eqag la djkd, o.kZu 'kSyhd mR"Vrk ns[kkSus NfFkA
Hk* xsy ifjkku la ckgj vkfc xsyA viuk le;d folaxfr dsa lw{erk la ta
,fguk fgud lHk dFkk es lektd dksuks us dksuks ;FkkFkZd mn~?kkVu gksbr NfuA
dFkkdkj rkfd fyv,] ra lSg vksdj lkFkZdrk fFkdA bZ Vhe] ls rkfd ysydA
fgudj lHk dFkk ;FkkFkZd iks"kd] n`"Vkard j{kd vk vfHkO;fDrd lqanjrkd gsrq
fujFkZd vk misf{kr lkfcr Hksy fo"k; vk O;fDr] vb dFkkdkjd Vhe ysy lkFkZd
egRoiw.kZ vfNA dFkk es fp=kkadu la uo :isa euksfo'ys"k.kd izHkko ns[kcSr NfFkA
vk visf{kr Hk* xsyA yfyr] tr, lkekftd :isa viSr Hksy O;fDrd euksHkko
thoud vko';drkd izfr fu"Bk] leL;kd lekkku ok rdj iz;ksxd izfr vkxzgh
dsa phUg, cw>, yxykg] vksdj ghuo`fkd i`"BHkwfe rkd, yxykg] jktdey
jktdey lxjs jgykg vfNA
vb leLr ghuo`fkd mRl rkfd vksdj HkRlZuk dj, yxykg vk nksljd ekFk
ekDlZ] ,aftYl vk k;M fpardd fp=k.k la izHkkfor jktdey viu
ij cksjfl jkf[k d, ?kwj rifugkj dsa ukaxV dj, yxykg] vksrfg ek;kuUn]
lHk dFkk es lR;d uXu fp=k izLrqr djSr jgykg ,fg rhu fpardd Hkkoukd
lkekftd vk ikfjokfjd lacakd ruko] ik[kaM] folaxfr vkfn dsa m?kkj dj,
Li"V fp=k viu dFkk es izLrqr dsyfFkA fgud dFkk 'kh"kZd ^yydk ikx* dsa
yxykgA vb f=kiqaMd rhuw 'kk[kk rhu fn'kkd vuqlakku d* d, viuk&viuk
lokZfkd yksdfiz;rk HksVySdA ts fdNq gks] thoud ;FkkFkZ ewY;d fp=k.k dj*
xfr,a fn'kk ladsr nsc, yxykgA bZ dgc vko';d gks,r] ts Hkk"kkd izokg]
es] dkZO;ckskd izfr lkdka{k jg* es vkRekuqfparu es ok uXu o.kZud i{kikr
f'kYid uwrurk vk fo"k;d peRdkjiw.kZ vuqlakkud vNSr vfHkO;fDrd vkarfjd
es] fgudj dFkk lHkd fo'ks"k egRo vfNA de la de 'kCnd iz;ksx d* d,
/kkjk es ek;kuUn ij gfjeksgu >k] eueksgu >k vk caxykd 'kjnpUnzd vlj
cslh la cslh ckr dfg nsck es bZ ekfgj NykgA fgudk es 'kCnczkd xq.k NyfuA
ijaijk la izxfr /kfjd vuq'khyu @ 143 144 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
NySUgsaA eqnk] ls dksuks nks"k uba fFkdA fgudj ifgy dFkk laxzg ^Hkkaxd yksVk* lsgks] loZFkk uohu] vkdfLed vk vkd"kZd gksbr vfNA vkxw vkfc d, viu
1951 ra gkL;s dFkkd ladyu NyA fdarq vksb gkL;gq es le;d ;FkkFkZ vk laxzg ^fn'kkarj* d Hkwfedk es ledkyhu dforkd O;k[;k tkfg peRdkjiw.kZ
thou&;kiud folaxfr Bke&Bke viu xoksZUur ekFk mBkSus vfN] foo'k tdka 'kSfy,a d,yfu ls vksfg le;d vk izk;% ,[kuqdks ikBdd ysy uo dfork
uba] tks'k vk gks'k vk lkgl laA ts&ls dsa cw>*d gsrq tknqbZ NM+h fFkdA jktdeyd ^Lojxakk* 1959 d izdk'kud
^vkfx] ekse vk ikFkj* 1960 nkslj dFkk laxzg fFkd vk ^pUnzfcUnq* i'pkr dhkZu&Hktu vk jfr&lekxe ij dfork fy[kfugkj dfo yksdfu vksdj
1983 rsljA lu~ 1960 esa ^fcgkfj] ikr ikFkj* vk lu~ 1965 esa ^[kksark vk fuank d,yfu] eqnk t[ku vkxw vkfc d, ek;kuUnd ^fn'kkarj* vk lksensod
fpM+S* miU;kl lsgks vk,yA lu~ 1959&60 d fy[ky fgudj dfork lHkd ^dkyofu* ns[kyfu] r[ku gqudk fojksk djckd viu {kerk ij lansg gksv,
,dVk ladyu ^fn'kkarj* 1965 es izdkf'kr HksyA vb ladyud ifjf'k"V es yxyfuA ^fn'kkarj* ladyud dfork lc trsd egRoiw.kZ vfN] vksb le;d
fdNq xhrks vfNA lu~ 1988 es fgudj xhr&xtyd laxzg ^vokUrj* izdk'k dkO;kkjkd lw=k idM+* ysy vksdj Hkwfedk rkgw la cslh egRoiw.kZA eapd ek;es
es vk,yA ^ekVh ds yksx lksus dh uS;k*] ^izFkea 'kSy iq=kh p*] ^ea=kiq=k* rFkk eSfFkyh Hkk"kkd vfLerkd ysy tkfg rjgd vkanksyukRed #f[k ek;kuUn Bk<+
^iqjksfgr* pkfj Vk fgUnh miU;kl jktdey izdk'ku la vk,yA ifgy fgUnh d,yfu lsgks iz'kalkd ckr fFkdA eSfFkyhd miyCk ljdkjh lalkkud miHkksx
miU;kld i`"BHkwfe xzkekapy fFkd vk 'ks"k rhuwd ekuo lH;rkd fodkl la es ,[ku eSfFkyhd dkkZ kkkZ tr, fnYyhd lkfgR; vdkneh la y* d, iVukd
izkjaHk Hksy ka[kykA ^ea=kiq=k* fgUnh la iwoZfg eSfFkyh es izdkf'kr Hk* xsy Ny eSfFkyh vdkneh vk psruk lfefr es ekqekNh tdka yqkdy vfN] vksr, ek;kuUn
vk vb ij lkfgR; vdkneh lEeku lsgks nsy xsyA eqnk] iqLrdd fxurh djk,c gkygq es t[ku fdNq Hkk"kk dsa lafokkud vkBe vuqlwph es tksM+ckd ppkZ lquyfu
ek;kuUn feJd ewY;kadu uba fFkdA fgudj vly ewY;kadu fFkd ^chtkjksi.k*A ra kkab la fnYyh igqapykg vk lcVk jktusrk lc dsa eSfFkyhd vfLerk vk lafokku
T;ksfrjh'oj la y* d, ,[ku kfjd eSfFkyh lkfgR;d ijaijk lqn`<+ fLFkfr es es ,djk tksM+ckd vkSfpR; la lger d* xsykgA ,gsu Hkk"kkuqjkxh] ,gsu xhrdkj]
pySr jgy vfN] lc Hkk"kkd lkfgR;d n`f"V&laiUu bfrgkl fy[kkbr jgyA eSfFkyhd ,gsu flikgh] bfrgkln`f"V vk dkO;n`f"V ,gsu la laiUu ek;kuUn]
eSfFkyh es ,[ku kfj dksuks rkfdZd n`f"Vd bfrgkl uba fy[ky xsyA [kkl d* t[ku ^Hkkaxd yksVkd* izdk'kud ckn viu dFkk l`tud ckV rkfd ysyfu]
d, dky foHkktud ra dksuks n`f"V, uba ns[kk,yA ek;kuUn feJ vksb ifgy r[ku tkfg dFkkn`f"Vd dFkk lc vk,y] ls eSfFkyh dFkk lkfgR;d ik;ksfu;j
O;fDrd uke fFkd] ts dky foHkktu ij lqfu;ksftr n`f"V,a lkspyfuA ,fg lakku lkfcr HksyA
la cslh rkfdZd vk lqfpafrr dky fukkZj.k ,[ku kfj vku uba d* ldy NfFk ek;kuUnd dFkk lalkj dqy feyk d, e;for ifjokjd vkfFkZd&ekufld
! vkxw dh g,r] ls ds dgr ! eSfFkyh es xhfr dkO;d izkphu ijaijk vfNA ruko vk ih<+hd }a} ij dsafnzr jgy vfNA vksuk] dgc vko';d vfN] ts
fo|kifr, la izkjaHk Hksy bZ ijaijk chp&chp es fojy vk fd l?ku :isa pySr vkBe n'kdd var vcSr&vcSr fgudj dFkkn`f"V ,d csj Qsj vaxsBh&eksM+ ysyd]
jgy vfNA eqnk fo|kifrd xhr es yksd&thoud eksud dksey vk lqdqekj vFkkZr jktuhfrd lw{erk vk jktuhfrd tksM+&rksM+d xq.klw=k ,r, O;k[;kf;r
Hkkoukd mR"V izLQqVu tkfg rjgsa Hk* jgy Ny] ls fcpyk nkSj esa yqIr tdka gksv, ykxyA eqnk vksfg la iwoZd fgudj dFkk nkaiR; thoud dVq&ekqd Le`fr
Hk* xsy Ny] rdj uokjaHk Qsj la ek;kuUnsd vksr, laHko Hk* ldy ^uHk vkaxu vk iqjku ih<+hd vrhr Lej.kd O;k[;k fFkdA
es ioud jFk ij dkjh dkjh ckny vk,y*A ek;kuUnd xhr 'kSyh eSfFkyh es ^pUnzfcUnq* dFkkd iafMr y{ehdkar >k viu nquw iq=k jekdkar vk fuf'kdkar
rrsd yksdfiz; Hksy] ts fgUnhd laxhrdkj 'kSysUnz rd dsa izHkkfor gksv, dsa mPp f'k{kk n* d, mPp inLFk d* nsyfu] ns'k&nqfu;ka cnfy xsy] yksdd
iM+yfuAtkfg le; es fgUnh esa izxfrokn] iz;ksxoknd i'pkr ubZ dfork] thou e cnfy xsy] eqnk y{ehdkUr [kqh xkM+us viu iqjku vk tM+ ekU;rkd
vdforkukuk rjgd dkO;kanksyu pfy iM+y Ny] eSfFkyh es lksenso ^lgxrckn* lax thcSr jfg xsykgA ih<+hd b,g la?k"kZ ^mkjpfjr* dFkk es lsgks O;kIr vfNA
dsa LFkkfir d,* es ykxy Nkykg] rkfg le; es ek;kuUn eSfFkyh dkO; es kj.khkj >k viu ckylaxh dk'khdkard lax cSfl d, t[ku okrkZyki djSr
vfHkO;atukoknd O;k[;k d* jgy NykgA fgudk laiknu es cgjkbr if=kdk NfFk] nquw viu&viu csVk&iqrgq }kjk d,y xsy lsok&cjnkfld iz'kalk es iqy
^vfHkO;tuk* es vb izdkjd dfork izdkf'kr d,y tkbr NyA fgudj ekU;rk cUgSr vfN] eqnk Hkhrjs&Hkhrj viuk dsa HkkX;ghu dgSr vfNA ,d] nksljd Qwfl
Nyfu ts vb izdkjd dforkd LoHkkos Vk uohu uba] vksdj vfHkO;atuk iz.kkyh dsa lR; cq>Sr vfN vk nquw viu&viu lR; dsa Qwfl cuk d, vfHkO;Dr
ijaijk la izxfr /kfjd vuq'khyu @ 145 146 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
djSr vfNA pfdr dj* tksxj ckr bZ fFkd ts vb ih<+hd varjkyd ,gsu tksM+h tdka ,dkdkj Hk* tkbr vfNA
ekfeZd O;k[;k eksu dsa fgyk nsck es] vk nquw ih<+hd ikBd dsa uo <axsa izf'kf{kr fgudj rslj dksfVd dFkk 'kq) ekuork vk lacakd fuokZg es R;kxd
djck es lQy Hksy vfNA nw es la dksuks ih<+hd cnek'kh drgq uba ns[kkbr egRod O;k[;k fFkdA ^VqVSr dhyd tkar*] ^,dVk lq[kh yksdd Mk;jh* vgh
vfNA uo ih<+h dsa iqjku ih<+hd izfr i;kZIr vknj NSd] iqjku ih<+h dsa uo dksfV es vcSr vfNA vksuk lw{erk la ns[ky tk,] ra nquw ,ds dFkkd nw [kaM
ih<+hd izfr i;kZIr izse NSd] eqnk nquw viuk&viuk le;d ekU;rkd laxsa thc, fFkdA ifgy es tr, dsanzh; 'kfDrd vuqifLFkfr;ks es tkar fuds uk viu nkf;Ro
pkgSr vfNA uo ih<+h ik[kaM R;kfx jgy vfN] eqnk iqjku ih<+h #f<+ dsa idM+us fuokZg djSr tk jgy vfN] vksrfg nkslj dFkk es ,dljs dhy nwjLFk ?kqeSr tkar
vfN] tdjk vks viu ijaijk vk keZ ekuSr vfNA uo ih<+h iqjkud lax ;Fkklk; dsa 'kfDr n* jgy vfNA oS;fDrd ykylk] yksHk] fyIlk] ,s'k&vkjke dsa frykatfy
le>kSrk d* d, viu ekU;rkd laxsa vkxw tk, pkgSr vfN] eqnk iqjku viu nSr vb nquw dFkkd dsanzh; vk ifjkh; ik=k viu&viu nkf;Ro fuokZg es ,dVk
iqjku fitM+k es ?kwfj tk, pkgSr vfNA ,sfrgkfld fodkld e es b,g varfoZjksk nqkZ"kZ la?k"kZ es tqVy vfNA laiw.kZ vHkko vk fyIlkfoghu thou thfc ysckd
euq";d thou&;kiu es uo&uo vk;ked n'kZu djcSr vfN vk ek;kuUn vb vb lQyrk es bZ dFkk lc mRdV ekuoh; izo`fkd lus'k NksM+Sr vfNA ^lrnsod
varl?k"kZd O;k[;k es lkFkZd vk lQy ;ksxnku nsus NfFkA dFkk* vk ^VkUlQj* izkphu ifjikVhd f'kYi es fy[ky dFkk fFkd] tkfg es lusl
fgudj nkslj dkksfVd dFkk fFkd tkfg es nkaiR; thoud ruko js[kkafdr ra foy{k.k nsy xsy vfN] eqnk ,dj f'kYi rrsd O;k[;kRed vk ,d lhek
gksbr vfNA eqnk bZ fgUnhd ubZ dgkuhd nkaiR; ruko uba fFkdA bZ ruko 'kq) kfj mckm vfN] ts ,dj izHkkokfUofr kfj igqapSr&igqapSr Fkdkud vuqHko gksv,
eSfFkyhd vk 'kq) fefFkykd fFkd] tr, fpuckj ij jk[ky Msdph xksy isud yxSr vfNA viaxrk vk xjhch vk vf'k{kkd dkj.ksa usuiu la misf{kr O;fDr
dkj.ksa dusd Bksdj ykfx d, fgySr vfN vk nl csj fgy d, viufg fLFkj dksu lhek kfj vD[kM+] vgadkjh vk ckn es izse dsfugkjd izfr ?k`.kk Hkko dsa
Hk* tkbr vfNA vFkkZHkko] euksjFkd vfHkO;fDr] JetU; Fkdku] NksV&NksV ikslSr vfN vk varr% vknj HksVyk ij vkRegR;k djSr vfN] rdjs fooj.k
ykylkd viwfrZ] lkM+h] pIiy] xguk vkfnd Bksdj la nkaiR; thoud bZ Msdph ^lrnsod dFkk* es vk ifjJe] izse] fu"Bk] O;kikj] izfr"Bk] ljdkjh folaxfr
fgudj dFkk es fgy mBSr vfN vk Lo;eso fFkj Hk* tkbr vfNA nkaiR; thoud vkfnd la;qDr izHkko la mRiUu for fLFkfrd fp=k.k ^VkUlQj* dFkk es Hksy
bZ o`k dksuks vFks jgL;kRed uba vfNA ta ,r, dksuks jgL; vfN;ks] ra vks vfNA
jgL; ^vksisu Vq vkWy* vfN] ifr&iRuh dasa thou thckd ykylk NSd] nquw dsa ^jax mM+y eq#r* ;qx ifjorZud izfrfufkRo dj*oyk dFkk fFkdA feykd,
izse yqV,ckd ykylk NSd] deZ djckd ykylk NSd] vfkdkj ysy ukjk yx,ckd ns[kh ra yfyrd ^jetkuh* la ,dj rqyuk d,y tk ldS,A eqnk ,rck ra laiw.kZ
us iz;kstu NSd] us ykylkA vkb ukjhoknd uke ij Hkkjro"kZ es [kwc ukjsckth rqyuk la Li"Vs vfN] ts tr, yfyrd uk;dd laiw.kZ eaMy vkkqfudrk vk
Hk* jgy vfN] ts ,rqDdk ikfjokfjd thou dsa rgl&ugl d* nsyd] vb fodjky izxfrd vkxzgh Nfu vksrfg ek;kuand iqjku ih<+h viu :f<+ ij vM+y jgSr
fLFkfr es ta fefFkykd ikfjokfjd lacak vk ekuoh;rk cpy jgr] ra ek;kuUnd NfuA eqnk Lo;a ek;kuUnd >qdko uoih<+h fn'k ns[ky tkbr NfuA ;|fi vb
vb dksfVd dFkkd dkj.ksa] kal la mBy fleksu n* cqvkd ukjk la izHkkfor dFkk es ta dFkkdkj rVLFk jfgrfFk] vFkkZr~ t[ku vtqZu iafMr IykfLVdd [ksykSuk
dksuks Nn~e ukjhoknh L=kh&iq#"kd dkj.k ubaA ^galhd ctV*] ^dky jsr*] ^xkM+hd lc dsa bukj es Qsfd vk,y] vksrfg dFkkd var d* fnrfFk] ra bZ dFkk ifjokZu
ifg;k* vkfn vgh dksfVd dFkk fFkd] tr, vYi osruHkksxh ifjokjd laiw.kZ la?k"kZ dsa cslh fu[kkfj lfdr,A iykfLVdd [ksykSuk ta izxfrd ifjpk;d fFkd]
ykylk dsa ?kksdjh yxc, iM+Sr NSdA Hkfj ekl eksu caVus jgSr vfN] eqnk ekld ra ekfVd eq#r ikjaifjd dykdA ikjaifjd dykd lqj{kk lsgks lkfgR;lsfo,
var gksbrs t[ku vksN Hksy rkSuh tdka vks viu ykylk dsa ,aM+h la pksVh kfj yksdfud nkf;Ro fFkdfuA laiw.kZ dFkk es ek;kuUn lkaLFkkfud f'k{kkd nk#.k
uba >kafi icS, r[ku] vks Bsgqu eksfM+ d, viu yackb ?kVk yS,A vFkZra=kd vb vHkkod vNSrks yksddyk dsa tkfg rjgsa oa'kkuqxr fodflr d,yfu vfN] ls
pkd ij nkaiR; thoud FkqEgk vkdkj xzg.k djSr vfNA lkSals dFkk es iRuhd dFkkd var vcSr vcSr ,d jrh >wl Hk* tkbr NfuA
NksV&NksV euksjFk vk ifrd iS?k foo'krk yVk&iVh djSr jgSr vfN] rfguk vkBe n'kd Hkkjrd jktuhfr es mFky iqFkyd n'kd NyA ek;kuUn viuk
ifr&iRuhd yVkiVh lsgks pySr jgSr vfN vk var es nquw ikVh ,d nksljkd Vhed ,gsu jpukdkj es la NfFk] ts x|&i| nquw es jpuk d,yfu( fgudj
lq[k&'kkafr ysy] ,d nksljkd r`fIr ysy] ,d nksljkd iw.kZrk ysy lekxejr jpuk dky lc la uegj jgy vk rsa bZ le;d vuqlkj viu thou&n`f"V vk
dal la Msjk, xsygqa cyjke @ 147 148 @ vkkqfud lkfgR;d ifjn`';
le; cksk dsa lnfr dky pks[kxj djSr jgykgA bZ ckr vyx la dgckd iz;kstu
uba vfN] ts jktuhfrd cksk lfj Hk* d, ifgy csj eSfFkyh dfork vk dFkk
es lsgks] ek;kuUnsd vksr, vk,yA vkBe n'kdd jktuhfrd gypyd nq"izHkko
fefFkykd ;qod dsa Mjiksd vk Hkfo";d izfr fujk'k rFkk 'kafdr cuk nsyd]
izkS<+ ih<+h dsa cSeku vk cqtqxZ ih<+h dsa 'kqkpk;Z dqR;d Kkunkrk cuk nsydA
bZ fLFkfr] ek;kuUnd dFkk ^Hk; izxV ikyk*ekfVikfu] fnlacj&1984] ^nhu
n;kyk* ekfVikfu] tuojh&1985] ^dkS'kY;k fgrdkjh*] ^ek;e*] ^HkSjo* jpuk]
vxLr&1984] ^gjsZ yxs u fQVfdjh* clkr] fnlacj&1985] ^ftathj* fefFkyk
fefgj] dFkkvad] flracj&1987 vkfn dFkk lc es ns[ky tk ldSr vfNA eSfFkyh dal la Msjk, xsygqacyjke \
dFkk lkfgR;d ysy bZ nq[kn izlax fFkd ts ,gsu izxfrdkeh] fodkleq[kh vk
vgw o;l es viuk dsa cnfy ldckd fg j[kfugkj dFkkdkj ek;kuUnd ys[ku
vkc dfe xsyfu vfNA fguds ih<+hd dFkkdkj cyjke Nfu] vku ckrd ysy Lokra=;kskj dkyd eSfFkyh dFkkys[ku es csl izfrHkkoku ys[kd lHk tqVy NykgA
ta rqyuk ufgvksa gksv,] ra cyjke tdka ys[ku fojy djck ysy eSfFkyh ikBd yfyr] jktdey] ek;kuUn] khjsUnz] lksenso] jkensod uke y*vks d, vb ih<+hd
fgudk nks"kh ekuSr jgrfuA iw.kZrk fcuk cyjked uke usus uba Hk* ldSr vfNA vxLr 1955 es fgudj
xfr'khy Hkk"kk] tuind 'kCnkoyh vk fooj.kkRed f'kYid dkj.ksa eap ifgy dFkk ^n`f"Vnks"k* oSnsgh es izdkf'kr HksyA ,[ku kfjd lwpukd vuqlkj
la lkfgR; kfj] lkekftd okrkZyki la v;kiu kfj iz'kaflr gksbr jgykgA djhc rhu ntZu fgudj dFkk izdkf'kr Hksy vfNA ^lanHkZ*] ekpZ 1986 es
eqnk dFkk es bZ drksd Bke vfr fooj.kkRed Hk* xsy NfFkA dFkkd okrkoj.k izdkf'kr dFkk ^dkxps"Vk*d ckn fgudj dksuks dFkk ns[kck es uba vk,yA eSfFkyh
dsa vuwfnr djck dky rrsd yhu Hk* xsy NfFk] ts vksdj ^fMVsYl* dusd cslh vdkneh vk lkfgR; vdkneh la izdkf'kr izfrfufk dFkk ladyu lc es fgudj
dgk xsy NfuA ^lrnsod dFkk* vk ^VkUlQj*d ta ppkZ djh] ra dSd Bka cq>kk,r ^vkSuih*] ^iqjku Mhg ijd U;ksa* vk ^>qu>quk* ladfyr d,y xsyA dFkkijd ys[k
ts dFkkd y{; fn'k tkbr&tkbr dFkkdkj fdNq vokarjks dfg nsckd yksHk laoj.k ts fdvks fy[k, yxykg] ls fgudj uke vk dFkk ij ppksZ d,yfuA eqnk bZ ckr
uba d* ldykg vfNA eqnk fgudj Hkk"kk gfjeksgu >k tdka lapj.k es vR;ar pfdr djSr vfN] ts lc fdNqd vNbr cyjke dFkk ys[ku es yxkrkj lf;
rjy vk eqyk;e] xqnxqnh yxcS cyk vk izHkko es vR;ar uksNjkg Nfu] rdjs fd,sd uba NfFkA vksuk bZ lR; ckr fFkd] ts ,Egj vkfc d, fgudj ppkZ&cpkZ
ifj.kke fFkd ts vksfg vokarjks ckr lc dsa ikBd dFkkd Hkjlgk ekfu ySr de Hk* xsy vk vyx la fgudk ij ppkZ dfgvks uba HksyA eqnk bZ ra eSfFkyh
vfNA vkykspdd izo`fk fFkdA eSfFkyhd vkykspd ,fg Kku la vifjfpr NfFk] ts
ek;kuUn feJd lkfgR;d ewY;kadu uba Hksy vfN] ls lR; ckr fFkd] mis{kk vk vppkZ] dksuks izfrHkkoku ys[kdd gR;ks d* ldSr vfNA LoLFk
eqnk eSfFkyh es ewY;kadu Hksys fdudj vfN \ ,rck dgy tk ldSr vfN ts lekykspuk dksuks leFkZ jpukdkj dsa vkvksj cslh lkeF;Z'kkyh cucSr vfN] ls
cgqeq[kh izfrHkk vk dSd UV ij ,ds lax f;k'khy jgykd dkj.ksa eSfFkyhd Kku tkfg lkfgR;d vkykspd dsa uba gks] rdj oDrO; vk rdj ys[kud
jfrxkeh eBkkh'k] fgudj trsd mis{kk dj, pkgSr Nykg] rrsd d* uba HksyfuA dkfXutsUl ysc dksuks vFks mfpr uba fFkdA vksgquk] cyjke viufg ih<+hd
vkb] t[ku ^fo'o&'kkafrd nzkSinh dsj phj@f[kapus tk jgy vfN@vkUgjd larku* dFkkdkjd gkyr nsf[k ysfFk] fdudk ij dh ppkZ Hksy vfN \ yfyr vk
vk ^dkSjoh&fyIlk fujarj vkb c<+ys tk jgy@fnu&jkfr* vk ^o`) lHk vkpk;Z jktdey ij fdNq Hk*vks ldy] ra ls dfgvk] dksu fLFkfr es] vk fdudk }kjk \
dsj izKk xsyfu gsjk;*] r[ku] vb fodjky fLFkfr es ek;kuUnd f{kiz vk rh{.k rsa] ta cyjked dFkk&ys[ku lqLr vfN] ra ,dj lokZfkd ftEesnkjh Lo;a
ys[kud vko';drk eSfFkyh lkfgR; dsa NSd vk ,fg vko';drkd iwfrZ cyjked fFkdfuA
ek;kuUnd dsa djckd pkfgvfuA is'kk la laLr fo'ofo|ky;d vfkdkjh] #fp la lkfgR;dkj] LoHkko la
bZekunkj vFkkZr~ gfj'pUnzd xq# vk r[kugqa ta pkgc] ts ppkZ es jgh] ls dksuk
gks,r \ eSfFkyhd vkykspdd eqag la jksVhd VqdM+h Bfd d, [k,ck ysy ys[kd
dal la Msjk, xsygqa cyjke @ 149 150
dsa uf<+@ ;vkkq
k cucfud vko';d
lkfgR;d NSifjn`
dA';Hkus vks dkjdkSvk gksfFk] gqudj iz'kalk dfjvuq]
gqudj cfu d, jgw vk dfgvkS vkgk gk---vgkad xk;u ts foy{k.k vfN ! ,d
Vk xkfc d, lqukm ! r[ku vks xkSrkg] jksVhd VqdM+h [kfl iM+yfu rdj dksuks
tuthou ij iM+y tkfg nq"ifj.kke la ifjfpr Hksy] rdjk O;k[;kf;r djckd
iy[kfr leh{kd yksdfu dsa uba HksVyfu \
eSfFkyh lkfgR;d bZ foMacus fFkd] ts ,r, vkykspuk lkfgR;d dksuks
vko';drk uba cw>y tkbr vfNA vkykspukd x.kuk ta d,y tk,] ra ch- ,.]
,e- ,- d d{kk es izk;kid }kjk fy[kkvksy iz'ukskj vFkok dksuks uo iksFkh
v,yk ij ;k ra vksfg iksFkhd Hkwfedk] laikndh;] vk'khoZpu vkfn vFkok dksuks
if=kdk es vksb iksFkhd ljaxksfy;k leh{kk] vFkok ta dksuks ys[kd efj xsykg vk
dksuks laiknd dksuks rjgsa gqudj ljksdkjh Hksyf[ku] vk vks fo'ks"kkad fudky,
dFkkf'kYidfo'odekZ yxykg] ra vksb es fo#nkoyh] vksrgq jpukd lekykspuk uba b,g ijaijk vfNA
,Egj vkfc d, xksfk;kaoknh ijaijkd LFkkiuk Hksy vfN] rdjk rRokokku es fdNq
iku&ijlkn vkykspukd uke ij ns[kkbr vfNA
chle 'krkCnhd lkre n'kd eSfFkyh lkfgR;d ysy vR;ar egRoiw.kZ LFkku j[kSr jkteksgu >k eSfFkyh es vb lc iku ijlkn la oafpr jgykgA gejk eksu
vfNA fdNq egRoiw.kZ ckr es la ifgy bZ fFkd ts vgh n'kd es ^fefFkyk fefgj* iM+Sr vfN] ts ,e-,-d d{kk es ,dVk eSfFkyhd izk;kid jkteksgu >kd
lu if=kdkd iqujkjaHk HksyA Qyr% vb n'kdd izfrHkk'kkyh jpukdkj lHk dsa ladyu ^,d vkfn % ,d var*d ifgy dFkk ^TokjHkkVk*d foospu djSr ckty
viu ckr vke ukxfjdd lks>ka j[kckd i;kZIr volj HksVyfu vk rsa vb n'kd Nykg ,dVk dU;wTM ys[kd }kjk fy[ky dU;wTM uk;dd dFkk fFkd
es eSfFkyh es rh{.k vk lw{e n`f"Vd dFkkdkjd ,dVk >eVxj ih<+h rS;kj HksyA ^TokjHkkVk*A ge ,[kugqa Nxqark es Nh] vksgw le; es NygqaA eqnk vksfg le; ls
jkteksgu >k vgh ih<+hd Js"B dFkkdkj NfFk] ts viu fof'k"V thou&n`f"V] gejk vk gqudk es ^rqe Dykl* vk ^vki Dykl*d varj Ny] rsa cgqr lkFkZd
foy{k.k fo"k; cksk] vk izHkko'kkyh dFku 'kSyhd dkj.ksa viu laiw.kZ ih<+h es csNi fojksk uba d* ldy jghA tkfg eSfFkyh es ,gsu bZ";kZyq vk izfrHkkghu f'k{kdd
NfFk vk viuk rjgd ,lxj dFkkdkj NfFkA eSfFkyh es ta fgUnh vFkok dksuks cgkyh gksbr vfN] rkfg eSfFkyhd v;srk drsd dU;wTM Hk* ldSr NfFk]
vku Hkk"kk lkfgR; tdka rVLFk vkykspdd ijaijk jfgr,] ra eSfFkyh dFkk lgtg dYiukd fo"k; fFkdA
ys[kud vb dky dsa dksuks us dksuks uke n* d, vkxw c<+kvksy tbr,] eSfFkyhd eSfFkyh es ppkZ&cpkZd ijaijk pqYgk&fpuckj kfj dusd csfl, vfNA
^uo dFkk* vFkok vkus dksuks dFkk dfg nsy tbr,A vksuk uhds Hksy ts ls lc euq"; dsj oS;fDrd leL;k vk pkfjf=kd Nfo dsa mckjckd vk Mqc,ckd Bhdk
ukedj.k uba Hksy vk vkb kfjd eSfFkyh dFkk ys[ku fcuk ukesd pyy vkfc dksuks ,dVk lewg y* ysrkg vk vksfg Nfod dlkSVh ij gqudj lkfgR;d ijh{k.k
jgy vfNA ^dFkk* dFkk gksbr vfN] vks us uo gksbr vfN] us iqjku gksbr vfNA djrkgA lsgks ijh{k.k drgq&drgq ekSf[kds d* ysrkgA jkteksgud dFkk ys[kud
vksuk] bZ foMacus fFkd] ts tkfg le;d xi bZ Hk* jgy vfN] vksfg le; ppkZ djSr fdNq xksV, dgrkg ts ^fgudj dFkk eSfFkyh Hkk"kk es vo'; fy[ky
es eSfFkyh es vkykspukd uke ij FkksM+sd izk;kid oxZ lc fdNq&fdNq ppZ&cpZ vfN] eqnk bZ eSfFkyhd dFkk uba fFkdA* ...dkj.k jkspd vfN ^fgudj dFkkd
drgq&drgq djSr Nykg] tkfg es la xuy&xwFky nw&pkfj xksV, dsa NksfM+ d, izk;% cSdxzkmaM ts fFkd] ls fefFkykd uba fFkdA* vkc vb efrfNIiw oDrO;ohj
fdudgq es lkfgfR;d cksk fodflr uba Nyfu] vgadkj cksk ijeku p<+y yksdfu dsa ds cq>,rfu] ts egk'osrk nsohd laiw.kZ l`tu&lalkj NksVkukxiqjd
Nyfu vk viuk dsa vks yksdfu l`tudkkZd HkkX;fokkrk cq>Sr NykgA us ra ,uk vkfnoklhd thou ij dsafnzr vfN] eqnk vks caxykd lkfgR; fFkd] cksfklRo
dksuk gksbrSd ts yfyr] jktdey] ek;kuUn] khjsUnz] lksenso] galjkt] cyjked eS=ks;d miU;kl ^>qfudsj isks eqDrks* nf{k.k Hkkjrd leqnzh thou ij fy[ky
ih<+h Lokra=;kskj dkyd tkfg ek;kyksd] ik[kaM vk Qjsc la lkokku d,yd( vfN] eqnk vks caxykd miU;kl fFkd] ^vkokjk elhgk* 'kjrpUnzd thou ij
jkteksgu] izHkkl] xqatu] js.kq vkfnd ih<+h eSfFkyh dFkkys[ku es uo&uo vk;ke vfN] eqnk vks fgUnhd miU;kl fFkd---A ts eSfFkyh es ,[ku kfj] vkykspuk n`f"V
rdyd] Hkkjrh; jktuhfrd vkarfjd vfLFkjrk vk ckgjh vke.k la izHkkfor vk vkykspukd izfreku vadfq jr ufg gsckd eq[; dkj.k fFkd vb o`fk es
layXu O;fDr es bZekunkjh vk rVLFkrkd nkfjnz~;] v;;u'khyrkd nqfHkZ{k] :f<+ jgyA izekf.kr lR; fFkd ts ,d euq"; vb kjrh ij vkRecqHkq{kk] ;kSu fiiklk
vk ik[kaMd xqyke gsckd izo`fkA vksuk] izfrHkkd vHkko ra ewy dkj.k fFkdgsA vk vkRelqj{kk b,g rhuVk izof` k y* d* vcSr vfNA euq";d vku rjgd
eqnk] drksd csj vH;kl vk Je la lsgks izfrHkk fodflr gksbr vfNA eSfFkyhd iznw"k.k ra lekt es gksbr vfNA yksHk] eksg] fyIlk] vgadkj] Hk;] }s"k] vjktdrk
vkykspuk vk bfrgkl ys[ku fn'k m|r gsck es vk LoLFk vkykspukd izfreku vkfn lc ,rfg fl[kSr vfNA vFkkZr~ euq"; vcSr ra vfN ,dVk fu"dyad vk
LFkkfir djck es eSfFkyh es b,g ckkd rRo lc vfNA fu"dyq"k thod :i es] eqnk ,r, vks rjg&rjg dsj voxq.k la ;qDr Hk* tkbr
vkf[kj dh dkj.k fFkd] ts pkfj n'kd kfj nkfpk Hk* d, eSfFkyhd lsok vfNA ekuo thoud leLr =kklnhd ewy dkj.k b,g iznw"k.k fFkdA ^,d vkfn %
es tqVy jgfugkj dFkkdkj jkteksgu >kd fxurh ,[kugqa vkykspd lc ek=k ,d var* dFkk ladyu la y* d* ^vuqyXu* kfjd leLr dFkk es jkteksgu
iafr;kuh es ySr NfFkA ^,d vkfn % ,d var* 1965] ^>wB&lkap* 1972] ekuo thoud vk rdj vkReLFkkiud lw{ere rarq lc dsa idM+ckd lQy
^,dVk rslj* 1984] ^vkb dkfYg ijlw* 1993] ^vuqyXu* 1996 ikap xksV iz;kl vgh ekU;rkd lax d,us NfFkA viuk ij jgL;e;rkd vkjksi dsa Li"V
dFkk laxzg vk ^xYrhukek* 1983] ^Hkufg fo|kifr* 1992 ^fVIi.khR;kfn* djSr jkteksgu Lo;a dgus NfFk] ^---viu nq[k ok ihM+k dsa ddjks vkxka O;Dr
1992 rhuVk fucak&leh{kkfnd iqLrd izdkf'kr Hksykd ckn jkteksgu >k ij djckd dksuks iz;kstu ok lkFkZdrk ge ufg cq>Sr v;ygqa vfNA---,dVk lkekU;
vyx la ppkZ djckd Qqjlfr eSfFkyh lkfgR; es uba fudkyy tk jgy vfN ! lq[kh ikfjokfjd thou fcr;ckd volj Hksy jgSr] ra bZ jgL;e;rkd iz'u ufg
lkfgR; vk ekuoh;rk dsa loZLo lefiZr d,fugkj jkteksgud dFkkd mBSr---A* ek=k bZ nw ikarh] jkteksgud jpuk lalkjd izk;% ,d&,dVk jgL; dsa
ifjos'k ,d [kkl Lokn&xak vk rsojd vfNA vb ih<+hd leLr dFkkdkjd izk;% dsjkod fNEefM+ tdka [kksabpk vyxk d* jkf[k nSr vfNA dksuks l`tu dsj czk]
bZ fo'ks"krk fFkdfu] yxSr vfN] tsuk ea=kky; tdka lc xksVs viu&viu viu l`tu es ek=k vks,g d* icSr vfN] ts vksdj laiw.kZ vuqHko yksd vk
iksVZQksfy;ks ckafV usus gksfFk vk fdudgq vfkdkj {ks=k es vku fd;ks n[ky uba eu%yksd es vftZr jgSr NSdA jkteksgu] ,dVk O;ofLFkr ikfjokfjd thou uba
nSr gksfFkA fcrk ldykg] bZ fLFkfr gqudk efLr"d es ^ifjokj* vk ^?kj*d ,dVk foLr`r
jkteksgu >kd fucaks ys[ku la ta ckr 'kq#g d,y tk,] ts gqudj bZ eq[; Lo:i vafdr d,ydfu vk fgudj dFkk rsa euq";d ^thou*] ^?kj* vk ^lacak*
fokk uba fNvfu] ra ,dVk fLFkfr lkQ&lkQ lks>ka vcSr vfN] ts ,dne dsa izeq[krk la Li"V djSr vfNA thoud izfr vklfDr] nkaiR; thoud =kklnh
lkQ&lkQ] 'kq)&'kq)] nks"keqDr] fu"dyq"k lektd vk ifjokjd dYiuk fgudk vk laca kd fc[kjko b,g rhu Vk fgudj dFkkd ewy Loj fFkdA
efLr"d es cSly vfNA dusdks Vk =kqfV] nkx] ik[kaM] cSekuh] vgadkj] uhprk dkS[ku ppkZ gksbr jgSr vfN] ts jkteksgu t[ku d[kugqa lacakd fc[kjkod
O;kIr vfN] ra pqk la vksdjk mBkd, ckgj d* nsrkgA lkfgR; vk lkfgR;dkjsd xi djSr NfFk] ra viu dFkkd L=kh ik=k dsa loZFkk nks"kh BgjcSr NfFkA bZ oDrO;
nkx fudky, yxykg] ra ns[k fyv*] rhuw Vk fucak laxzg lks>ka vfNA gM+cM+h es nsy xsy oDrO; fFkdA vly es] jkteksgu viuk ih<+hd loZFkk csNi
vb LoHkkod jkteksgu] dFkk ys[ku dsa viu eq[; kkjkd :i es viukSyfuA dFkkdkj NfFkA ukfUg Vk dF; dsa rrsd lw{erk vk lkokkuhd lax] rrsd
;|fi izkjaHk es fdNq dforks fy[kus NfFk vk Lo;a ,d fnu lkekU; ckrphr es mR"V 'kSyh es bZ fpf=kr djSr NfFk] ts izs{kd dsa drksd ckr idM+kbr uba NfuA
dgus NfFk] ts ^gejk ysy vuqHkwfrd vfHkO;fDr ysy dFkk loZ'kDr ek;e dksuks lacakd fc[kjkod fLFkfr fgudj dFkk es ek=k nw dkj.ksa mifLFkr gksbr
fFkdA dfork es cgqr jkl jkW eSVsfj;y jfg t,ckd xqatkb'k jgSr vfNA t[ku vfN feF;k vkMacj vk fujFkZd vgadkjd dkj.ksAa viu ekSfydrk la dVckd
fd dFkk es ,dj vodk'k uba gksbr NSdA* bZ rF; vku rjgsa vyx la fopkj.kh; izo`fk] eksus&eksu xqM+&pkmj [kkbr jgckd izo`fk] mnkj vk bZekunkj n`f"V la ,d
fFkd] eqnk ,r, bZ ckr drsd egRoiw.kZ vfN ts vkb kfjd viu jpuk&lalkj nksljkd le{k viuk dsa uba [kksyckd vk ,d nksljk ij fo'okl uba djckd
es jkteksgu e;oxhZ; lektd cspSuh] ;q;qRlk vk eksud O;kdqyrk dsa js[kkafdr izo`fkA vb fc[kjkod tM+hHkwr dkj.k gksbr vfNA bZ izo`fk lc eSfFkyd ekSfyd
djck es layXu jgykg vk fujarj dFkkd dFku ,oa dFku&'kSyh dsa dqEgkjd ?kSy izo`fk fFkd vk jkteksgud dFkkd ik=k gjne vgh voxq.kd f'kdkj Hksyfu
tdka Bksfd&ctk d, nq#Lr&ranq#Lr djSr jgykgA nks"keqDr lekt vk nks"keqDr vfNA NksV&NksV ukle>h la fgudj ik=k lHk loZnk ?kksj =kklnh es iM+Sr jgy
O;fDrd ifjdYiuk es jkteksgud jpuk lalkjd vksj&Nksj lrr vUos"kh cq>kbr vfN] v'kD; eksaN dsa Bk<+ djckd Qsjh es laiw.kZ thou dsa =kkln cucSr jgy
vfNA vFkkZr~ jkteksgud dFkk vb ckrd izek.k fFkd] ts Lokra=;kskj dkyd dYiuk vk vkSfpR;iw.kZ f'k"Vkpkj] jkteksgud dFkkd ewy y{; gksbr vfN vk
eSfFky dks;yk galksFkSd Qsjh es ghjk xecSr jgy vfNA eSfFkyh es jkteksgud vb xfr la fgudj leLr dFkkd forku vkxw c<+Sr jgy vfNA
dFkk viuk rjg ,lxj lalkj cucSr vfN] tr, dFkk&rRo de vk fooj.k&rRo fgudj dksuks dFkk vktqd vfrkafrdkjh uk;dd dFkk tdka dwfFk d,
cslh vfNA lR; iwNh ra] dFkkd 'kSyh es jktdey trsd rjgd lw=k NksfM+ xsykg] uba fpdjSr vfNA dFkkdkjd fLFkfrcksk] lacakcksk vk lektckskd bZ mRd"kZ
rkfg es ,dVk lw=kd lexz O;k[;k fgudfg vksr, Hk* ldy vk bZ fcuk fFkd] ts leLr foijhr ifjfLFkfrd vNSr fgudj ik=k fpdjk&Hkksdjh] ykBh&Qjlk]
?kVuked foLrkj d,us] fLFkfrd ^fMVsYl* dsa mtkxj djck es layXu jgykgA mBk&iVd uba djSr vfNA dFkkd uk;d dsa] vFkkZr~ dFkkdkj dsa ,rck cksk Nfu]
,rfg la eSfFkyhd vkkqfud dFkk&'kSyhd nkslj Msx mBy vfNA ifgy Msx ts lkfgR; la lektd fuekZ.k gksbr vfN] rsa LoLFk lektd fuekZ.k gsrq vb
jktdeyd vksr, mBy NyA ifjfLFkfr lHkd nq"ifj.kke ns[kk,c i;kZIr gks,rA vFkkZr~ ukukfofk leL;k dsa
ek=k 'kSyhd cy ij laiw.kZ jpuk dsa dFkkd iw.kZrk nsckd bZ O;ogkj Hkkjrd lgSr] lektd fgr es tsuk jkteksgu viuk thou es xqEeh ykus NfFk] viu
vkuks vku Hkk"kkd lkfgR; es de Bke HksVSr vfNA NBe n'kdd eksg Hkaxd O;Fkkd izpkj uba djSr NfFk] rfguk fgudj ik=k leLr =kklnh Hkksxykd cknks
i'pkr~] foKku vk HkkSfrdrkd vke.k la fefFkykd turk tkfg rjgsa ewyksfNUu f'k"V vk khj jgSr vfNA lekt fgr es pqi jgSr vfNA eqnk dFkk ra cgqr fdNq
Hksy] rdjs fooj.k vk vksfg ewyksfNUurkd dkj.kd vUos"k.k fFkd jkteksgud dfg, nSr vfNA vk] izk;% b,g dkj.k fFkd] ts jkteksgud laiw.kZ jpuk&lalkj
dFkkA vb e es euq";d vkpkj&fopkj] jgu&lgu] vkgkj&O;ogkj] jhfr&jsokt ikBd dsa fgyk d, jkf[k nSr vfNA dFkk lekfIrd i'pkr~ ikBd ksfkr uba
fodflr gsckd cnyk iznwf"kr Hk* xsyA Li"V vfN] ts iznw"k.k dksuks fLFkfr dsa gksbr vfN] O;fFkr gksbr vfNA mR"V lekt&n`f"V vk jpuk&n`f"Vd izcq)
lok'k es vkgr djSr vfN rsa ^TokjHkkVk*] rsa ^na'k*] rsa ^Hkkstu*] ^?kj*] ^vuxZy*] dFkkdkjd bZ vonku fopkj.kh; vfNA dksuks [kkl dFkk vFkok fdNq dFkkd uke
^ifgy e`R;q* vkfn dFkkd fLFkfr cuSr vfNA bZ iznw"k.k lekt vk thou dsa vb xuk,c vko';d ufg vfNA dksuks dFkk mBk fyv* u[kfyLrku] ;q)&;q)&;q)]
rjgsa izHkkfor d,us vfN] ts drgq vk dksuks rjgsa euq"; viuk dsa lqjf{kr vuqHko ,dVk rslj] dsapqvk] HkhM+ eagd ,dlj ;k=kh] dk;j] nnZ] pO;wg] vknad] fpark
uba djSr vfNA vlqj{kkHkko] vkradcksk] Hk;cksk gjne euq"; es O;kIr jgSr vk fpark] [kkst---tdjs 'kq: djh] bZ Lo:i vksrfg HksVrA jkteksgu dsj 'kCn
vfN] vk l,g jkteksgud dFkk es eq[kfjr gksbr jgy vfNA iz;ksx ij FkksM+sd vkjksi yxkvksy tkbr NfuA ge vb ckr la lger NhA
jkteksgud dFkk lkekU;r;k izFke iq#"kd oDrO; es HksVr] tsuk dFkk 'kq)rkoknhd Nfo izLrqr d,fugkj jkteksgu dsa 'kCn&iz;ksxd lacak es lsgks
okpdd laLej.k gksA ^Hkkstu*] ^?kj* vkfd ^lkai NqNqUufj* lu dksuks dFkk mBk lkokku jgckd pkghA drksd Bke fgudk ys[ku es eSfFkyh la vyx vksgsu
fyv*] ra bZ ckr Li"V Hk* tk,rA ^Hkkstu* ,dVk naifkd nSfud thoud 'kCnd iz;ksx gksbr vfN] tdjk ysy eSfFkyh es csl mi;qDr 'kCn vfNA eqnk
fnup;kZ O;Dr djSr] foijhr fopkj/kkjk vk foijhreq[kh osoysaXFkd fparu&fp=k yxSr vfN] bZgks iznw"k.ksd Qy fFkdA ts&ls] jkteksgud jpuk&lalkj O;kid
O;Dr djSr vfNA tfM+ la m[kM+y orZeku ek=k dsa dsanz cq>fugkfj iRuh }kjk] lekykspukd vfkdkjh vfNA dfg ufg] eSfFkyh es dfgvk gks,r !
ifrd Hkkoqdrk vk vksdj Js"B fparu'khyrk mis{kkd dFkk O;Dr djSr vfNA
ifr viu iRuh eerkd mxzrk vk ewyksfPNUurk la ifjpr jgSr vksdjk viu
lc vuqHkwfr vR;ar lksfp&xqfu d, dgSr vfNA eqnk iRuhd maM vYgM+iu
funksZ"k vYgM+iu ra xq.ks gksbr vfN vksdj mis{kk d* tkbNA bZ dFkk vk/kqfud
lekt es ifjokfjd lq[kkuqHkwfrd ?ksaV ij ukjhoknd r#vkfjd fofrd vlfj
|ksfrr djSr vfNA ^lkai&NqNqUufj* ta ,dVk iS| inkf/kdkjhd }S/k pfj=kd
vkReiz'kalh izo`fkd O;k[;k fFkd] ra ^?kj* ,dVk ;k=khd ;k=kk es Hkksxy ekufld
O;FkkA nquw dFkk fFkd ra NksV lu ?kVukd O;kid O;k[;k] eqnk lgh vFkZ es bZ
nquw dFkk HkksDrkd ekufld pfj=k fp=k.k fFkdA euksfo'ys"k.k] nks"keqDr ifjos'kd
xqatud jpukRed ;k=kk dqy pkyhl o"kZd vfNA lu~ 1961 es fgudj
ifgy jpuk izdkf'kr Hksy NyfuA Li"V vfN] ts vH;kl rkgw la fdNq iwoZ
la djSr gsrkgA vkb kfj eSfFkyh vk fgUnh nquw es yxHkx ,xkjg xksV iksFkh
izdkf'kr NfuA eSfFkyh es nwVk dFkk laxzg] ,dVk uqDdM+ ukVd vk ,dVk fgUnh
es dfork laxzg izdkf'kr NfuA czt fd'kksj oekZ ef.kin~e dsj miU;kl ^uSdk
cfutkjk*d fgUnh vuqokn vk ^fefFkykapy dh yksd dFkk,a*d laiknu lsgks d,us
NfFkA eqnk xaxs'k xqatud egRo tku* ysy gqudj iqLrdd la[;k egRoiw.kZ uba
vfN] egRoiw.kZ vfN vksfg iqLrdd xq.kokkA
ijaijkd j{kd eqnk uokjaHkd vkxzgh ^tkbr dky fdNq ufg d* xsykg firk gejk uke] ?kj us [ksr&[kfjgkuA
dfg xsykg % ckV pySr dky lrr~ pfyg* cke] rdj jf[kg* ;kuA* tkfg
jpukdkj dsa fojklr es bZ lus'k HksVSr gks] ts jpukdkj LoHkko la eqyk;e vk
ekU;rk es vD[kM+ gks] frudj jpuk lalkjd vk;ke lsgks fu.kkZ;dd ysy ,gus
Qjojh 1967 es jktdey pkSkjhd v;{krk es lqikSy es r; Hksy Ny] ts jke".k
Jelk; gks,rA ;k=kh vk jktdeyd i'pkr~ eSfFkyh es ts ih<+h f;k'khy Hksy]
>k ^fdlqu*d laiknu es eSfFkyh uo dforkd ,dVk izfrfufk ladyu izdkf'kr
rkfg es xaxs'k xqatu vR;ar egRoiw.kZ jpukdkj NfFkA fgUnh es uo Hkkockskd
gksA eqnk bZ izdkf'kr Hksy lu~ 1971 es] vFkkZr~ jktdey vk fdlqu nquw xksVds
dfork t[ku fy[ky tk, ykxy ra vksrfg la nw tkfrd dforkd fodkl Hksy]
volkud i'pkr~A fgUnh es lIrd rkj] nwljk] rhljk tfguk izek.k&i=k nk=kh
,dVk tkfr Ny vKs;d dforkd vk nkslj tkfr Ny eqfDrckskd dforkdA
iqLrd ekuy xsy] rfguk ta ^eSfFkyhd uo dfork* dsa ekuy tk,] ra dksuks
eSfFkyh es lu~ 1949 fp=kkd izdk'ku vk lu~ 1959 ^Lojxakk*d izdk'kud
vuqfpr uba gks,rA vksuk izdk'kud ts nqnZ'kk eSfFkyh es vkb kfj jgy vfN]
i'pkr~ ,gsu dksuks nw tkfrd dfork mYys[kuh; uba jgyA ;|fi tkfr nw vo';
rdjk dkj.ksa eSfFkyh lkfgR;d dky fukkZj.k vFkok dksuks frd ,sfrgkfldrk
Ny ,dVk tkfr Ny] ;k=kh] jktdeyd dforkd( ts viu vk ijorhZ ih<+h
izekf.kr djc dfBu vfNA rFkkfi---
dsa fn'kk ladsr nSr Ny vk vksdj la?k"kZ dsa leFkZu nSr Ny vk nkslj tkfr
vb ladyu es tkfg lksyg xksV dfo yksdfud jpuk ladfyr vfN]
Ny] lqeu] vejd dforkd( ts dhrZu] Hktu] jfr kaxkjd fo"k; ij rqdcanh
rkfg es la ,dVk izeq[k dfo NfFk xaxs'k xqatuA xaxs'k xqatu] xhr] xty] dfork]
d* d, eap ij FkiM+h yqVSr NyA vksb dfork lc dsa ns'k&nqfu;ka] yksd&osn
dFkk] miU;kl] ukVd] ,dkadh] uqDdM+ ukVd vk fdNq ys[k vkfn---lc fy[kus
la dksuks eryc uba NySdA LoHkkor% lqeu] vej dsa vuq;k;h uba HksVyfuA
NfFk] eqnk tsa fd eSfFkyh lkfgR;d ekfQ;k lc dsa lkkckd voxfr uba Nfu
eqnk ;k=kh] jktdeyd dforkd fpuxh vfxyk ih<+h es csl tdka izTofyr vk
vFkok eSfFkyhd ^uVojyky*] ^lq[kjke* vkfnd pksfj&pikVh es leFkZu nsckd
izLQqfVr HksyA xaxs'k xqatu vgh ih<+hd dfo NfFk] dFkkdkj NfFk] fgudk fgUnh
uSfrdrk \ uba Nyfu] rsa dksuks [ksek es pfpZr uba HksykgA dksuks midkjh
lkfgR;d vksj&Nksj lsgks ns[ky NfuA vk dgckd pkgh] ts fgudj jpuk&lalkj
in ij uksdjh djSr gksb] inLFkkiuk vksr, gksv, tr, /kfj igqapc eSfFkyhd
es] x|&i| nquw es] ,dfg lax vKs;d dykokn vk eqfDrckskd oLrqokn nquw
ys[kd&vkykspd ysy lgt vk [kpZeqDr gks] usr&/kje dsa rk[k ij jkf[k gqudk
mifLFkr vfNA
yksdfu dsa ykHkkfUor d* ldckd ldjrk gksv,---vFkkZr~] dksuks cScsa vgka fgudk
vksuk jpukd foospu ysy O;fDrRod foospu vko';d uba gksbr vfN]
yksdfu ysy mi;ksxh oLrq gksbvfu] ra bZ vgka dsa izfrHkkoku vk vgkad jpuk
eqnk ta tkudkjh jg,] vk O;fDrRod vkyksd es jpukd ppkZ lsgks Hk* ld,]
dsa Lrjh; ekurkgA tsa fd xqatu es] us ra vfuok;Z ;ksX;rk Nyfu] us okaNuh;]
ra vuqfpr uba gksA xaxs'k xqatu lnfr dky] nkslj dsa egRo vk lEeku nsckd
rsa eSfFkyhd vkykspd vk ys[kdd utfj es uba cfl ldykgA ^deZ d:]
ysy rRij jgykg vfN] viu gkfu;ks d* d, nkslj dsa izfr"Bk nsck es #fp'khy
ifj.kked fpark tqfu d:---* oyk izo`fk jkf[k d, eSfFkyhd vkykspd yksdfud
jgykg vfNA eqnk dksuks nq"deZ] dksuks vfu"V] vU;k; dsa lgckd {kerk fgudk
ysy bZ egRoiw.kZ jpukdkj fd,d gsrkg \
uba jgyfu vfNA jkspd bZ vfN] ts vb nw izo`fk es la dksuks fgudk R;kT;
ubaA vb izo`fkd vlfj fgudj jpuk ij lsgks iM+yfu vfNA vkfx mxyc] jgykg vfNA fgudj lkfgR; esgurh oxZd nksgb nSr vfN] vksdj vfLrRod
eqnk vksfg vkfx la fdudgq vfu"V uba gks] lsgks ;ku jk[kc b,g izof` k xqt
a ud vuqlakku djSr vfN vk vksdj vfLerk cu,ckd U;ksa iq[rk djSr vfNA fgudj
jpuk lalkjd jgy vfN] [kkgs vks i| gks vkfd x|A bZ fLFkfr izk;% vR;ar lHk ik=k viu 'kfDrd leh{kk djSr vfNA O;oLFkkd ;kaf=kdrk es rky BksdSr
ekuorkoknh jgykd dkj.ksa eSfFkyhd yksd dsa iflu uba iM+yfuA xqatu chle lksafl&udkj la xqatud ik=k Msjkbr ufg vfNA ,dkar es cSfld, cukoVh uksjks
'krkCnhd lkre n'kd es viu egRo lkfcr ra d* ysyfu] eqnk ;FkkfLFkfroknh uba cgcSr vfN] ,rs kfj ts lheku ij Bk<+ Hksy dqdwj tdka vks Hkwfdrks uba
ih<+hd opZLo vk lacakoknh [ksekd "kM~;a=kd dkj.ksa vpfpZr jfg xsykgA vfN] vks bRehuku la viu thou izf;k es ykxy jgSr vfNA vksdjk viu
bZ rF;] lc dsa Lohdkfj ysckd pkgh ts] eSfFkyh es nh?kZ dfork ge ,dVk 'kfDr vk viu dk;Z i)fr ij iw.kZ vkLFkk jgSr NSdA vfHkizk; bZ ufg ts xqatud
feF;k ifjp; vk uqDdM+ ukVd cqfkcfk;k d laHkkouk loZizFke fguds ik=k dsa kskkfXu uba NSdA ls ra NSds] eqnk rkfg gsrq lHk la ifgus vks viu
vuqlakku fFkdfuA ^uoxhr* ,dVk fokkd :i es fgUnh es uhd tdka fodflr vkyL; la la?k"kZ djSr vfNA bZ dgSr] ,r, ta dchj eksu iM+Sr NfFk] ra cstk,
HksyA dsnkjukFk flag lu egRoiw.kZ dfod ys[kuh la lsgks bZ fokk fu%l`r Hksy dksu \ dchj thou i;Zar vksfg jDrHkksth leqnk;d frjLdkj d,yfu vk viu
vfNA eSfFkyh es bZ ijaijk rkdy tk, ra xqatu la iwoZgq ek;kuUn] Hkqou vk ;q) es] viu lakku es] viu ekU;rkd lax vxzlj jgykgA fo"k;d Lrj ij
rkgw la iwoZ HksfV ldSr vfN] eqnk xqatu vgw pfj=kd i| es i;kZIr ;ksxnku xqatud lkfgR; ta ,d fn'k dchjd Lej.k fnvcSr vfN] ra Hkk"kk f'kYid Lrj
nsus NfFkA ^nq[kd nqigfj;k* xqatud fdNq xhr&xtyd ladyu gkyfg es izdkf'kr ij vKs;dA
Hksy vfNA vgw fucak es xqatud laiw.kZ lkfgR; ij foLrkj la ppkZ Hk* ldr] fgudj fr es [kkgs vks i| gks vFkok x| vFkok ukVd] lHkBke xgu
rdj xqaktb'k uba vfNA ek=k gqudj izo`fk ewyd fdNq ckr jk[ky tk jgy thou&n`f"V ifjyf{kr vfNA ckjg xksV dFkkd ladyu ^mfproDrk* es vb
vfN] tdj O;k[;k vkxw Hk* ldSr vfNA 'kh"kZdd ,dksVk dFkk uba vfN] eqnk vb uked lkFkZdrk vksb leLr dFkk vk
bZ dgc vizklafxd uba gks,r ts fgUnh vk eSfFkyh es vckk xfr la jpukjr jpukdkjd rh{.k n`f"V es vfN] ts csfijhr iM+kbr euq";d iru] jktuhfrd
vk izdk'kujr xqatu ta ijorhZ dky es fgUnh es izdk'ku de d* nsyfu ra yksyqirk vk lae.kd dhM+k tdka iljSr gSokuhd ikNw vkdf"kZr yksd lHk dsa
ls ekr`Hkk"kkd izfr mRdV vuqjkxs NyA o`fk la lnfr dky vkdk'kok.kh la xaHkhjrk la ns[kSr&xquSr vfNA ^laxh* lu dFkk] tdj dsanzh; ljksdkj izse la vfN]
lac) jgykg vfNA jpuk es ofud egRo ij lkokku jgckd fgudj izo`fk euq";d vkfne izo`fk vk ledkyhu foo'krkd laf'y"V lw=k rdSr vfN vk
laHkor% fgudj o`fkxr izHkkod Qy fFkdA fgudj ^mfproDrk* dFkk laxzg ^viu lekax* lu dFkk ;qxhu vUgj&fcgkfM+ es lq[kk,y ikr tdka QM+QM+kbr
dsa] o"kZ 1994 d ysy lkfgR; vdkneh iqjLdkj nsy xsy] bZ vksrsd egRoiw.kZ ekuoh; lacakd [kafMr vfLerk dsa fpUgSr vfNA bZ egRoiw.kZ ckr fFkd ts
ckr uba fFkdA dkj.k] vkb Hkkjrh; Hkk"kkd dksuks lkfgR; es iqjLdkjd ts jktuhfr xqatu viu jpukRedrk ysy vku dksuks pht la cslh vko';d ^euq";* dsa
pfy jgy vfN] rkfg es iqjLdkj dksuks jpukd egRo lkfcr uba d* ldSr ekuSr NfFkA ^euq";] ts vkb;ks fdNq rkfd jgy vfN] vksfg euq";d ifjp;
vfNA ge Lo;a rkfd jgy Nh...A* fgudj laiw.kZ jpuk&lalkj vgh euq"; vk vgh
oLrqr% dksuks jpukdkj dksuks fokkd xqyke uba gksbr vfNA vly ckr euq";d ifjp; rdSr vfNA ^ge ,dVk feF;k ifjp;* oSg rdSr vfN] ^viu
gksbr vfN ts mDr fokk es jpukdkjd ?kuRo] tulacak dsa dksu Lrj rd izekf.kr lekax* oSg rdSr vfN] ^euqD[k vk xkscj* oSg rdSr vfN vk vkuks vku jpuk
d* ldy vfNA xqatu okLrfod vFkZ es ;qxhu tu&thoud tfVy thou i)fr oSg rdSr vfNA
la mity dqfVyrk] =kklnh vk foMacukd lks>jk,y dFkk f'kYih NfFk] ftudj vksuk ra izdk'k] lR;rk] ;FkkFkZ] [kq'kgkyh bR;kfn g"kkZrqj miknku vke
x|ks es ,dVk y;kRedrk vk i|ks es ,dVk dFkkRedrk vuqxqafQr jgSr vfNA tuthou es des HksVSr vfNA xqatud dfork es vUgkj] feF;k] ifjp;] LoIu]
vksuk ra vkb laiw.kZ lkfgR;s O;oLFkkd fojksk djSr vfN vk Jfed oxZd ne?kksaVw okrkoj.k] ihM+k] ckSd&cghj yksd] izrh{kkjr yksd] vieku] fujk'kk] rki]
i{kikr djSr vfNA vktqd lkfgR; ta bZekunkj vfN;ks] ra rdj dkj.k b,g jkSn vkfn 'kCnd O;ogkj vfkd Bke gksbr vfNA jpukdkj viu pk: dkr
fFkdA rkfg es O;oLFkkd fo#) <k<+ Hksy xqatu iS?k fMMhj dsa esVk d, NksV fNfM+vk,y tkfg lw=k la viu jpukd fo"k; ySr vfN] vksgh es viu O;fDrRoks
djckd Qsj es dfgvks uba jgykg] NksV fMMhj dsa iS?k djckd xqatkb'k rdSr x<+Sr vfN vk vksgh es viu n`f"V dsa ekatSr vfN vk vksgh ifjos'k es viu
dkO;iq#"kd Nfo fufeZr djSr vfNA ,guk fLFkfr es bZ vdkj.k uba Hksy vfN]
ts fgudj lkfgR; es ,gsu fcac vk izrhd iz;qDr Hksy vfN vk bZ iz;qfDr viu
LFkku foLrkj la cucSr vfNA ta lanHkZiwoZd vb iz;qfDrd O;k[;k d,y tk,
ra Li"V gks,r bZ lc 'kCn fgudj jpuk es viu fojkV~ 'kfDrd lax mifLFkr
vfNA xqatud jpuk la viuSrh djSr vksfg n`"Vkar vk lanHkZ la ifjfpr g,c
vko';d vfN] vU;Fkk gM+cM+h es eSfFkyhd ikBd dsa fu.kZ; nsck es nsjh uba
gksbr Nfu] ts xaxs'k xqatud jpuk es vFkksZRd"kZ tfVy vfNA vly es xaxs'k
xqatud vuqHko lalkj ,dVk uo f{kfrt ij cuy vfNA Li"V vfN ts fdNq
iqjkruoknh yksd dsa bZ lalkj izsf"kr ufg HksyfuA vb laizs"k.k foeq[k fLFkfrd dFkk lalkj es dFkkdkjd thouh
nkf;Ro vks yksdfu viu vKku dsa dksuk nsrkg \ ra dfg nsc vklku Hk* xsyfu
ts xqatud jpukd laizs"k.k ckfkr vfNA
var es bZ dgc vko';d vfN] ts xqatu viu O;ogkj es ,d fn'k viu
izk;% ns[ky tkbr jgy vfN] ts ys[kd vO;ofLFkr tkfrd yksd gksbr vfNA
ikjaifjd kjksgfjd j{kd izrhr gksbr NfFk ra nkslj fn'k ekuoh; laosnukd ckr
bZ vO;oLFkk gqudj thou&;kiu la y* d, ys[ku kfj es O;kIr jgSr Nfu vk
mByk ij loZFkk ,dVk uo kjkry ij uo ijaijkd U;ksa j[kSr ns[kkbr NfFkA
,fg vO;oLFkkd nq"ifj.kke vksfg ys[kdd ifjokj] lekt rFkk gqudj ewY;kadudkkZ
vk uokjaHkd vkxzgh bZ vgw vFkZ es ns[kkbr NfFk ts fgudj dkO; iq#"k lc
kfj dsa Hkksx, iM+Sr NfuA eqnk izHkkl dqekj pkSkjh ,dVk ,gsu dFkkdkjd uke
Bke viu ttZj :f<+ dsa R;kfx d, viu thoud lq[ke; ckV ysy uo lalkjd
fFkdfu ts O;oLFkkd vuqikyu es loZnk&loZFkk mRd"kZ ij jgykgA O;oLFkkd
[kkst d* ySr vfN vk uo ckV idfM+ ySr vfNA bZ dkt ^vkb Hkksj*d uk;d
vFkkZfUofr ,r, vfHkkk es vfNA Hkkjrh; dksuks Hkk"kkd jpukdkjd thou vk
lsgks djSr vfN] ^ifgy yksd*d uk;d lsgks vk ,d lhek kfj ^viu lekax*
ys[kud ewY;kadu d,y tk, ra bZ ckr lks>ka vkvksr ts] ts ys[kd viu jpuk'khy
vk ^cqfkcfk;k*d uk;d lsgksA
thou es lQy vk ;'kLoh NfFk] ts lkekU;r;k viu ukSdjh&is'kk es nkf;Roghu
ts&ls] xqatud lkfgR; vgh uo kjkryd [kkst es ,dVk uo izdk'kd
vk vlQy O;fDr lkfcr gksbr NfFkA eqnk izHkkl chek daiuhd ukSdjh djSr
dkt djSr vfNA
,gsu loZlQy izcaku vfkdkjh lkfcr Hksykg] ftudk la gqudj leLr v/
khuLFk vf/kdkjh izsj.kk ySr NykgA Bhd rfguk ys[ku&thou es lsgks fgudj
Nfo jgyfu vk viu leLr vuqorhZ ih<+hd jpukdkj dsa izHkkfor d,yfuA
izHkkl ek=k ,dVk pht es vlQy jgykg] vk ls vlQyrk fFkd ts bZ viu
mnkjrk la eSfFkyhd ,dksVk jpukdkj dsa izHkkfor uba d* ldykg] dkj.k ts
jgy gksA
lu~ 1956&57 es oSnsgh es izdkf'kr dFkk ^kjrh dqgfj mBy* vk ^izrh{kk*
rFkk lu~ 1961 es fefFkyk fefgj es izdkf'kr dFkk ^ckgj btksr % Hkhrj kqvka*
la izHkkld dFkk ys[kud lekkuy lakku 'kq: gksbr vfNA Hkkjrh; jktuhfrd
ifjn`'; ysy bZ le; fofp=k rjgd le; NyA fgUnhd jpukdkj lc viu
jpukdeZ es vb fcanq ij pkSdl Nykg] fgUnh dfork es ^lkBkskjh* 'kCnd
vkfoHkkZod Hkwfedk cfu jgy NyA rhljk lIrdd izdk'ku Hk* pqdy NyA
dgkuhd {ks=k es uo ifjn`';d fuekZ.k Hk* pqdy NyA izHkkld v;;u'khyrkd
vk;ke vk ys[ku n`f"V fojkV NyfuA vks ns'k&n'kkd lc rjgsa voyksdu djSr Mhg&Mkcj] lj&dqVqe] firk] ckch] ukuh] ekSlhd chp ?kqeSr jgyfuA bZ ckr fo'ks"k
vk vku&vku lkfgR; la ifjp; j[kSr cgqr {kerkoku jpukdkjd :i es viu :i la m)j.kh; fFkd] ts vku dksuks Hkk"kk lkfgfR;d jpukdkj t[ku izoklh
mifLFkfr ntZ d,us NfFkA Li"V vfN ts phuh x.kjkT;d kks[kk] ikfdLrkud Hk* tkbr NfFk ra gqudk ys[ku es xke&?kj ukWLVsfYt;k tdka mifLFkr gksbr NfuA
lhek la?k"kZ] ns'k es jktuhfrd }a} vkfnd O;kfIrd i'pkr~ jktuhfrijd dFkkd eqnk izHkkld vksr, xke&?kj] lekt&ifjokj viu laiw.kZ {kerkd lax thfor
jpuk gksbr,A eqnk fefFkykd ls n'kk r[ku kfj ufg NyA ,gw le; kfj fefFkyk jgSr vfNA lgt pfj=k] vkd"kZd dFku 'kSyh] tuinh; pfj=kd Hkk"kk f'kYid
izkphu :f<+ la] fukZurk] fuj{kjrk] vdky] ckf<+ vkfn izrkj.kk la] vkfFkZd vk vkJ; la lkekU; tu&thoud bPNk&vkdka{kk] l*[k&euksjFk] thou&la?k"kZ dsa
'kSf{kd ijra=krk la] FkksM+sd lkearh LoHkkod nq"ifj.kke la] vuqnkj vk fo"ke fpf=kr djckdky izHkkl ,dVk 'kkL=kh; xk;d tdka lkokku jgSr NfFkA
lkekftd ifjos'k la mcfj uba ldy NyA ,gsu ckr uba Ny ts fefFkyk jk"VO;kih vuq"BkuiwoZd vk pSu la dFkk dgckd i)fr izHkkld jgyfu vfN] ts ,dVk
jktuhfrd&vkfFkZd&lkfgfR;d leL;k la izHkkfor uba NyA vly es t[ku fo'kky ikBd oxZ vftZr djck es lQy Hksy vfNA izHkkl izk;% vb xw<+ rF;
LFkkuh; leL;k fodjky jgSr vfN] r[ku jk"Vh; leL;k fn'k yksdd ;ku la voxr Nykg ts ek=k ?kVuk lwfpr d* nsc us ra ikBd dsa larq"Vs djr vk
de tkbr vfNA vksgquk ?kj cgkjykd ckns fdvks vaxuk vk nyku cgkjckd us tuinh; folaxfr esV,ck ysy vksdjk m}sfyrs djrA rsa] vks ?kVuke vk
ps"Vk djSr vfNA dFkkdkj izHkkld izos'k&dky ,gsu nk#.k Ny ! ik=kd ^fMVsYl* dsa xaHkhjrk iwoZd js[kkafdr d,yfuA le;&lhek vk i`"B lhekd
vb fodjky le; es izHkkld dFkk&ys[ku izkjaHk HksyA bZ le;] eSfFkyh vuq'kklu la dFkk ;k ra fodykax Hk* tk,r] ywYg&viax Hk* tk,r vFkok xksaxA
dFkkdkj ysy ,d fn'k vb rjgsa pqukSrhiw.kZ Ny ra nkslj fn'k lq[kdj bZ Ny dFkk ta ctark uba jg,] gFkxj&xksM+xj uba jg,] ra rdj iz;kstu dh \ izHkkld
ts vgh le; es fefFkyk fefgjd iquizZdk'ku izkjaHk HksyA Qyr% i;kZIr leLr dFkk vk miU;kl ctark vfN] gFkxj vfN] xksM+xj vfNA
tks'k&[kjks'kd lax ,dVk l'kDr ih<+h dFkk ys[ku es tqVyA viu jpuk lalkj es dSd Bke izHkkl QSaVslh izseh vk thou&ewY;d Lrj
izHkkld ifgy dFkk laxzg ^uo ?kj mB; % iqjku ?kj [kl;* 1964 es izdkf'kr ij fp=k.k es vlgtrkckskd n`';d fprsjk cq>k, yxS NfFkA ^,dkyki* dFkk
HksyA ,xkjg xksV dFkkd bZ laxzg eSfFkyh ikBdd chp [kwc lekn`r HksyA ,dj vk ^uokjaHk* miU;kld ,dkk izlax dsa vb dFkud iqf"V gsrq ns[ky tk ldSr
ckn ikapVk miU;kl ^vfHk'kIr* 1970] ^;qxiq#"k* 1971] ^gejk yx jgc* vfNA eqnk] ewy dFkkd vfUofrd mRd"kZ gsrq rFkk ekuoh; liuk] dYiuk vkfnd
1977] ^uokjaHk* 1979 rFkk ^jktk iks[kfj es drsd eNjh* 1981 izdkf'kr fp=k.k gsrq izHkkld ysy dksuksVk i)fr R;kT; uba jgyfu vfNA vly es] bZ
HksyA vk drksd c[kZd ckn 1988 es fgudj 28 xksV dFkkd ladyu ^dFkk&izHkkl* fLFkfr ts izHkkld dFkk f'kYi es vk,y vfN] rdj ewy dkj.k fFkd fefFkykapyd
izdkf'kr Hksy] tkfg es n'kdokj viu jpukdeZd MkVk dFkkdkj Lo;a izLrqr yksd&laLfr vk yksd&laosnuk la fgudj vkfRed yxkoA fgudj ,d&,dVk
d,us NfFkA Qsj ,dVk csl xrxj ladyu ^izHkkld dFkk* izdkf'kr HksyA ifgus dFkk&frd LoHkko bZ Li"V djSr vfN ts ukuh] ckchd dFkk&figkuh lquckd
dgy tk pqdy vfN] ts izHkkld izca ku thou] o`fk vk ys[ku rhuw es drsd vknfr la vk rdjfg izsj.kk la fgudj dFkkdkjd tUe Hksy vfNA yksd dFkk]
mR"V Ny] rdj izek.k ^dFkk&izHkkl*d ys[kdh; oDrO; fFkdA ts dksuks yksdksfDr vk eqgkojk fgudj dFkk&laons ukd lksbjh&?kj fFkdA fuEuoxhZ; dFkk&ik=kd
ewY;kadudkkZ fgudj jpuk lalkj ij dkt djc 'kq#g djrkg] frudj pkfj izfr fgudj >qdko lsgks vgh xq.klw=kd ifj.kke fFkdA ^izrh{kk* 1957 la
vuk leL;k izHkkl lo;a gy d* nsus NfFkUgA ^ifrcjrk* vk ^v"Vkod 'ks"kdFkk* 1997 kfj es izHkkld fy[ky yxkfr
fo|kifr] ;k=kh vk jktdeyd ckn izHkkls ,dVk ,gsu jpukdkj NfFk] ,d l; dFkk eSfFkyh dsa HksVySd] tdj oLrq vk f'kYid vk;ke cgqr foLr`r
ts Hkk"kkarj es lsgks [;kr NfFkA xaxs'k xqatu lsgks Hkk"kkarj es [;kr NfFkA vksuk vfNA ^Dykar*] ^lqHknzk&gj.k*] ^lw;kZLr*] ^kedh*] ^firk*] ^ckch*] ^<si*] ^eykgd
vuqoknd ek;es vkc ra drksd jpukdkj vku&vku Hkk"kk es igqafp pqdykg Vksy*] ^Hk;kkar*] ^;q) fojke*] ^mkj dk.M*] ^,dkyki*] ^bUnzkuq"k*] ^LFkkukarj.k*]
vfNA eqnk izkjafHkd le; es izHkkl] xqatu vk jkteksgu] fgUnh es ewyks ys[ku ^ctarkd iksrk*] ^fodykax*] ^ckf<+*] ^ifrcjrk*] ^,dVk nqjkpkjd dFkk*] ^txck
djSr NykgA ts&ls--- dky*] ^VqLlk vk cka>h*] ^x; fc<+uh % rksgj Mad*] ^,d f=kHkqt % pkfj dks.k*
izHkkld dFkkd ewy dsanz e;eoxhZ; eSfFky lekt fFkdA thoud vfkdka'k vkfn dFkk lc fgudj dFkk l`tud fofok i{k dsa |ksfrr djSr vfN vk viuk
Hkkx uxj&egkuxj es fcr,ykd cknks fgudj eksu gjne xke] ?kjd Vksy&Vkij] viuk le; es csl pfpZr jgy vfNA
izlaxo'k ,dVk ?kVuk eksu iM+S,] ,dVk bUVjO;w es eSfFkyhd ,dVk iksrk*lu iq#"k vkfd vku drksd ik=k fgudj dFkk lalkj es Bk<+ Hksy vfNA
[;kfruke foHkkxk;{k iz'u d,us Nykg ^jktdeyks lsDl ij fy[kS Ny vk dFkk gks vFkok miU;kl] izHkkld l`tu&nsorkd ts lHk la iS?k fo'ks"krk
izHkklks lsDl ij fy[kS,] nquwd lsDl&vkd"kZ.k es dh varj \* iz'u vfguk] ,u&esu fFkd vks bZ] ts fgudj uk;d la?k"kZ&iFk ij fgyS uba NfuA thou laxzke es
vfguk viekutud f;kin es iwNy xsy NyA vksfg le; es ra ge ks/ csj&csj iNkM+ [kkbr Nfu] lkekftd&ikfjokfjd dqp es csj&csj vks>jk d, kks[kk
ksa vkfx mxy* ykxy jgh] eqnk vkb] t[ku fd us ra vks iz'udkkZ thfor NfFk [kkbr Nfu] kka; HkVdk [klSr Nfu] eqnk rRdky mfB d, Bk<+ gksbr NfuA
vk us bZ nquw ys[kd] r[ku vksb iz'u dsa eksu ikM+Sr iz'udkkZd n`f"Vdks.k ij viu uk;d dsa vFkfdr tkZ ksr nsckd fgudk lu lQy vk y{; izkfIrd
n;k vcSr vfN] vgwa lHk dsa n;k vcSr gks,r ! vksuk izHkkl dsa i<+Sr dky fufek viu uk;d dsa vkLFkkoku cu,ck es fuiq.k de dFkkdkj ns[kkbr NfFkA
jktdeys Vk fd,s] yfyr] eaVks] pqxrkbZ] 'kjr~] eksiklka] xksdhZ lc Lej.k vcSr mi;ksxh ijaijkd j{kk vk vuqi;qDr :f<+d R;kx fgudj thou vk
jgSr NfFkA ys[ku nqud w fo'ks"krk jgy vfNA deZdkaMd vkMacj] kkfeZd ik[kaM] ikjaifjd
izHkkl eSfFkyh lkfgR;d ,dVk ,gsu rq"V&nq#Lr&len'khZ vk m|eh dFkkdkj yksdkpkjd folaxfr vkfn ij fgudj dFkk rh{.k O;aX; djSr vfNA 'kksf"kr]
NfFk] ts dksuks rjgd dqaBk] mis{kk] vieku vkfnd vkgkj Lo;a uba jgykg] lhfnr oxZd izfr vkReh;rk vk izHkq oxZ dsa psrkSuh] fgudj dFkk&l`tu es eq[kj
yksHk&ykyp dfgvks uba nkcydfu] jpukdeZd cysa ku ykHk ;k ;'k ykHk dsj Hk* d, vk,y vfNA ,dj vykok] izse rRo] ts Lokra=;kskj dkyd eSfFkyhd
frdM+e uba jpyfu bZ nhxj ckr Fkhd ts jpukd cysa fgudk cM+ cslh ;'k izxfr'khy jpuk la i`Fkd tdka gksv, ykxy Ny( ek=k la?k"kZ] Hkksx] vkrad] ijke]
HksVyfu] eqnk rsa vku fdudgq dqaBk] mis{kk vkfd viekud lgu lsgks uba lhnu] }s"k] ?k`.kk] Hk; vkfn O;kIr Hksy py tkbr Ny( rkgw {ks=k es izHkkld
d,yfuA miyfCk vk Kkud tkfg f'k[kj ij igqafp xsy Nykg] rdj ,dUuh dFkk lekkuy gLr{ksi d,yd vfNA ikfjokfjd vk lkekftd lacakd vkJ;
kfj ,[ku ts O;fDr lc uba igqapykg vfN] lsgks vgadkj es lka<+ tdka fMdjS la lsgks] eS=khd vkJ; la lsgks vk L=kh&iq#"kd laca kd vkJ; la lsgks izes rRo
NfFkA izHkkld izHkwr iz'kald NfFk] eqnk frdM+eckth] {kqnz fopkj vk csSekuh vk fgudj dFkk es iquLFkkZfir Hk* ldyA eqnk] bZ izse 'kkjhfjd mUekn vk {kf.kd
vgadkj es ^njHkaxk Ldwy*d izkpk;Z gsckd ;ksX;rk j[kSr NfFkA O;fDrRo es nwjks mPNokl /kfj lhfer uba vfNA vfHkizk; bZ ufg] ts fgudk la iwoZ eSfFkyh es
njkt la izHkkld O;fDrRod clkr uba ykxy NfuA ts gks--- ^izse* yqIr Hk* xsy Ny] cfYd bZ] ts fgudj jpuk es ^izse rRo* viu vk;r
rb izHkkld dFkk&lalkjd t[ku fo'ys"k.k gks] ra vksdj vkkkj 'kkL=kh; dsa foLrkj nsydA
cuk, d, uba pyckd pkghA izHkkld dFkkd fo'ys"k.kd nqb, Vk vkkkj Hk* Hkk"kk es izrhdkRedrkd mi;ksx d* d, lsgks bZ csl tdka izHkko tekSyfu
ldSr vfN lekt'kkL=kh; v;;u vk ekuoh; thou&;kiu ijd v;;uA vfNA ^ckf<+* lu drksd dFkk rdj izek.k fFkdA trs rjgd fo"k; tU; oSfo;
vku dksugq y{k.k xzaFkd lgkjk la vFkok jtkuhfrd izfrc)rkijd ukjkckth izHkkld jpuk&lalkj es vfN] rdj ,rsd mR"V izHkkokfUofrd ewy dkj.k fgudj
la izHkkld dFkk uba tapk ldSr vfNA drksd ckr fgudj dFkk es lw{erk dFku&'kSyh] Hkk"kk&f'kYi rFkk ?kVuk&ed lax dFkkdkjd Hkk"kkxr gjDdfr fFkdA
la vcSr vfN] tdj uksfVl ysck dky lkokku jgckd fLFkfr vcSr vfNA dgy tk pqdy vfN ts yksd&'kSyhd fgudj f[klDdjh peRdkfjd vfN vk
izHkkld drksd ,gsu dFkk vfN tkfg es fuEutkrh; vFkok fuEuoxhZ; L=kh b,g ckr fgudj Hkk"kk es tknw HkjSr vfNA
iq#"kd ;kSu 'kks"k.k vk Je 'kks"k.k lkearoxZ }kjk ns[kkvksy xsy vfNA eksV utfj izHkkl viu vkRedFkk uba fy[kyfuA eqnk ,[ku ta fdvks lkokkuh la
es vks lkear oxZd vR;kpkj vo'; ns[kkbr vfN] eqnk bZ izHkklsd dFkk fFkd] izHkkld jpuk lalkj ij dkt djfFk] ra cM+ vklku vfN izHkkld thouh fy[kcA
tr, vks lkear lHk Msjk,y dqdwj tdka ukaxfj lqVkdkSus] eqnk >qdSr ns[kk,rA 1957&1997 kfjd vofk fgudj jpukdky fFkdA vb vofk es fy[ky viu
bZ izHkklsd dFkk fFkd tb es lkear oxZd vb Mj dsa 'kksf"kr oxZ uksV d* ySr leLr dFkk vk miU;kl es izHkkl viu thou&;k=kkd leLr uksVscqy IokbaV
vfN vk r[ku vksdjk viu 'kfDr ij Hkjksl gksbr vfNA izHkkld dFkk viu n* xsykg vfNA fgudj lc dFkk fdNq us fdNq fgudj thouhd va'k fFkdA
eqDrdkeh 'kksf"kr dFkkuk;d dsa bZ f'k{kk n* nSr vfN] ts ^HksfM+;k xqjkZrk gS@rqe eqnk fparkd fo"k; fFkd ts izHkkl viuk la lac) lc O;fDrd thouh ra fyf[k
e'kky tykvks@ml esa vkSj rqeesa @;gh cqfu;knh QdZ gS@HksfM+;k e'kky ugha tyk xsykg] vkc gqudj thouh ds fy[kr \
ldrk losZ'oj n;ky lDlsukA* rsa dksuks ^ifrcjrk* lu L=kh] dksuks ^ctarkd
Qsj NiyA Nvks ekld ckn v'kksd }kjk laikfnr if=kdk ^lakkud* izos'kkad
vk;y ra vksfg es eksgu Hkkj}kt Qsj la viu fucak es vksdj rduhdh fcanq
ij fopkj d;yfuA bZgks ckr lR; fFkd ts ,uk foLrkj la ek=k ,dVk dFkk
ij ppkZ eSfFkyhd ifgy ?kVuk fFkdA eqnk] ls kwedsrqd ysy dksuks rkj.k&cksju
oyk ckr lsgks ufg NyA
gej vfHkizk; bZ ufg] ts bZ ys[k fyf[k d* gegha rkj.k&cksjud egku
dk;Z d* jgy NhA eqnk lexzrk es bZ fpark vo'; vfN] ts eSfFkyh es vkb
kfj dksuks lkfgR;dkj dsa gqudj mfpr c[kjk ufg HksVyfu vfN] fdudgq c[kjk
ifrruk;ddikou dFkkdkj la cgqr cslh] fdudgq c[kjk la cgqr de! chp&chp es fdudgq ta larks"ktud
c[kjk HksfV xsyfu vfN] ra rdj dkj.k gqudj Lrjh; ys[ku de vk gqudj
vU;Fkk lkeF;Z cslhA vFkkZr~ eSfFkyhd th.kZ ih<+hd vkykspd vk ekU;rknkrk]
ys[kd dsa ekU;rk nSr Nyf[kUg lacakokn ij vk e>ksyk ih<+hd vkykspd vk
^t[ku&t[ku O;fDr vk vksdj dfjDdk Nk;k] rky Bksfd d* vkeus&lkeus Bk<+
ekU;rknkrk] ekU;rk nSr NfFkUg xksfk;kaokn] oa'kokn vk laHkkfor midkjokn
Hk* tkbr vfN t[ku&t[ku >wB] lR; dsa cykr~ >kai; yxSr NSd ra gej f[kLlkd
ijA eSfFkyhd jpukdkj bZ ckr cw>Sr NfFk] ts vkc eSfFkyh dsa ikBd NSd ufgA
f'kjksn; gksbr NSdA* bZ dFku fFkfd;fu eSfFkyh lkfgR;d iz[kj dFkkdkj
rhu l; iksFkh jpukdkj Nik d* fcyfg nSr NfFk] drgq la ,dVk igqapukek
kwedsrqdA kwedsrq vkc lfjigqa kwedsrq Hk* xsykg vfN] viuk uke dsa kU;
ufg vcSr Nfu] ikBd fnl la ekU;rk HksVr ufg] rsa vks ^vkykspda 'kj.ka xPNkfe*
d* xsykg vfNA Mk- HkheukFk >k fy[kSr NfFk] ^kwedsrq ,dVk T;ksfr&js[kk] ,dVk
Hk* tkbr NfFkA kwedsrq us ra vb izHkq&laiznk;d dqVqe Nykg] us psyk Hk* ldykg
'kfDr'kkyh ped] ts vkdk'k&i`"B ij n`<+rkiwoZd lkQ&lkQ vkmV ykbu d*
vk midkjd fLFkfr es ra ufg,a Nykg] rsa mfpr c[kjk ufg HksVyfu] ra dksuks
d* f{kfrt dsa cskSr ikrky&izos'k d* tkbN] ,dVk vkraddkjh pdpksUgh ts
cstk; ufg---A
{k.k es foyhu Hk* xsyks ij cM+h dky kfj yksd dsa viu vuqHkwfr djcSr jgSNA
kwedsrq dFkk] dfork vk miU;kl rhuw fokk es ys[ku d;yfuA de
vkkqfud eSfFkyh lkfgR; es lsgks ,u&esu ,gus ,dVk jf'eiqt
a kwedsrq fNVdyS
fy[kyfu] eqnk xq.kokk es fy[kyfuA lwpukuqlkj fgudj rhu Vk miU;kl
vk dFkk dforkd uhpka eksV lu ykbu [khapSr cf<+ xsySA*
vizdkf'kr vfN ^jus&cus* vk ^ge vgka* ,fg nquw miU;kld lwpuk ys[kd
kwedsrq lu jpukdkjd thou vk ys[ku vk ej.k tkfg fLFkfr es Hksy
Lo;a viuk ifjp;&ikr es ^eSfFkyhd uo dfork* es nsus NfFkA rslj miU;kl
ls eSfFkyh lkfgR;d vdckyh jpukdkj yksdfud ysy] ts lkfgR; vdknseh
^eksM+ ij* ,gh n'kd es fy[ky xsy vfNA vksuk ,[kugqa kwedsrqd jpuk lalkjd
lesr vU; ljdkjh&xSjljdkjh vuqnkud vk ij rLdjh d* jgy NfFk] vk
ewY;kadu viw.ksZ jgr] dkj.k dSd Vk gqudj dFkks ,[ku kfj vizdkf'krs vfNA
lkekU; thou O;rhr d;fugkj deZfu"B jpukdkj ysy lsgks] pq: Hkfj ikfu
rS;ks izdkf'kr jpukd voyksdu la kwedsrqd ts Nfo Li"V gksbr vfN] ls dFkk
es Mwfc ejckd fLFkfr fFkdA HkksykukFk >k] vFkkZr~ kwedsrqd ikafr ^Hkh[k&nq[k
vk dfork] nquw es ,d Vk ^ifrr ikou*d vFkok dgh ra vdknk#.k ckf<+ es
ekafx d* i<+ykSa vk tudiqj es pkdjh djSr Nh* gejk yksdfud f'kyk&keZ dsa
HkklSr tuin ysy ,d Vk etxqr [kkEgd] tdjk cysa fdvks viu dfFkr uhprk
dksugquk izHkkfor ufg djrA vksuk izHkkfor bZgks ckr dgka d* ldy] ts vkb
dsa ifo=k d* icS, vFkok tdjk la xjktksM+h d* d* Mwc* la cfp ldS,A
kfjd dFkkijd vk dforkijd ys[k es kwedsrqd ukvksa Vk xukbr jgy vfN!
^vxqjoku* ,[ku kfj kwedsrqd ppkZ dj* ysy lHk leh{kd dsa lgkjk
ekpZ 1996 es jkteksgu >kd eksu es ,d Vk uo iz;ksx vadqfjr Hksyfu ra kwedsrqd
nSr jg* oyk dFkk fFkd vk csl pfpZr dFkk lsgksA rsa ckr ,rfg la 'kq: djSr
dFkk ^NfB ijesljh*d iqueZqnz.k ^vkjaHk* if=kdk es d;yfu vk laxfg gjs".k
NhA kwedsrq dsa ^ifrr ikou* izekf.kr djck es ^vxqjoku*d dsanzh; ik=k csl
>kd ,d Vk leh{kk lsgksA gjs".k ,fg dFkk ij foLrkj la ppkZ d;yfuA
lgk;d gksbr vfNA ^vxqjoku* 'kCn eSfFkyh es ^vxq.koku* la mn~Hkwr vfN]
^vkjaHkd* vfxyk vad es ,fg dFkk vk leh{kk dsa dsafnzr d* d* rhu Vk ys[k
vFkkZr~ tdjk es dksuks xq.k uab gksA kwedsrqd vxqjoku lkls nqfu;kd utfj
es egku ikrdh] pksj] cnek'k] mpDdk] fir`fuand lHk vfN] eqnk kwedsrqd fofr la vizHkkfor ufg jfg xsy vfN] r[ku ta ,fg dFkkd ik=k lHkd foospu
Hkk"kkd fooj.k ikfc d* vks m)`r Hk* tkbr vfN] vksdj m)kj Hk* tkbr vfNA d;y tk;r] ra fu"ifk es FkksM+sd varj Hk* ldSr vfNA laHko vfN ts vktqd
lektd vkpkj lafgrk es vxqjoku ?kksf"kr O;fDr es ekuoh; ewY; dksu rjgsa fLFkfr es kwedsrq iafMrkbu dsa viu nsg rqf"V ysy mnkj cuk fnrfFku] gqudk
rkdy tk ldSr vfN] rdj izek.k kwedsrqd vfkdka'k dFkk n* ldSr vfNA ij lrcsVkd otZuk vFkok iafMrd LokFkZijd izsj.kk ufg jfgr;] iafMrkbu
vfLrRo vk vfLerkd dksu&dksu ,fg dFkk es kwedsrq Li"V d* nsus NfFkA Lo;a viu nSfgd vko';drk la dksuks iq#"k dsa vaxhdkj dfjrfFk] Hk* ldS,
laiw.kZ fefFkyk vk eSfFky laLfr ,fg dFkkd iafDr&iafDr es VukVu ckft jgy vks iq#"k gqudj lrcsVs gksbr;] Hk* ldS, r[ku Lo;a ckis&csVk es la?k"kZ gksbr;]
vfNA vxqjoku NkSaM+kd LokfHkeku vk fonzksgh rsoj] viax&vikfgt iafMr dYyj Hk* ldS, ---fdNq Hk* ldS,] fdNq Hk* ldSr Ny---eqnk dksuks xHkZorh L=khd gR;k
feJ vFkkZr~ vxqjoku NkSaM+kd ckid ftthfo"kk] thgd rqf"V ysy iRuhd tka?k ek=k iq#"kd Nn~e izfr"Bk vk Qksafdy ikS#"kd dkj.k ufg gksbr;A
vnuk iq#[k yx m?kkj gks;ckd izfr mis{kkHkko] vFkkZr~ fefFkykapy tdjk bTtfr ckr ,guks uba vfN ts kwedsrq rrsd cslh izfrf;koknh vFkok e;kZnkoknh
dgSr vfN] cgq&csVhd nsg&;f"V] ls bTtfr uba fFkd] lHk la iS?k bTtfr fFkd Nykg ts ,gsu viSr&dqiSr \ ckr lksfp ufg ldSr NykgA ^fcM+jks* dFkk
isV] lkls ifjokjd isV Hkj* ysy] ifjokjd L=khd isV vku iq#"k la Hkkjh Hk* rdj izek.k fFkdA dFkkd ukf;dkd euksosx dsa fpf=kr djckdky dFkkdkj drsd
tk;] dksuks fpark ufgA vksNkvksu ij vikfgt tdka iM+y iafMr viu ifjp;kZ rYyhu NfFk] ls dFkkd ijk;.kd ckns fdvks cwf> ldSr NfFkA dSd csj ra ,fg
kfj es vleFkZ NfFk] eqnk csfV;ks la NksV o;ld toku iRuh gqudk lax lgokl ukf;dk dsa ikBd ^ikjks* ;k=kh vk ^lqjek lxqu fcpkjS uk* jktdeyd ukf;dk
ysy uba tkbr tfFku] rdj iq#"kksfpr vgadkj vk vkks'k] iafMrkbud ngdSr la vkxw cq>* yxSr NfFkA dksuks Vk L=khRo okyh L=kh vk ikS#"kiw.kZ iq#"kd chp
tokuh] xUgkbr nkfjnz~;] lrcsVkd otZuk vk ifr }kjk nsg csfp d* lqHkkstu ,dkar efLr"d ,gsu ckr lksp* es fuf'pr :i la ufg kks[kk;rA vkpkj lafgrk
tqV;ckd vuqefr] vkRelEeku] lkekftd ekU;rk] O;kogkfjd foo'krk---,fg ra lekt dsa f'k"V djck ysy O;fDr }kjk cukvksy tkbr vfN vk lef"V }kjk
leLr tky es vks>jk d* iafMrkbu viL;kar NfFk vk varr% xHkZorh Hk* tkbr kkj.k d;y tkbr vfNA vkxw pfy d* oSg keZ Hk* tkbr vfNA eqnk ,fg
NfFk] Qyr% lrcsVk dksnkfj la dkfV nSr NfuA ekV~lSc] lHk ckr cq>Sr NfFk] vkkqfud vkfd mkj&vkkqfud ;qx es vkc euq";d efLr"d ij lektd dCtk
eqnk Fkksl FkkEg yxc* ysy gjne vxqjoku NkM+k dsa ijckskS NfFkA vks NkSaM+k vb ufg vfNA lksp* ysy vks eqDr vfNA rsa ^fcM+jks* dFkkd ukf;dk viu ikS#"k;qDr
nqfu;k es ek=k ,d xksVsd ckr dsa ekstj nSr vfN] ekV~lScd ckr dsa] eqnk t[ku Hkkbd lqiq"V vk iqj[kkg nsg nsf[k d* ta eksfgr gksbr NfFk vk vUgkj rFkk xqekj
ekV~lSc dusdks MaMh& iklax ekj; yxSr uhfro'k NfFk] vks ckr dkfV d* py es lqry&lqry viu Hkkb lax eksus&eksu iz.k;&dYiuk fnl m|r gksbr NfFk]
tkbr vfNA---bZ dFkkd lkjka'k ufg] tuinh; thoud vfLrRo j{kk vk vfLerkd ra bZ LokHkkfod fFkdA dksugq rjgd {kqkk vk dkeukd vr`fIr vkpkj lafgrkd
fuekZ.k dsj lw{erj xq.klq=k fFkd] tdjk kwedsrq] vb pkfj Vk ik=kd vkJ; fuokZg ufg djSr vfN] de la de fparu es ra ufg,aA bZ fparu Hkus vksdjk
la thoar d;yfu vfNA dksuks ifrr es ikou rRod lekos'k dksuk jgSr vfN] dqafBr d* fnv;] eqnk lksp* ysy ra fdvks ufg,a jksfd ldSr vfNA kwedsrq
rdjk rdckd vkaf[k vb dFkk es dFkkdkj nsyfu vfNA vxqjokud pksj&mpDdk vgw dFkk es iFkHkz"V fparu djSr dFkk ukf;dkd euksosx dsa ltho d* nsus NfFkA
gks;c] yqPpk&cnek'k gks;c ,d Vk lkekftd gjDdfr fFkd] tdjk dFkkdkj bZ dFkk v;uk tdka ukf;dkd ekufld ;k=kk dsa Li"V djSr vfNA
iafMrkbu vk iafMrd nSfgd mnkjrk la tksM+Sr NfFkA vxqjokud 'kCn es ^ekV~lSc] dFkk pkgs ^fVfVEgk* gks fd ^fcykfM+*] ^dqyVk*] ^yNeu* vk fd ^,d
,djk ysy ge dh us dsyk\ pksj cuyk] thou xkrZ d* ysykA eqnk bZ jafM;k Vk ewY;ghu dFkk* vk fd ^nsg* dksuks gks lHk Bke kwedsrd q oSg ifrr ikou
rS;ks Hkfl xsyA* ,VhP;wM ns[kkb iM+Sr vfNA lkls lektd utfj es ts fu"V vfN] rkfg O;fDrd
dksuks ,dVk dFkk es lektd ,rsd fcanq dsa mBk d* ,rsd NksV dFkk vb fu"Vrkd vkkkj rRo vksgh lekt dsa ns[kcSr vksdj vlyh :i lks>ka
es lQyrk izkIr d* ysc lkkkj.k ckr uba fFkdA Hkkjrd leLr vkkqfud Hkk"kkd jkf[k nsrkgA vkc vgha r; d:] ts dqyVk ds vfN] yNeu lu vkfd vxqjoku
dFkk forku ysy bZ";kZd ckr Hk* ldSr vfNA lu pksj ds vfN] felst [kUuk fcykfM+ fd,s NfFk] fVfVEgkd HkS;k dksuk cnyykg
eqnk] bZ VsDLV fFkd lkre n'kdd] vk fefFkykdA vkb] t[ku ge uo vk HkkSthd ekFk dksuk 'kkar Hksyfu] ^lacak&cak* es lacakd dh gky gksbr vfN \
lglzkfCn es izos'k djck ysy mrkgqy Nh vk fefFkykd dksuks xke HkweaMyhdj.kd fo"k;d Lrj ij kwedsrqd laiw.kZ ys[ku vR;ar vkkqfud vk fparud Lrj ij
ra cfYd dSd csj viuk le; la vkxw yxSr vfNA eqnk bZ viu dSd Vk jpuk leL;k ufg dgy xsy vfN] ^bZ'ojks* dsa ufgA cfYd leLr leL;kd dkj.kA
es viufg f'kYid rqyuk es iNfM+ xsy NfFkA ^vxqjoku*] ^fcM+jks*] ^lacak&cak*] ^L=kh* ;k ra csVh gksbr vfN ;k ekb] cfgu] iRuh] nknh] lkfj] lklq vkfnA vFkkZr~
^fVfVEgk* vk ^NfB ijesljh*d dFkk f'kYi dsa vkn'kZ ekfu d* pyy t;ckd L=kh bTtfr gksbr vfNA bTtfr eryc ku] oSHko] le`f)] izes ] izfr"Bk] ,s'o;Z-
pkghA ls fgudfg Vk jpuk lalkj ysy ufg] vkuks uo&iqjku jpukdkj ysy ,fg --A ddjks bTtfr ij dCtk d* fyv*] lHk fdNq ij dCtk Hk* xsyA vk vf'kf{krk
dFkk lHkd f'kYi vuqdj.kh; vfNA eqnk ^dqyVk* dFkkd dF; trsd 'kkunkj ij dCtk djc vklku vfN] rsa L=kh dsa vf'kf{kr jk[kwA vf'kf{kr L=kh ij keZd
Nfu] f'kYi rrcs ikjaifjd vk vizHkkohA fdNq dFkk es ra ikBdd izos'k lsgks vkJ; la dCtk djc lHk la vklku vfNA orZeku le; es jkekuan lkxj
FkksM+s dkyd ysy ^gMy jsl* Hk* tkbr vfNA ;|fi Hkk"kk ,dne iksNy&ikNy] vk ch-vkj- pksiM+k Nki lhfj;y MkbjsDVjd ckf<+ vlgt ufg vfNA ^NfB
'kCn ,dne la uhiy fpuckj ij ltkvksy Qwy lu] rFkkfi ta nw rhu vorj.k ijesljh* vgh foe'kZd mnkgj.k fFkdA vb dFkk es keZHkh# fefFkyk vk volj
kfj ikBd dsa dFkk es vkReh; izos'k ufg HksV;] ra rdj ewy dkj.k vksfg dFkk v;yk ij HkfDr vk fu"Bkd lax ywi&ykbu fudkyc] ckbikl rkfd ysck es
ij jpukdkjd fo}rkd vke.k Hk* ldSr vfNA efLr"d es fopkjd fcgkfM+] n{k eSfFkyd izo`fk dsa izrhdkRed :i es fpf=kr d;y xsy vfNA eqnk ,fg
lHkVk dsa mxfy nsckd NViVkgfV] mxfy ufg ldckd cspSuh vk foo'krk] dFkkd cqukofV] ,dj f'kYi trsd etxqr vfN] rrsd 'kkunkj ,dj fo"k;s ufg
fy[ky jpuk dksuks mi;qDr if=kdk dsa iB;ck ysy Mkd O;; kfjd vHkko] vfNA nksdku la ?kqjy xksihukFkd trsd lekkuy fp=k.k ,fg dFkk es d;y
fyf[k d* NksfM+ nsykd i'pkr vksdj vuqi;qDrrkd i'pkrki] ?kj&ifjokjd xsy vfN] vksdj leL;s rrsd egRoiw.kZ ufg vfNA keZ vk iwtk fefFkykd
[ksok&[kpkZd fpark---,fg leLr fparkd tsy es ts ys[kd ck>y gks] ts ?kj&ifjokj&lekt& lHk la iS?k ladV vo'; fFkdA ,fg uke ij vikj viO;; fefFkyk es gksbr
lkfgR; lHk ysy viu nkf;Ro dsa fpUgSr gks rdj cspuS hd dYiuk djck ;ksX; vfNA eqnk iwtk&ikB vk ikofu& frgkjd y?kqke mik; lsgks izpfyr NSdA ga]
ufg Hk* ldSr vfNA kwedsrq vgw cspSuh es fdNq fyf[k ldykg] ra rdj eq[; tksr[kh thd frdM+e vk uhp gjDdfr rFkk xksihukFk nquw csdrhd n; ifjorZu]
dkj.k HkksykukFk >k es izfo"V ,d Vk egku ys[kd kwedsrqd izfrHks fFkdA bZ'oj ij n;k dj* ysy ikBd dsa vo'; foo'k djSr vfNA bZ dFkk xksihukFkd
vks>jkgfVd bZ tky vk nkf;Ro ckskd bZ mRd"kZ dksuks O;fDr dsa dU;wTM vHkkod dFkk ufg fFkd vk ,fg dFkkd vuqlkj fefFkyk keZHkh# ufg vfN]
djck ysy] fdadkZO;foew<+ djck ysy i;kZIr gksbr vfNA eqnk kwedsrq dfg;ks keZHkh#rkd ukVd djS, bZ nquw ckr izekf.kr vfNA fefFkyk es ^NfB ijesljh*
viu dFkkuk;ds lHk tdka dU;wTM ufg HksykgA ga] fgud fHkUu&fHkUu dFkkd dsa cM+ VksVekg nsork ekuy tkbr jgy vfNA eqnk rkfg nsork dsa p<+kvksy
uk;dd pfj=kkadu la ,rck cq>kbr vfN ts viuk thoud dksuks Msx mB;ck dsjk] ikap ikb izfr fNEefM+ deh'ku ij cspfugkj ckys] xksihukFkd HkfDr la
es lHk fnu lery ufg jgykgA bZ vdkj.k ufg vfN] ts dksugqa dFkkd fgudj pkSy d;fugkj tksr[kh vk egktu rFkk ikbd dkj.ksa viu dcqyk cnyfugkj
uk;d&ukf;dk xkakhoknh cfu tkbr vfN] drgq k;Moknh] fd;ks Hkksxoknh] fd;ks xksihukFk ,fg ckrd mnkgj.k fFkd] ts keZ ,dVk ukVd fFkd] tdj laokn
izfrf;koknh] fd;ks 'kksf"kr] fd;ks ijkftr] fd;ks i'pkrki dj; yxSr vfN] lqfokkuqlkj yksd d[kugqa cnfy ldS,A bZ dFkk fefFkyk es fgySr kkfeZd vkLFkkd
fd;ks ,e-,y-oknh vkfn cfu tkbr vfNA eqnk ,rck r; vfN] ts bZ leLr dFkk fFkdA vksuk gjs".k >k] eksgu Hkkj}kt vk v'kksd ,fg ij I;kZIr fparu
ik=k gejk lekts la ysy xsy vfN vk ,djk lHk dsa kwedsrq thou nSr dky d* pqdykg vfNA
,dne bZekunkj vk rVLFk jgykg vfNA tkfg O;fDr dsa LFkku&dky&thou ,rs ,dVk ckr kwedsrqd jpuk ij fopkj djSr vyx la dgckd fFkd] ts
rjgd rckgh nsus gks] frudj thou es ,drkurk dksuk vkvksr \ viu laiw.kZ vFkZra=kd O;wg vk ;kSu fyIlkd vkfx fgudj dFkk lHk es fu.kkZ;d fLFkfr
ys[ku es eqby&VqVy yksd ysy viu lgkuqHkwfr bZ cpk j[kyfuA es jgSr vk;y vfNA ;Sg nquw rRo fgudj jpuk&lalkjd ukxj&ukxfj dsa lapkfyr
^NfB ijesljh* dFkk ^vxqjoku* lu izfl) Hkus ufg Hksy gks] eqnk ppkZ djSr vfN] vksdjk kkfeZd] vkkfeZd] ikih] iq.;kRek] pfj=kghu vk pfj=koku
,fg ij vksdjk la cslh vo'; Hksy vfNA keZ] ftthfo"kk] dwVuhfr vkfn drksd cucSr vfNA ,djfg dkj.k fdvks pksj cuSr vfN vk fdvks fNukfj vFkok
n`f"V,a vb dFkk ij fopkj d;y xsy vfNA ,d Vk fo}ku dsa iwNy xsyfu fNukjA vFkkZr~ vkkqfud le;d lw{e fparukkjk kwedsrqd dsanzh; fo"k; jgy
ts vgkad lHk la iS?k leL;k dh fFkd\ vks tokc nsyf[ku L=kh vk bZ'ojA vfNA dfork es lsgks kwedsrqd utfj viuk lektd folaxfr ij Nfu] eqnk
,gw dFkkd lHk la iS?k leL;k ;Sg nquw vfNA /;krO; fFkd ts ,r; ^L=kh* dsa vfHkO;fDrd rjhdk nkslj NfuA ;|fi dfork des izdkf'kr NfuA rFkkfi ts
Nfu rkfg es ikSjkf.kd fcac vk feFkdh; izrhdd lax lektd ttZj fLFkfr
dsa fpf=kr d;us NfFkA ;kSukpkj vk vkfFkZd vjktdrkd ikSjkf.kd :f<+d lax
^eqfDr*] ^lk;qT;*] ^lekfkLFk* vkfn dfork es O;Dr fp=k pfdr djSr vfNA
tr; O;kld ysy kwedsrq dgSr NfFk%
tUes gqud cksk fFkdfu
tUe ySr nsjh Hk* tkbr NfFk
ghupsrk ekalHk{kh ikjk'kj fx)d lekt la ckgj
vksuk oh;Z&nkud egRo vks cq>Sr NfFkuA
vksr* gqudk Bhds cq>;yfu ts% vfHkeU;qd,dkyki
pkySu ysus viL;kar Nh
eqnk vkc bZ vkfx fe>k,r\
tj, fnvkSd vkc vb ctkj es
t[ku&t[ku f'k"V tud dkO; iafMr yksdfu }kjk cUgk d, fu'ps"V vk ladqfpr
dhuS tksdjd phts uS NSdA
Hk* tk,r r[ku&r[ku vksdjk ltho vk psru izlkj ns'kd lkekU; turkd
vk rsa fcuk fdNq fduus kwedsrq py xsykg] eqnk cgqr fdNq n* xsykgA cgqr
chp LoPNan :i la cgSr izkfrd Hkkokkjk la thourRo xzg.k d,yk la izkIr
jkl btksr] cgqr jkl ckV] cgqr jkl vkaf[k---A iz;kstu vfN ts ge lHk ,fg
gks,r ,gsu ekU;rk vkpk;Z jkepUnz 'kqDyd NfuA vb ^lkekU; turk* 'kCn
ctkj dsa cnfy nhA
ij tksj nSr dsnkjukFk flag ekuSr NfFk ts eqnz.k dykd fodkld QyLo:i
dkO;d izR;{k Jksrk ijks{k ikBd es cnfy xsy Ny vk dfork viu vuqHkwfr
,oa vfHkO;fDr izk.kkyh] nquw es fo'ks"khdj.k fn'k c<+y tk jgy Ny] vkpk;Z
'kqDy }kjk dforkd fodkld lanHkZ es ^lkekU; turk* 'kCnd iz;ksx vk vksdj
LoPNan cgSr Hkkokkjk la thourRo xzg.k djckd ckr egRoiw.kZ fFkdA vkpk;Z
'kqDy dsj ,fg ekU;rk la vtqdks uo jpukdkj dksuks us dksuks :i es viuk
dsa lac) eglwl d* ldSr vfNA
orZeku 'krkCnhd lkre n'kd /kfj ^fp=kk*] ^Lojxa/kk*] ^vkReusin*]
^fn'kkarj*] ^dkyofu*] ^varr%*] ^lhekar*] ^ge ,d feF;k ifjp;* vkfn egRoiw.kZ
dfork ladyud izdk'ku Hk* xsy NyA fgUnh lkfgR;d ifjn`'; ij ppkZ djck
dky ukeoj flag vk fo'oukFk f=kikBh vb ckr ij lger gksbr NfFk ts 1964
es usg: ;qxd var HksyA Hkkjr&phu lhek la?k"kZ vksfg le;d vR;ar egku
?kVuk NyA fdNq xksV, usg:d e`R;qd dkj.k ,djfg ekuyfuA vgh le; es
eksgHkaxd fLFkfr mRiUu HksyA lhek la?k"kZd i'pkr~ Hkkjrd dE;qfuLV ikVhZ ifgus
nw Hkkx es caVy] Qsj rhu Hkkx HksyA dE;qfuLV ikVhZ la vyx Hksy ,d va'k
vkxw vkfc d, gR;kd jktuhfr pyvksyd] tdjk uDly foIyod :i es Lej.k
d,y tkbr vfNA vgh varjky es ikfdLrkud lax Hkkjrd ;q) HksyA jktuhfr
es xSj&dkaxzsloknd gok pyyA lkk es dkaxzsld ,dkfkdkj lekIr HksyA vusd
izkar es vYidkfyd lafon ljdkj cuyA ,d vFks bZ jktuhfrd vfLFkjrkd egRoiw.kZ gksbr vfNA izk;% lHk lkfgR;d lHk ih<+hd lax b,g fLFkfr gksbr
;qx NyA vb okrkoj.k la lkfgR;d vizHkkfor jgc vlaHko NyA vfNA dhfrZukjk;.k feJ tUe 17&7&1936 eSfFkyh lkfgR; es csl izfrf"Br
eSfFkyh lkfgR; es lsgks fgUnhd vis{kk dksuks ifjfLFkfrtU; Hksn ufg NyA uke vfNA bZ izk;% dfors Vk fy[kyfuA 1967 bZ- es ^lhekar* dkO; ladyu
vusd dkj.k la leL;kd Qyd vk fo"k; oLrq foLr`r Hk* pqdy NyA furkar izdkf'kr HksyfuA ^oLr gksbr 'kkafrLrwi*d vkPNkni i`"B ij fy[ky xsy vfN]
ikfjokfjd fLFfr] vkapfyd lekt] futh vk ek=k {ks=kh; laLfr] jgu&lgu] ^l`f"V la iwoZ fooal djc dhfkZukjk;.k feJd lkekftd jktuhfrd psrukd
jhfr&jsokt vkfn la cf<+ d, jpukdkjd n`f"V fo'o ?kVuk&p fn'k cf<+ pqdy laxfg dkO;&psrukd vfHkUu vax cfu xsy vfNA ^lhekar* la ^oLr gksbr
NyA ^fp=kk* vk ^Lojxakk*d izdk'ku ,dVk uo ckV iz'kLr d* pqdy NyA 'kkafr Lrwi* rdd dkO;&;k=kk csj&csj dfo }kjk viu dforkd izfreku dsa rksM+Sr
rsa mi;qZDr leLr fLFkfr eSfFkyh lkfgR;d ysy lsgks cgqr xaHkhj :i la izHkkoh vk ltZukd ysy mikns; dkO;&rRod vUos"k.kd ;k=kk fFkdA vksfg ra=k vk ea=kd
HksyA vb varjkyd lkfgR; es ts vusd rjgd udkjoknh rFkk mPNa[ky izo`fk fu"ksk fFkd fgudj dfork] ts ekuo dsa ukxQkal es fujarj cUgSr vfN vk
ns[kkbN vksdj ksr fuf'pr :i la drgq&us&drgq vb jktuhfrd okrkoj.kks varr% viu pkdj vk pkVqdkj cuk ySr vfNA* lektd lokZfkd laosnu'khy
es vfNA ;k=kh] jktdey] fdlqu] lksenso] ek;kuUn] khjsUnz] xqatu] kwedsrq] izk.kh dfo gksbr vfNA Lora=krk iwoZd fLFkfr lkekU; tuthou es ,dVk LofIuy
dqykuUn] js.kq] thodkar] egkizdk'k izHk`frd dfork es vb jktuhfrd gM+dai] okrkoj.kd ykylk Hkfj nsus Ny ts Lokra=;kskj dky es ufg HksyA vusd o"kZ
lkekftd [kafMr vkLFkk] ekuoh; voewY;u] lkewfgd vlarks"k vkfn Li"V :isa kfj Lora=k Hkkjrd ukxfjd Hk*vks d, Hkkjrh; euq"; viuk dsa Hkkjrh; vR;kpkjhd
ifjyf{kr gksbr vfNA vb rF; la izk;% fdvks vlger ufg gsrkg ts vb [ksykSuk cw>Sr jgyA lkfBd n'kdd vkxw&ikNw vkvksjks vusd lkekftd jktuhfrd
lHk ifjfLFkfr la lkfgR;d Hkk"kk es vikj ifjokZu HksyA ,rcs ufg] Hkk"kk / mFky&iqFky Hksy vk tuekul ij ,dj fuLlu pksV iM+yA vusd rjgd
kfj cksy&pkyd Hkk"kk Hk* xsy] iafMrkm ufg jgy] cfYd Hkk"kk es ,dVk [kkl uhd&cstk; vfHkkkj.kkd tUe HksyA vb leLr ifjfLFkfr la dfo dsa lk{kkRdkj
izdkjd [kkSa>] pksV] izgkj vkfn vkfc xsyA vksuk vb lHkd chtkjksi.k ;k=kh HksyfuA LokHkkfod :i la l`tukehZ yksdfu {kqCk] O;fFkr vk grizHk HksykgA
ifgufg d* pqdy Nykg ^vxjkgh ykxm] c# ctz [klm---*A eksu es vkks'k mByfu] fonzksgh HksykgA vHkko] voljokfnrk] pkVqdkfjrk vkfn
eSfFkyh lkfgR; es [kkaVh jktuhfr fdNq misf{kr Hk* xsy Ny] rdj nSfud tu&thoud vko';d vax Hk* xsy] tdjk cnkZ'r djc dfod ysy laHko
xaHkhjrkiwoZd iquizZos'kd dky lsgks b,g fFkdA ufg jgyA vk rsa eksg Hkaxd fLFkfr es leLr fu"kskkRed ckUg&NkUg dsa rksfM+&rkfM+
fgUnh dfork ij ppkZ djSr ukeoj flagd dgc Nfu] ^vb chp ,dVk d, dfo yksdfu fonzksgh Hk* xsykgA vb rwjd dfo yksdfud ppkZ djSr jke".k
xi bgks Hksy ts dforkd nqfu;k es iz;ksxokn] izxfrokn] u;h dfork] vdfork >k ^fdlqu* fy[kSr NfFk] ^lkfgR;d eSnku es ts cgqr fnu la 'kkfe;kuk rkuy
vkfnd lhek&ljgn ,dne VwfV xsy vk vb izdkjd leLr yscqy fujFkZd lkfcr vfN] rdj vkc Mksj lc lfM+ xsy vfN] ?kquyXxw Hk* xsy vfN] vksfg es ykxy
HksyA ifj.kke bZ Hksy ts vktqd dfork ij dksuks yscy q lkVc laHko uba vfN us >kM+&Quwl lc >fj&>[kfj xsy vfNA ta ,[kuks fdNq O;fDr vksfg fpjh&fpkh
fopkjkkjkd] us dkO;&f'kYidA* eSfFkyhd lanHkZ es ;qok vk ;qorj dfox.k es Hksy 'kkfe;kuk dsa cM+s ;Ru la lhckd] psQM+h ij psQM+h yx,ckd vlQy iz;kl
vb ckrd mnkgj.k rkdy tk, ykx, ra dg, iM+r ts fdNq dfod dkS'ky es O;Lr NfFk ra uodfo yksdfu dsa ,gsu egkuqHkko ij n;k gksbr NfuA*
es pfdr dj* oyk laHkkouk fo|eku vfNA mnkgj.kd ysy ^ledkyhu Hkkjrh; vb ifjfLFkfr es uodfo yksdfu ek=k n;k Vk d* d, ufg jfg xsykgA
lkfgR;*d 48e vad es vk,y eSfFkyh dfork ij jk"Vh; Lrjd fVIi.kh mYys[kuh; viu Hkksxy ;FkkFkZd vuqHkwfr dsa uohu 'kCnkoyh vk uwru vFkZokk lax izLrqr
vfNA eSfFkyhd vb uO;re ih<+h dsa ta lekt la vuqHkwfrd volj] futh izfrHkk dj* yxykgA LokHkkfod Ny ts ikjaifjd fopkjd yksd pkSadykgA dyg xsy
la thoun`f"V fodflr djckd vkkkj HksVySd vfN] ra vb es dksuks Vk }Sk vfN ts dhfrZukjk;.kd ^lhekar* d ek;es eSfFkyh es ifgys&ifgy vdforkd
ufg] ts vb ih<+h dsa viu vxztd jpuk'khyrk la cgqrjkl lks>jkvksy ckV ppkZ HksyA dfork lquckd vFkok i<+ckd vH;Lr ikBdd pkSadc vLokHkkfod
lsgks HksVySd vfNA gjs".k] fo;ksxh] ukjk;.kth] lkjax dqekj] fo|kuUn] ".k ufg NyA eqnk ikBdd pkSadc dhfkZukjk;.kd dkO; l`tu es dksuks O;fre
eksgu >k izHk`fr dsj dfork es pfdr dj*oyk ,gus rRo HksVSr vfNA mifLFkr ufg d* ldyA dkj.k Li"V vfN ts vb ih<+h dsa eksgHkaxd ijkdk"Bk
lkekU; turkd chp LoPNan cgSr izkfrd Hkkokkjk lkfgR;d ysy cgqr la lk{kkRdkj Hk* xsy NyA nkslj ckr ts lkfB la iwoZfg ^Lojxakk* izdkf'kr
Hk* d, fojkskd vfkdka'k vUgj&fcgkfM+ >sfy pqdy NyA vk dhfkZukjk;.k ekU;rk la fu"kskkRed #[k rRdky 'kq#g gksbr vfNA lkre n'kd eSfFkyh
viu fopkjkkjk] viu thoun`f"V ,oa viu thoukuqHkwfrd lax dkO;&l`tu lkfgR;d ysy vgw dkj.ksa cslh egRoiw.kZ vfNA t[ku leLr jk"Vh;] varjkZ"Vh;]
djSr jgykgA jktuhfrd mFky&iqFky] lhek&la?k"kZ ?kVukfnd fLFkfr ra NySds( mij la ,fg leLr
lkfgR;d lekt'kkL=kh; fpard eSustj ikaMs;d dgc Nfu] ^dfork es fLFkfrd izHkko la fefFkykapyd yksd] yksd&laLfr vk yksd&ekU;rk mi;qZDr
thou&txrd ;FkkFkZ vk vuqHkod vfHkO;fDr dsoy izkfrfufkd :ifg Vk es gypyd izHkko la ,dVk fofp=k lu dkWdVsy cu, ykxy NyA dhfkZukjk;.kd
ufg gksbr vfN] izrhdkRedks <ax la gksbr vfNA lR; ra bZ vfN ts miU;kl dkO; l`tu vgh fLFkfr es izkjaHk HksyA
es izkfrfufkd i)frd izkkurk HksVSr vfN rsa dfork es O;atukd i)fr izk;% lu~ 1967 es vdforkoknd LFkkiuk Hksy vk fo'ys"k.k d,fugkj lHk
izrhdkReds cslh gksbr vfNA dfork es ;FkkFkZ vk vuqHkod lk{kkr~ vfHkO;fDr 1979 vcSr&vcSr uodforkd xq.kxku dj, yxykg vk uodfork kfj v,ckd
ufg gksbr vfNA vksfg es iqujZfpr ;FkkFkZ vk vuqHkod vfHkO;fDr gksbr vfN] ,dVk dM+hd :i es vdfork dsa LohdkjyfuA ,fg rjgsa eSfFkyh dfork es uo
rsa dfork ;FkkFkZ] thoud ;FkkFkZ la fHkUu gksbr vfN] d[kugqa vksfg la fdNq f{kfrtd fuekZ.k izf;k ysy vxzlj gksbr dfod vfHkf;k bZ ekuy tk ldSr
cslh d[kugqa vksfg la fdNq deA* izk;% b,g dkj.k fFkd ts dforkd lekt'kkL=kh; vfNA
rarq lekt'kkL=kh yksdfud idM+ es ufg vcSr NfuA jpukdkjd nkf;Ro dsa js[kkafdr djSr dhfkZukjk;.k dgSr NfFk] ^tkfg
,fg lHk fcanq dsa ;ku es j[kSr dfork es pk:Hkj iljy foMacuk Li"V O;oLFkk es ge thfc jgy Nh] vks voewY;u] dqaBk] dkiq#"krk] la=kkl vk vkks'kd
gksbr vfN vk dfod mij iM+Sr vfrfjDr nckod Lrj r; gksbr vfNA ,fg tUe n* ldSr vfNA ;fn ge vksdjk Lohdkj ufg djSr Nh ra ge viu le;d
rjgsa ifjos'k es O;kIr for vk ?k`.kkLin fLFkfr ns[kckd vk lgckd] vb fLFkfr lax] viu ifjos'kd lax] viu fLFkfrd lax bekunkj ufg NhA*
es thcSr tu&leqnk;d fu'ps"Vrk vk viu vfLerkd izfr mis{kk Hkko vuqHko dhfkZukjk;.kd dforkd ijh{k.k vgh ifjfLFkfr lHkd vkyksd es vk dfod
djckd rFkk vU; of.kZr tfVyrk vkfn leLr ihM+k dsa HkksxSr dfod vkSukgfVd thou&n`f"Vd ifjizs{; es djSr bZ r; gksbr vfN ts dfo dsa ikjaifjd ik[kaM]
dYiuk d,y tk ldSr vfNA O;oLFkkd fonzwirk] jktuhfrd dyq"krk vk lekt es leL;k mRiUu dj*okyh
,guk fLFkfr es ta dhfkZukjk;.k l`tu la ifgus fooald fLFkfr eksu lkkd for Lo:i O;fFkr djSr jgSr NfuA ^oLr gksbr 'kkafr Lrwi* laxzgd
es j[kSr NfFk vk fgudj dfork rkfg fn'kkd ckr djSr vfN] ra bZ dksuks vk;kfrr fdNq dfork dhfrZukjk;.kd vgh rh{.k O;Fkkd izfrQyu fFkdA vb laxzgd
izlax ufg fFkdA ^lhekar* 1967] ^ge Lrou ufg fy[kc* 1979 vk ^oLr cgqrjkl dfork f'kYid Lrj ij vk ,d lhek kfj oLrqfu"Brkd Lrj ij lsgks
gksbr 'kkfUr Lrwi* 1991 viu rhuw dkO; ladyu es dfo fujarj viu dfod dn dsa NksV djSr vfNA dfod vokkj.kk dsa vk dfod vuqHkwfr dsa
thou&n`f"V la lekt vk O;oLFkkd tkap&iM+rky djSr jgykg vfNA tsuk fd izHkkokRed vfHkO;fDr nsck es f'kYid Lrj ij fdNq dfork viu ;s; kfj
dfo Lo;a dgSr NfFk] ^ijaijkd v;;u Kku dsa le`) djSr NSd] eqnk ijaijkd ufg igqapcSr vfNA nkslj fnl fcac ;kstuk vk izrhd p;u es fdNq dfork
izfr fo'ks"k O;keksg la dYiuk'khyrk ,oa jpuk 'kfDrd kl gksbr NSdA rsa ijaijk <hy Hk* xsy vfNA [kkl d* d, jktuhfrijd dfork es t[ku dfo viu
dsj vksrc; va'k gejk Lohdkj vfN] ts furkar thoar ,oa vfuok;Z gks 'ks"k fu"kskkRed ,VhP;wM mifLFkr djSr NfFk ra vksr, izrhd vk fcac txexk ufg
gejk ysy egRoghu] O;FkZ ! ijaijk la fonzksg ,oa vksdj vLohfr gejk ysy icSr vfNA dfo vksr, ikjaifjd vyadkj ;kstuk la dkt fudkySr NfFk] ts
QS'ku ufgA* ijaijkd izfr ifj"dkjoknh bZ n`f"Vdks.k dhfkZukjk;.kd dfork la dforkd izHkkoksRikndrk dsa de djSr vfN vk ,d lhek kfj vksdj kkj dqan
dusd vkvksj Li"V gksbr vfNA fgudj dfork es ijaijkd ppkZ fdNq rsgsu djSr vfNA
[kkSa> vk O;aX;ksfDr lax gksbr vfN ts lkQ&lkQ Li"V Hk* tkbr vfN ts dfo dhfkZukjk;.k LohdkjSr NfFk ts gqudj ckY;dky ;k ;qokoLFkk nquw ^jsr*
dsa dksuks le; es ijaijk vk ikjaifjd ekU;rk ij vfrfjDr vkLFkk Nyfu] vksfg d lfUu; es fcryfu vfN vk rsa gqudj jpuk&izf;k jsr ij gLrk{kj djc
la cgqr cslh vis{kk Nyfu] eqnk ls Qfyr ufg Hk* jgy vfNA tsuk fd iwoZfg fFkdA bZ LohdkjksfDr tkfg dksuks kukRed vfHkks;kRedrk dsa |ksfrr djSr gks]
dgy tk pqdy vfN] dksuks egku 'kfDr vFkok ekU;rk vFkok vokkj.kk la eqnk gejk tuSr ta bZ lR;] ra dfo Lo;a viu ekU;rk viu vfHkf;k es
tgu vkLFkk VqVSr vfN] ra vkRecksk vk eksgHkax gksbr vfN rFkk vksfg leLr }Sk mifLFkr djSr NfFkA dkj.k] dhfrZukjk;.k Lo;a thoud tfVyre ;FkkFkZ
la lk{kkRdkj djSr vke turkd vkaf[k es vaxqjh d* d, vksdj ifjp; fnv,ck ekuSr vfN] ts vksdj vkaf[k Qwft xsySd vk vkc vks nqfu;k dsa uo vkaf[k,a
es rRij jgykg vfN] ts gqudj dfork la lsgks Li"V gksbr vfNA gYyqd ckV nsf[k ldr] uo O;oLFkk vkfu ldrA tsuk fd dhfkZukjk;.k fy[kSr NfFk fy[k*
viu,ckd vk vLFkk;h izHkko NksM+ckd mie dhfkZukjk;.k dfgvks ufg ysy ftvc] ftv*d ysy jksVh] jksVhd ysy pkdjh] pkdjh es cuy jg*d ysy
d,yfuA r[ku fgudj vaxqjh ckyq ta jsrd vFkZ ckyq fFkd ra lu gYyqd pkSchlks ?kaVkd nkf;Ro&ogu vk nkf;Ro&ogud ysy izcakdd :i es vks lHk
lrg ij gLrk{kj dksuk djr vk ckyq ijd gLrk{kj lu vLFkk;h dkt dksuk dkt djc vFkok djk,c vFkok vksdj l=k&lapkyu&funs'ku djc tdj ge
djr \ ts&ls--- n; la fojkskh Nh] ts gej fl)kard foijhr vfN bZ pkdkj foMacuk gej
dhfkZukjk;.kd dfork es izk;% lacakd voewY;u] fofr vk ,d lhek ys[ku dsa xhfM+ jgy vfN vk ge viufg vkaf[k la viu uk'k&yhyk nsf[k jgy
kfj gR;kd Lo:i mifLFkr gksbr jgSr vfNA viu drsdks dfork dfo okkkZyki NhA
'kSyh es izkjaHk djSr NfFk vk lacksfkr O;fDrd lax lacakd varjaxrk ij vaxqjh bZ vkRedFkkRed fVIi.kh dfod ekufld [kSapkrkuh vk vkSukgfV dsa dksu
mBcSr vksdj for Lo:i dsa Vkafx nSr NfFkA ^oLr gksbr 'kkfUr Lrwi*] izosx nsus vfN] rdj dYiuk d,y tk ldSr vfNA dgc vklku vfN ts
^;kruk&f'kfoj*] ^dh vgha Nygqa*] ^fdlqu th*] ^tknwd [ksy*] vkfn dfork fgudj euq"; dsa fojksk djckd pkghA eqnk gejk tuSr vkthfodkd mis{kk d* d,
vgh mied mnkgj.k fFkdA ^iatkcd fph*] ^tkxy vfN*] ^fdlqu th*] dfork fy[k* es ykfx tk,c vksgus kafr gks,r tsuk fcuk vkfxd e'kky yslc
^bgkxPN bgfr"B* vkfn dfork es f'kYi vk izLrqfrd vkuks vku miknku es gksbr vfNA vb rjgd izf;k viuk,c leqnz es lykb la vkfx yxk,c gks,rA
dfo ij egkdfo ;k=khd izHkko Li"V ns[ky tk ldSr vfNA thfodksiktZud mis{kk] ifjokjd mis{kk djc gksbr vfN] bZ vdkV~; lR; fFkdA
^iatkcd fph*] ^tkxy vfN*] ^dh vgha Nygqa*] ^dkSvk&1*] ^dkSvk&2* vkfn vk ts O;fDr ikfjokfjd ufg gksv, vksdj lkekftd O;fDr g,ckd izo`fk
dSd Vk dfork es dfod xgu thoukuqHkwfrd ifjp; HksVSr vfNA vksuk ra ij uhd tdka lansg d,y tk ldSr vfNA dhfkZukjk;.k vb ifjfLFkfrd pjeksRd"kZ
vkkqfud lkfgfR;d ewy Loj lexzrk la O;oLFkkd fojksk] izpfyr ekU;rkd la ifjfpr NfFk] viu oDrO;ks es vk dforks esA dfod mDr LohdkjksfDr;fgd
fu"ksk lSg fFkdA bZ O;oLFkk jk"Vh;] varjkZ"Vh;] izkarh;] xzkeh.k] lkekftd] n`"Vkar fFkd ^iatkcd fph* vk ^fe=kd i=k*A ,gsu fodV pkdkj foMacuk
ikfjokfjd] oS;fDrd] jktuhfrd] vkfFkZd vk varr% vb leLr dkj.k la es vFkok O;wg es t[ku O;fDr dsa fugRFk d* d, NksfM+ nsy tk,] ra vksdj
euksoSKkfud fLFkfr la lac) jgSr vfNA eqnk dhfkZukjk;.k t[ku jktuhfrd leLr vkks'k vk fonzksg ,dkyki es cnfy tkbr vfNA vb ifjfLFkfr dsa
gej eryc vfN [kkaVh jktuhfrd fo"k; dsa NwcSr NfFk ra vksdjk vks mi;qDr HkksxSr vktqd leLr izk.kh ^vfHkeU;q* fFkdA dhfkZukjk;.kd dfork vktqd
kkj ufg n* icSr NfFkA eqnk lektd O;oLFkk vk iz'kklfud nkuork la mn~Hkwr vfHkeU;qd ,dkyki fFkdA vksfg vfHkeU;qd ,dkyki ts [kSad Hkfj lkal kfj
lkekU; tuthoud tfVyre ckV dsa dfo NwcSr NfFk ra vks pefd mBSr vfNA yM+Sr jgy eqnk vksdj varl~ dsj vkfx ufg fe>sySA ijkt;d leLr miknkud
^iatkcd fph* dfod ,gsu dfork fFkd tdjk vusd lanHkZd n`"Vkar Lo:i laHkkoukd vNbrks dhfkZukjk;.k vk dhfkZukjk;.kd dkO;iq#"k ijkLr ufg gksbr
izLrqr d,y tk ldSr vfNA ^fe=kd i=k* ;|fi viu laiw.kZ ihM+k ufg ofur vfNA foKku] ;q)] fooald ;a=k] 'kL=kkL=k vkfn la mRiUu foHkhf"kdk] jktusrkd
d* ldy eqnk ,dj vykok vkuks cgqr ,gsu dfork vfN] ts dfod ekufld ?kfj;kyh uksj vk gkL;kLin oDrO; ,oa f;k( fefFkykapyd LFkkuh; leL;k
m}sx dsa Li"V djSr vfNA r; ckr vfN ts vktqd foMacuk&p] foKkud vkfn dfod dfork es izeq[krk la jgSr vfNA thfodksiktZud foo'krk es viu
ukbVkstu&p vFkok egkHkkjrd O;wgp la cslh vHks| vfNA vb pd lw=k ekfV&ikfu la vyx jgckd ihM+k dksu rjgsa dfo dsa efFk jgy Nfu] viuk
dsa rksM+c ,rsd dfBu vfN] ts viu leLr l*[k&euksjFk] lsgark] ekU;rk] vapy es viu lkaLfrd Fkkrh] ekU;rk] yksdkpkj vkfnd lax gksbr ;qxhu
fopkjkkjk dsa rk[k ij jkf[k ySr vfN( viu thou] viu vax&izR;ax] ,rs kfj vfre.k dksu rjgsa dfo dsa O;xz vk m}sfyr d,us Nfu] bZ fLFkfr ^Hkk"kkuqjkx*]
ts thckd egRoiw.kZ gfFk;kj vkaf[k] gkFk] iSj] LokLF; vkfn la [ksykSM+ d* ySr ^fdlqu th*] ^iatkcd fph*] ^pUnzHkkxk vk fefFkyk*] ^fe=kd i=k* vkfn dfork
vfN( gkFk&iSj dVk ySr vfN] thck ysy lHk fdNq d* ySr vfN] eksu ekfj es ns[ky tk ldSr vfNA
ySr vfNA vb ifjfLFkfr es dhfkZukjk;.kd dfork ,d Msx vkxwd ckr dgSr lkjka'kr% dhfkZukjk;.kd dkO; lalkj ftthfo"kkd miknku ij fo'o Hkfj
vfNA ^iatkcd fph*d i=k ys[kd dsa ,rsd Hksykd i'pkrgq ,djk miyfCk es ilkjy vHks| tky es ck>y vfHkeU;qd ,dkyki fFkd] ts viu vafre
lkal kfj viu tks'k dsa vur j[kSr vfNA

i{kh vk fitjkd la?k"kZd dfork

^ifjos'k es] ,dVk f'kdatk es dly euqD[k] thckd ysy vk eqfDrd ysy NViVkbr
euqD[k] t[ku viu lkFkZdrk rdSr ,dVk v;uk dsa VdVdh yxk d* fugkjSr
vfN vk vksfg :i dsa LQqV&vLQqV :i es cUgckd ps"Vk djSr vfN] ls fFkd
dforkA* thodkard dfork ij xi djck dky gqudj vb oDrO; dsa ;ku
es jk[kc mfpr gks,rA eSfFkyh es 1964 bZ- la thodkard ys[kud vkjaHk Hksy
vfNA ;|fi fgUnh es 1953 la fy[kSr NykgA fgUnh es ^rhljk lIrd* d
izdk'ku 1959 es Hk* pqdy Ny] t[ku iz;ksxkehZ yksdfud oDrO; lanHkZ gksv,
ykxy NyA 1943 es ftudj ,izksp es laHkkouk rkdy tkbr Ny] ls nw n'kdd
mijkar miyfCk lkfcr gksv* yxykgA eSfFkyh dfork eucksk] pUnk >k vk
Hkqous'oj flag ^Hkqou*d l`tukfeZrk la vkxw cf<+d, ;k=kh] jktdeyd ys[kuhd
laLi'kZ ikfc pqdy NyA ^fp=kk* vk ^Lojxakk*d izdk'ku ijorhZ eSfFkyh dfo
dsa csl lu vonku n* pqdy NyA viu dkO; l`tu izkjaHk djck la iwoZ bZ
leLr miyfCk thodkard lks>ka es NyfuA eqnk laxfg bZgks Ny ts fgudj
leo;Ld vusd dfo yksdfu LFkkfir Hk* pqdy NykgA ,guk fLFkfr es eSfFkyh
dkO; ys[ku es thodkard vorj.k [kwc idBksl mez es Hksyfu vfNA dforkd
vfrfjDr thodkar dFkk] miU;kl vk lekykspuk lsgks fy[kus NfFk] fy[kSr NfFk(
eqnk ^eSfFkyhd uo dfork* ladyu es fgudk ewyr% dfo ekuy xsy vfNA
okLrfodrk bZ vfN ts l`tukRed ys[kud vfrfjDr] thodkar tfguk dksuks
oLrqfu"B oDrO; fn'k c<+Sr NfFk fd gqudj }Sk vFkok vfu.kZ; lkQ&lkQ
>yd* yxSr vfNA iqf"V ysy vxzt oxZ ;k=kh] ekqi] lqeu vk vuqt oxZd
{kerk ij nsy xsy fgudj vkifktud fVIi.kh eSfFkyh uodfork@jekuUn >k
^je.k*@i`-&159 es m)`r vk vgh oxZd miyfCk ij vU;=k nsy xsy vkLFkkoku
oDrO; fyf[kr@ekSf[kd ns[ky tk ldSr vfNA ts&ls---thodkard dfork vk nquw dfork laxzg es thodkar uo dforkd leLr ekunaMd lax mifLFkr NfFkA
dkO; izfrHkk ij xi djc vHkh"V vfNA t[ku dfo bZ cwf> jgy NfFk ts gqudj l`tu us ra gqudk dksuks oSf'k"V~; n*
uo dfork ij ppkZ djSr bZ vko';d ekuy tk,r ts dkO; ;k=kkd bZ jgy Nfu vk us gqudj ifjos'k es O;kIr rdZghu fLFkfr dsa dksuks ;qfDr;qDrrk
eksM+ vcSr&vcSr ek=k dforkd ck Lo:is ufg cnyy] cfYd uo&uo fcac] n* jgy vfN( dfod ysy Lo;a l`tu'khyrs ,dVk Hk;kog fLFkfr Bk<+ djSr
izrhd] uo&uo 'kCnkoyhd vuqlakku Hksy vk xgure Lrj ij dkO;kuqHkwfrd vfNA vk bZ Hk;okgrk ,dVk uo rjgsa eksgHkax mRiUu djSr vfNA bZ eksgHkax
lajpuk es varj vk,yA viu dkO; l`tud ekns jktdey oDrO; nsyfu] LokHkkfod :i la dfo ijaijkxr ekU;rk dsa [kafMr djSr vfNA thodkar vgh
^gej dfork gejk vkarfjd thou vk gejk vfLrRod jgL;] ;FkkFkZ vk;kstuk [kafMr ekU;rkd dfod NfFk ts ifjos'kd fLFkfr nsf[kd, us ra fujis{k Hksy
lc dsa vfHkO;Dr ,oa vafdr djSr vfNA ;fn gej dfork gejk eqDr ufg Bk<+ jfg ldSr NfFk vk us vksfg ;kaf=kdrk es lek ldSr NfFkA ga] n`f"Vcksk
djSr vfN] ra ge vksdjk ,d oDrO; ek=k ekuSr Nh( dfork ufgA* vk rnuq:i Nfu] vkaf[k Nfu rsa oLrq fLFkfr dsa nsf[k ldSr NfFk] phfUg ldSr NfFkA vb
viu dfork es vks lsgks ns[kkbr NykgA thodkar lsgks vgh izf;k es viu ns[kckd vk phUgckd ysy trsd tksf[ke Hk* ldSr vfN] ls mBc* ysy uo
dkO; l`tu es oDrO;d vuqdwy mrfj xsykgA uo dforkd dkO;kuqHkwfrd tkfg dforkd dfo rS;kj HksykgA eqfDrkckskd ,dVk iafDr vfN ^eSua s mls uaxs ns[k
varLlajpuk es ifjorZu vkfc xsy Ny] uo dfork tkfg rjgsa euq";d eksu fy;k@bldk eq>s n.M feysxk*A ns[kckd vk fpUgckd vb leLr ifj.kfr la
vk ekuoh; f;k vfHkf;kd ekufld i`"BHkwfe es uo&uo fcac izrhdd lax fuf'par Hksy uo dfod vksr, ^Lo* ge 'kSyh es vfkdka'k xi gksv, ykxyA
gqyd* ykxy] thodkard dfork vksfg leLr fn'kk la mn~cksfkr gksbr jgyA thodkard ^dfork ,d oLrqd vLohdkj fFkd vk nksljd LohdkjA eqnk] rkgw
thodkard ys[kukjaHkd dky izk;% uo rjgsa ,dVk vU; eksgHkaxd dky fFkdA la iS?k vksdj miyfCk NSd ts vks vkReLohfr dUQs'ku fFkdA ---ge lkfgR;
fgUnhd ^lkBkskjh dfork*d izkjafHkd pj.k lsgks b,g fFkdA lkfBd ckn fy[ky dsa thou la izfrc) cq>Sr NhA vkkqfud thoud folaxfr] vlqfokk] ihM+k vk
tk, oyk dforkd ekns dsnkj ukFk flagd er Nfu] ^---lkfBd ckn fy[ky ;kaf=kdrk dsa vfHkO;fDr nsc ,fg dforkd y{; vfNA rsa ,fg dfork es {k.k&{k.k
tk, oyk dfork okLrfod vFkZ es ledkyhu midj.k lHkd }kjk ledkyhu es Hkksxy tkbr thoud izfr dVqrk vk vkks'k] ?k`.kk vk HkRlZuk] mnklhurk
dfod fn'k la ledkyhu ikBdd izfr lacksfkr dfork fFkd] vks viuk le;d vk fuosZn vfHkO;Dr Hk* jgy vfN---A*
dksuks izkS<+ ,oa laiw.kZ O;oLFkk Hkus ufg n* icSr gks] eqnk vksdjk izfr ,dVk thodkard dfork thoud izfr vgh dVqrkd ijh{k.k&jiV fFkdA dfo
lks> vk lqPpk ekuoh; izfrf;kd vfoO;fDr vo'; djSr vfNA b,g vksdj viu ekSfyd n`f"Vckskd dkj.ksa O;oLFkk dsa uaxVs ns[kyfu] fpUgyfu vk vb
miyfCk fFkd vk ,dVk ,gsu le; es] t[ku lR; ckr dgc tksf[ked dkt phfUg ysckd ifj.kfr la cpckd iz;kl ufg dsyfuA ,d oLrqd vLohfr
gks] ,rck de ufg fFkd---A* vk nksljd Lohfr vFkkZr~ vkReLohfr fgudj dfork es Li"V :isa vcSr vfNA
vKs;d izeq[k dkO; ladyu ^vkaxu ds ikj }kj* dsa lkfgR; vdkneh tsuk fd Lo;a thodkar dgSr NfFk] ^dfork es uorkd fo'ks"k.k vksdj n`f"Vcksk
iqjLdkj la 1964 bZ- es lEekfur d,y xsyA caxyk es vgh o"kZ lqHkk"k fFkdSdA izR;sd rdZlaxr oLrq dsa] [kkgs vks drcks uohu gks] [kkgs vks ifgyqdk
eq[kksik;k;d dkO; laxzg ^;rks nqjsb tkb* caxyk es lsgks iqjLr HksyA tkfg dsguks egRoiw.kZ c)ewy kkj.kkd Hkatu djSr gks] viu ;qfDr;qDrrkd cyd
Hkkocksk dsa n'kkfkd o"kZ la yxkrkj la?k"kZ dj* iM+ySd rkfg Hkko&ckskd dfork dkj.ksa xzg.k djc uohurk fFkdA* vks viu l`tu es lsgks vb uohurkd i{kkj
ladyu dsa jktdh; lEeku la iqjLr d,y xsy bZ fuf'pr :isa ,dVk uo jgSr NfFkA LokuqHkwfr fgudj dfork es Li"V :i la vcSr vfNA
Lohfrd izfr vk'ofLr NyA 1962 bZ- d jk"Vh; ladV lkfgR; vk jktuhfr nquw izfrcakd foo'krk vk mUeqDrrkd ykylk thodkard dfork es ek=k
es ,dfg lax cgqr jkl vkMacj] eksgd vkn'kZ vk Qksafdy dkO;kfHkO;fDrd fo"k;&oLrq,d Lrj ij ufg] fgudj izrhd ;kstuk es lsgks cgqyrk ls fu[kjSr
izfr fo'kky vukLFkk mRiUu dsydA ---bZ leLr ijh{k.k thodkard utfjd lks>ka jgSr vfNA thodkard laiw.kZ l`tu'khyrk izk;% vgh miknku la ;qDr jgSr vfNA
NyfuA vFkkZr~ eSfFkyh dkO; l`tu es mrjck dky thodkar dsa ,rsd gfFk;kj unh] i{kh] ukjh] xkN&o`{k] es?k vk cj[kk cqUuhd izfr vfrfjDr vkxzg fgudj
vFkok ,rsd ;qxcksk izkIr NyfuA thodkard dfork vgh fodjky ifjfLFkfr vb n`f"V dsa iq"V djSr vfNA ^L=khx.k fFkdhg fpM+S@vuar vkdk'k es mM+ckd
la izkjaHk HksyA ^ukpw gs i`Foh* 1971 vk ^kkj ufg gksbN eqDr* 1991 viu ysy gqud ikaf[k tueSr ra vfN@eqnk nksljs Nu vks VwfV tkbN@vk vks vkdk'kpkjh
fpM+S kekek d*@ekfV ij [kfl iM+SN@fitM+kd Qwty QkVd@fpM+S dsa cgkjs Vk NfFk] lwpuk ek=k n* d, fuf'par Hk* tk, pkgSr NfFk---
ufg djSr NSd@vksdjk fitM+k es ?kqjk d* cUuks d* nSNA* izkphu ijaijkd oSf'k"V~; vk :f<+d chp ,dVk lhek js[kk f?kpckd ysy
ijra=krk vk fiatjc)rkd izfr bZ lkE; rkd* es tr, thodkard n`f"V fQjhlku dfo thodkard ijaijk&eksg vk ijaijk&Hkatdrk fofp=k lu }Sk es NViVk
chle 'krkCnhd vafre pj.k es thou&;kiu djSr ukxfjd vk ,dSle 'krkCnh jgy NfuA ikSjkf.kd izlax dsa ledkyhu ifjos'k es fpUgck es dfo csl lQy
es xjnfu;ka n* d, Bsy* okyh O;oLFkkd foMacuk rdyd vfN vksrfg vb Hksy NfFkA larku] firj] d.kZ] Hkr`Zgfj] L=kh] unh] kkj] cj[kk] i{kh] fpM+S] btksr]
O;oLFkk es viu vkksxfr ysy foo'k ukjhd lw{erj dkj.k lsgks eqnk 'kSf{kd izdk'k] lw;Z] vkdk'k] le;] es?k] gfj.k] tehu] kjrh] vkfx] kkjk] nhi Vseh]
rFkk vkfFkZd ijra=krkd dkj.ksa ukjhd VwVy ikaf[k ij xsy thodkard n`f"V dksuks vUgkj] Fkky] cxqyk] fx)] kkeu] pkaxqj] fcykfM+] cgsfy;k] yky&ih;j bPNk-
uo ckV ufg rdSr Nfu vk dfo ,rck dfg fuf'par Hk* tk, pkgSr NfFk --vkfnd izrhdkRed iz;ksx thodkard dfork es uo&uo vk ekSfyd vFkZ;kstuk
ts ^cgqr jkl fpM+S vkdk'k ysy ufg tueSr vfN@cgqr jkl fpM+S ekfV ij xqM+dck vk laizs"k.kh;rkd lax Hksy vfNA bZ iz;ksx fgudj dfork dsa ek=k laf{kIr vk
ysy tUe ySr vfN@vk] cgqrks jkl fpM+S [kqk vk Mksjh dsa@lkFkZd djck ysy vkd"kZds Vk ufg vfirq fo"k; dsa ewkZ] xzk vk okafNr :isa izHkkoksRiknd ,oa
ysn >kM+rS vfN*A laizs"k.kh; lsgks cukSydfu vfNA viu v|kof/kd l`tu ;k=kk es thodkar ns'kd
L=khx.k vk fpM+S dsa vb rjgsa ,Dds iyM+k ij rkSySr dky thodkard n`f"Vd vusd muV&Qsjd izR;{kn'khZ jgykg vfNA thodkard dforkd vkks'k vgh
lw{erk r[ku vkvksj csl foosd'khy cq>kbr vfN t[ku vks,g i{kh thookph muV&Qsjd izfrQy fFkdA
ufg Hk* d, tkfrokph gksbr vfNA fx) vk cktd :i es vk,y i{kh thodkard okLrfod fLFkfr bZ vo'; vfN ts fdrkch lekykspuk djSr vkkqfud
laiw.kZ lekt n`f"V] thou n`f"V vk oLrqcksk dsa mtkxj djSr vfNA ^---ddjks lekykspd ledkyhu dfod dfork es frfyLeh rkxr rkd* yxSr NfFk vk
xyrh la@btksr lglk Qsy Hk* tkbN@vk vkfne vakdkj@vkbvks fpM+S lHk dsa dgSr NfFk ts QYyka dfod dfork es fonzksgd Loj eq[kj ufg vfNA eqnk lu~
xzlus vfN@dksuks cgsfy;k] dksuks ckt i{kh@dksuks kkeu lkai@dksuks fcykfM+ dsa muSl l; lrgkfj bZlohd jktuhfrd mFky&iqFky la t[ku laiw.kZ ns'kd leLr
nsf[k@fpM+S lHk vu?kksy dj* yxSN---*A jktuhfrd ny ,dtqV Hk* d, dkaxzslh vR;kpkjd fojksk d,yd vk vb fojkskd
ledkyhu lkekftd O;oLFkk] iz'kklfud O;oLFkk] O;fDr&ifjokj&lekt&jkT;& usr`Ro yksduk;d t;izdk'k ukjk;.kd gkFk es Ny( vb fojkskd ldkjkRed
ns'k kfjd iwjkiwjh eSdsfuTe es fpM+S] ukjh] ckt] kkeu] fcykfM+ vk cgsfy;kd izfrQy ikfc ysykd ckn ns'k es ,d csj Qsj la uohu 'kq#vkrd lax vjktdrk
leLr izrhdkRedrk ,d fn'k okZeku jktuhfrd ifjfLFkfrd ohHkRlrk] fofr izkjaHk HksyA vk bZ ckr fu%ladksp Lohdkfj ysckd pkgh ts ,d csj Qsj la Hkkjrh;
vkfn ij ?k`.kkLin n`f"V nSr vfN ra nkslj fn'k dfod O;aX;d rh{.krkd lhek uo;qodd eksgHkax Hksy vk ;qok'kfDr vb rjgd vkanksyu la dkUg fNi,
vkadSr vfNA vkb t[ku ns'k es fyax] tkfr] oxZ vkfn la fufyZIr Hk* d, ykxy bZ dksuks vpjtd ckr ufg fFkdA tr, i{khd tfM+ es vb rjgsa ckt]
vkxw c<+ckd vfojy fuea=k.k vcSr vfN] vksr, ,[kugqa fefFkykapyd ukjhd fx) vk cxqyk O;kIr jgr vksr, thodkard dfork ta ;FkkfLFkfr ij duSr
fLFkfr fitjkd lqXxk la fHkUu ufg Hk* jgy vfNA vb lqXxkiu la ukjh dsa jg, vk dg, ts ^'krkCnh lHkd ikfu cfg xsy@ckafp xsy vfN Fkky@mTtj&mTtj
eqDr gks,ck es 'kSf{kd vk vkfFkZd mUeqDrk ta dusd enfr djrSd ra lkekftd ikaf[koyk@cxqyk lHk@Fkky es@MsxkMsxh lljSN@vk@viu&viu yksy@HkjSN---* ra
ekU;rk vk ik[kaMiw.kZ e;kZnk vksdjk vksfg dktd vuqefr ufg nsrA gejk lektd dksu vk'p;Z \
lkekU; turkd 'kks"k.k dksuks 'kks"kd vgh Vk ysy d* icSr vfN] ts gejfg euq"; vk cgsfy;k] btksr vk vUgkj] cj[kk vk Fkky] ekN vk cxqyk]
dksuks Hkkb cakq gej 'kks"k.k djck es vksdj enfr djSr NSdA vksfg cgsfy;k lqXxk vk fitjkd vgh la?k"kZ la thodkard dfork tueSr vfN] O;oLFkkd vgh
dsa ta ckt ts Lo;a i{kh fFkd vk viufg tkfr la nksljd ysy nzksg djSr dEI;wVjkbTM cktuhfr ij xjtSr vfN vk dgSr vfN ts btksrd vksfjvkvksu
vfN dksuks vku i{kh idfM+ d, ufg vkfu nSd ra vks dh ysr \---thodkard ysy yM+kb yM+c cM+ t:jh NSdA
dkO; n`f"V lkekftd vk jktuhfrd ohHkRlrk dsa vb n`f"V,a ns[kyfu vfNA 1949 es ;k=khd dfork laxzg ^fp=kk* izdkf'kr HksyA 1958 es jktdey
eqnk] fgudj dfork lkekftd foMacukd ;FkkfLFkfrd jksnu ek=k fFkd] pkSkjhd ^LojxUkk* NiyA eSfFkyh dforkd ,fg nl c[kZd ;k=kk dsa dfo
viu l`tu'khyrk es bZ O;oLFkk ifjokZu gsrq dksuks tksf[ke ufg mBc* pkgSr jktdey euqD[kd 'kkjhfjd lkekftd vijkk vk ihM+kd vuqHkwfr la fudfy
d, vksdj vkReneud {ks=k es izos'k d;yfuA ,fg izos'kd izfrfufk dfo es voewY;u vuqHko dj, yxykgA vks lkekU; turkd chp vkfc vksdj nq%[k&nnZ
thodkar dsa izeq[krk nsy xsyA fdlqu] ;k=kh vk jktdey dforkd ts uo vkanksyu la tqfV xsykgA ,[ku lekt es prqfnZd vlekurk] csdkjh] 'kks"k.k] vukpkj]
pyvksyfu( ls thodkard dkO;;k=kkd e es vkvksjks lqiq"V HksyA ?kwl] pksjh] vigj.k] bZ";kZ] }s"k] "kM~;a=k] ywfV] cykRdkj] vekuoh;rk vkfn iljy
tkfg le; es ns'kd ukxfjdd leLr vfHkyk"kk oxZ fo'ks"kd eqh es QjQjk vfNA
jgy Ny] yksd vuqHko djc izkjaHk d,yd ts gejk yksdfud bZ Lora=krk] oxZ ,fg ifjfLFkfr es uopsruk] tkxzr g,ckd uo ckVd iz;kstu Hk* vk,y
fo'ks"kd fitjkd lqXxk fFkd( eSfFkyh lkfgR;d dfoyksdfud iqjku ih<+h dsa ,fg NyA l`tukehZd tkxj.k] lkekftd tkxj.kd izkjaHk ekuy tkbr vfNA lkekU;
ij utfj nsc vko';d ufg cq>kbr NyfuA ;k=kh vk jktdey] ,djk uo turk] lkekftd vuqdj.k la cslh izHkkfor gksbr vfNA rsa thodkar Lo;a ltx
fn'kk nsyfu] thodkar dsa ,fg la cy HksVyfuA gSc Js;Ldj cq>yfu vfN( nkslj dsa yM+ckd ysy ihB Bksdck la Js;Ldj] ;q)d
1974 la 1990 kfjd fgudj izfrfufk dfork ^kkj ufg gksbN eqDr* rS;kjh es Lo;a tqfV tk,c cq>yfuA ;Fks"V kS;Zd lax viu ;q)d rS;kjh es
iqLrd es ladfyr HksyA fN;klfB dforkd ,fg laxzg es vfkdka'k dfork uoe ;kstukc) <ax la layXuA fgudj dkO; lkkuk vR;ar vk'oLr Hk* d* vkdka{kkd
n'kdd fFkdA tr, dfod v|ru vkReijh{k.k] vkRexkSjo] fLFkfrd Hk;kogrk] iwfrZ gsrq vxzlj vfN] dksuks vxqrkgfV ufg] dksuks mf}Xurk ufgA bZ kS;Z fgudj
euq";d dkZO;&fu"Bk] ukxfjd lkeF;Z vkfn viu lqPpk Lo:i es Li"V Hksy xaHkhj psruk vk ifjiDorkd |ksrd fFkdA chp es FkksM+sd dfork es fgudk
vfNA thodkar ,d fn'k] viu dkO;&l`tu es ;k=kh tdka lkekU; tu&thoud es LFkxu vkfc xsy Nyfu] ts cknd jpuk es vk cknd laxzg es cnyyA
lgt 'kCnkoyhd vkJ; ysyfu vk vksgh ifjos'kd ifjn`'; dsa viu dF;d viu vfkdka'k dfork es dfo lef"V dsa viufg es lekfgr d,us cq>kbr
dks"kkxkj cq>yfu] ra nkslj fn'k jktdey tdka fn'kkgkjk turkd vareZu es NfFkA ,drk ekuoh; mRFkkud ysy vfr vko';d vfN] ls lans'k tgka&rgka
iSfl d, vksdj nq%[k&nnZ la voxr Hk* d, uwru vfHkO;atuk 'kSyh] uo&uo fgudj dfork es HksVSr jgSr vfNA tulewgd ijke dsa mRd"kZ nSr dfo viu
iz;ksx] dkSrqdiw.kZ fcEc&izrhd ;kstukd ek;es viu dfork dsa mRd"kZ nsyfuA tkfg vkLFkk ij fVdy NfFk] ls lgtfga] fgudj dfork es ns[ky tk ldSr
l`tu dsa ekU;rkd nsgfj la vyxs j[kyfuA izcy vkRefo'okld lax bZ cq>Sr vfNA ,drk ij dfod cy cslh dky iM+Sr jgSr vfN] ts fgudj lewg la
jgykg] ts ekU;rk Hkus bfrgkldkj nsFkq] eqnk jpuk&deZ gksbr vfN] turkd lfV d, jgckd] vksdj nq%[k&nnZd voxfr ysckd lax&lax y{;&izkfIrd ekxZ
ysyA rsa dfo thodkard dfork 'kk'or Hk* ikvksy] ;qx&;FkkFkZd xhr Hk* ikvksy] ij vxzlj g,ckd vkSRlqD; ns[kcSN] ^,fg jeuk ij vkm@dfu;ks Lokn fy;kSd
lkekU;&tu&thoud nq%[k&nnZd ehr Hk* ikvksyA 'kks"k.k] Jed voewY;u] :f<+] ts@gtkj vk yk[k Hksyk ij@dksuk Hk* tkbN [k<+d VqdM+h bLikrd rkj---*
vjktdrk vkfnd fojksk vk etnwj oxZd izfr lgkuqHkwfr fgudj dforkd ekSfyd O;oLFkkd vekuqf"kdrk lekt dsa xqeljkbu cuk pqdy vfN ls ckr
fo"k; fFkdfuA vkc Li"V :i es lks>ka vfNA eqh Hkfj yksdd pkaxqj rrck etxwr vk pks[kxj
vkkqfud eSfFkyh dfork es ;qx&;FkkFkZd lqPpk Lo:i rkd* ysy thodkard Hk* xsy vfN] ts fo'kky tulewg vksdjk vkxw ureLrd Hk* tkbNA vksfg oxZd
dforkd vuq'khyu vko';d ekuy tk,r ls ckr fufoZjksk lR; vfNA uhprk vk vksdj "kM~;a=kd vkxw fo'kky tu'kadqyd lkgl iNfM+ tkbr vfN]
eulk&okpk&deZ.kk dfo thodkar viu l`tukfeZrkd izfr bZekunkjh j[kus NfFkA ^dsguks dksByh cuk vcSr Nh@,dVk lkai vksfg es iSlckd@cuk ySr vfN x*j*A
lS)kafrd vk O;kogkfjd nquw Lrj ij dfo es Li"V lkeatL; NfuA vnkS la viu&viu izo`fk es jr jktiq#"k vk turkd chp Li"V foMacuk ij
vktqd dfork vk izkjafHkd dfork es oLrqr% ,dVk lkaLdkfjd varj cq>kbN dfod O;aX; eq[kj Hk* mBy vfN] ^'kgj es cSly HkkX;fokkrk lHkd@g*j ljax
ts dfork jktnjckjd euksjatu es fnu&jkfr viu ?kke&ilsuk cgcSr Nfy] ls es cgSr vfN@vksr* ?khmd ?kSy vksa?kjkbr vfN@vk 'ks"k turk pqVdh Hkfj uksuks
vkb tu&lkekU;d lq[k&nq%[kd lax jfe xsy vfNA vkfHktkR; oxZd foykld ysy@csyYyk cuy jgSr vfN---*
iyax la mrfj d, Jfed oxZd lax [ksrd vkfj&kwj ij ckSvk, ykxy vfNA ,dj vfrfjDr ^,dlfj Bkf<+ dne rj js*] ^lw;Z xfy jgy vfN*] ^djeh
,fg ifjokZud ewy dkj.k fFkd] dfo leqnk; es lkaLfrd&kafr] bZekunkj >hy*] ^oLrq* dFkk laxzg] ^nw dqgsld ckV*] ^ifuir*] ^ufg drgq ufg*]
laosnu'khyrkA egy vk [kksiM+hd vlekurk jpukdkjd dkjf;=kh izfrHkk dsa ^vfxucku*] ^ih;j xqykc Ny* miU;kl] ^[kkaM+ks*] ^rdSr vfN fpM+S* dfork
txvksydA Qyr% l`tukehZ yksdfu] vkfHktkR; oxZd chp Je vk dykd laxzg d jpukdkj thodkard laiw.kZ dforkd vuq'khyu la b,g Li"V gksbr vfN]
ts bZ vku dfo tdka ukjkckth] yydkjk vkfn es fo'okl ufg jkf[k] fire: Hk*
d, lewgd lax py* pkgSr NfFkA vuko';d yydkjk n* d, viu dfork
es dYiuk dsa izJ; ufg nSr NfFkA fo'kq) eSfFkyh 'kCn dsa iquthZfor djckd izo`fk
es bZ lhrkjke >k vk ;k=kh lu viu fojkV vk mnkgj.kh; O;fDrRo Bk<+ d,yfu
vfNA fyD[kkM+iu es fgudk jktdeyd VDdj es Bk<+ d,y tk,rA vFkkZr~
,dfg Bke ,gsu leUo; Li"V gksbr vfN] tsuk l`tu'khyrk fgudk 'kksf.kr es
cgSr gksA

thoud Mk;fj, vlyh dFkk fFkd

lqHkk"kpUnz ;knod dFkk ys[ku chle 'krkCnhd lkre n'kdd mkjk)Z la 'kq#g
gksbr vfNA n'kd chrSr&chrSr vkkqfud eSfFkyh dFkkkkjkd LFkkfir dFkkdkjd
:i es fgudk ekfu&ekstj nsy tk, yxyfuA yfyr] jktdey] ek;kuUn]
lksenso] cyjke] khjsUnz] jkensod ih<+h vk xqt
a u] izHkkl] js.kq] thodkUr] jkteksgud
ih<+h eSfFkyh dFkkd {ks=k es rk viu peRdkj ns[kk pqdy NyA oLrqxr vk
f'kYixr fodkl eSfFkyh dFkk es iw.kZr;k Hkkflr gkse, ykxy NyA Lokra=;kskj
Hkkjrd turkd thou&ewY; lacakh eksgHkax] jktuhfrKd jktuhfrd eksgHkax lsgks
Hk* pqdy NyA lhek&la?k"kZ] phu vk ikfdLrkud kks[kkkM+h la tu vk tu&izfrfufk
pkSafd pqdy NyA usg: vk ykyckgknqj 'kkL=kh dsa dkjxj >Vdk ykfx pqdy
NySdA vgh rjgd fodjky le; es lqHkk"k dye k;yfu] t[ku fgudk lks>ka
Hk;kog ifjfLFkfr Bk<+ NyA eqnk vgw le; es fefFkykd leL;k ?kjsyq, vk
lkekftds NySdA vf'k{kk] vHkko] 'kks"k.k ijkdk"Bk ij vkfc xsy NyA eku&e;kZnk]
vpkj&fopkj] ijaijk&izxfr] LFkkfir ekU;rk vk vftZr fopkjkkjkd la?k"kZ es
cqf)thoh fQjhlku NyA lqHkk"kpUnz ;knod c[kjk es b,g nk#.k fLFkfr iM+yfu]
vgh rhr&ehBd lax viu lkfgfR;d thou lqHkk"k izkjaHk d,yfuA
vly es lHk jpukdkj dsa dPpk eky lekts la mB,ckd jgSr NSd vk
rsa bZekunkj jpukdkj dsa lektd tkfg tuo`kd ekSfyd vuqHko izkIr gksbr NSd]
rgh es vks viu thou&n'kZu fodflr djSr vfN vk rgh dksfVd turkd
thou ;kiud ek;es viuk dsa vfHkO;Dr djSr vfNA bZ ,dVk lq[kn vk
rks"kizn fLFkfr fFkd ts lektd ts tuo`k vnkS la lkfgR; vk vkuks vku Bke
vpfpZr] misf{kr] 'kksf"kr] nfyr vk ijkftr jgy vfN] e/;dkyhu lkfgR; es
vFkok vkkqfudks dkyd lkfgR; es dksuks rjgsa drgq vkfc;ks xsy] ra nkl]
vuqpj] Hk`R;] lsod vkfnd :i es( rkfg tuo`k dsa lqHkk"k viuk dFkk&lalkj es lw{erk la ns[ky tk, ra ckr lks>ka vkvksr] ts tkfg tuind ts Hkkx ek;kuUnd
Lo:i nsyfu] izfr"Bk nsyfuA misf{kr] viekfur] frjLr vk dfFkr :i la cqrsa NwfV xsy Ny] lqHkk"k rdjfg idM+fu vk vks,g laoxZ ,r, viu Lo:i es
ifrr laoxZ dsa izfr"Bk HksVc ra yfyrsd ih<+h la izkajHk Hk* xsy Ny] eqnk rdj vk,yA dgy tk ldSr vfN] ts ek;kuUn vk lqHkk"k nquwd dFkk&lalkj
dksfV vyx NyA yfyrd vksr, vkpj.k la cnuke oxZ dsa] izfr"Bk cslh lektd MLVchu la fudyy vfN] xksukSj ij la mBkvksy xsy vfNA vFkkZr~
HksVySd] ek;kuUnd vksr, laink la vk osru la ghu oxZ dsa izfr"Bk HksVySd] thou&;kiud ts va'k ckgju&lksgju tdka Qsfd nsy tkbr jgy] ek;kuUn vk
jktdey lo.kZ lewgd foktU;] vkpj.ktU; la?k"kZ dsa m?kkj djSr jgykgA lqHkk"k rdjfg >kfM+&iksfN d, viu dkS'ky la vewY; pht lkfcr d* ns[kkSyfuA
xqatu] izHkkl] kwedsrq] js.kqd vksr, bZ lHk fp=k fefJr :i es mifLFkr gksbr vFkkZr~] yfyr&jktdey&ek;kuUn }kjk dFkk&lalkjd ckUg&Nsd] fcuk lqHkk"kd
jgy] jkteksgu 'kgjh lH;rk es jaxy vk tfM+ la m[kM+y ?kj&ifjokjd U;ksa dsa dFkk&lalkjd iwj uba gksbr vfNA
O;k[;kf;r djSr jgykg] t[ku fd lqHkk"k 'kq) d* d, tkfr vk thou&;kiud lqHkk"kd lkE; ek;kuUnd lax vgw vFkZ es rkdy tk ldSr vfN] ts
i)fr es dfFkr :i la ghu leqnk;d tuo`k dsa viu y{; cukSyfuA ek;kuUns tdka lqHkk"kksd dFkk es lkkkj.khr Hk* d, rkdc] ra dksuks ?kVuk uba
lqHkk"kd vR;ar izfl) dFkk fFkd ^?kjnsf[k;k*A drgq izfrfufk dFkkd HksVr] lks>s&lks> thoud Mk;jh HksVr] vkfd dgw ra lks>s thou HksVrA ,d iy]
p;u djckd csxjrk ladyd] laiknd] vuqoknd] vkykspd dsa tfguk iM+Sd] nw iy] ikap iyd vkfd ikap ?kaVkd thou i)frd f;k&dyki vk dFkk&ik=kd
fd ^?kjnsf[k;k*d euVhdk lkfV fnv,A ,fg dFkkd csl ppkZ eSfFkyh es Hksy fparu&euu---cLl] vb la cslh fdNq uba] [kkyh vksrck dkyd desUVhd lax
vk lqHkk"k ,fg ysy [;kr HksykgA vksuk ^dkBd cuy yksd*] ^Qaljh*] ^,d dFkkdkjd VhVesaV egRoiw.kZ gksbr vfNA lektd lc laoxZd vksr, ^?kjnsf[k;k*
fnud ?kj*] ^Mj*] ^>hy*] ^dq'rh*] ^ckr*] ^dkjckj*] ^flxjsV* vkfn dSdVk vcSr vfN] fceyksd ?kjnsf[k;k vk,yA eqnk ekuo thoud ,rsd egRoiw.kZ]
fgudj egRoiw.kZ dFkk lc vfNA tdj ppkZ eSfFkyh lkfgR;d HksfM+;kklku mYykliw.kZ vk fu.kkZ;d ?kVuk dksuk misu] j?kquh vk ddkd ysy vk;y ikfu]
izo`fkd dkj.ksa uba Hk* ldyA fr vk frdkj nquwd ysy bZ viekutud xsy ikfu lu gksbr vfN] pfdr gksv, iM+rS vfNA ?kjnsf[k;k lHkd Lokxr&lRdkj]
fLFkfr fFkdA eku&lEeku lc phtd O;oLFkk Hksy( foo'krk] vHkko] rdjk iwj djckd m|ksx]
ta vkadM+kckth djh ra lqHkk"k FkksM+s lqLr dFkkdkj lsgks cq>,rkgA la[;k lkekftdrk] dU;kd fujh{k.k&ijh{k.k] ?kjnsf[k;kd fonkb---lcVk ?kVuk&mi?kVuk
fglkcsa dFkk cslh uba NfuA lu~ 1983 rs fgudj dFkkd ,dVk ladyu gksbr jgy] eqnk dFkkdkjd VhVesaV ns[kw] ts ,dne la cq>k,r] ts drgq fdNq
^?kjnsf[k;k* eSfFkyh vdkneh la izdkf'kr HksyA rdj ckn fgudj ys[ku vkvksj uba Hksy vfN] dksuks vQjk&rQjh uba vfNA eqnk ,fguk es cgqr fdNq Hk* pqdy
lqLr Hk* xsyA ;|fi ^ckr* vk ^dkjckj* lud fdNq Js"B dFkk rdj ckns jgSr vfNA ^lkBkskjh eSfFkyh dFkkdkj* ij ppkZd e es yfyrs'k feJ lqHkk"k
fy[kyfu] eqnk ^unh* vkfd ^viu&viu nq[k* lu fdNq vkSlr la uhpkad dFkk ij fopkj djSr fgudj dFkk dsa leLr oSf'k"V~;d vNSr la?k"kZghu Lo:id dkj.ksa
lsgks fy[kyfuA ts&ls... ^?kjnsf[k;k* ladyuks es ,dk/k dFkk lc ,gsu vfN] viw.kZ vk vlarqfyr dgyfu vfNA vksuk lqHkk"kd ^?kjnsf[k;k* dFkk dsa gegwa]
tdjk i<+ck ysy izkjaHkd nw&rhu vorj.k kfj Jed vko';drk iM+Sr vfNA loksZke uba ekuSr Nh] eqnk ^dkBd cuy yksd* vk gky es izdkf'kr dFkk ^ckr*
gejk cq>us] ,dj ewy dkj.k gksbr vfN fcuk dksuks iz;kstud ik=k&ifjp; loksZke Hk*vks d, la?k"kZd vks Lo:i izLrqr uba djSr vfN] ts yfyrs'k rkfd
uqdkSus jgc] rkfg ij la n'kZud c?kkj djc vk dF; la uegj dF;d ihfBdk jgy NfFkA fdar]q la?k"kZd dksfV vk viu leL;kd fujkdj.k gsrq lakku nquw dsa
rS;kj djcA lks>ka&lks>h jkf[k d* ns[kyk ij fdNq ckr QjhN gksbr vfNA ^?kjnsf[k;k* dsa
lqHkk"kd dFkkd Hkk"kk ,dne fFkj xfr la pySr vfN] dksuks rsth uba] dksuks vfjvkfr d, v;ykd ckn ddkd ifM+ jgc vk vkaf[k ykfx tk,c rFkk fpafrr
gyrych uba] ,dne khj vk 'kkar xfr la tkbr] eqnk viu yx&ikl] misud chM+h ihc lsgks NksV&eksV la?k"kZd Lo:i uba Bk<+ djSr vfNA ts ifjfLFkfr
ns'k&nqfu;kad rhr&ehB dsa phUgSr tkboyk Hkk"kk f'kYid bZ dFkk lc BsaB Ny] rkfg es dFkk&ik=k lc d*, dh ldSr Nykg \ ddk dsa cSly uba xsyS] vks
fefFkykd misf{kr] frjLr turkd frjLr gjDdfrd Mk;jh fFkdA ifM+ jgy] vk vkaf[k ykfx xsyS bZ ?ku?kksj fparkd ladrs fFkd] fpark es vkaf[k
yfyr] jktdey vk ek;kuUn viu dFkk&lajpuk }kjk tkfg rjgsa eSfFkyh ykfx tk,c] fefFkyk es uo rjgd tkZ&lap;d ladsr ekuy tkbr jgy vfNA
dFkkd uo U;ksa j[kyfu] rkfg es ek;kuUn ,dVk [kkl laoxZ dsa mBkSus NykgA ^dkBd cuy yksd* vk ^ckr*] lqHkk"kd ,[ku kfjd loZJs"B dFkk es
xuy tk ldSN] vk eSfFkyh dFkkkkjk es bZ nquw dFkk viuk ysy egRiw.kZ LFkku tjkSyfu lkekU; :i la fparuiw.kZ ?kVuk ,rcs vfN] eqnk] tsuk fd ifgugqa dgy
vkjf{kr djSr vfNA ^cnfj;k* dsa dkBd cuy yksd dgy xsy vfN] tdjk cM+ tk pqdy vfN] lqHkk"k] viu dFkkuk;dd thoud vR;ar NksV lu va'kd laxsa
ekfj ekjy tkbr vfN] eqnk vks viu vknfr la ckt uba vcSr vfNA vknfr;ks VhVesaV es rrsd dykckth ns[kcSr NfFk] ts vksr, lkekU; turkd nSoh&nkuoh]
vksdj dh fFkd] ra* ts vUu vks [kk; pkgSr vfN] lSg Vk vks [kk;r ! rkfg vUu ekuoh;&ik'kfod---lHk izo`fk ns[kkj Hk* tkbr vfNA vgh e es euq";d
dsa uqdk d* j[kckd dksuks Vk lkku] dksuks Vk otZuk cnfj;k ysy x: uba vfNA vgadkj] Lohdkj] vk'kk] fujk'kk] izrh{kk] udkj] Je] fpark] vHkko] vkiwfrZ]
ckSdwd ?kj es cpy&[kqpy rjdkjh yksfg, es [kk; ykxy] [kk d, cgjk xsy] vksfjvkvksu] O;oLFkk] lacak&ljksdkj] vknfr] laLfr] vkpkj&fopkj---lcVk
ckSdwd ?kjokyh nsf[k xsySd] eqnk cnfj;k fu}}] vksdjk eq[keaMy ij dksuks pht O;k[;kf;r Hk* tkbr vfNA ^izy;*] ^unh*] ^viu&viu nq[k* lu fdNq
vijkk cksk ubaA ts cnfj;k ,rsd NksV mez es thoud ,rsd iS?k n'kZu dsa idfM+ dFkk ,gsu vfN] ts lqHkk"kd fodkleku vk mapkb p<+Sr xzkQ dsa lery vFkok
ysyd vfN] ts ^tkfg oLrqd Hkksx gejk djckd vfN] ls djc]* vFkok nkslj v/kksry djSr vfNA
n`f"V,a ns[kw ra ,fg lR; la ifjp; tkfg cnfj;k dsa Hk* xsySd vfN] ts ^isV vk lqHkk"kd dFkkd dk;k lkekU;r% NksV gksbr vfN] Hkk"kk fFkj osxd gksbr
thg vk eksud ekaxd iwfrZ djck ysy dksuks eku&lEeku] xkfj&ekfjd fpark uba vfN] ik=k lc cgqr e)e lkalsa thcSr vfN] ifgus ra cslh dky xke&?kj ij
djckd fFkd]* rkfg cnfj;k dsa dkBd cuy dgy tkbr vfN] eqnk lkSals Vksyd dsafnzr jgSr Ny] vkc 'kgjks fn'k] gkV ctkj fn'k vxzlj Hksy vfN] gks&gYyk vk
yksd dsa vb lR; la ifjp; uba gksbr NSdA vly es dkBd yksd ra vb dFkk naxk Qlkn es fgudj ik=k fo'okl uba j[kSr vfN] thoud lgtrk es iM+y xsaB
es FkksM+&cgqr lc vfNA ^dkBd cuy* incak la O;atuk vcSr vfN] ts vks lc dsa [kksyckd iz;kl es ykxy jgSr vfN] uba [kqtyk ij vksrfg #fd tkbr
O;fDr dkB lu laosnu&'kwU;] psru 'kwU;] fparu'kwU;] cksk'kwU;---lc vfNA vk vfNA fonzksgd Loj ta fgudj dFkk es v,yfu vfN]ra rdjks dksfV ,uk ts
ls lks] t[ku ?kj [klckd eksvkotk dsa jkeh isViwfrZ es [kpZ djck ysy foo'k cnfj;k nksljd gkaM+h la rjdkjh [kk vk,yA 'kksj&'kjkck] [kwu&[kjkckd dksuks
vfN] r[ku dksu eku] dksu izfr"Bk] dksu cksk] dksu fparu--- \ ^dkBd cuy iz;kstu ubaA ,gsu dFkkdkj lqHkk"k] viu iwoZd dFkk lc es eSfFkyh Hkk"kkd 'kCn
yksd* ,d fojkV O;atuk fn'k ladsr djSr vfN] fo"k;&f'kYi&Hkk"kk lc vFks bZ lalkj dsa lsgks iquuZohr d,yfu vfNA fgudj jpuk es dSd Bke eSfFkyhd
lqHkk"kd Js"B dFkk fFkdA gsjkbr 'kCn lc] ,rs kfj ts xzkeh.kks tuin la yqIr Hksy 'kCn lc thoar Hk* mBy
lu~ 1999 d vkjaHk esa izdkf'kr ^ckr* lsgks Js"B dksfVd dFkk fFkdA vfNA Hkk"kk&lajpuk rrcs ljy vfNA eqnk ,Egj vkfc d,] fgudj fdNq dFkk
,dVk nh?kZ varjkyd i'pkr~ izdkf'kr bZ dFkk lqHkk"kd uo rjgd Hkafxekd es 'kCn&iznw"k.kd vlfj ns[kkb iM+y vfNA
ifjp; nSr vfN vk ,r, vkfc d, yxSr vfN ts fo"k;d Lrj ij lqHkk"k vius lqHkk"kd dFkkd voyksdu voxkgud i'pkr~ ,dVk ckrd dpksV fujarj
cukvksy ifjfk dsa rksfM+ d, ,dVk uo rjgd ckr mBkSyfu vfNA uscks cspSr gksbr jgSr vfNA ls] bZ ts ns'kd laiw.kZ jktuhfrd nqjoLFkkd vNSr] fgudj dFkk
,dVk NkSaM+k ij Qjscd vR;kpkj djSr dksuks frdM+ehd dkjh eqag ns[kkj d,yfu es jktuhfrrd psrukd cgqr cslh vHkko ns[kkbr vfNA vksuk] dFkkd ek;es
vfNA vb dFkkd var es vksfg frdM+ehd ts gjDdfr fpf=kr Hksy vfN] vks vkBe n'kd es LFkkfir dFkkdkjd vksr, jktuhfrd ckr Hkdjkj Hk*ldy] vk
izekf.kr lR; fFkd ts dksuks Bd] cfM+;kB dsa ns[kykd ckn viu leLr mxzrk rkfg la iwoZ xqatu] jkteksgu vk egkizdk'kd dFkk es jktuhfrd ltxrk ns[ky
fclfj tkbr vfNA bZ dFkk izekf.kr djSr vfN] ts pksj btksr uba lfg ldSr tkbr vfNA ek;kuUn] izHkkl] kwedsrqd vksr, lsgks ckn es jktuhfrd ltxrk
vfNA vksuk] vb dFkkd 'kkunkj var ,d vorj.k iwoZfg Hk* pqdy vfNA ns[ky tk, ykxyA jktuhfrd ltxrkd vHkko vk ifjfLFkfrd Hk;kogrkd
vafre vorj.k can VksaVh la Vi&Vi pqcSr ikfu fFkd] ts ewy kkjk la vlac) vNSrks e)e ikfud ik=kd l`tu] vFkkZr~ izfri{kd Hkwfedk es Bk<+ ik=kd fojkskh
vfNA ^flxjsV* lsgks lqHkk"kd csl tkunkj dFkk Nfu] tkfg es ?kVuk ra ek=k ,rck Lojd vuqifLFkfr] lqHkk"kd dFkkd egRo dsa de djSr vfNA lkekU;r;k
vfN % ikbd vHkko es viuk [kpZ la dFkkuk;d] flxjsV uba ihfc ldykg] dksuks lqHkk"kd ik=k nfyr] nqf[kr] ihfM+r] 'kksf"kr] fukZu] 'kkfir yksd gksbr vfN] eqnk
uksdj la ekaxsykd cknks flxjsV uba izkIr d* ldykg] drsd&drsd m|ksx lkspSr vksdjk yksdfud ,fg n'kkd ysy izHkkoh ?kVd dh fFkd] rdj vuqlakku ufg,a
jgykg] vk varr%] chM+h kfj ihfc d, ryc 'kkar dj* pkgSr NykgA eqnk] t[ku tdka gksbr vfNA vk] izk;% lSg dkj.k fFkd ts drgq fojkskh Lojd mn~xe
nksljd [kpZ la flxjsV ihckd vk'oklu HksfV xsyfu] ra vks lc la egx flxjsV fgudj dFkk es uba ns[kkbr vfNA ^ckr* dFkk la vb vHkkod iwfrZd vk'kk cuSr
vfNA
leLr uhd&cstk,d vNSr] lkre n'kd la viu dFkk&;k=kk izkajHk
d,fugkj lqHkk"kpUnz ;kno vkkqfud kkjkd Js"B dFkkdkj NfFk] eSfFkyh lkfgR;
dsa fgudk la ,[ku csl vis{kk NSdA

vkdqy&O;kdqyeksudjpukdkj

chle 'krkCnhd vkBe n'kd es eSfFkyhd tkfg leFkZ vk >eVxj ih<+hd l`tu
;k=kk izkjaHk Hksy] rb es foHkwfr vkuUn vR;ar egRoiw.kZ uke fFkdA l`tujr ra
foHkwfr ifgufg la Nykg] eqnk lu~ 1977 bZ- es ifgy csj fgudj dfork lHkd
ladyu khjsUnz flagd lax ^Msx* uke la izdkf'kr HksyA rdj lkr c[kZd ckn
foHkwfrd nkslj dfork laxzg ^mie* 1984 es vk,yA eqnk chpfg es 1981
es fgudj pkSarhl xksV xtyd laxzg vk,yA eSfFkyh es xtyd bZ ifgy laxzg
Ny] ts ^mBk jgy ?kks?k frfej* uke la izdkf'kr HksyA Qsj 1988 es dqy pkyhl
xksV uoxhr&xtyd ladyu ^>wfe jgy ikFkj eu* vk,yA vb la iwoZfg 1982
es fgudj ifgy miU;kl ^xke lquxSr* izdkf'kr Hk* pqdy NyA 1979 es
fgudj nlVk dFkkd ladyu ^izos'k* vk,y NyA ^ijkftr&vijkftr* miU;kl]
^[kkifM+ egad kku* dFkk laxzg vk ^le; ladsr* ukVd lsgks izdkf'kr HksyA fdNq
laikfnr iksFkh xhrukn yksd xhrd laxgz ] fo|kifr inkoyh] ,dVk Nyk xksuw
>k pfjr dFkk] dFkk&dfguh yksd dFkkd laxzg] vM+gqy fofHkUu dFkkdkjd
dFkkd ladyu izdkf'kr HksyA 1992 es Qsj fgudj lkkblVk chNy dforkd
laxzg ^iquuZok gksbr vks NkSaM+h* vk,y vk 1999 es Qsj iSarhlVk dforkd laxzg
^usgkb ij LoIu*A ,rn~fjDr chp&chp es trsd dFkk fy[kSr jgykg vfN] dFkk
xks"Bh lHk es i<+Sr jgykg vfN] if=kdk lHk es NiSr jgyfu vfN] ls vladfyrs
NfuA ^Qsj c?kqvkb NkS rksjs ij* miU;kl vizdkf'krs Nfu eqnk ^yfyr vk gqud
dFkk;k=kk* lekykspuk iksFkh izdkf'kr NfuA le;&le; ij fdNq fucakks fy[kSr
jgykg vfNA if=kdkd laiknu vk laiknu lg;ksxd ra fxurh uba vfNA
vfHku; lsgks d,us NfFk] o`fk la izk;kid NfFk---A
cgqeq[kh izfrHkk vk cgqfokkoknh jpukkeZd n`f"V,a ta ns[kSr Nh ra foHkwfr
HkkjrsUnq gfj'pUnz vk jktdey pkSkjh lu izfrHkkoku cq>kbr NfFkA eSfFkyh es usr`Ro es Nk=k vkanksyu izkjaHk d* pqdy NyA laiw.kZ ns'k es dkaxzsl fojks/kh
gejk ,gsu ,dgq Vk vku jpukdkj uba ns[kkb NfFk] ts ,ds lax ,rsd Bke] ,rsd okrkoj.k O;kIr Hk* xsy NyA vke pquko HksyA dkaxzsl ijkftr Hksy vk loZnyh;
:i es f;k'khy gksfFk vk lc Bke ,Dds jax izHkko'kkyh lkfcr Hksy gksfFkA laxBud vk;kstu la ts Vhe cuy ls Hkkjrd xh ij dkfct Hk* xsyA eqnk
jpukd LoHkko vk rsoj la y* d, jpukdkjd izo`fk kfj ij ta ppkZ djh] foHkwfr dqdjkywf> >V n* 'kq#g Hk* xsyA Lo;a yksduk;dd voekuuk Hksyfu vk gqudj
uo psrukd ,dVk ^gksy Vkbej* dk;ZdrkZ cq>,rkgA eqnk bZ vpjtd fo"k; eksgHkaxd lax lax laiw.kZ Hkkjrd ;qok'kfDr eksgHkaxd f'kdkj Hk* xsyA uDlyckM+h
fFkd ts 'krkCnhd vafre n'kd es fgudj f;k'khyrk ek=k dfe, Vk uba xsyfu] vkanksyu] rsyaxkukd fdlku vkanksyud izHkko eq[kfjr Hk* pqdy NyA vb
bZ viuk dsa rrsd cslh lesfV ysyfu] tdj fdvks mesnks uba d* ldSr NyA leLr fLFkfrd vjktd izHkko vk lqkkjd izHkko fefFkykd tuekul ij iM+yA
vkBe n'kdd vafre pj.k la y* d, uoe~ n'kdd izk;% var kfj foHkwfr ;|fi lkSals nqfu,ad bZ gky vfN] eqnk vkkseq[kh izo`fkd udy fefFkyk es dusd
eulk] okpk] deZuk tkfg rjgsa f;k'khy jgykg] rkfg es Tokyeq[khd rki Ny( csfl, ilfj tkbr NSd] rsa vb leLr ?kVukd nq"izHkko rsth la iljyA ,dj
dks'kh] ckxerh vk xaxkd mke izokg Ny] e`xjkt tdka Lo'kfDr vk tu'kfDr fdNq ts lqkkjd ladsr Ny] ls jpukdkjd utfj es vHkjyA foHkwfr vksgh
ij fgudk vkLFkk Ny] fgudj lkal es Hkwdai la iwoZd gqadkj Ny---rqyuk djSr jpukdkj es la ,d NfFkA vgh leLr foijhr ifjfLFkfr es vb la fdNq iwoZgq
mij ta HkkjrsUnq vk jktdeyd uke ysy xsy vfN] ra rdj mfpr rdZ vfN- la fgudj xty vk uoxhr fy[kk jgy NyA eSfFkyhd vk foHkwfrd lsgks] ifgy
--eqnk vpkud foHkwfr dksu eksgHkaxd dkj.ksa vFkok dksu vkradsa viuk dsa lesfV xty laxzg es ladfyr xtyd iafDr lHk vb leLr ifjfLFkfrd fp=k mifLFkr
ysyfu] ls dgc dfBu vfNA djSr vfN] tr, vk'kk] izse] ?k`.kk] jkx] }s"k] izdk'k] vUgkj] Hk;] vkrad] lkgl]
[kSj---foHkwfrd ukVd] miU;kl vk dFkk ys[ku ij fdafpr ppkZ vkuks vku MkaV] QVdkj] ik[kaM] izxfr dkeuk lc pht viu&viu vfLrRod lax
fucak es d,y tk pqdy vfN] rsa ,r, dfork Vk ij ppkZ djcA ik[kaMd mifLFkr vfNA vk] vb mifLFkfr es gjne dfo izxfrdkeh] lkglh vk
vkoj.k] vakdkj vk dqgsl vk es?kd >yQyh] :f<+d lM+kbu xak vkfnd fojksk vkLFkkoku] vk'kkoku tu'kfDrd i{kkj NfFkA vb laiw.kZ fodjky fLFkfr dsa
vk uo T;ksfr iqatd LFkkiuk fn'k ladsr fgudj jpukdeZd ewy LoHkko jgy xhr&xty lu dksey jpuk es izHkkoh <ax la O;Dr d* ldykg] ls ckr js[kkafdr
vfNA jkstxkjfoghu thoud euksn'kk vk thou&;kiu] lsokfuo`fkd ckn 'ks"k&thoud dj*d fFkdA
n'kk] nkaiR; vk ikfjokfjd vkuks vku lacakd xgu i{k---vR;ar rh{.k rsojd foHkwfrd jpukdky ek=k jktuhfrd dqfVyrk] kkfeZd ik[kaM] vlkekftd
lax fgudj dFkk] vk ukVd es mifLFkr Hksy vfNA vb leLr fLFkfrd lax rRod fodkl vk lkearh vijkks Vkd Qy uba fFkdA vb dky es lHk la cslh
dsna hz ; jktuhfr vk LFkkuh; frdM+ed la;Dq r izHkko la lks>&likV] fu'Ny&fufoZdkj] for fLFkfr mRiUu djck es vge Hkwfedk cqf)thoh oxZd Nfu] ts vb leLr
Ny&Nn~efoghu turk vifjfpr jgSr vfN] vks ,rsd dfj;k&>wefj cq>Sr uba lekt fojkskh vk tu fojkskh 'kfDrd nyky cfu xsykg vk vkReizpkj rFkk
jgSr vfNA eqnk vksr, jFkd VwVy ifg;ks] vb turk dsa cM+ lg;ksx djSr NSd- ykHk&yksHkd eksg es nkuoh; gjDdfr dsa leFkZu nSr jgykgA foHkwfr viu fr
--bZ leLr fLFkfr foHkwfrd miU;kl] dFkk vk ukVdd fo"k; gksbr vfN] vk ,fg deZ es vgw oxZ dsa ukaxV djck es uhd tdka lQy Hksy NfFkA ^>wfe jgy ikFkj
lHkd izLrqfr vR;ar izHkkodkjh gksbr vfNA vb leLr foijhr ifjfLFkfr;gq es eksu* ladyud uoxhr lc lsgks vb fLFkfrd mnkgj.k fFkdA dfork gks] xhr
foHkwfrd fr&uk;d fot;Jh izkIr djSr vfNA xke lquxSr miU;kl] le; gks] xty gks foHkwfrd vkxzg fdfj.k] izkr] Hkks#dck] lq#t] mUekn] ilsuk] Qwy]
ladsr ukVd vk izos'k] [kkifM+ egad kku dFkk laxzg vkfn vgh fot;Jhd [ksr] Qfly] pwfYg] vUu] <sdh] olar] Hkksj] rki] "ek] jf'e vkfn fn'k jgSr
xkFkk fFkdA Nfu( bZ vkxzg foHkwfrd vkLFkk fFkdA nkslj fn'k vUgkj] Hkw[k] mnklh] fpark]
chle 'krkCnhd vkBe n'kdd mkjk)Z Hkkjrh; cqf)thohd ys[ksa 'e'kku vkfnd ppkZ kskkos'k es djSr NfFk] bZ ppkZ vksdj frjLdkj ysy djSr
ddkZO;foew<+ djckd fLFkfr NyA bfUnjk ljdkjd vkrrk;hiu Hkkjrh; NfFkA
turkd ekFk ij uaxVs upSr NyA yksduk;d t;izdk'k bfUnjk ljdkjd fojks/ ijaijk la ts fdNq gejk yksdfud thou es 'kq)] lkSE; vk 'kkafrd izrhd
kd fcxqy ctk pqdky Nykg vk gqudk leFkZu es Hkkjrh; Nk=k viu ekSfyd cuy jgy vfN] lqj{kkd vkkkj cuSr vkfc jgy vfN] ls lc t[ku vifo=k
vf/kdkjd lqj{kk gsrq vk LosPNkfj.kh ljdkjd u`'kalrk la eqfDr gsrq t;izdk'kdthd Hk* xsy] t[ku ^?kksadk pqdy vfN iks[kfjd ty@VwfV pqdy NS ?kkVd lHk [kjatk*
r[kugqa foHkwfrd ekuc Nfu] ts ^[k[kjh ufg Hksy vfN xgwed xksVk@HkksaFk ufg ts foHkwfrd jpuk gks&gYyk] ukjkckth la cslh fo'okl ^,D'ku* es j[kSr vfNA
vfN gkalwd kkj@gFkkSM+kd fugkb&pksV ,[kuks ldq'ky vfN---*A foHkwfrd b,g tr, drgq bZ tks'k&[kjks'k] ekfj&yM+kb] ;q)&la?k"kZd xi djSr NfFk] rkgw es dksuks
vkLFkk] b,g lkgl lektd vfkla[; dsa osnuk vk ihM+k la mckfj ldck es fpdjk&Hkksdjh ubaA yxSr vfN dksuks iap] vkjke la le>k jgy gksfFkA bZ jkspd
lQy gks,r] vksdjk viu ijked izfr lpsr d* ldrA ckr vfN] ts ifjokZu vk izxfrd dkeuk la Hkjy jpukdkj foHkwfrd dfork
lekt es vkkqfudrkd izo's kd cknks fdNq yksdd ik[kaMh izof` k] vkkqfudrk cgqr vkjke la] cgqr xaHkhjrk vk 'kkafr la leLr ifjokZud xi djSr vfN] ra
la mRiUu fofr] uohu f'k{kk i)fr es 'kdiat Hksy cky euksfoKku] lqf'kf{kr nkslj fn'k eSfFkyd mR"V ijaijk] ikfjokfjd&lkekftd&dkSVqafcd lacakd lkS"Bo]
ifr }kjk iRuhd 'kks"k.k] L=kh 'kks"k.kd lgtkr uSjar;Z---lcVk fgudj uohure xked xzkE; laLfr] ifjokjd eeRoiw.kZ Lusglw=k] izsecakud vksj&Nksj] xzkE;&dyk
dfork laxzg ^iquuZok gksbr vks NkSaM+h* vk ^usgkb ij LoIu* es mrfj vk,y vfNA vk yksd&laLfr---lc dsa cpk d, jk[k, pkgSr vfNA gM+cM+h es ra dksuks
cgqfokkoknh gsckd dkj.ksa izk;% fgudj dfork es dFkkRedrk vk ukVdh;rk rFkk O;fDr ,djk jpukdkjd }Sk dfg d, fudfy tk,r] eqnk bZ rrsd gM+cM+h es
dFkks es dkO;e;rkd lekos'k jgSr Nfu] eqnk ls jpukd nks"k tdka uba] xq.k vk nsy tk, oyk fu.kZ; uba fFkdA foHkwfrd l`tu lalkj laHkkfor fefFkykd
oSf'k"V~; tdka mifLFkr gksbr vfNA ;|fi la;qDr f;kin vk dkjd foHkfDr lajpukRed fp=k fFkd] tr, eSfFky vk eSfFkyh viu leLr Js"B ijaijk vk
cgqy fo'ks"k.kd vkfkD; la Bke&Bhe vFkZ ckkk mifLFkr gksbr vfN] eqnk rdj vko';d izxfrd lax mifLFkr jgrA viu leLr jpuk es bZ izkjaHkfg la vb
ifjek.k cM+ de vfNA cslh Bke BsaB 'kCnkoyhd eqgkojk tdka iz;qfDr] fdrkch iz;ksxd vkxzgh jgykg vfNA fgudj leLr xhr] xty] ukVd] miU;kl] dFkk]
vk 'kkL=kh; 'kCnkoyh la ijgst] fgudj dfork dsa vkvksj cslh mRd"kZ nsydfu dforkfn vgh iz;ksxd mnkgj.k fFkdA vrhr eksg fgudk ij gjne lokj jgSr
vfN bZ ns'k dh vktkn Hksy@Qqfl,d ccky Hksy@Bke&Bke csra y tkb, yksd@drkS Nfu] eqnk rsa fgudk izfreq[kh vFkok izR;kokZud dfo uba dgy tk ldSr vfNA
pkl ysy@drkS ckl ysy@vusjks jsry tkb, yksd lu dforka'k nsf[k d, dSd vyx la dgckd dks u ks iz ; ks t u uba vfN] ts foHkw f rd dfork
csj fgudj dfork i<+ck dky pfdr gksv, ifM+ ldSr vfNA Lokra=;kskj ?kVuk&dkj.k&foU;kl&fopkj&ifj.kfr& fu.kZ;d dfork fFkdA vFkkZr~] dfo viu
dkyhu ns'k es iquokZl ;kstuk ij vb rjgsa izlaxo'k fVIi.kh drsd xaHkhj pksV jpuk es vb rjgsa fopkj djSr var es fu.kZ; lqucSr NfFkA ^usgkb ij LoIu* laxzg
djSr vfN ! ,d vFks fu.kZ;d dfork fFkdA vb fucakd var foHkwfr,d ,dVk fu.kZ; la
ifjokj] lekt vk dqVqacd lacaktU; Hkkouk] vrhrd Le`fr] Hkfo";d gks ra mke
fpark] orZekud le> fgudj dforkd izk.krRo fFkd vk vgh e es bZ viu ,[ku kfj ekafx d* vkfx
mR"V n`f"Vckskd ifjp; nSr cf<+ pySr NfFkA vis{kkr uegj fgudj trsd dkt fudkyckd ifjikVhd fo#)
dfork Nfu] rkfg es foHkwfr viuk ifjos'kd dksykt cukSus NfFkA ,dfg ,dVk 'osri=k tkjh djckd gks,r
dforkd fdNq&fdNq iafDr es dSdVk dfork dgk tkbr Nfu vk var es ts Nkmjd <sjh es lquxSr fpuxh
lexzrkd lax Qsj vks vyx dkO; jld lapkj djSr NfuA HkqEgqj cuSr vfN
,Egj vkfc d, foHkwfrd 'kCn laLdkj FkksM+sd iznwf"kr Hksyfu vfNA BsaB ts vks cgqr&cgqr dky kfj fVdSr vfN---
'kCnd lqj{kk gsrq foHkwfrd jpuk lalkj dsa vfHkys[kkxkj ekuy tkbr Ny] eqnk
ls foHkwfr] vb iznw"k.kd f'kdkj dksu dkj.ksa Hksykg vfN] dgc dfBu vfNA
^usgkb ij LoIu* dfork laxzgd dfork lHk dfod vkdqy&O;kdqy
eu%fLFkfrd dfork fFkd] nh?kZdky la kS;Z kkj.k djSr jgckd lwpuk fFkd] nh?kZ
vofkd la?k"kZd lwpuk fFkd] vk ,[ku kfj visf{kr miyfCk la nwj jgckd
lwpuk fFkd ts] ts dksuks LoIu Ny] ls usgkb ij vkfc xsy vfN] vkc
Fkksl&FkkEgd fLFkfr uba vfNA dh ra] usgkb ij dqVkbr viu LoIu dsa ns[kSr ihM+k
HkksxSr jgw] ok vgh usgkb ij la mNfy tkm vk fdNw d:A---,rck ra r; vfN]
le; es lewg&lR;d HkkxQy ufg,a Vk gksbr vfNA T;kferh; Hkk"kk es bZ
O;fDr&lR;] lewg&lR;d xq.ku[kaM gksbr vfN] vksdj Hkktdks Hk* ldSr vfNA
v'kksd xq.ku[kaM lHk dsa tek d* d* la[;k cu,ckd iz;kl d,yfu vfN
vk lQy Hksykg vfNA
v'kksdd dFkk dgckd ts 'kSyh Nfu rkfg es lewg&lR; dsa vkuyk la]
,dj cslh laHkkouk Ny ts fgudj dF; vks>jk tbrfuA ^vks euqD[k Hk* xsy*
dFkk es dFkkdkj lokZfkd :isa vfHkO;Dr Hk* ldSr Nykg] viuk dsa iw.kZ :isa
ns[kk ldSr Nykg] viu vuqHkwfr dsa peRr <ax la izLrqr d* ldSr Nykg]
uodF;&f'kYidekalydFkk ta bZ dFkkd f'kYi rkd* es ufg vxqrfcrfFkA ,dVk Js"B dF;] fgudj f'kYid
detksjhd dkj.ksa ,dVk lgt laizs"k.kh; dFkk gks,ck la ckafp xsyA dFkk ewyr%
lackskukRed Lo:i es vk,y vk dFkkdkjd n'kZu] fopkj&eaFkud ckgqY;d dkj.ksa
mckm Hk* xsyA t[ku fd ekuoh; thoud foMacuk dsa loZFkk uo n`f"Vdks.ksa
dFkk ekuo thoud lw{e&la&lw{erj {k.kd Hkksxy rhr&ehBd fjiksrkZtd :i
ns[kckd iz;kl d,y xsy vfNA MkbMud mfDr Nfu Prose is thinking from*
es viu ifjfpfr cuk pqdy vfNA ,fg lR; dsa fo'o&lkfgR;d dFkk&ys[kud
eqnk rsa dFkk es lsgks fparu'khyrk ,fg rjgsa Hkfj nsy tk,] ls mfpr ufgA
Lrj ij lsgks ns[ky tk ldSr vfNA eSfFkyh dFkk lsgks] vfHkO;fDrd ,fg lhek
v'kksd viu dFkkd dF; xke vk 'kgjd laLfrd ?kkyesy gksbr
kfj vkfc viu rh{.kre 'kSyhd fuekZ.k es ykxy vfNA iqjuk dFkkd fofok
ifjfLFkfr la mBcSr NfFk] fuEu e;eoxhZ; thou thcSr ekuod fodklksUeq[k
mikax lHk la eqDr Hksy lkre n'kdd dFkk viu ijorhZ dFkk ys[ku dsa Fkkrhd
izo`frd vkikkkih la mBcSr NfFkA lkekUr;k euq"; ,s'o;Z izkfIrd pje lekkku
:i es dF; vk f'kYi fn'k dsafnzr d,ydA vkBe vk uoe n'kdd dFkk&ys[ku
vFkZ lap; ekfu ySr vfNA ,fg miyfCkd vxqrkgfV es ih<+hxr }a} la fudyy
dsa viu iwoZd ih<+h la izsj.kk HksVySd] ledkyhu vkfFkZd] jktuhfrd] lkekftd
lekkkud ckV euq"; dsa dksu ladVd vkok es >ksafd nSr vfN] rdj tkxzr
O;oLFkk HkSVySd] kkfeZd ik[kaM la ;q) djSr izxfr'khyrkd tks'k HksVySd]
mnkgj.k fFkd ^rslj iz'u*A iqjku ih<+hd dsa le`f) pkgh vk uo ih<+h rdj
izdk'kud lkSfo; HksVySd] Hkk"kkarj lkfgR; }kjk fo'o&lkfgR;d dFkk&eap HksVySd
lekkku ysy fupsu la ufg] vxqrk d* ckV rdSr vfNA vxqrkgfV es ek=k
vk fo'o&Lrjd fparu'khyrk ,oa vksdj lkaLfrd] lkeftd kjksgfj la ifjfpr
voSkkfuds ekxZ Vk ckafp tkbr vfNA ,gsu ik=k ;qx&;FkkFkZd HkksDrkd y?kqke
gks,ckd lq;ksx HksVySdA ,rsd jkl lqfokkd e; eSfFkyhd dFkkdkj viu
bdkb gksbr NfFkA vb rjgd ftuxh la ,dVk fo'kky lewg dsa lk{kkRdkj dj*
dF;&p;u vk f'kYi&fuekZ.k es layXu Hk* xsykgA dFkkdkj v'kksd] ,gh O;oLFkkd
ifM+ jgy NSdA dFkkuk;d ,fg lewgd xq.ku[kaM fFkdA dFkkdkj ,fg O;fDrijd
chp ys[kujr vksgsu l`tukehZ NfFk] ts viu dFkkHkwfe xke la 'kgj kfjd ifjos'k
thoud vkkkj y* d* lewgijd ;FkkFkZ fn'k viu vaxqjh mBcSr NfFkA iqjku
es lw{erkiwoZd rkfd ysyfu vfNA nquw ifjos'k es thcSr izk;% lHk oxZd O;fDrd
ih<+h vDlj vkn'kZ vk fl)kard nksgkb nSr jgSr NfFkA eqnk] ,r, rdZd oLrq
thou fgudj dFkkdkjd ysy voyksD; Hksyfu vfNA viu izR;sd dFkk dsa
bZ vfN] ts vksfg ih<+hd izfrc)rk dh Nfu \ vkn'kZd ewY; ij dh viu
bZ O;fDr&lR;d :i es miLFkkfir djck es iw.kZ lQy Hksy NfFkA O;fDr&lR;
,s'o;Z vk vFkZ le`f)d yksyqirk dsa frykatfy n* ldSr NfFk \ dFkkd lanHkZ
dFkkdkjd xzg.k vk ikpu f;k es csl tdka izfl) Hksy vfNA O;fDrxr
es mkj gks,r ufgA r[ku] Qsj vksfg ih<+hd vkn'kZ vku Bke dksuk lqjf{kr
thou d ;FkkFkZ fgudj l`tu'khy] dYiuk'khyrk vk vfHkO;fDr 'kSyhd f=kos.kh
jgvksA vktqd ih<+hd xkZxeu es iqjku ih<+hd bZ loZrksUeq[kh izksRlkgu dksugq
es rrsd uhd tdka Hkhty vfN] ts vksdjk lef"V&lR; vk ;qx ;FkkFkZ cuck
dFkkdkjd rVLFk eukso`fk dsa dksuk ufg eFkvksA
es dksuks fcr; ufg jgySd vfNA
vktqd dFkkdkj dF;d p;u ;qx&thoud var%i{k la djSr NfFkA ,fg
^O;fDr&lR; lewg&lR;d ek=k HkkxQy ufg gksbN*] dqykuUn feJd ,fg
e es ?kksM+kd ?kkl [k,ckd izf;kd fp=k.k ysy jpukdkj }kjk ?kkl [kk,c
iafDrd lR; dsa LohdkjSr] ge dgc] ts oLrqr% O;fDr&lR;] dfgvks vk dksuks
vko';d ufgA ;FkkFkZd vuqHkwfr ek=k HkksDrs Vk ufg] izs{kdks izkIr d* ldSr
NfFkA iz{s k.k] voyksdu vk Hkksx ,fg rhuw vfHkf;kd ek;es HkksDrkd laons uk vfN] tr, jax&fcjaxd x<+y liuk FkkSvk Hk* tkbNA yksd lkspSr vfN fdNq]
kfj dksuks l`tu'khy izk.kh iw.kZ lQyrk la igqafp ldSr NfFk] ta gqudj vk Hk* tkbr vfN fdNq] yksd fo'okl d* vcS, vk vksdjk vkLFkkd lax lkai
dYiuk'khyrk aoZj gksfu] vuqHkwfrd dkS'ky ifd;k gksfu] oLrqr% jpukdkj viugq lHk viu fcD[kd Qxqvk [ksyk vcSr vfNA 'Blood is thicker than water'
Hkksxd le; es ,dVk izs{kds jgSr vfNA Hkksxd le; es ,d fn'k gqudj O;fDr jfV vcS, eqnk [kwud lacak NyQw Hk* tkbNA ikfjokfjd lacak cuk vcSr
Hkksx es ykxy jgSr Nfu] ra nkslj fn'k gqudj jpukdkj gqudj lg;k=kh cfu vfN] eqnk kks[kk Hk* tkbr vfNA nkslj fn'k dksuks fe=kd cfgud :i&yko.;
izs{k.k es ykxy jgSr NfuA ,Dds le; es vksfg dky es vks nw Vk thou thcSr ij eksus&eksu xqM+ pkmj [kkbr jgSr vfN] fdarq vksdj lackskud ifo=krk la
NfFkA vk] vb rjgsa gqudj vuqHkwfr lqPpk lkekftd thoud izfrfr Hk* tkbr Msjk mBSr vfNA ekufld m}syud ,fg [kSapk&rkuh es] fu.kZ;ghurkd fLFkfr
vfNA bZ ?kVuk v'kksdd ^vks euqD[k Hk* xsy* dFkk es uhd tdka ns[ky tk es vkfc dksuks O;fDr HkxhjFk iz;kld i'pkr~ ,fg }a} la eqDr gksbNA rslj
ldSr vfNA fn'k vkafxd fu'ps"Vrkd dkj.ksa ,dVk vFkZ&foiUu yksd viu fuEuoxhZ;rkd
viu vku leLr dFkk es v'kksd vuqHkwr&lR;d ,fg lw{e ifjHkk"kk dsa vfHk'kki HkksxSr jgSr vfNA [kwc jfrxj dsa gosyh la vkil Hksy iRuhd vfHkf;k
v{kq..k j[kyfu vfNA ?kj&vaxuk es fNfM+vk,y misf{kr fcanq lHk dsa lesfV d* ij] vksdj lsUV&ikmMj vkfn izlkku&lkexzh O;ogkj d,yk ij eksu es vla[;
dFkkdkj ts mRd"kZ nsyfu vfN] vfr lkekU; lu ckr dsa trsd efgekeafMr iz'u tek djSr vfN] eqnk fdNq iwfN ufg icSr vfNA Mjsa ufg] foo'krsaA iRuh
d,yfu vfN] ls lgtfg iz'kaluh;A dFkk ^Msjcqd* ,gh dksfVd ckr dsa mBcSr dsa lHkVk nqfu;koh lq[k nkslj Bke HksfV tkbr NSd] eqnk vks iw.kZ :i es lefiZr
vfNA lqHkk"k vk eatwd thoud tkfg eeZLi'khZ fcanq dsa dFkkdkj ,fg es mBkSyfu vfN ifrd ysyA ifrd ysy bZ leiZ.k vksdj lekftd foo'krk ufg] vksdj
vfN vk ,djk nquwd thou es ts egRoiw.kZ ifjorZu vk,y vfN] ls ra lkekU; uSlfxZd foo'krk fFkdA ifr] viu iRuhd ,fg lHk ifjfLFkfr dsa tuSr vfN]
<axas dFkkdkj dfg xsykg] eqnk ekuod euksoxs drsd izcy gksbr vfN rdj eqnk fdvks nkslj t[ku ,fg rjgsa dyad FkksiSr vfN] ra vksdjk gkfnZd ihM+k
fp=k.k fcuk fdNq dgufg lok'k es d* nsyfuA bZ fcanq ,dVk xaHkhj vuq'khyud gksbr NSdA ,fg lHk ifjfLFkfrd thoar mnkgj.k fFkd dFkk ^ljksdkj*] ^tgy
fFkdA ,dVk xzkE; ckyk dsa lqHkk"k dh lksfp <sik Qsd* la euk djSr NfFk vk es Vkaxy eksu* vk ^ckSdk pqi Ny* vktqd lekt es O;kIr bZ leLr ifjfLFkfr
dh Hk* tkbr vfNA ,rs f{kiz xfr,a fLFkfr cnfy tkbr vfN] eqnk dFkkdkj gejk yksdfud lkewfgd thou dsa] ekuorkd kjkry dsa dksu rjgsa [kksa[k d,us
dsa dksuks vQjk&rQjh ufg NfuA tk jgy vfN ls Hkdjkj Hk* d, ,fg dFkk lHk es vk,y vfNA
,dVk ckykd vkxw lkSals thou Bk<+ vfN] eqnk euksosx vksdjk fdNq lksp, ;qxhu pVd&eVdd ikNw fivkly gfj.k tdka yksdd csrgk'k Hkkxc]
nsckd iy[kfr ufg jg* nSr vfNA iqu% ukjh lu ytdksVfj tkfr ,rsd lkgl Ny&Nn~ed f'kdkj cuy yksdd fuf";rk] vksdj dk;jrk] uiqaldrk] QSaVslh
la vkxw Hkkfx tkbN] t[ku fd lkgl vk 'kkS;Zd mnkgj.k enZ] ukaxfj lqVdk vk okZekud [kksg es fulHksj lwry yksdd Hkfo";d izfr mnklhurk] eqnk "kM~;a=k
ySNA,dVk dFkk es ,rsd rjgsa viuk dsa Li"V d* ldckd lQyrk fuf'pr ok dqp fn'k mUeq[krk] nkaiR; thoud e; dqgsl tdka ijljSr la'k;]
:i la dFkkdkjd vuqHkwfrd xgurk vk f'kYid ekSfydrkd ifjpk;d fFkdA ukjh&eqLdkud ?kkrd ewY; la ifjfpr dksuks efgyk }kjk viu galh cspckd
^vksfg jkfrd Hkksj* vk ^fetkZ lkgsc* d cht :i ,Dds fFkd izk;%A ,d vfHkf;k] eqnk rdjk viu&pkfjf=kd L[kyu ufg cq>ckd izo`fk---vkfn&vkfn
Vk tkfroknh }s"kd ckr djSr vfN] t[ku fd nkslj laiznk;oknhA ewy va'k fcanq eSfFkyh vFkok vkugq lkfgR;d ysy fo"k;d Lrj ij Hkus iqjku gks] eqnk
es nquw ,ds ckr Hksy] eqnk n`f"Vdks.kfgd foLr`frd dkj.ksa nquw dFkk dsa nw Lo:i rkfg es la dF; fudkyckd {kerk vk rdjk miLFkkfir djckd f'kYi es fuf'pr
es Bk<+ d,y xsyA ^fetkZ lkgsc* dFkk es ekuorkd izfr xySr&Hk[kjSr vkLFkk :i la v'kksd uohurk ns[kvksyfu vfNA ^kjrh xksy NS*] ^,dVk nkslj czk*]
dsa vkvksjks mRizsj.k nsfugkj rRo lHkd dqfr ij fpark d,y xsy vfN] tr, ^,dVk pkSd ekus p.MhukFk*] ^lfjlod lkx* vkfn dFkk es ls lgtg rkdy
udkjkRed fn'kklksph O;fDrd rdZ dsa cy HksVSr vfN] ts vb lektd lR; tk ldSNA
fFkd t[ku fd ^vksfg jkfrd Hkksj* es Hkksjd lax&lax vuko';d dkj.ksa }s"kiks"khd dFkk ^gs;jfiu* vk ^[kkSa>* nkaiR; thou es jcM+ tdka uejSr vk fldqM+Sr
eks{k es ekuorkd fdfj.k QqVSr vfNA ruko vk izsed dFkk fFkdA gejk lektd ts iq#"k viu euksosxd dkj.ksa] viu
lkekU; tu&thoud Hkhrjh [kksg es oLrqr% ihM+kd foiqy lkezkT; cuy mUeknd dkj.ksa] ,dVk nwk csp* okyh yx ,rsd NksV Hk* Hk* tkbr vfN] ls
viu lefiZr LoHkkod iRuhd pfj=k ij lansg djSr vfNA vFkkZr~ pfj=kghuks ^tfgvk lq#t ufg mxyS* vk ^upfu;ka* ekuorkd kl ufg vksdj gykyd
ifr dsa ifo=k iRuh ij dyafduh Hk* ldckd lansg djckd lkekftd vfkdkj dFkk fFkdA x`gLFkd os'k es O;kkkd dFkk fFkd] euq";d os'k es fx)d dFkk
izkIr NfuA ukjh tkfr ,djk lfg jgy vfN] iq#"k oxZ yxkrkj ,fg fn'k cf<+ fFkdA tr, nquw Bke] ukjh viu ckid }kjk nsy xsy migkjd vfHk'kki Hkksfx
jgy vfN] ukjh dsa Hkkbvksd lax eqlfdvk d, xIi djckd Lora=krk ufg] jgy vfNA ,d Bke de ngst y* d, v,yk ij dyafduh gksbr vfN] ra
eqnk iq#"k vla[; tukuhd lax dker`fIr djSr jgSr vfNA dFkk gs;jfiu es nkslj Bke viu tokuhd mesfjd dkj.ksa o;lkgq ifrd v'kD;rkd naM wjre
,gh rF; dsa vxkk izsed ukVdh; n`'; la izkjaHk djSr lansgd fcanq ij Bk<+] ckVas HkksxSr vfNA ,fg nquw dFkkd ukjh es la nkslj ukjh vis{kkr lkglh vfN]
d,y xsy vfNA chp&chp es izlaxo'k vk,y iafDr lc dsa dFkkdkj mYys[kuh; ts viu lq[k&lqfokkd ckV rkfd ySr vfNA vksuk] eksVk&eksVh] v'kksdd ukjh
izlaxd ysy izLrqr d,yfu vfNA pUnj }kjk nwkokyh dsa nw l; Vkdk nsck&ysckd ik=k izk;% cslh gkslxfj Nfu] t[ku fd iq#"k ik=k drgq Msjcqd] drgq wj]
izlax lu ?kVuk vkuks vku dFkk lHk es rkdy tk ldSNA drgq iyk;uoknh] drgq Hkz"V] drgq la'k;h] drgq iqalRoghu] drgq dk;j vk
^[kkSa>* dFkkd nkaiR; ruko vk ^gs;jfiu* d ruko es varj vfNA drgq&drgq mnkjks NfuA viu dF; dsa iw.kZ :isa Li"Vrk nsck es dFkkdkj
^gs;jfiu*d ruko ysy ek=k iq#"k mkjnk;h vfN] ek=k vksdj viu ?kfV;k pfj=k drgq&drgq dFkks es fdNq midFkk xf<+ ySr NfFk] ls ljkg.kh; <axsa] vk ls
mkjnk;h NSd] t[ku fd ^[kkSa>* d rukod ysy enZ de vk ifjfLFkfr cslhA vizklafxdks ufg gksbr NfuA
^gs;fiu*d rukod ifjos'k vksdj iq#"k ik=kd l`tu fFkd] t[ku fd ^[kkSa>*d v'kksdd laiw.kZ dFkk lalkjd vuq'khyu] bZ Li"V djSN] ts o"kZ 1989]
rukod ifjos'k O;oLFkk la mn~Hkwr vfNA vFkZra=kd kkg vk Jed igkM+d ;kruk izk;% fgudj uo f'kYid vuqlakku vk ifNyk f'kYid R;kxd lae.k dky
lfg d* vkWfQl la vk,y izR;sd enZd bZ LokHkkfod izf;k fFkd] ts vksfgdky fFkdA ,fg varjkyd dFkk es v'kksd viu ifNyk dFkk lHkd f'kYi la nwjLFk
vks leL;k la nwj jg, pkgSr vfNA ekufld :i la [kkSa>k,y jgSr vfNA NfFkA ;|fi dF;d fn'kk es dFkkdkj fdNq foLr`fr ikfc ysyfu vfN] t[ku
eqnk lkekU; efgykd lsgks bZ LoHkko gksbr Nfu] ts vks ,gh le; es ifr dsa fd f'kYid Lrjij ,[ku izk;% uo fuekZ.k es ykxy NfFkA dfFkr varjkyd
lHk leL;k la voxr djvksrhgA v'kksd ,gh fcUnq dsa mRd"kZ nsyfu vfNA dFkk la iwoZd dFkk lHkd f'kYi es dFkkdkj viu furkar ekSfydrkd lax Bk<+
fgudj ,fg nquw dFkkd ukjh fo'ks"k gksf'k;kfj] cqfk;kfj vk le>kSrk d* d, Hksy NfFk] tr, loZFkk fHkUu rjgd f'kYi fu[kjy vfNA ekSfyd :i la dFkkdkjd
jgfugkfj NfFk] t[ku fd ^gs;jfiu* d iq#"k ik=k k`"V vk kks[kscktA leLr dFkkd dF; vR;ar NksV gksbr vfN] tdjk dFkkdkj vR;ar NksV lu
dFkk ^vafre jkg* vFkkZHkkod ?kwj la mBy kqvkad dqaBkiw.kZ ifj.kke fFkd] txg es dfg ySr NfFk] eqnk ls txg bZ viu dFkkd vkksHkkx es j[kyfu vfNA
tr, xked le`) ikfjokfjd nkuoh; izo`fk vk fuEuoxZd 'kksf"kr gks,ckd fdarq] vksfg izLrqfrd ysy Li"Vrk vk Js"B laizs"k.kh;rkd ysy ,dVk 'kkunkj
?kVuk fpf=kr vfNA Jfed oxZd fot; fn'k mUeq[k dFkkdkjd izo`fk fgudj i`"BHkwfed fuekZ.k djSr NfFkA oLrqr% fgudj dFkkd i`"BHkwfe vfkdka'k txg
izxfr'khyrkd |ksrd fFkdA fdarq dFkk'kh"kZd izrhdkRedrk dsa iw.kZ cu,ck es NsdSr Nfu vFkkZr~ viu dF;ksRd"kZd ysy fupsu la okrkoj.kd fuekZ.k djSr
fdNq va'k es detksj jfg xsy NfuA NfFkA b,g fupsuh fgudj dFkkd lgtrkd ewyea=k fFkdA
^,dVk eqldqjkbr vkaf[k* dsa laLej.kkRed dFkk dgy t,ckd pkghA izkjaHk es f'kYi&vuqlakkud uo iz;kl dFkkdkjd dF; dsa uhd tdka lt,ck
dFkk es Hkk"kkd izokg cgqr 'kkar fpk la tkbr jgy vfNA eqnk dFkkd ms'; es lQy ufg gksv, nSr NyfuA dFkkd xlkbu dusd f<y&f<y jfg tkbr
fcanq dsa csl Hkdjkj gks,ck es ckkk mifLFkfr Hk* xsy NfuA bZ ckkk gejk tuSr jgfu] eqnk ckn es ls lEgfj xsyfuA ,fg uo&fuekZ.kd izf;k es ^tfgvk lq#t
dFkkd Hkk"kk es HkkoukRed izHkkod dkj.ksa Hksy vfNA HkkoukRed izokge;h Hkk"kk ufg mxyS* vk ^vksfg jkfrd Hkksj* f'kYid Lrj ij lsgks] fodklksUeq[k dFkk ekuy
vkykg ufg fFkd] eqnk t[ku jpukdkj vksfg Hkkouk es Mwfc tkfFk] ra viu tk,r t[ku fd f'kYid detksjhd dkj.ksa ^upfu;ka* ,d jrh Vfx xsy vfNA
earO; la vkxw cf<+ t,ckd laHkkouk jfgrs Vk vfNA dFkk ^gh* NksV lu dFkk dFkkdkjd f'kYi&vuqlakkud bZ uo iz;kl fgudj dFkkys[ku dsa ,dVk uo f{kfrt
es cgqr ckr y* d, lks>ka vk,y vfNA dFkk uk;dd oS;fDrd leL;k dsa n* ldy] ls rks"kd ckr fFkdA
mBk d* vksdj ekufld ;k=kk dsa tkfg <axsa dFkkdkj izLrqr d,yfu vfN] rsuk
dgy de tkbr vfNA
lkfcr gksbr vfN] ts vb tuind bZ ioZrekyk ek=k futhZo ikFkjd <sjh uba
fFkd] bZ ^folwfo;l*d Tokykeq[kh cfu ldSr vfNA pkmj&rsyd ehy es kku
mluSr&dqVSr] rksM+h&lfjlks isM+Sr fo'kky tulewg ,dVk nh?kZ vofk la kkud
laxsa viu vkRek dsa mluSr] lq[kcSr] dqVSr jgy vfN( viu&viu thou dsa
isfM+ d, [kks'kefn;k galhd rsy fudkySr jgy vfN( nk#.k la nk#.k foifk
dsa lfg d, 'kks"k.k dsa cnkZ'r djSr pqi jgSr vk,y vfNA vusd o"kZ la ekslh
vk igkM+hd ,fg 'kks"k.kd izfrjksk es mBSr fpuxh ncSr jgy] tek gksbr jgy
vk vpDds es bZ fpuxh lc ,d fnu cfu xsy Tokykeq[kh( usikyd lHk igkM+
folaxfrd HkhM+ es lgt lakku cfu xsy ^folwfo;l*A 'kks"k.kd b,g izfrokn ^folwfo;l* es Li"V :isa eq[kfjr
Hksy vfNA
iksFkhd vkoj.k fp=k fFkd efV;kg] dfjNkSu jaxd ioZr k`[a kyk la mBSr
ykys&yky cM+dk kkjkA igkM+ vk igkM+d ikFkj] funZ;rk vk wjrkiw.kZ 'kks"k.k
chle 'krkCnhd vkBe n'kd es ys[ku izkjaHk d* d, ts ;qok ih<+h viu gLr{ksi
dsa ?kksf"kr djSr vfN rFkk igkM+d pksVh la fudySr kkjk] vnkS la 'kksf"kr tulewg
eSfFkyh dFkk ys[ku es d,yd rkfg es iznhi fcgkjhd egRoiw.kZ LFkku vfNA
}kjk ,df=kr vkks'kd ygfj dsa( ts Tokykeq[kh cfu fudyy vfNA bZ lHkVk
yxHkx Ms<+ l; dFkk] ipkl xksV y?kqdFkk] ntZu Hkfj ,dkadh] nwVk miU;kl
fcac&izrhd( iksFkhd dFkkHkwfe es fpf=kr ;FkkFkZ( fodklksUeq[k loZgkjkd 'kfDrd
vkfn iqLrdkdkj vFkok i=k if=kdk es izdkf'kr NfuA fgUnh vk usikyh es dSdVk
izkcY;( vksdjk viu vfLrRo cksk gks;ckd lwpuk( viu ewY; cwf> ysckd
jpukd vuqokn Hksy NfuA eSfFkyhd fdNq dFkk ladfyrks NfuA lu~ 1983 es
fLFkfr vk fodklksUeq[k ,fg 'kfDr }kjk ijkftr gksbr iruksUeq[k cqtqZvkd fp=k
fgudj miU;kl ^xqedh vk fcgkfM+* izdkf'kr Hksy vk lu~ 1986 es nkslj miU;kl
Bk<+ djSr vfNA
^folwfo;l*A ^folwfo;l* eSfFkyh miU;kld fodkl&e es ifjfpr lacak vk
dFkkHkwfed p;u es iznhi fcgkjh lQy jgykg vfNA dSd rjgsa folwfo;ld
ekuo&pfj=kd fp=k izLrqr djSr lks>ka vcSr vfNA bZ miU;kl usikyd ,dVk
dFkkud dsa ljkgy tk ldSr vfNA iksFkhd Hkwfedk es thodkar iznhi dsa ^tuokn*
'kksf"kr ijkftr Hkw[kaMd tu&thou dsa dsanz es jkf[k d, fy[ky xsy vfNA ta
la cslh fudV dgyfu vfNA dFkkudd n`f"V,a Bhds bZ tuoknd cslh fudV
n`f"V dsa O;kid d,y tk, ra bZ tuin izkfrfufkd :i es drkSdks 'kksf"kr
NfFkA Hknziqj fLFkr ehy es kjrh&vkleku ,d d* d,] [kwu&ilsuk cgk d,
turk d ladsr n* ldS,A ,r, vfLrRo j{kk es tqVy turkd thoud lw{e
[kVfugkj etwjd O;FkkxkFkk vk igkM+h {ks=k] taxyh {ks=k es tkjfu csfp d, xqtj
fp=k izLrqr d,y xsy vfNA miU;kld dFkkuk;d euh'kd lax HkkoukRed
djck es 'kkldh; ra=k }kjk mifLFkr O;okkud fLFkfr dsa efLr"d es jkf[k vksfg
varjaxrk LFkkfir d* d, lektd ijnk rj >kaiy nqxk la ifjfpr Hksy tk
ij rS;kj d;y dFkkud iz'kaluh; vfNA miU;kl es vkfkdkfjd dFkkoLrq vk
ldSN] O;oLFkkd pfjd ,d&,dVk Hkwj dsa ns[ky tk ldSr vfNA
izklafxd dFkkoLrq] nquwd fuokZg lQy <axsa Hksy vfNA bZ ckr fHkUu] ts dFkkudd
iksFkhd uke vk vkoj.k fp=k cgqr jkl xw<+ rRod jgL;ksn~?kkVu djSr
rkuh&Hkjuh es drgq&drgq Qkad cq>kbr NfuA vkSiU;kfld f'kYid [khy
vfNA ^folwfo;l*] 'kCn laiw.kZ miU;kld ,Ddks iafDr es drgq O;or ufg
drkS&drkS <hy yxSr NfuA eqnk ?kVuk ed rhozrk vk rh{.krk rdjk >kafi
vfNA fuf'pr :isa ,fg miU;kld dFkk&Hkwfe la folwfo;ld dksuks rky&esy
nSr vfNA
g,ckd pkghA
euh'kd i<+kb] dFkkuk;dd ekbd #XukoLFkk] firkd e`R;q la y* d,
tkikud kjrh ij Tokykeq[kh ioZr ka[kykd ckgqY; vfN vk ioZr ka[kykd
;wfu;uckthd ek;es ehy ekfyd ij fot; izkfIr kfjd dFkk vk ^pEid*
ckgqY; usikyks es vfNA bZ vkapfyd miU;kl usikyd tkfg Hkw[kaMd vkapfydrk
rFkk fokok ^fyfidk*d jkxkRed lacakd dFkk] cschd ifjokjd tuhtkfrd l*[k
la Hkjy vfN] rr, vnkS la Je'khy ekuod 'kks"k.k gksbr vk,y vfNA bZ
la vFkok ykpkjho'k nsg cspckd dFkk] pEid la fikhd >a>fVd dFkk]
miU;kl vksgh 'kks"k.kd rkaMo vk izfrokn yhykd fp=k izLrqr djSr vfNA vFkkZr~]
esok&btksfr;k&Hkxyqvk bR;kfnd dFkk lHkd la;kstu dykRed <ax la Hksy vfNA
folwfo;ld dFkkuk;d euh'k dsa laiw.kZ miU;kl es ,gsu ,dksVk dFkkukf;dk vis{kk jgSr Ny] ls vcSr uba NyA dFkk dgckd ywfj Nfu] rsa bZ dksugqa oLrq&fo"k;
ufg HksVySd ts dFkkuk;d dsa drgq dksuks {ks=k es izsfjr d;us gksA L=kh ik=kd ij dFkk fyf[k ySr Nykg] ;|fi vks dFkk gksbr Ny ek=k ywfjd cysaA eqnk
laca/k es iznhid leLr jpuk lalkj dsa nsf[k d, c)ewy /kkj.kk lu yxSr ls ikNw vkfc d, nwj Hk* xsyfu vk ,[ku iznhi viu dFkk&ys[ku es i;kZIr
vfNA ga] ^ekb* ,dVk ,gsu pfj=k vo'; vfN ts izrhd :i es vb es mifLFkr lkokku NfFkA oLrq vk f'kYi nquw Lrj ijA
vfNA is'kk la cSad dehZ] #fp la jax dehZ vk deZ la dFkkdehZ] LoHkko la vk;kstu
pfj=k&fp=k.kgq es dSd izdkjd dykRedrk ns[kkvksy xsy vfNA drgq dehZ le; vk tkZd bZ cgqvk;keh mi;ksx fgudj ys[ku dsa drsd izHkkfor
euh'k dsa ljy&likV rjgsa fpf=kr d,y xsy vfN] drgq ,dVk csjkstxkj ;qodd vFkok vizHkkfor djSr Nfu] ls dgc dfBu vfNA eqnk vb leLr O;Lrrk
vR;ar f[kUu ekufldrk] ra drgq ehy es jkstxkj ikfc ysykd ckngq vksrqDdk vk vLr&O;Lrrkd chp iznhid dFkk&ys[ku le`) Hk* jgy vfN] bZ rks"kd ckr
etwjd 'kks"k.k nsf[k d, vkSukgfV NViVkgfV] ra drgq kafrd vxqvk vk lHk fFkdA dgy tk ldSr vfN ts iznhi rqeqy dksykgy vk O;okkud igkM+ dsa
la viwoZ ckr ts ehy efyfduhd izse fuosnud eqDr vkea=k.k dsa vLohdkj phfM+ d, vkxw cf<+ jgykg vfNA
djc rFkk ehy ekfydd csVhd U;ksNkoj d;y ;kSu Hkjy iq"V&dksey nsgd
mis{kk d* d, pfy nsc vR;ar euksfo'ys"k.kkRed <axsa Hksy vfNA ^folwfo;l*
es dFkksidFku vis{kkr cslh vfNA
ik=kd cgqfok fp=k.k djck dky vksdj ns'k] dky] okrkoj.k] dFkksidFku
bR;kfnd lekos'k djck es miU;kldkj lps"V jgykg vfNA lkekftd ifjos'k]
HkkSxksfyd ifjos'k] HkkSfrd ifjos'kd oSfo; jhfr&jsokt] os'k&Hkw"kk] vkpkj&fopkj
bR;kfn dykRedrk la O;Dr Hksy vfNA
ek=k bZ miU;kls Vk ufg] iznhi fcgkjhd dksuks fr ij utfj nh ra Li"V
gks,r ts fgudj laosnuk e;e oxZ vk fuEu e;e oxZd thoud la?k"kZ vk
vksdj folaxfr la lac) vfNA izkjaHk es fgudj ys[kud dFkkHkwfe lekU;r;k
usikyd tuthou gksbr NyA vkc bZ fefFkykd ikfjokfjd vk lkekftd ik[kaM
la mn~Hkwr tfVyrk vk folaxfr fn'k vfHkeq[k Hksykg vfNA ^Qkad*] ^yqkh*]
^edM+h*] ^eksVckg*] ^mijkSa>* vkfn dSdVk fgudj Lej.kh; dFkkd uke ysy tk
ldSr vfNA ;kSu&hM+k vk ;kSu&ihM+k fgudj dFkk es c eq[kj jgSr vfNA
fgudj dFkk lalkjd ,dVk fofp=k foMacuk vfN ts vfkdka'k L=kh ik=k nsg
rqf"V la eqDr uba Hk* icSr vfNA ekuoh; ftthfo"kkd ifgy 'krZ fFkd ^jksVh*A
rb jksVhd izkfIr gsrq fgudj iq#"k ik=k ra tku&izk.k yxkSus jgSr vfN] eqnk fgudj
L=kh ik=k ,[kugq] nsg Hkksx la mij ufg vkfc ldyfu vfNA ;|fi vks L=kh
ik=k izk;% lHk Bke fgudj la?k"kZ'khy uk;dd lacy vFkok dgh ra ms'; dsafnzr
lakku es fopyu fojkskh rRod :i es vcSr NfuA eqnk vksfg L=kh ik=kd vfLrRo
fgudj jpuk lalkj es Lokoyach tdka uba cfu icSr vfNA
iznhid jpuk lalkj es ,dVk vkvksj leL;k] iwoZd ys[ku es NyA fgudj
dFkk lHkd cqukofV es Qkad jfg tkbr NyA dFkk cfu ra tkbr Ny] eqnk
,rsd la[;k es dFkk fy[kykd ckn vksfg es tkfg fuLlurkd vk l?kurkd
eas fo;ksxhd fN;kyhl xksV 'kkunkj eSfFkyh dforkd ladyu ^gLr{ksi* vk 1997
es vM+rkyhl xksV y?kqdFkkd ladyu ^f'kykys[k* rFkk X;kjg xksV dFkkd ladyu
^vfre.k* izdkf'kr HksyA
^viu ;q)d lk{;* es rkjkuUn fo;ksxhd pkyhl xksV xty ladfyr
vfN] ts dF; vk cqukcfV nquw Lrj ij cgqjxa h n`'; mifLFkr djSr vfNA fo;ksxh
thoar jpukdkj NfFk] rdj izek.k bZgks ts ledkyhu thou la tqM+y izk;% lc
lanHkZ] lc izlax fgudj jpukd o`k es eq[kj Hksy vfNA
dksuks jpukd rF;kUos"k.k djck dky ifjn`'; fnl nsf[k ysc vko';d
izogeku Hkk"kkd fMDVsVj gksbr vfNA ,fg lanHkZ es loZizFke gejk le{k lektd ukjdh; n`'; vHkjSr
vfN] tr; euq"; dsa lkekftd] lkaLfrd vk kkfeZd dfFkr vuq'kklud Vkad
la Vkafd d* vksdj laiw.kZ ftuxh es ,dVk xqelM+kbu okrkoj.k rS;kj d* nsy
xsy vfNA
vkBe n'kd es mHky jpukdkj yksdfud ih<+h es rkjkuUn fo;ksxh ,d egRoiw.kZ
euqD[k dsa bZ thou&izf;k vkftt d;us vfN] eqnk eqfDr i;ckd dksugq
uke fFkdA
Vk ckV vks us ra rkfd ldSr vfN] vk us rdckd ysy isV&izk.kd leL;k&iwfkZ
fo;ksxh ledkyhu lkfgR;d izk;% lHk fokk es jpuk d;yfuA eqnk] gejk
la iy[kfr icSr vfNA fo;ksxhd xty] dfork] dFkk vk y?kqdFkk vb fLFkfrd
cq>us] ledkyhu lkfgR;d ifjlj es gqudj ts fokk lHk la lkFkZd gLr{ksi
vyce fFkdA
djSr vfN] ls fFkd vkykspuk] ts fd vks vis{kkr de fy[kyfu vfNA eSfFkyh
ledkyhu fo'olkfgR;d xHkZLFky] xaghj vkReckskd izfrQyu fFkdA
y?kqdFkkd {ks=k es lsgks fgudj dkt egRoiw.kZ vfNA csNi fo"k;&oLrq vk uwru
vkRecks/kd loksZPp f'k[kj ij csl lkeF;Zd lax igqafp i;ckd ysy trsd
'kSyh fgudj fo'ks"krk fFkdfuA fo;ksxh xty lsgks fy[kyfuA fgudj xty&laxzg
vko';d 'krZ lHk vfN] rkfg es ifgy fFkd ys[kdd viu n`f"Vdks.kA ls
^viu ;q)d lk{;* izdkf'kr vfNA
[kkgs thou es gks vFkok ys[ku esA thou dsa vrho fueZerk la ns[kckd izf;k
eSfFkyh es xty cgqr fnu la fy[ky tkbr jgy vfNA ifgy xtydkj
vk viu jpukdkj dsa vksfg Hkksx&{k.k la vyx d* d, vksfg vfHkf;kd izs{kd
ia- thou >k 1904 es xty fy[kyfuA eqnk] bZ kfj fuf'pr ts eSfFkyh xty
cu;ckd dykRedrk fo;ksxh es rrsd ekSfyd Nfu ts lgtfg fgudj O;fDr&Hkksx]
,fg 'krkCnhd uoe n'kdd izkjaHk es vkfc d* ppkZd fo"k; cuyA 1981
leqnk;&Hkksxd nLrkost cfu tkbr vfNA ,fg ifjizs{; es fo;ksxh v|kofk
es eSfFkyhd ifgy xty&laxzg] foHkwfr vkuUnd ^mBk jgy ?kks?k frfej* izdkf'kr
miyCk n`f"Vdks.k la thou dsa thckd rjhdk viukSyfu] tkfg e es vkRe&ijh{k.k
Hksy] vk ;Sg vks o"kZ fFkd tfg;k eSfFkyh xty ij ifgy csj vkykspdh; iz;kl
vk vkRe&ckskd volj gkFk yxyfuA bZ volj fgudj eksg&Hkaxd izfrQyu
Hksy] vk bZ izFke fucakdkj Nykg rkjkuUn fo;ksxhA ifgy csj ,kfg vkfc
fFkdA fgudj jpuk&lalkjd fo"k; es jktuhfrd] lkekftd] vkfFkZd] lkaLdkfjd]
eSfFkyh xty c`gkj vk;ke es ppkZd fo"k; cuyA xtyd ekns NiyA rfg;k
HkkoukRed fonzwirk ,kfg la viu okLrfod :i es vk;yA
fo;ksxh xty ufg fy[kSr Nykg] vkykspukfn fy[kSr NykgA rdj nw c[kZd
ledkyhu tu&thoud lkSfo;d fu;ked 'kfDr fFkd jktuhfrA ,djk
ckn vks xty&ys[kud {ks=k es izos'k d;yfuA
fcuk vktqd thou&izf;k laHko ufgA eSfFkyh&ys[ku la tqM+y drksd xksVs
bZ dgc fdUugq vfr'k;ksfDr ufg ts eSfFkyh xty dsa fo;ksxh kkjnkj
jktuhfrd n`f"V la rVLFk jgckd ckr dgSr NfFkA eqnk] ,dj vFkZ gks;r lkekftd
vk tq>k: rsoj nsyfu vfNA fgudj xty lHk pfpZr vk yksdfiz; lsgks HksyA
O;oLFkk vk tu&thoud izfr uiqald rVLFkrkA dkj.k] ledkyhu ifjos'kd vk
cgqr xksVs dsa fgudj xtyd vusd ikafr eksu gks;rfuA
thou&txrd dksugq Vk i{k jktuhfrd izHkko la Qjkd ufg vfNA rsa] ,djk
1983 es fo;ksxh xty&ys[ku fnl mUeq[k Hksykg] vk lkr c[kZd ckn
izfr ys[ku es rVLFkrk ns[kk;c oLrqr% uiqald rVLFkrk gks;r] ts jpuk'khyrkd
1990 es fgudj xty lHkd ifgy ladyu izdkf'kr HksyA ,dj ckn 1996
izklafxdrk es ckkd fFkdA ;|fi laiw.kZrk es jktuhfrd izfrQyu dsa idM+c
dfBu vfNA ,dj foLrkj vk O;kid izHkko dsa jpuk es xaHkhjrkiwoZd mBsckd fgudj dykRedrk dsa csl mapkb nSr NfuA fgudj Hkk"kk laLdkj rrck QjhN
ysy cgqr cslh kS;Z vk layXu'khyrkd vis{kk vfNA eSfFkyh es ta jktuhfrd Nfu] ts izs"k.kh;rkd mRd"kZ lHkrfj ns[kkbr vfNA Hkk"kkd lknxhd dkj.ksa
:i la n`f"VlaiUu jpuk de vk;y vfN] ra rdj ewy dkj.k ,gh kS;Z] laizs"k.khr;rkd fLFkfr fgud jpuk lHk es bZ vfN] ts dfork gks] dFkk gks]
layXu'khyrk vk xaHkhjrkd deh fFkdA xhr&xty&vkykspuk fdNq gks] vks lektd lHk oxZd vry eksu kfj igqapSr
fo;ksxhd xty lHk iw.kZr;k ,dVk jktuhfrd dkO;&jpuk fFkd] tdjk vfNA Hkk"kk&f'kYi es ikafMR; Hkjfugkj ys[kd yksdfu dsa bZ eksu jk[k*d pkfgvfu]
laxsa mfpr layXu'khyrk vk kS;Z ra NSds] xaHkhjrkiw.kZ n`f"V lsgks vk|ksikar NSdA ts] ta jpukd ikB lkekU; Jksrk@ikBd dsa idfM+ uba ld,] ra vks jpuk uba
jktuhfrd ys[ku es ,dVk tksf[ke vkvksj jgSr vfNA ls bZ ts cnySr HksyA dgy xsy vfN] ts ^gfj.k ra xhr jl yaiV] ts xhr I;kly xk; dsa
le;&kkjkd lax jpukd izklafxdrk U;wu gksbr t;ckd Hk; lnSo O;kIr jgSNA ikfu nsf[k nkSM+Sr dky Bkefg jksfd fnv,] ls Hksy xhr*A vFkkZr~ lkfgR;dkj
bZ tksf[ke mBc* es fo;ksxh drgq viu dkUg ufg fNiyfuA vksuk] vktqd ys[ku vFkok dksuks vku vuq'kklud fo}ku ra i<+ckd ysy vH;Lr gksbr vfNA tu
es lkgfldrk ,d vko';d 'krZ tdka Hk* xsy vfN] vU;Fkk vuqHkwfrd lkfgR; ra vly es vks Hksy] tdj ikB vui<+ O;fDr kfj dsa izHkkfor d*
vfHkO;fDr, ,dVk leL;k Hk* tk;r] Hk* bZgks ldSr vfN ts cnySr le;&kkjkd fnv,A rb :i es fo;ksxhd lkfgR; tu&lkfgR; fFkdA vksuk bZ thodkar cyk
e es fo;ksxhd jktuhfrd ys[kud izklafxdrk lsgks U;wu Hk* tkbd( eqnk ,fg vks pqbxa e uba fFkd] ts fo;ksxhd dfork laxgz ij ppkZ djSr vks nsus jgfFku ^fo;ksxhd
lwpuk lHkd i{k es lHk la iS?k ckr bZ vfN] ts us ra ,fg es drgq dykRedrkd dfork nfyr lkfgR;d eSuhQsLVks fFkd*A vb pqbaxe dsa ta fo;ksxh fpck,c
deh vk;y vfN] vk us xaHkhjrkdA 'kq#g djrkg ra elqgfj [kjkc Hk* tsrfuA thodkar bZ ikarh fuf'fpr :i la
ts ize[q k fo"k;&oLrq fo;ksxhd xty lHk es eq[kj Hksy vfN] ls fFkd jktuhfrd fcuk lkspus fopkjus fy[kus gsrkgA fgUnh es nfyr lkfgR;d >aMk Qgjk,c
fonzwirk] fofok leL;k lHk la xNkjy tu&thoud vdqykgfV] dqaBkjfgr vk ,dVk jktuhfr fFkdA eSfFkyh es vb jktuhfrd dksuks iz;kstu uba vfNA ts&ls-
le&osnuke; thou thckd vkxzg] vak&o`fkd fojksk] oSKkfud vk izxfr'khy --
fopkj&iz.kkyhd izfr vkLFkk] kkfeZd :f<+d fojksk vkfnA fo;ksxhd dFkk] dfork] xty] xhr] vkykspuk( oLrq] 'kSyh] f'kYi lc
mnwZ&Qkjlh la lh[ky ok mkkj ysy xsy xtyd ts lkekU; ifjHkk"kk cuSr vFks tuin vk lkekU; tuthou dsa lacksfkr vfNA fgudj dforkd ewy Loj
vfN] rdjk vkkkj ij ,dVk iz'u efLr"d es mBSr vfN dh eryk] eDrk] fFkdfu vke turkd bPNk&vkdka{kkd gark oxZd fojksk] izfri{kd Hkwfedk vk
'ksj] ;Sg fFkd xty \ gejk fopkjsa] fdUugq ufgA ,fg leLr dkO;kaxd lax dFkkd ewy Loj fFkfdvfu xzkeh.k tuin es vFkZ ra=kd ijkHko la [kkSa>k,y
lHk la cslh egRoiw.kZ vfN ,dj vfUofr] ,dj peRdkfjd miLFkkiuA vk] lkearh LoHkkod dqfVy vkpj.k dsa m?kkjc] Je'khy ekuod vkfFkZd n'kkd fed
rkfg vfUofr vk miLFkkiu es fo;ksxh cgqr lQy NfFkA jnhQ vk dkfQ;kd lqkkjd iz'kalk djc--- vkfnA vgh tfVy ifjos'k vk dqfVy ifjn`'; es jpy
,rsd lekkuy iz;ksx de xtydkjd jpuk es HksVSr vfNA xsy fo;ksxhd jpuk lalkj lgtfga tulkfgR; Hk* tkbr vfN] ra bZ Js; fo;ksxhd
mnwZ 'kCnd iz;ksx fo;ksxhd xty es v[kjSr jgSr vfNA ,djk cnyk es tulacak dsa tkbr NfuA
nksljks 'kCn lHk lgtrk la rkdy tk ldSr NyA ckskxE; gksbrgq ,gu 'kCnd
ckgqY; jpukdkjd BsB eSfFkyh 'kCnd nkfjnz~;d ckskd fFkdA rsa fgudk vb
rjgd iz;ksx la cpckd pkfgvfuA
xzkE; ifjos'kd Qdjk] dgkor] eksgkojk vkfnd iz;ksx vk okD;&foU;kld
lgtrk rrsd tkunkj <ax la bZ lfg;kjSr NfFk ts bZ lHkVk fefy d* ,dVk
vuqie 'kSyhd Lo:i Bk<+ djSr vfNA Qsj mnwZ 'kCnd tcnZLrh iz;ksxd dh
iz;kstu !
vR;ar la;eiwoZd ckr dgckd vH;klh fo;ksxh ts jpSr NfFk] cgqr vkjke
la jpSr NfFkA gqudk drgq vxqrkb ufg jgSr NfuA foyafcr 'kSyhd bZ izokg
dFkk lHk lSg vngu fFkdA fgudj dFkk&dkS'ky vk LokuqHkwfr es vks rki vfN]
vks m"ek vfN] ts vfu"V dsa tjk ldSr vfN vk vHkh"V dsa iuxk ldSr vfNA
vktqd le; es 'krkCnh dsa fonk djSr&djSr fefFkyk vla[; leL;k la
la?k"kZ d* jgy vfNA csjkstxkjh] csdkjh] Qwfl] Qjsc] kks[kk] ik[kaM] gR;k] naxk]
Qlkn] pksfj] cVekfj] vf'k{kk] vuqi;qDr f'k{kk vk jktuhfrd vijkkhdj.k]
lkk&yksyiq O;fDr }kjk lekt fojkskh gjDdfr lc fefFkyk es O;kIr vfNA
lekftd f'k"Vkpkj] ikfjokfjd laca k] tuinh; laons uk lHkd yksi Hk* pqdy
vfNA vHkko ijkdk"Bk ij] tek[kksjh rkgw la vkxw ,fg =kkln okkrkoj.k es
LokHkkfod vk LokfHkekuh thoud dFkk f'ko'kadj Jhfuokl is'kk la f'k{kd] eqnk xke es jfg d, fefFkykd lqPpk
ukxfjdd lax thou fcrk jgy NfFk] dFkk jfp jgy NfFk] dFkkud cqfu jgy
NfFk] dF; chfN jgy NfFkA izk;% b,g xzkeokl fgudj dFkkdkj dsa thou&jl
vk jpukRed tkZ n* jgy NfuA
chle 'krkCnhd vkBe n'kd eSfFkyh dFkk ys[ku ysy ,sfrgkfld n'kd fFkdA
orZeku le; es rh{.krj <axsa ts dFkk lHk fy[kk jgy vfN] rkfg es
i;kZIr la[;k es vb n'kd es eSfFkyhd csl leFkZ dFkkdkjd izos'k Hksy vk fdNq
f'ko'kadj Jhfuokld uke egRoiw.kZ <axas ysy tkbr NfuA dF; vk f'kYi nquw
izfo"V dFkkdkj] viu ifjfpfr cukSyfuA vb n'kdd dFkkdkj lHk es egRoiw.kZ
Lrj ij f'ko'kadj eSfFkyh dFkkd fodkl es i;kZIr ;ksxnku nsyfu vfN] n*
NfFk foHkwfr vkuan] fouksn fcgkjh yky] uohu pkSkjh] rkjkuUn fo;ksxh] f'ko'kadj
jgykg vfNA lektd R;kT; vk vuns[ky fo"k; oLrq dsa viu dFkk es mBcSr
Jhfuokl] v'kksd] iznhi fcgkjh] 'kSysUnz vkuUn] jes'k vkfnA f'ko'kadj Jhfuokl
NfFk] fdNq ,gsuks fo"k; lHk] ,guks leL;k lHk] ts ewyr% xzkeh.k tuind uba
viu laiw.kZ ih<+h es csNi Nfo cukSfugkj dFkkdkj NfFkA f'ko'kadj vksuk fdNq
fFkd] vks oSKkfud izxfr vk 'kgjd vke.k la uo&uo leL;k mRiUu Hksy
dfork] fdNq xhr] fdNq vkykspukRed ys[k] fdNq y?kqdFkk lsgks fy[kus NfFk]
vfN] vk xzkeh.k leL;k la fefy d, kWl&czhM leL;k cucSr vfNA gkyfg
FkksM+sd laiknu dk;Z vk fdNq 'kksk dk;Z lsgks d,us NfFkA eqnk ge ewyr% fgudk
es fgudj ,dVk dFkk lquy vfN ^fpark*A ok;qeMa yh; izn"w k.k] f"k deZ ij
dFkkdkj ekuSr NhA dFkk ys[ku es ,[ku kfj bZ viu ts LFkku cuk ldykg
vk?kkr] xzkeh.k ;qodd iyk;u] bZ iyk;u xke la] nkf;Ro la] lacak la] ekuork
vfN] rdj rqyuk es vku fokkd ys[ku >wl lkfcr gksbr NfuA ppksZ&cpkZ
la( ;qodd ekrk&firkd vb fpark es vusd ekufld O;k;ke] vksfg ekrk&firkd
fgudk ij uhds tdka gksbr jgy vfNA ifgy csj ^f=kdks.k* uked lk>h ladyu
gkfnZd ihM+k] larku foNksgd nq[k bZ lcVk fefy d, vb dFkk es ts izHkko
es fgudj fdNq dFkk v'kksd vk 'kSysUnz vkuand dFkkd laxsa ladfyr HksyA
mRiUu dsyd vfN] ls eSfFkyh dFkkd ysy miyfCk fFkdA
rnqijkar 1991 es ifgy csj fgudj Lora=k ladyu ^vngu* izdkf'kr HksyA vb
tsuk fd dgy xsy] f'ko'kadjd dFkkHkwfe lkekU;r;k xke fNvfu] eqnk
ladyu es fgudj ianzg xksV fof'k"V dFkk ladfyr vfNA rRi'pkrks yxkrkj
rsa bZ uba dgy tk, ts fgudj dFkkd fo"k; jk"Vh; uba vfNA f'kYi bZ viuk
fgudj dFkk lHk i=k&if=kdk es vcSr jgy vfN vk dFkk xks"Bh lHk es bZ ikB
rjgsa fodflr d,yfu vfN] vk ,fg 'kSfYid fodkl es fgud xzkeokld
djSr jgykg vfNA
;ksxnku i;kZIr NfuA uxj&egkuxj es jgfugkj O;fDrd laons uk vk kS;Z nquw
^vngu* fgudj dFkklaxzgd uke fFkdA vb 'kh"kZdd ,dks xksV dFkk vb
vkgr jgSr vfNA egkuxjh; thou&i)frd vkik&kkih la izHkkfor Hksyk fcuk]
es uba vfNA rFkkfi vb ladyud vb uked lkFkZdrk vfNA la?k"kZ es Msx
dksuks O;fDr dksuk jfg ldr ! vk tdj thous vkikkkih la] gM+cM+h vk cspSuh
ysckd mi;qDr okrkoj.k fn'k ^vngu* ladrs djSr vfN ls dFkkdkjd dgc
la izHkkfor jgr vks dFkk dh fy[kr \ vksrgq vksdjk gM+cM+h iNkM+us jgrSA
NfuA oLrqr% vngu tsuk [kkSySr vfN vk tsuk gqejSr vfN] ggkbr vfN]
vly es dFkkdkj dksuks Mkfd;k vFkok v[kckjd gkWdj uba gksbr vfN] ts
Hkkjkskksyud tkZ vksfg es tsuk O;kIr jgSr vfN] pkmj lu vadM+k vk dqikP;
gkab&gkab d, fph vk fd v[kckj Qsdyd vk Qsj nkslj nqvkfj ijA dFkkokpu
nkuk dsa Hkkr lu fl)kUu vk lqikP; vk LoLF;o)Zd cucSr vfN f'ko'kadjd
vk dFkk Jo.k izkjaHkfg la jkfr d, gksbr Ny] t[ku yksd thou ;kiud
leLrd gypy la fu'pr Hk* tkbr NyA kS;Z la dFkk dgy vk lquy tkbr ^fluqjgkj* dFkk es L=kh nqnZ'kkd ysy ds nks"kh ekuy tk,r \ ?kj&ifjokj
NyA f'ko'kadj kS;Z la dFkk dgS NfFk] vFkkZr~ fy[kS NfFkA ,d&,dVk ckrd vk Vksy&iM+ksld L=kh] ts viufg ifjokjd fokok ;qorh dsa leLr 'kqHk volj
^fMVsy* dgrkgA vb ^fMVsy* es drgq&drgq vfrdFku Hk* tkbr Nfu] eqnk ,uk la oafpr j[kSr vfN \ vkfd vks lekt] ts bZ vkpkj lafgrk ekfu jgy vfN \
uba gksbr vfN ts dFkk vlaizsf"kr jfg tk,A vkfd dSd ih<+h ikNwd firj yksdfu] ts ijaijk cukSus gsrkg \ dqyk feyk d,
f'ko'kadj Jhfuokld tkap iM+rky ta fgudj jpukd ek;es d,y tk,] ns[kh] ra dsvks nks"kh uba vfN] vb leLr dqjhfrd var ysy lkekftd uotkxj.kd
ra xtc leUo; HksVrA orZeku le; es euq";d LoHkko fofp=k rjgsa ifjofrZr vko';drk vfNA vk] ls ladsr fgudj dFkk lc es vcSr jgSr vfNA
Hksy vfN laLfr&j{kkd uke ij ijaijk la vcSr yksdkpkj dsa fuekgckd ftn ^lhrkiqjd lquSuk* ra vn~Hkqr dFkk vfNA ifgy iafDr la vafre iafDr kfj
es fdNq djiaFkh ,gsu HksfV t,rkg] ts LFkku&dky&ik=kd fopkj d,us fcuk ftKklkd rkj f?kpkbr jgSr vfNA dFkk&ikB dky ikBd mRlqdrko'k dFkkd
vO;kogkfjd vk vizklafxdks ckr dsa idM+us jgrkg vFkok izxfr'khyrkd ukeij vfxyk ?kVukd vuqeku djSr tkbr vfNA eqnk bZ dFkk gjsd iafDr es ikBdd
ijaijkd vO;kogkfjdks ckr dsa udkjSr jgrkgA f'ko'kadj vb nquw fopkjd fojkskh lHk vuqeku dsa vlQy djSr ,dVk ,gsu ifj.kfrd lax lekIr gksbr vfN]
NfFkA izxfr'khy gsckd ikNw drgq bZ vfr kafrdkjh uba ns[kkb iM+rkg vk us ts pfdr Hk* tk, iM+Sr vfNA b,g fFkd dFkkd lQyrkA ,fguk ^viuk ysy*
ijaijk j{kdd :i es drgq ik[kaMhA b,g dkj.k fFkd ts ^lhrkiqqjd lquSuk* dFkk es fueZyk vk vk'kk ,fg nquVw k ckfydk dsa thou lakkud iwokZH;kl
dFkkd ukf;dk dsa vkfFkZd LofuHkZjrkd lykg nsyfu vfNA bZ dksuks vfr djkvksy tkbr vfN] fueZyk] laHkkfor lklq&llqj&c*j&lklqj dsa izlUu djckd
kafrdkjh tdka vksdj iqufoZokg uba djcSr NfFk] fgudj dksuks ik=k vkRe fuHkZj izf'k{k.k ikfc jgy vfN vk vk'kk] viuk dsa izlUu j[kckd izf'k{k.k ikfc jgy
gsckd iz;kl es jgSr vfN] fgudj ik=kd tkZd viO;; uba tdka ns[kkbr vfNA vb rqyukRed fp=k.k es f'ko'kadj ,dVk vkvksj egRoiw.kZ dkt d,yfu
vfNA tkZd O;kogkfjd mi;skxd fp=k.k] us ek=k dFkk es mRd"kZ vk pfj=k&fp=k.k vfN] vk ls fFkd bZ lans'k ts izxfr dkeuk ih<+hd fodkl la uba c<+Sr vfNA
es thoarrk HkjSr vfN] cfYd lkekftd fuekZ.k es lsgks fof'k"V ;ksxnku nSr vk'kkd ekb&cki iqjku ih<+hd jfgrgqa izxfrdkeh vk O;kogkfjd thou&n`f"V
vfNA pwafd jpukd ek;es lkekftd f'k"Vkpkjd izfrLFkkiu es lkfgR;dkjd j[kfugkj NfFk] t[ku fd fueZyk uo ih<+hd jfgrgqa] i<+fy&fy[kfy gksbrgqa
Hkwfedk egRoiw.kZ gksbr vfN] rsa dksuks jpukd lexz izHkkod lax lax vksdj thoud izfr O;kogkfjd n`f"V la P;qr jgyhgA dFkk dsa ekalymkstd vk
,d&,d iafDr egRoiw.kZ gksbr vfNA voekuukd vFkZ es uba vk izokge;h cuk,ckd e es dksuks egku ?kVukd
L=kh] fdlku vk o`) bZ rhu oxZ fefFkyk es vkfFkZd vk 'kSf{kd ijra=krkd l`tu d,us fcuk dFkkdkj ,rsd egku ckr d* tkbr NfFk] ts oLrqr% vks dFkks
dkj.ksa mis{kkd f'kdkj gksbr vk,y vfNA vb rhuw oxZd nqnZ'kkd izfr f'ko'kadj la egku Hk* tkbr vfNA
csl fpafrr vk ;kstukc) <axsa vb rhuw oxZd leL;k lks>j,ck es ykxy NfFkA ik=k vk ?kVukd fooj.k es oSkrk vk voSkrk rkd, ykxh] ra fgudj dFkk
vgh chp ,dVk [kkl ckr bZgks ns[kkbr vfN] ts fgudj ik=k i;kZIr cq>uqd vk i<+Sr dky dSd csj xqfukqfud fLFkfr mRiUu Hk* tkbr vfNA dSd csj fgudj
le; la ifgus psr tkb oyk vk viu HkkX;&fuekZrk Lo;a cuS oyk lc NfuA dFkk es bZ fu.kZ; djc dfBu Hk* tkbr vfN ts] ds Bhd vfN] ds xyr \ lcVk
fluqjgkj] lhrkiqjd lquSuk] viuk ysy] vkfn drksd dFkk L=kh leL;k dsa ifjfLFkfrd nks"k cq>kbr jgrA ^vknad* dFkk es ^vfejrh*d csVk d e`R;q] c*j
dsanz es jkf[k d, fy[ky xsy vfNA L=khd ijkJ;h g,cs vksdjk thoud lc la nqjko vkfnd dkj.k dh ls fu.kZ; djc dfBu vfNA 'kq) euksfo'ys"k.kkRed
la ewy leL;k fFkdA lkekU;r;k vku&vku Hkk"kk&lkfgR;d ukjhoknh \ L=kh kjkry ij fy[ky bZ dFkkd fo"k; ,gsu misf{kr thouka'k la mBkvksy xsy vfN]
ik=k la gks gYyk epckSRkkg] iq#"k&ik=k la gkFkk&ikgh djckSrkg] eksdnek djckSrkg] tsEgj ddjgq utfj uba xsy gks,rA cky&euksfoKku la ifjokj vk nkaiR; thou
dksVZ dpgjh] ukjh lsy vkfnd pDdj dVckSrkg] eqnk fgudk vksr, ukjhd es ,rsd xaHkhj vk Hk;kud leL;kd mn;d laHkkouk rkdc] fuf'pr :i la
vksgu dksuks dYius uba vfN] ifjokj vk ifjokjd L=khd izfr ,d HkO;&fnO; f'ko'kadjd Js"B dFkkn`f"Vd ifjpk;d fFkdA fefFkyk es duSr cPpk dsa pqi
kkj.kk laiw.kZ dFkk ys[ku es HksVSr vfNA ta fgudj jpuk es ukjhd fLFkfr drgq dj,ck ysy Hk; vk vknadd lwpuk nsc vke ckr Hk* xsy vfNA eqnk vb
FkksM+ cgqr xM+cM+ vfN] ra rdj ewy dkj.k ikfjokfjd de vk lkekftd cslh rkRdkfyd 'kkafrd ysy vks laiw.kZ thoud larkulq[k vk nkaiR;lq[k dksuk yqVk
gksbr vfN] fu;frd dkj.k cslh gksbr vfNA ldSr vfN] rdj pfdr djck ;ksX; fp=k.k vb dFkk es HksVSr vfNA ;|fi vgw
dFkkd vafre va'k es dFkkokpdd ifr&iRuh laokn la L=kh Lokoyacud trsd
etcwr vkkkj Li"V Hksy vfN] ls iz'kaluh; fFkdA
vgh rjgsa] vFkZ yksyqi mPp f'kf{kr oxZd vukpkj] ikb vk lkekftd
ekU;rkd tksj ij fl)karoknh vk uSf"Bd yksdd voekuuk] o`)&cqtqxZd vlqj{kk
cksk] f"k vk yksd&dyk] yksd&laLfrd izfr vuqjkx vkfn fgudj dFkk es csl
txg ikSyd vfNA
kks[kk] vfo'okl] vukLFkk] furkar fukZurks es fu"Bk vk O;kogkfjdrkd
fuokZgd izfr vkxzg vkfn fp=k fgudj dFkkfr es fpf=kr Hksy vfNA ^btksr*]
^ckaV&c[kjk*] ^ifuMqCch*] ^clkr es mfM+vkbr yksd*] ^viu&ijkj* vkfn dFkk lHk v|rufo"k;deuekSthdfo
es ,fg fLFkfrd fp=k viu laiw.kZ vfLrRod lax mifLFkr vfNA
dqy feyk d, f'ko'kadj Jhfuokld dFkkd y{; ,dVk 'kkar] lgt vk
LokfHkekuh thou O;rhr dj*oyk ifjokj vk lektd LFkkiuk fFkdA vFkkZr~
jes'k] eSfFkyh lkfgR;d dFkk] dfork vk xtyd {ks=k es viu ekSfyd vuqHkwfrd
fgudj dFkk lqPpk vFkZ es lgt ekuoh; lacakd izfr vkxzgh jgSr vfNA dFkk
kjkry la mBkvksy fo"k;d dkj.ksa rFkk tulkekU;d izfr viu vkSnk;Zd dkj.ksa
uk;d] vkfd dFkkdkj tuSr NfFk] ts lekt es <ksax] ik[kaM] xjhch] csdkjh]
Lora=k vfLerk cuk pqdy NfFkA dFkkdkj jes'kd Lrjh;rkd ifjp; dFkk laxzg
leL;k] vkrad] Qwfl] Qjsc] kks[kk] vukLFkk] voekuuk] vieku] :f<+---lc NSd]
^lek* vk xtydkj jes'kd Lrjh;rkd ifjp; fgudj Lora=k laxzg ^ukxQsuh*
eqnk lc fdNqd vNSr ta euq"; pkg, ra vksdjk thou thck ysy] viu vfLrRo
rFkk xty ladyu ^yksd osn vk ykyfdyk* es rkdy tk ldSr vfNA
dk;e dj* ysy] viu vfLerk cuc* ysy tkfg vkfx] tkfg "ekd iz;kstu
vkBe n'kdd mkjk)sZ la jes'k csl f;k'khyrk vk iz[kj jpukkfeZrkd
NSd] rdjk ysy fpuxh lsgks vgh lekt es NSdA f'ko'kadjd dFkk vgh fpuxhd
lax l`tu'khy jgykg vfNA fgudj dfork 1990 es vkfc d, laxzfgr
vuqlakku djSr vkfc jgy vfN] d* jgy vfNA
Hk* ldyA
ns'k Lora=k vfN] lc dsa lekurkd vfkdkj izkIr vfN] eqnk dsvks Hkw[ksa
efj jgy vfN] dsvks Hkw[k txkc*d bykt djcSr vfN] dsvks vusjks cfd jgy
vfN] ddjks viu nnZ dgckd NwV ufg( fnu Hkfj ifjJe d,fugkj ekfV ij
lwr, eqnk vksdjk ij twfr py,fugkj iyax ij bZ oS"kE; jes'k dsa ufg ns[ky
HksyfuA viu laiw.kZ {kerkd lax d,y ifjJed cnyk es mfpr ikfjJfedd
vHkko] 'kks"k.k] vukpkj] iziap vkfn lkekftd fofr fgudj dksey LoHkko dsa
csl izHkkfor d,ydfu vfNA ,fg lR; la fgudk ifjfpr gsck es nsjh ufg
yxyfu] ts iwt a hokn vk vQlj'kkgh nqb, Vk ewy dkj.k fFkd 'kks"k.kdA
iwathifr] O;kikjh] lwn[kksj] tek[kksj] vukpkjh vkfn&vkfn vlkekftd rRo dsa
ljdkjh laj{k.k HksVSr vfN( bZ leLr vax lekt es nkslj fn'k Hkw[k] leL;k]
csdkjh] vukpkj] 'kks"k.k] gR;k] ywfV vkfnd QSDVh pycSr vfN ,fg l`ftr
foMacuk la jes'k uhd tdka ifjfpr NfFkA QyLo:i] la?k"kZ'khy ukxfjdd izfr
fgudj laosnuk vR;fkd vkidrk j[kSr vfNA
fo"k;d Lrj ij loZ=k] dfod laosnuk ,dy Lo:i es vfNA [kkgs
izse&izlax es mifLFkr ckkk gks vFkok csdkjhd leL;k la dq'rh yM+Sr euksn'kk( x| dfork vb iksFkh es ladfyr vfNA ;FkkFkZ Hkksxd lw{erk] xgurk vk
'kks"k.kd tkar es filkbr O;fDrd vkkZukn gks vFkok izxfrd ckV es dkaV bZekunkjhd Lrj dksugqa jpukdkjd izfrHkk dsa jpukd fokk vk QkeZ r; djckd
mifLFkr nsf[k izxfrdkeh loZgkjkd O;Fkkxhr lHk Bke dfo ,dfg :i es Bk<+ funsZ'k nSr vfNA tkfg jpukdkjd izfrHkk vb funsZ'k dsa Bhd la xzg.k d* ySr
NfFkA vk] lxjs fgudj uSfrdrk fuEu vk fuEu e;fok O;fDrd lax tqM+y vfN] ls vksb fokk vk QkWeZ es lQy gksbr NfFk] vU;Fkk laizs"k.kh;rk vk
vfNA lHk Bke fgudj dforkd fo"k; vksgh oxZd thou&;FkkFkZ cuSr vfNA izHkkoksRikndrkd ikarj es cSly vkykspdd vk'k rdSr jgSr vfNA jes'k vb
eqnk] n`f"Vdks.kd Lrj ij] viu leLr dfork es] dfo nw Lo:i es Bk<+ gksbr QkeZ p;u es vk vuqHkwfrd laizs"k.k es lQy Hk* ldykg vfN] ls ckr ^leosr
NfFkA ;FkkfLFkfrd Hkksx vk rkfg ij O;fFkr eksu la fparu&jksnu ,oa ;FkkfLFkfrd Lojd vkxw* iqLrd dgSr vfNA
Hkksxd dkj.ksa eksu es mBy fonzksgd HkkoukA dfork 'kh"kZd ^;FkkfLFkfrd cknd vb ladyud leLr dfork lu~ 1990 la lu~ 1995 kfj fy[ky xsy
ysy*] ^,dVk nkslj fn'kk es c<+ckd fFkd*] ^xwM+*] ^lpZykbV dsa gkFkd b'kkjk d: vfNA bZ ckr laiw.kZ Hkkjrs Vk ufg laiw.kZ fo'od turk tuSr vfN ts orZeku
nksl*] ^Hkxr flagd olh;rukek*] ^'kwU; dky la 'kwU; dky kfj* vkfnA nkslj 'krkCnhd vafre rhu n'kd Hkkjrd turk ysy dksu rjgsa ihM+d n'kd lkfcr
n`f"Vdks.kd jpuk fFkd] tr, dfo viu nSU;d izfrdkj ysy QqQdkfj mBy Hksy vfNA rhoz la rhozrj xfr,a ,r, ljdkj cnySr xsy] vke pquko] e;kofk
NfFkA pquko] xBcaku] lefFkZr ljdkj] oS'kk[kh ijLr ljdkj vkfn&vkfn ns'k vk jkT;
jes'kd dfork laxzg ^lksj* oLrqr% vksfg 'kfDrd laksj fFkd] tdjk es es gksbr jgyA dfg;ks Hkkjrd turk dsa viu izfrfufkd p;u dj* ysy
lektd ,fg fofr] oS"kE;] 'kks"k.k] iziap vkfnd fojkskd Tokyk vfNA ,fg lqfparud volj uba nsy xsyA vkdqyrk vk O;xzrk es Hkkjrd turk viu
leLr dfork es dfo viu nSU;d ysy nq%[kh NfFk] eksu es vkks'kd vkok itfj izfrfufk cnySr xsyA jes'k vgh fodjky ifjfLFkfrd izfrQyu dsa viu
jgy Nfu( vjktdrk vk 'kks"k.kd izk.knk;h rRo dsa uSfrdrkd ikB i<+cSr NfFk( dforkd fo"k; cukSyfuA
,fg leLr fojkskd fpuxh] Tokyk cfu mBy vfN ,oa dfo viu leLr fcac&izrhdd p;u es fdNq Bke jes'k vlaizsf"kr jfg xsykg vfNA eqnk
psrukd lax fonzksgd Loj la QqQdkfj jgy vfNA bZ r; vfN ts ^'kCn*] ^in*] ^yksdksfDr* vk ^dgch* lHk dsa bZ uo&uo vFkZ nsckd
^y{e.k&js[kk viu&viu*] ^tqfu pqpdkj*] vk ^pkgs fdNq Hk* tk,* vkfn m|ksx lrr djSr v,ykg vfNA rkfg es drksd Bke lQyrks HksVyfu] ra
dfork es dfo vukpkjhd laHkkfor nqnZ'kkd ?kks"k.kk djSr NfFk] viu 'kfDrd drgq vlQyrksA
iz[kjrk vk lgu'khyrk vk nqnkr d"V lgSrks fojkskd Loj mUeq[k j[kckd lkgl jes'kd l`tu lalkj es foKku] i;kZoj.k] laLfr] bfrgkl] n'kZu] Hkwxksy]
j[kSr NfFkA eqnk ^eujksx* 'kh"kZd dforkd ikarh---vkud c[kjk [ksus@gksbrfg Vk HkweaMyhdj.k] jktuhfr] lkfgR;] ijaijk] osn] iqjk.k] vkkqfudrk] mkj vkkqfudrk]
NS eujksx* fgudk viu {kerkd izfr detksj djSr vfNA ^,dVk pqjhu*] varfj{k] lkSjeaMy] varjkZ"Vh; O;kikj] jk"Vh;&varjkZ"Vh; leL;k dksuks oLrq
^thou&lafxuh*] ^bZ izse&i=k ufg Fkhd*] ^MkDVj la*] ^,dVk thcSr ygkl* izHk`fr R;kT; uba fFkdA eqnk rsa varjkZ"Vh; eqk mBcSr dky fgudj dfork Hkk"kk la
dfork lHk es ;|fi dfo viu nSU; ij dkfu jgy NfFk] O;Fkk la NViVk jgy eSfFkyh vk fo"k; cksk la dksuks vku Hkk"kkd uba Hk* tkbr vfNA vksgw dky fgud
NfFk] eqnk O;Fkkd ,fg ijkdk"Bk ij lsgks bZ dk;j ufg nsf[k iM+Sr NfFkA O;oLFkkd fo"k;&fokku [kkaVh eSfFky jgSr vfNA
izfr viu vlarks"k dsa bZ viu v'kD;rkd >wy ufg ifgjkSyfuA QyLo:i bZgks oSKkfud vonku la izHkkfor lektd eukso`fk vk f;k&vuqf;k rFkk
dfork lHk vkks'kd fLFkfr es fonzksgd >aMk rkfd jgy vfNA bysDVksfud vke.k la vkrafdr vk ,d lhek kfj vuq'kkflr lektd
^lksj* dforklaxzg vlarks"k] eksg&Hkax] vukLFkk vkfn la y* d, fonzksg thou&p jes'kd dfork es ,u&esu mrfj t,ck la ckt uba vcSr vfNA
kfjd ;k=kk fFkd( tkfg es dfo mtM+y eud O;Fkk la] Majf[ky xked dFkk la] jktuhfrd] lkekftd] vkfFkZd] HkkSxksfyd] oSKkfud] jk"Vh;] varjkZ"Vh;---lHk
thcSr ygkld n'kk la] csjkstxkj yksdd eqagd xUg la] lkekftd fonzwirkd na'k Qyd ij jes'kd dfork v|ru jgSr vfNA ,d lhek kfj jes'kd dfork dsa
HkksxSr tu lkekU;d fclfcLlh la ifjfpr gksbr NfFk( ,fg leLr foMacukd djsaV bosaVd Mk;jh tdka i<+ckd vk xquckd volj ikBd fudkfy ldSr NfFkA
HkqDrHkksxh leqnk; la iz'u iqNrS NfFk ^dfg;k kfj \* vFkkZr~ jes'kd cslh dfork dsa lKku] lpj vk csl vkhr yksdd ysy cslh mi;ksxh
jes'kd dforkd nkslj ladyu fFkd ^leosr Lojd vkxw*A vBkou xksV dgy tk ldSr vfNA
vyadkjd cks> vk ,dfg iafDr es dSdVk lacak dkjd foHkfDr la
fo'ks"k.kd l`tu fdNq Bke dforkd lEgkj es ufg vcSr NSd vk rkfg la
dforkd fdNq iafDrd lkSan;Z izHkkfor Hk* tkbr vfNA eqnk dfork es yqIr gksbr
'kCn vk miek dsa jes'k iquthZfor d,yfu vfNA

ldkjkRedLojdizxfrdkehdfork

^Hkksjd vk;c@fufoM+ vUgkj dsa@Qkalh n* nsckd lwpuk vkuc ufg fFkd@izdk'k


vkuc fFkd@ ts gej cUu f[kM+dh ij@viuk gkFkd Fkki nhv;* ,fg ikarhd
dfo ukjk;.k th eSfFkyhd dksey vk ifjiDo fetktd dfo NfFkA kukRed
n`f"Vd rh{.k rsoj oyk FkksM+ dfo NfFk eSfFkyh es] ts fpdjk&Hkksdjh es fo'okl
uba j[kS NfFkA ,rs /kfj] ts mygu&mijkx kfj es fgudj Hkk"kk la;rs jgSr NfuA
dSd csj ,gsu gksbr vfN] ts fpdjk&Hkksdjh es dfod rs[k&rkel fujFkZd ft;ku
Hk* tkbr Nfu] QyLo:i vksdj izHkko nh?kZdkyhu uba jfg icSr vfNA ukjk;.k
th vb lR; la izkjaHks la ifjfpr jgykg vfNA rsa viu dfork es ksk dsa
Hkk"kkd Hkh es nzfor d,yfu vfNA Li"V vfN] ts nzohHkwr ksk Hkk"kk vk mfDr
oSfp=;d dkj.ksa O;aX; es ifjofrZr Hk* tkbr vfN] tsuk eSfFkyh es ;k=kh] jktdey]
ek;kuand dfork es vk fgUnh es j?kqohj lgk;] 'ke'ksj vk dsnkjukFk flagd
dfork es gksbr vfNA
lkfgR; es ukjk;.k thd izos'k vkBe n'kdd e;karj es gksbr vfN] bZ
le; Hkkjrd ysy bejtsalhd le; fFkdA vb 'kCn dsa vuwfnr d* d, dgh]
ra ckr cslh QfjNk,rA bZ le; ^ladVdkyhu* NyA iz'u mBSr vfN] ts ladV
ddjk ysy Ny ! jktlRrk ysy] ts euq"; dsa Nkxj&ikBh tdka iVfd&iVfd cfk;k
djSr Ny vk tu&fgrS"kh dsa cjn tdka idfM+&idfM+ vM+xM+k tsy] vkfd ehlk]
vkfd dkath gkml es Bwfl nSr Ny \ vFkok tulkk ysy] tkfg es lkk ra
Nygs uba] vk ^tu* dsj gky ra mi;qZDrs Ny \bZ le; t;izdk'k vkanksyud
Ny] ;qok 'kfDrd ijke la Hkh[k ekaxy tk jgy Ny] fdNq uf<+;k lHk t;izdk'k
ukjk;.k lu riLohd ikslqvk cfu d, nk lqrkjS es ykxy NyA---bZ le;]
rsyaxkukd fdlku vkanksyu vk uDlyckM+hd tukanksyu la fefFkyk dsa ifjfpr
djk pqdy NyA ;k=kh] fdlqu] jktdey] lksenso] ek;kuUn] khjsUnz vk xqatu] ,izksp la viuk ds cpk i,ckd izsj.kk nsrA viu vrhr vk viu fojklr]
js.kq] thodkUr] kwedsrq] jkeykspu] lqdkUr] egkizdk'k] egsUnz vkfnd dkO; frd yksd laLfr] yksd&dyk] yksd fu"Bkd izfr bZ izse ukjk;.kthd dFkks es ifjyf{kr
ifj.kke vk vb fodjky fLFkfrd lax ukjk;.k thd izos'k eSfFkyh lkfgR; es Hksy vfNA eqnk dfork es bZ ,fg lc fcUnq ij cslh O;ofLFkr Hk* d, O;Dr
HksyA Hk* ldykg vfNA ^lkspw drsd lgh fFkd*] ^ykcu*] ^chl o"kZ ckn*] ^nwfHk*]
,r, kfj vkfc d, eSfFkyh dfork fefFkykd ikfjokfjd vk vku LFkkuh; ^ge ?kj ?kqfj jgy Nh*] ^eS;ka vfjiu fy[kSr NfFk* vkfn dfork mnkgj.kkFkZ ns[ky
leL;k lHkd vfrfjDr jk"Vh; varjkZ"Vh; uhd cstk,d [kkst&[kcfj csl tdka tk ldSr vfNA ^ykcu* dfork ,d rjgsa rhu ih<+hd dFkk fFkd vk vb dFkk
ysc* ykxy NyA vgh le; es csl rh{.k rsojd lax ukjk;.kth lu leFkZ es fodkld ek;es idM+kbr uo uo f{kfrt vk rdjk dkj.ksa mn~Hkwr iqjku
;qok dfod inkiZ.k eSfFkyh es HksyA fgudj vuqHko] ;qx ;FkkFkZ vk iwoZorhZ ijaijkd f{kfrtd fuFkZdrk es fcljkbr bfrgkl tksxkvksy vfNA bZ NksV lu dfork
vgh nckod lax vfHkO;Dr gksv, ykxyA ifjfLFkfr] Hk;ogrk gjsd lqkkrq iqjuk thou i)fr vk yksd thoud izkphurk dsa ek=k fclkfj nsckd dFks Vk
dsa ekatSr vfN] ukjk;.k th ,dne la eatk d, ckgj v,ykg] ifj.kke Lo:i uba] vfirq vksfg Hk;kog fLFkfrd lwpuk nSr vfN] ts vkc* cyk le; es]
fgudj dfork gejk yksdfud le{k vfNA tfguk vkb ^ykcu* xksBqYyk es gsjk,y vfN] rfguk gej bfrgklks gsjk,y jgrA
fy[kck ysy ukjk;.k th dFkks fy[kS NfFk] dfg;ks dfg;ks leh{kk vk ^Hkksjd vk;c* dfork la ukjk;.k th ij ckr 'kq#g d,y xsy vfNA
fVIi.khR;kfn fn'k lsgks ?kwfe tkbr NfFkA eqnk ge ewyr% fgudk dfo ekuSr dfod n`f"Vdks.k vksrfg lkQ Hk* tkbr Nfu] tr, fgudk ysy btksrd vkxeu
NhA fdNq izkjafHkd dFkk lHk es ra bZ gkL;kLin jgykg] cknd dFkk lHk es FkksM+sd egRoiw.kZ vfN] vakdkjd fu"e.k ubaA ts fdNq miyCk Hk* jgy vfN rdj
ifjiDork ns[k,yfu] eqnk dfork es viu tkfg bestd lax Bk<+ Hksykg] ls egRo dfod utfj es rqyuh; Nfu] lq[kd izkfiz lq[kn fFkd] nq[kd fucVkjk
best dFkk es uba v;yfuA dfork fujarj fy[kSr jgykg vfNA ifNyk nw n'kd la lq[kh g,ckd dksuks m|ksx fgudk vksr, uba ns[kkbr vfNA izk;% b,g dkj.k
Hkkjrh; jktuhfr] jktlkk] yksdra=k] dqfVyra=k ts eksu gksv, dfg fyv*] dkj.k] fFkd ts ukjk;.k thd dfork es ?k`.kk rRod lekos'k drgq uba HksVSr vfNA
'kCn vk in dsj vFkZfofr trsd vb nquw n'kd es Hksy vfN] rrsd] u Hkwrks] izse] Hkksj] lw;Z] l`tu] kjrh] L=kh] olar] btksr] izdk'k] vkdk'k] galh] Qfly
u Hkfo";fr es ?kksj vjktdrk O;kIr Hk* xsyA vk rsa varr% fefFkykd laiw.kZ vkfn 'kCnd mi;ksx fgudj dfork es fofHkUu jhfr,a Hksy vfNA laKk :isa]
lkekftd lajpuk lc vFks vLr&O;Lr jgy vfNA jk"Vh;&varjkZ"Vh; jktuhfrd izrhd :isa] vk'kk vk laHkkoukd :isa vb 'kCnkoyhd mi;ksx fgudj dfork
mFky&iqFkyd dkj.k ns'kd dksu&dksu izHkkfor Hksy] lgtfga fefFkykd tuthou] lHk es Hksy vfNA
LFkkuh; vfLrRo vk lkoZnsf'kd vfLerk vkgr&eekZgr HksyA ukjk;.kthd dfork bZ ckr vdkV~; lR; fFkd ts dksuks vkkqfudre gfFk;kj la cslh mi;ksxh
vgh i`"BHkwfe ij viu iSj jksiydA lu~ 1993 es 1984 la 1993 kfjd ipiu euq";d n`<+rk] vksdj izfrKk gksbr vfNA gfFk;kj ufg;ksa jg,] eqnk bPNk 'kfDr
xksV dforkd ladyu ^ge ?kj ?kqfj jgy Nh* izdkf'kr HksyA rkfg la iwoZgq] vk etxqr jg, ra gfFk;kjd bartke dgquk Hk*, tkbr vfN ekuygq@a yM+ck ysy
rdj i'pkrgq o`gr~ la[;k es ukjk;.k th dfork fy[kyfu vfN] fy[kSr jgykg vksdjk gfFk;kj ufg NSd@eqnk] Qfly dkVckd dfp;k r* NSd@[kqihZ vk dksnkfj
vfNA vk gjckgh iSuk r* NSd@lHk la iS?k ckr fFkd@vksdj viu nquw gkFk ekStwn NSd@
iz'u] ftKklk] Hkfo";d izfr vkLFkk] lekn dgckd lquckd yyd] fdNqvks djck ysy vksdjk viuk vkhu@vksdjk dh ufg NSd \
thoud ln~ifj.kke*d izfr vk'ofLr] lwpuk] psrkouh] vkReLohfr] izfrKk] oLrqr%] ^gkFk NSd] ra dh uba NSd !* bZ duh Vk ckr uba fFkdA ^gkFk*
fopkj] eaFku] vkRefo'ys"k.k] lekpkj laizs"k.k] mygu vkfn rRo fgudj dforkd 'kCnd mi;ksx ,r, ns[kck es cM+ lgt vk lkekU; cq>kbr vfN] eqnk ,dj
izeq[k vax fFkdA oSKkfud ;qxd vke.k la izxfrd uke ij fn'kkgkjk iM+kbr O;atuk cgqr fojkV] O;k[;s; vk fof'k"V vfNA dksuks euq";d gkFk vksdjk thoud
tu thoud fLFkfr nsf[k fgudj O;kdqyrk fgudj dfork es Li"V ifjyf{kr laiw.kZ lakku] la?k"kZ] laxzke dsa |ksfrr djSr vfNA euq";d gkFk ta nq#Lr] l'kDr
gksbr vfN] tr, bZ nsf[k jgy NfFk] ts fouk'k fn'k mUeq[k gejkyksdfu viu vk eqDr NSd] ra lalkjd dksugqa Vk oLrq dsa viuk vkhu vks d* ldSr vfN]
lcVk fojklrh; gfFk;kj R;kfx jgy Nh] vksfg leLr vkpkj&fopkj vk laLfr ^[kkyh fopkj Vk djckd NSd iDdk*A euq";d vgh vkLFkk dsa ukjk;.kthd dfork
la fofPNUu Hk* jgy Nh] ts gejk yksdfu dsa foKkud lagkjd #fp la] oalkRed iq"V djSr vfNA
^xksku fe;ka g*j VSDVj tdka pyk jgy vfN*] ^ge btksr la izse djSr ekfQ;k] 'kks"k.k] cykRdkjleLr vekuoh; vkpj.k vkb lekt es O;kir vfNA
Nh*] ^ge ?kj ?kqfj jgy Nh*] ^clar vkfc jgy vfN* vkfn dfork lekn] lwpuk] eqnk vb fodjky ifjfLFkfr;gq es ukjk;.kth viuk ysy trck Vk {ks=kd pquko
lekpkj okpud 'kSyh es dgy ra xsy vfN] eqnk vb lc es thoud fojkV d,us NfFk] rkfg es fo"k; cksk] Hkko laizs"k.k] vrhr Le`fr] ijaijkd izfr vklfDr]
O;k[;k fufgr vfN] [kSad Hkfjd ch;k es oVo`{kd fo'kkyrk oyk O;k[;kA xksku 'kCn ekkq;Z] mR"V izrhdkFkZ vk Li"V fcac fu:i.kd ysy iw.kZ :i la lQy
fe;ka dsa NksV lu miyfCk HksVySd vfN] ts iq=kd dekb la viu tehu fduyd NfFkA jk"Vh;&varjkZ"Vh; Hkkoukd mn; fgudj dfork es gksbr vfN vo';]
vfN] vkc vksb tehu dsa tksrSr dky xksku fe;ka VSDVj tdka g*j pyk jgy eqnk] ls vR;ar 'kkyhu HkkosaA eSfFkyh dfork dsa ,[ku ej[kkg cuc t:jh NSdA
vfNA bZ NksV lu lekpkj] dksuks iS?k ikB dsj O;k[;k izLrqr djSr vfNA vFkkZr ej[kkg {ks=k es dfod izos'k vko';d NSdA ukjk;.kthd Hkk"kk rrckd lEgjy
xksku fe;ka Fkdku foghu tksrkb d* jgy vfN] csj mufg xsySd] eqnk gj tksfr, Nfu] ts fo"k; Vk ta cf<+ tk,] ra ej[kkgks {ks=kd dfork fgudj Hkk"kkd peRdkj
jgy NSd( vFkok [ksr pwafd viu fFkdSd] rsa vksfg es tksrSr g*jks dsa vks dksuks ikfc d, lka?kkfrd Hk*tk,rA tfguk kjrh es] L=kh es] ch;k es] clar es] lw;Z
VSDVj la de uba cq>Sr vfN,gsu ,gsu O;k[;kd laHkkouk ukjk;.kthd dfork es] fMfc;k es] nwfHk es] vksl es vkfn&vkfn rRo es l`tu] mRiknu] izdk'k] fdly;]
es tr, rr, rkdy tk ldSr vfNA 'khryrk vkfnd laHkkouk vfN] rfguk] ns'k es O;kIr gR;k] Qlkn] naxk] cykRdkj]
fgudj dforkd mRl rkd* ysy cslh m|ksx vFkok Jed iz;kstu uba 'kks"k.k] vR;kpkj vkfnd ujesk ioZ es ,dVk fcgkfj] ,dVk vkanksyud laHkkouk
cq>kbr jgSr vfNA vk] fgudj dfork lHkd O;k[;k&cgl ysy dksuks rkdy tk ldSr vfN] vk bZ laHkkouk t[ku izLQqfVr g,r] ra vks ^Nkmj ij
vkykspuk&lekykspukd xzaFk i<+ckd iz;kstu uba iM+Sr vfNA lqPpk eSfFky BkBd Bk<+* Hk* d, ^vkfx ij Bk<+ gks,ckd] viu ohjrk* uba ns[kkvksr] vks lRrs vkfx
bZ 'kq) eSfFkyh dfork lgt&ljy&laizs"k.kh; Hkko&Hkk"kk es ekuo thoud jfuax ij Bk<+ gks,r vk vkfx mxyr@ukjk;.kth la vksgw fn'kkd dforkd vis{kk vfNA
desUVh fFkd] lkekU; la lkekU; ikBd dsa ,dgq csj drgq dksuks vFkZckkk ufg cgqifBr] cgqK vk fojkV v;;u'khyrkd dkj.ksa ukjk;.kth dsa ns'kh&fons'kh
gksbr NfuA 'kq) :i la bZ dfork] [ksr&[kfjgku es dkt djSr] gj tksrSr] deBkSu izpqj lkfgR;d lkfUu; izkIr Nfu] rkgw dkj.ksa fgudk viu fo"k;cksk ds QjhN
djSr] [ksr reSr tu&etwjd Jed Vksg ySr] rhFkZ&cFkZ djSr] Hkkul Hkkr djSr] djck es vk f'kYi&'kSyh dsa kkjnkj cu,ck es lg;ksx HksVy gksbu] ls laHko
lksbj lscSr] cPpk ikslSr] izse djSr fopkj foe'kZ djSr] fparu djSr] lektd fFkdA eqnk dfo ukjk;.kth es ts dksuk laHkkouk Nfu] rdj izrh{kk gqudj ikBd
lq[kn Hkfo";d ladsr rdSr cqf)thohd ihM+k] turk la iziap djSr] dqlhZd oxZ dsa NfuA
"kM~;a=k jpSr] Qwfl dsa lR; vk lR; dsa Qwfl cucSr jktuhfrKd vk tuizfrfufkd
euksfo'ys"k.k] viu fojklr] viu laLfr] viu ijaijk] viu yksdkpkjd l l l
fuoZg.k djSr fu"Bkd mis{kk vk vieku vkfnd O;k[;k fFkdA ,fg leLr dfork
es ,d fn'k dkO;e;rkd mR"V y; xqafQr vfN] tdjk dkj.k dforkd O;kdj.k
vusjs vkd"kZd cfu iM+y vfN ra nkslj fn'k 'kCnd iz;ksx vk Hkko laizs"k.k ,rsd
Li"V vk lgt] ts lkekU;ks ikBdd ysy lgt laizs"k.kh; Hk* mBy vfNA
ukjk;.kthd dforkd ikB Bkes Bke bZ turc nSr jgSr vfN] ts gejk
yksdfu tkfg xfr,a vkxw eqagsa tk jgy Nh] ls ekU;] loZFkk ekU;( eqnk rkfg
ewY; ij tkfg rhozrkd lax ge viu izkphu kjksgfj la ewyksfpNUu Hk* jgy
Nh] ls dnkfi mfpr ubaA
le;d nkc la Fkdqpk,y fefFkykd vke tuthoud leL;k vk ;kruk
cgqy fp=k vkb lks>ka es Bk<+ vfNA vHkko] vdky] csdkjh] ;kruk] iziap] gR;k]
naxk] Qlkn] ywfV] lwn[kksjh] ?kwl[kksjh] jktuhfrd frdM+e] jktuhfrd
gR;k&vigj.k&'kks"k.k] 'kSf{kd maMrk] 'kSf{kd nfjnzrk] f'k{kk ekfQ;k] laLfr