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Chapter 3

BJT Transistor
Dang Nguyen Chau Click to edit Master subtitle style
Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology
Email: chaudn@hcmut.edu.vn
What is a Transistor?
Websters Dictionary: Transistor is a solid-state electronic device that is
used to control the flow of electricity in electronic equipment and consists
of a small block of a semiconductor with at least three electrodes.

Three-terminal device whose voltage-current relationship is controlled


by a third voltage or current.

We may regard a transistor as a controlled voltage or current source.

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What is a Transistor?
TRANSISTOR is an abbreviation to TRANSfer resISTOR.

"The Transistor was probably the most important invention of the 20th
Century, and the story behind the invention is one of clashing egos and top
secret research." Ira Flatow, Transistorized!

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Type of Transistor?
According to the physics of the device, we can classify transistors into
two main classes:

Field Effect Transistors (FET): Conduction is controlled by electric field which is


produced by voltage applied to the control terminals. So, the control draws no current
and FET is a voltage- controlled device.

Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT): Diode-based device which is usually blocked


unless the control terminals are forward- biased. So, the control is a current, and BJT is
a current amplifier by nature.

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BJT

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BJT

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BJT

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Timeline
1947 December 16, First transistor (Point Contact Type) invented at Bell
Labs, credited to Shockley, Bardeen and Brattain.

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Timeline
1953 The first commercial device to make use of the transistor is put on
the market The Sonotone 1010 hearing aid.

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Timeline
1954 First transistor radio; First fully transistorized computer; Texas
Instruments makes silicon transistor.

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Timeline
1960 Sony introduces the first portable, transistorized TV, the TV8-301.

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Timeline
1965 "Moore's Law" predicts the rate of growth of integrated circuit
components.

The number of transistors on a chip doubles about every two years,


Intels Gordon Moore made a prediction about the semiconductor business
that still holds true today.

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Timeline
1967 First hand held calculators.

1971 T. Hoff invents the First microprocessor Intel 4004, with 2300
transistors. Busicom introduces the first single-chip, pocket-size calculator,
the LE-120A "HANDY," which uses a MOSTEK MK6010 integrated
circuit.

1972 Dr. John Bardeen wins 2nd Nobel Prize for work in
Superconductivity. Intels first microprocessor, powered the Busicom
calculator and paved the way for the personal computer.

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Timeline
1975 William (Bill) Gates and Paul Allen start Microsoft Corporation.
The Altair 8800 microcomputer, based on the Intels 8080 microprocessor,
was the first successful home or personal computer.

1981 First Space Shuttle launch. The Intels 8088 microprocessor was
selected to power the IBM PC. IBM introduces the first personal computer
with an Intel 8088 processor serving as the brains behind the computer.

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Timeline
1982 Intel launches their new high performance, 16-bit 80286
microprocessor featuring 134,000 transistors. Within six years of its release,
an estimated 15 million 286-based personal computers were installed
around the world.

1983 Mobile communication changes forever when Motorola introduces


the first commercial mobile phone the DynaTAC 800X powered by
transistors and costing a mere $3,995.

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Timeline
1993 With the creation of the World Wide Web in 1990, the need for
transistor speed becomes greater than ever. The World Wide Web debuts
and Intel responds with its Pentium processor, boasting speeds of 66 and 60
MHz 3.1 million transistors.

2000 The 42-million transistor debuts. If automobile speed increased


similarly over that same period, you could drive from New York City to San
Francisco in 13 seconds. Silicon Valley based company develops TiVo - a
device that records TV programs on an internal hard drive.

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Timeline
2003 Intel Centrino mobile technology brought high performance,
enhanced battery life, and integrated WLAN capability to thinner, lighter
PCs.

2005 Dual-core technology was introduced.

2006 The dual core Intel Itanium 2 processor launches with the worlds
most intricate product design to date, utilizing more than 1.72 billion
transistors.

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Timeline
2007 45nm Intel debuts the Penryn chip the biggest change to
transistors (all 820 million of them in our quad-core processors) in 40 years
based on the companys 45 nanometer transistor technology. More than
2,000 45nm transistors fit across the width of a human hair. In the second
half of 2007, Intel began production of the next generation Intel CoreTM2
and Xeon processor families based on 45-nanometer (nm) Hi-k metal gate
silicon technology.

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Device feature size

Feature size reductions enabled by


process innovations.

Smaller features lead to Smaller


features lead to more transistors per
unit area and therefore higher
density.

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Rapid Increase in Density of Microelec.

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BJT

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Device Structure & Physical Operation
Structure and Mode of Operation

Operation of npn transistor in Active mode

Structure of actual transistor

Operation in saturation mode

The pnp transistor

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Device Structure & Physical Operation
Structure and Mode of Operation

Operation of npn transistor in Active mode

Structure of actual transistor

Operation in saturation mode

The pnp transistor

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Structure & Modes of Operation
The BJT has three separately doped regions and contains two pn
junctions.

BJT consists of three semiconductor regions: the emitter region (n type),


the base region (p type), and the collector region (n type).

BJT is a three-terminal device: Emitter (E), Collector (C), and Base (B).

The basic transistor principle is that the voltage between two terminals
controls the current through the third terminal.

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Structure & Modes of Operation
Current in the transistor is due to the flow of both electrons and holes,
hence the name bipolar.

There are two types: pnp-type and npn-type.

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Structure & Modes of Operation
BJT consists of two pn junctions: Emitter-Base Junction (EBJ or JE) and
Collector-Base Junction (CBJ or JC)

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Device Structure & Physical Operation
Structure and Mode of Operation

Operation of npn transistor in Active mode

Structure of actual transistor

Operation in saturation mode

The pnp transistor

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Operation of npn Transistor Active Mode
The active mode is the most important. Two external voltage sources are
used to establish the required bias conditions for active-mode operation:

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Operation of npn Transistor Active Mode

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Operation of npn Transistor Active Mode

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Operation of npn Transistor Active Mode
The forward bias on the emitter-base junction will cause current to flow
across this junction.
Current will consist of two components: electrons injected from the
emitter into the base (1st component), and holes injected from the base into
the emitter (2nd component).
It is highly desirable to have the 1st component at a much higher level
than the 2nd component.

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Operation of npn Transistor Active Mode
The collector current iC : iC I S evBE /VT

The saturation current (scale current) IS given by:

I S AE qDn n p 0 / W
iC is independent of vCB

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Operation of npn Transistor Active Mode
The total base current:
iC I S vBE /VT
iB e

where is a transistor parameter, is called the common-emitter current


gain.

For modern npn transistors, is in the range 50 to 200, but it can be as high
as 1000 for special devices.

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Operation of npn Transistor Active Mode
The emitter current iE :
1 1 v BE /VT
iE iC iB iC IS e

The collector current:iC iE where the constant (the common-


base current gain) is related to by



1 1

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Operation of npn Transistor Active Mode

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Device Structure & Physical Operation
Structure and Mode of Operation

Operation of npn transistor in Active mode

Structure of actual transistor

Operation in saturation mode

The pnp transistor

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Structure of Actual Transistors
The CBJ has a much larger area than the EBJ.
The CB diode has a saturation current ISC that is much larger than the
saturation current of the EB diode.
ISC is10 to 100 times larger than ISE (ISE = IS ).

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Device Structure & Physical Operation
Structure and Mode of Operation

Operation of npn transistor in Active mode

Structure of actual transistor

Operation in saturation mode

The pnp transistor

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Operation in the Saturation mode

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Operation in the Saturation mode

vBE /VT
The collector current: iC I S e I SC evBC /VT

The base current: iB I S / e vBE /VT I SC e vBC /VT


iC
For a saturated transistor forced
iB saturation

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Operation in the Saturation mode
In analyzing a circuit, we can determine whether the BJT is in the
saturation mode by either of the following two tests:
Is the CBJ forward biased by more than 0.4 V?
Is the ratio iC/iB lower than ?
The collector-to-emitter voltage vCE of a saturated transistor:

A transistor at the edge of saturation has VCEsat = 0.3 V


A transistor deep in saturation has VCEsat = 0.2 V

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Device Structure & Physical Operation
Structure and Mode of Operation

Operation of npn transistor in Active mode

Structure of actual transistor

Operation in saturation mode

The pnp transistor

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The pnp Transistor

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The pnp Transistor

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Current Voltage Characteristic
Circuit Symbols and Conventions

Graphical Representation of Transistor Characteristics

Dependence of iC on the Collector Voltage The Early Effect

An Alternative Form of the Common-Emitter Characteristic

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Current Voltage Characteristic
Circuit Symbols and Conventions

Graphical Representation of Transistor Characteristics

Dependence of iC on the Collector Voltage The Early Effect

An Alternative Form of the Common-Emitter Characteristic

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Circuit Symbols and Conventions

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Circuit Symbols and Conventions

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Circuit Symbols and Conventions

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Circuit Symbols and Conventions
The current directions for npn & pnp transistor are opposite.
An npn transistor whose EBJ is forward biased will operate in the active
mode: vCB > - 0.4 V.
An npn transistor whose EBJ is forward biased will operate in the active
mode: vBC > - 0.4 V.

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Circuit Symbols and Conventions
Example: Find IE, IB, IC and VC if the voltage at the emitter was
measured and found to be -0.7 V and = 50

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Circuit Symbols and Conventions
Example: Find IE, IB, IC and VC if the voltage at the emitter was
measured and found to be -0.7 V and = 50

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Current Voltage Characteristic
Circuit Symbols and Conventions

Graphical Representation of Transistor Characteristics

Dependence of iC on the Collector Voltage The Early Effect

An Alternative Form of the Common-Emitter Characteristic

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Graphical Represen. of Tran. Charac.
Input characteristic

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Graphical Represen. of Tran. Charac.
Output characteristic

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Current Voltage Characteristic
Circuit Symbols and Conventions

Graphical Representation of Transistor Characteristics

Dependence of iC on the Collector Voltage The Early Effect

An Alternative Form of the Common-Emitter Characteristic

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The Early Effect

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The Early Effect

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The Early Effect

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The Early Effect

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The Early Effect
VA : Early Voltage (J. M. Early (1922 - 2004)), 10 to 100 V

The collector current:


vBE /VT vCE
iC I S e 1
VA
The output resistance: 1
i
r0 C
vCE vBE const

where IC,VBE : the coordinates of the point at which BJT is operating on the
particular iCE vCE curve.

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The Early Effect

VA
ro '
IC

'
I
where C : the value of the collector current with the Early effect neglected.

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The Early Effect
The finite output resistance ro can have a significant effect on the gain of
transistor amplifiers.

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The Early Effect

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The Early Effect

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The Early Effect

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The Early Effect

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Current Voltage Characteristic
Circuit Symbols and Conventions

Graphical Representation of Transistor Characteristics

Dependence of iC on the Collector Voltage The Early Effect

An Alternative Form of the Common-Emitter Characteristic


(reading book)

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BJT Circuits at DC npn Transistor

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BJT Circuits at DC npn Transistor

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BJT Circuits at DC npn Transistor

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BJT Circuits at DC npn Transistor

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BJT Circuits at DC pnp Transistor

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BJT Circuits at DC pnp Transistor

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BJT Circuits at DC pnp Transistor

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BJT Circuits at DC pnp Transistor

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DC analysis of BJT Circuits
Step 1: Assume that the transistor is biased in the forward- active mode
in which case VBE = 0.7 V, IB > 0, and IC = IB .
Step 2: Analyze the linear circuit with this assumption. Use the
conditions or model for circuit analysis.
Step 3: Evaluate the resulting state of the transistor. If the initial assumed
parameter values and VCE > VCE(sat) are true, then the initial assumption is
correct. However,
If the calculation shows IB < 0, then the transistor is probably cutoff.
If the calculation shows VCE < 0, the transistor is likely biased in
saturation.

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DC analysis of BJT Circuits
Step 4: If the initial assumption is proven incorrect, then a new
assumption must be made and the new linear circuit must be analyzed.
Step 3 must then be repeated.

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DC analysis of BJT Circuits

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DC analysis of BJT Circuits

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DC analysis of BJT Circuits

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DC analysis of BJT Circuits

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DC analysis of BJT Circuits

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DC analysis of BJT Circuits

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DC analysis of BJT Circuits

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DC analysis of BJT Circuits

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DC analysis of BJT Circuits

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DC analysis of BJT Circuits

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DC bias for BJT Amplifier
The amplifiers are operating at a proper dc bias point.

The DC bias circuit is to ensure the BJT in active mode with a proper
collector current IC.

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DC bias for BJT Amplifier
The classical discrete-circuit bias arrangement:
A single power supply and resistors are needed.

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DC bias for BJT Amplifier
The classical discrete-circuit bias arrangement:
A single power supply and resistors are needed.

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DC bias for BJT Amplifier
The classical discrete-circuit bias arrangement:
The two-power-supply version.

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DC bias for BJT Amplifier
The classical discrete-circuit bias arrangement:
The two-power-supply version.

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DC bias for BJT Amplifier
Biasing using a collector-to-base feedback resistor:
RB ensures the BJT in active (VCE > VBE = 0.7V)

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DC bias for BJT Amplifier
Biasing using a collector-to-base feedback resistor:
RB ensures the BJT in active (VCE > VBE = 0.7V)

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DC bias for BJT Amplifier
Biasing using a constant-current source:
RC is chosen to operate the BJT in active mode.
The current source is typically implemented by a BJT current mirror.
Both BJT transistors Q1 and Q2 are in active mode.
Assume current gain is very high.

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DC bias for BJT Amplifier
Biasing using a constant-current source:
RC is chosen to operate the BJT in active mode.
The current source is typically implemented by a BJT current mirror.
Both BJT transistors Q1 and Q2 are in active mode.
Assume current gain is very high.
VCC VEE VBE
I REF
R

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Obtaining a Voltage Amplifier

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Obtaining a Voltage Amplifier

vBE /VT
vCE VCC RC I C VCC RC I S e
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Obtaining a Voltage Amplifier

vBE /VT
vCE VCC RC I S e
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Bias the BJT

VBE /VT
VCE VCC RC I S e
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The Small-Signal Voltage Gain

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Bias the BJT

QA

QB

VBE /VT
VCE VCC RC I S e
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Max swing condition
DCLL:
VCE VCC RC I S eVBE /VT

ACLL:
vce RC ic

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Small Signal Operation
There are three basic configurations for connecting the BJT as an amplifier.

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Small Signal Operation
There are four basic configurations for connecting the BJT as an amplifier.

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Small Signal Operation
The current gain (hfe) :

iC

iB

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Small Signal Operation
The collector current and the trans-conductance:
Collector current:
iC I S evBE /VT I S eVBE /VT e vbe /VT
vbe /VT
IC e
Small-signal approximation: vbe << VT
vbe IC
iC I C ic I C 1 I C vbe
VT VT

iC IC The trans-conductance indicates the


gm incremental change of iC versus change of
vBE iC I C
VT vBE
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Small Signal Operation
The collector current and the trans-conductance:

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Small Signal Operation
The base current and the input resistance at the base:
Base current:
iC I S vBE /VT
iB e I B e vbe /VT

Small-signal approximation: vbe << VT


vbe IB
iB I B ib I B 1 I B vbe
VT VT

vbe VT The small-signal input


r resistance between base and
ib gm I B emitter (looking into the base)
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Small Signal Operation
The emitter current and the input resistance at the emitter:
Emitter current:
iC I C ic
iE I E ie

Small-signal approximation: vbe << VT
ic g m IE
ie vbe vbe
VT
vbe VT 1
re
ie I E gm gm

The relation between


r 1 re resistance at base and
resistance at emitter
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Small Signal Operation
Voltage gain:
Total collector voltage:
vCE VCC iC RC VCC I C ic RC
VCE ic RC
VCE vce
Voltage gain
vce ic RC g m vbe RC

vce
Av g m RC
vbe

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Small Signal Operation

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Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit Model
There are two type of equivalent circuit model of and BJT in small-
signal operation:
The Hybrid-Pi model.
The T model.

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Hybrid-Pi Model

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T Model

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Summary
The analysis above indicates that every current and voltage in the
amplifier circuit is composed of two components: a dc component and a
small-signal component.
The dc components are determined from the dc circuit and from the
relationships imposed by the transistor.
A representation of the small-signal operation of the BJT can be
obtained by eliminating the dc sources.

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Summary
DC analysis:
Remove all ac sources
All capacitors are considered open-circuit
DC analysis of BJT circuits for all nodal voltages and branch currents
Find the dc current IC and make sure the BJT is in active mode
AC analysis:
Remove all dc sources
All large capacitors are considered short-circuit
Calculate the values of the small-signal model parameters
Replace the BJT with its small-signal model for ac analysis

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Small-Signal Circuit Analysis
Example: Analyze the transistor amplifier shown in the following figure to
determine its voltage gain. Assume

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Small-Signal Circuit Analysis
Example: Calculate the overall voltage gain (vo / vsig) of the following
circuit. What is the input resistance Rin. Assume

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Small-Signal Circuit Analysis
Example: Find the input resistance Rib and Rin and the overall voltage gain
(vo / vsig). Assume

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Small-Signal Circuit Analysis
Example: Find the overall voltage gain (vo / vsig).

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Early Effect in Small-Signal Analysis
Early effect: The collector current depends not only on vBE but also on vCE.

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Early Effect in Small-Signal Analysis
Early effect: The collector current depends not only on vBE but also on vCE.

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Small-Signal Circuit Analysis
Example: Exercise 6.41 page 422

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Summary

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Summary

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Basic BJT Amplifier Configuration
Three basic configurations

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Basic BJT Amplifier Configuration
Parameters in characterizing amplifier performance:

Rin : input resistance, represents the loading effect of the amplifier input
on the signal source.

Rout : output resistance, seen looking back into the amplifier output
terminal with the input signal set to zero.

Open circuit voltage gain, Avo

Voltage gain of amplifier proper, Av

Overall voltage gain Gv

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Common-Emitter (CE) amplifier
Determine the terminal characteristics of the CE amplifier: input resistance,
voltage gain and output resistance.

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Common-Emitter (CE) amplifier

Rin r
vo g m v RC / / ro

Av g m RC / / RL / / ro

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Common-Emitter (CE) amplifier
Overall voltage gain

vo r
Gv g m RC / / RL / / ro
vsig r Rsig

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Common-Emitter (CE) amplifier
Voltage gain

Av g m RC / / RL / / ro
RC / / RL / / ro
re
total resistance in collector 1 => Voltage gain is

total resistance in emitter simply stated as a
resistance ratio
Overall voltage gain

Gv
r
g m RC / / RL / / ro
RC / / RL / / ro
r Rsig Rsig r
total resistance in collector

total resistance in base

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Common-Emitter (CE) amplifier
We can make some observations:
The input resistance Rin r / g m is low. The input resistance is
dependent on beta and collector bias current. Higher input resistance
=> lower bias current => lower voltage gain

The output resistance Ro RC is high. Reduce output resistance =>


lower voltage gain

Voltage gain is high => CE configuration the work- horse in BJT


amplifier design. However, the bandwidth of this configuration is
limited.
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CE Amplifier Emitter Resistance

Rin 1 re Re

Av
RC / / RL / / ro
re Re

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CE Amplifier Emitter Resistance
Overall voltage gain

Gv
vo

RC / / RL / / ro
vsig 1 re Re Rsig

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Common-Emitter (CE) amplifier
We can make some observations:
The input resistance is increased by the factor 1 g m Re

The voltage gain is reduced by the factor 1 g m Re

The overall voltage gain is less dependent on beta

Dept. of Telecomm. Eng.


Faculty of EEE 137
Common-Base (CB) amplifier

Rin re

RC / / RL
Av g m RC / / RL Gv
Rsig re
Dept. of Telecomm. Eng.
Faculty of EEE 138
Common-Base (CB) amplifier
We can make some observations:
The input resistance is low Rin re

The output resistance is the same high as CE figuration.

The voltage gain is the same as CE configuration.

Overall voltage gain is almost independent of the value of beta.


The overall voltage gain is simply the ratio of total resistance in
collector to emitter. The overall voltage gain is very small.

Dept. of Telecomm. Eng.


Faculty of EEE 139
Common-Collector (CC) amplifier

RL
Av
RL re

Gv
1 RL
Rin 1 re RL
1 RL 1 re Rsig
Dept. of Telecomm. Eng.
Faculty of EEE 140
Common-Base (CB) amplifier
We can make some observation:
The CB configuration is useful in connecting a low-resistance load to
a high-resistance source, that is, to implement a buffer amplifier.

The overall gain, though lower than one, can be close to one.

Dept. of Telecomm. Eng.


Faculty of EEE 141
Summary Charac. BJT Amplifier

Dept. of Telecomm. Eng.


Faculty of EEE 142
BJT Amplifier
Example: VCC=9V,
R1=27k, R2=15k ,
RE=1.2k, RC=2.2k.
Beta=100. Find input
resistance, output
resistance and overall
gain.

Dept. of Telecomm. Eng.


Faculty of EEE 143
BJT Amplifier
Example: VCC=VEE=10V, RB=100k, RC=8k , RL=5k, Rsig=5k. Beta=100.
Find input resistance, output resistance and overall gain. Find Re for Rin = 4
Rsig

Dept. of Telecomm. Eng.


Faculty of EEE 144
BJT Amplifier
Example: RB=40k, I=5mA, RL=1k, Rsig=10k. Beta=100. Find input
resistance, output resistance and overall gain. Find Re for Rin = 4 Rsig

Dept. of Telecomm. Eng.


Faculty of EEE 145
BJT Multistage Amplifier
The design requirements of amplifiers normally specify an overall high voltage
gain, a high input resistance, and a low output resistance. A single-transistor
amplifier rarely satisfies these design requirements, and multi-stages are often
used to satisfy the design specifications.

The most common types of arrangements are: (1) capacitor-coupled


cascaded,(2) direct coupled (Darlington), and(3) cascoded.

Dept. of Telecomm. Eng.


Faculty of EEE 146
Cascade

The output of one stage is connected to the input of the next stage via a
capacitor.
The first stage is a common-emitter amplifier that is designed to offer a high
input resistance Ri. The emitter follower in the third stage satisfies the
requirement of a low output resistance Ro
Dept. of Telecomm. Eng.
Faculty of EEE 147
Cascade

Dept. of Telecomm. Eng.


Faculty of EEE 148
Darlington

The output of one stage is directly connected to the input of the next stage

Dept. of Telecomm. Eng.


Faculty of EEE 149
Cascode
The effective output resistance of a transistor
can be increased by connecting two transistors
in a configuration commonly referred to as a
cascoded amplifier.

The input signal is applied to one transistor


whose output is the input to the other transistor,

The input signal is applied to the common


emitter amplifier, and the output is obtained at
the collector of the common-base amplifier of
transistor Q2 .

Dept. of Telecomm. Eng.


Faculty of EEE 150
Cascode

Dept. of Telecomm. Eng.


Faculty of EEE 151
Cascode

Dept. of Telecomm. Eng.


Faculty of EEE 152
Cascode

Dept. of Telecomm. Eng.


Faculty of EEE 153
Cascode

Dept. of Telecomm. Eng.


Faculty of EEE 154
Cascode

Dept. of Telecomm. Eng.


Faculty of EEE 155