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SECTION 17

Fluid Flow and Piping


Few flow problems can be solved with an acceptable degree of relationships. For engineering design purposes, several empiri-
accuracy when using equations designed to fit idealized appli- cal formulas have been developed to fit particular circumstanc-
cations. Flow regimes and associated pressure drops are com- es in predicting flow capacity and pressure drop.
plex phenomena and require complex equations to predict their

FIG. 17-1
Nomenclature

A = pipe cross sectional area, M2 (A = D2/4) NE = abscissa of Eaton correlation, Fig.17-20


c = sum of allowances for corrosion, erosion, etc., mm, NLv = liquid velocity number, from Equation17-53
Fig.17-22 Ngv = gas velocity number, from Equation17-54
C = design parameter used in Hazen and Williams Nd = pipe diameter number, from Equation17-55
formula, Equation17-33 NL = liquid viscosity number, from Equation17-56
C1 = discharge factor from Fig.17-8 P = pressure, kPa (abs)
C2 = size factor from Fig.17-9 P1 = inlet pressure, kPa (abs)
d = internal diameter of pipe, mm P2 = outlet pressure, kPa (abs)
do = outside pipe diameter, mm Pavg = average pressure, kPa (abs), from Equation17-16
D = internal diameter of pipe, m Ps = base absolute pressure, kPa (abs):
E = pipeline efficiency factor (fraction) PS= 101.56 kPa (abs)
E = longitudinal weld joint factor from ANSI B31.3, Pi = internal design pressure, kPa (ga)
Fig.17-22 P100 = pressure drop, kPa/100m equivalent pipe length
E = longitudinal joint factor from ANSI B31.8, Pe = elevation component of pressure drop, kPa
Fig.17-23 Pf = frictional component of pressure drop, kPa

1/ff = transmission factor Pt = total pressure drop, kPa
ff = Fanning friction factor q = flow rate, m3/h
fm = Moody friction factor (fm = 4.0 ff) Q = flow rate of gas, m3/day at base conditions
fn = single phase friction factor for Dukler calculation, QL = liquid volumetric flow rate at flowing conditions,
from Equation17-44 m3/h
ftpr = friction factor ratio for Dukler calculation, Qg = gas volumetric flow rate at flowing conditions,
Fig.17-17 m3/h
F = construction type design factor used in Re = Reynolds number
ANSI B31.8, Fig.17-23
Rey = mixture Reynolds number for Dukler calculation,
Fpv = volume correction for a non-ideal fluid due to from Equation17-45
compressibility from Equation17-13
S = allowable stress, kPa, Fig.17-22
g = acceleration due to gravity, 9.8067 m/s2
S = specified minimum yield strength, kPa, Fig.17-23
hL = loss of static pressure head due to fluid flow, m
t = thickness, mm, Figs.17-22, 17-23
of fluid
tm = minimum required wall thickness, mm, Fig.17-22
H = total energy of a fluid at a point above a datum,
from Equation17-1 T = absolute temperature of flowing gas, K
HLd = liquid holdup fraction (Dukler), Fig.17-18 T = temperature derating factor used in ANSI B31.8,
Fig.17-23
HLe = liquid holdup fraction (Eaton), Fig.17-20
Tavg = average temperature, K[Tavg = 1/2 (Tin + Tout)]
HLf = liquid holdup fraction (Flanigan), Fig.17-19
Ts = base absolute temperature, K: Ts = 288.9 K)
IL = liquid inventory in pipe, m3, from Equation17-57
V = single phase fluid velocity, m/s
L = length of line, m
Vsg = superficial gas velocity, m/s, from Equation17-36
Lm = length of line, kilometers (km)
VsL = superficial liquid velocity, m/s, from Equation17-35
M = molecular mass
Vm = mixture velocity, m/s, from Equation17-46
Nx = Fig.17-16 horizontal coordinate, m/s
W = mass flow, kg/h
Ny = Fig.17-16 vertical coordinate, m/s
XA = Aziz fluid property correction factor (horizontal
axis, Fig.17-16)

17-1
FIG. 17-1 (Contd)
Nomenclature

YA = Aziz fluid property correction factor (vertical axis, = single phase fluid density, kg/m3
Fig.17-16) avg = average density, kg/m3 [avg = 1/2 (in + out)]
Y = coefficient found in Fig.17-22 a = air density at 15C and 1.22 kg/m3
Zavg = average compressibility factor w = water density at 15C and 101.56 kPa (abs),
Ze = pipeline vertical elevation rise, m 999.5 kg/m3
= absolute roughness, m g = gas density, kg/m3
= relative density of flowing gas (air = 1.0) L = liquid density, kg/m3
= flowing liquid volume fraction k = two phase mixture density for Dukler calculation,
= single phase fluid viscosity, Pa s kg/m3
g = gas viscosity, Pa s = interfacial tension at flowing conditions, N/m
L = liquid viscosity, Pa s wa = interfacial tension of air and water at 15C and
n = mixture viscosity for Dukler calculation, Pa s 101.56 kPa (abs), 0.0724 N/m

Bernoullis Theorem Specific volume is the inverse of density. Relative density of


a liquid is the ratio of the density of the liquid at a specified
The Bernoulli Theorem1 is a mathematical derivation based temperature to the density of water at 15C. The relative den-
on the law of conservation of energy. This theorem states that sity of gas is defined as the ratio of the molecular mass of the
the total energy of a fluid at any particular point above a datum gas to the molecular mass of air.
plane is the sum of the elevation head, the pressure head, and
the velocity head. Stated mathematically: M (gas)
=
M (air) Eq 17-3
P V2
= Ze + +
H
g 2g Eq 17-1
Flow in Pipes and Reynolds Number
If there are no friction losses and no energy is added to or
taken from the system, H is constant for any point in the fluid. At low velocities, fluid molecules or particles carried by the
In reality, whenever fluid is moving there is friction loss (hL). fluid move in a reasonably straight line. Velocity of the fluid is
This loss describes the difference in total energy at two points maximum at the center of the pipe and zero at the pipe wall.
in the system. Expressing the energy levels at Point 1 versus This flow pattern is referred to as laminar. If the velocity is in-
Point 2 then becomes: creased it will reach a critical point where fluid particles begin
to show a random motion transverse to the direction of flow.
P1 V21 P2 V22 Eq 17-2 This is the critical velocity. This random motion is typical of
Z
el + + = Ze2 + + + hL
1g 2g 2g 2g what is referred to as turbulent flow. Above the critical velocity
the flow is considered to be completely turbulent even though
All practical formulas for fluid flow are derived from the there is always a boundary layer at the pipe wall where flow is
above. Modifications to Equation 17-2 have been proposed by laminar. In the turbulent zone the velocity profile is more near-
many investigators to account for the friction losses. ly straight across the face of the pipe.
Fluid Physical Properties Reynolds developed a dimensionless number that may be
considered as the ratio of the dynamic forces of mass flow to the
The physical properties of a flowing fluid must be known to
shear stress due to viscosity. The Reynolds number is:
predict pressure drop in piping. The two properties entering
into the solution of most fluid flow problems are viscosity and DV
density. Re = Eq 17-4

Viscosity expresses the readiness with which a fluid flows If the Reynolds number is less than 2000, flow may be con-
when it is acted upon by an external force. Two types of viscos- sidered laminar. If it is above 4000, the flow is turbulent. In the
ity measurements are used, absolute and kinematic. Absolute zone between 2000 and 4000 the flow could be either turbulent
viscosity is a measure of a fluids internal resistance to defor- or laminar, but cannot be predicted by the Reynolds number.
mation or shear. Kinematic viscosity is the ratio of absolute vis-
cosity to mass density. The absolute viscosity will be used for all If a non-circular conduit is encountered, the Reynolds num-
calculations in this section. ber can be approximated by using an equivalent diameter for D.
The equivalent diameter would equal four (4) times the hydrau-
Viscosity is temperature dependent. The viscosity of most lic radius. The hydraulic radius is defined as:
liquids decreases with an increase in temperature, whereas
that of gases increases. Pressure has almost no effect on the Area of Flowing Fluid
viscosity of liquids or near perfect gases. On the other hand, the Hydraulic Radius = Eq 17-5
Wetted Perimeter
viscosity of saturated or slightly superheated vapors is changed
appreciably by pressure changes. The viscosity of steam is read- This conversion would not apply to extremely narrow shapes
ily available, but the viscosity of other vapors may not be where the width is small relative to the length. In such cases an
known.

17-2
approximation may be used wherein one-half the width of the Bernoullis theorem. The Darcy-Weisbach equation must be ap-
passage is equal to the hydraulic radius. plied to line segments sufficiently short such that fluid density
is essentially constant over that segment. The overall pressure
Pressure Loss Due to Friction drop is the sum of the Pf values calculated for the individual
segments. For gas applications the segmental length may be
Flow is always accompanied by friction. This friction results
relatively short, as compared to liquid applications, since many
in a loss of energy available for work. A general equation for
gas applications involve compressible gases where gas densities
press pressure drop due to friction is the Darcy-Weisbach2 (of-
vary with pressure.
ten referred to as simply the Darcy) equation. This equation can
be rationally derived by dimensional analysis, with the excep- Friction Factor and Effect of Pipe Roughness
tion of the friction factor, fm, which must be determined experi-
mentally. Expressed in meters of fluid this equation is: When the fluid flow is laminar (Re<2000), the friction factor
has a direct relationship to the Reynolds number, such that:
fm L V 2
hL = Eq 17-6 fm = 64/Re or ff = 16/Re Eq 17-8
2 g D
Converting to kPa, the equation becomes: Pipe roughness has no effect on the friction factor in laminar
flow.
0.5 fm LV2
Pf = Eq 17-7 Substitution of the formula for Reynolds number, Equation
D
17-4, into Equation 17-8, yields the following:
The Moody friction factor3, fm, is used in the equations above.
64
Some equations are shown in terms of the Fanning friction fac- f m = Eq 17-9
tor, ff, which is one fourth of fm (fm = 4.0 ff). A graph of both Fan- DV
ning and Moody friction factors as a function of Reynolds num- This expression can then be substituted for the friction fac-
ber appears in Fig. 17-2. tor in Equation 17-7, resulting in the following formula for pres-
The Darcy-Weisbach equation is valid for both laminar and sure loss in kPa:
turbulent flow of any liquid, and may also be used for gases 32 000 LmV 32 LV
with certain restrictions. When using this equation, changes in Pf = or Eq 17-10
d2 d2
elevation, velocity, or density must be accounted for by applying

FIG. 17-2
Friction Factors5

17-3
Equation 17-10 is commonly known as Poiseuilles law for

Ts 1 P21 P22 0.5
Eq 17-15
Ps ff Lm Tavg Zavg
laminar flow. Q = 0.018 E d2.5

When the flow is turbulent, the friction factor depends on the
Reynolds number and the relative roughness of the pipe, /D, This equation is completely general for steady-state flow,
which is the roughness of the pipe, , over the pipe diameter, D. and adequately accounts for variations in compressibility fac-
Fig. 17-2 incorporates the relative roughness of the pipe into tor, kinetic energy, pressure, and temperature for any typical
the determination of the friction factor. Fig. 17-3 indicates rela- line section. However, the equation as derived involves an un-

tive roughness and friction factors for various piping materials. specified value of the transmission factor, 1/ff. The correct rep-
These figures are based on the iterative solution of the following resentation of this friction factor is necessary to the validity of
equation developed by Colebrook.4 the equation.

1 2.51 The friction factor is fundamentally related to the energy


= 2 log10 +
3.7 D Re fm
Eq 17-11 lost due to friction. In the derivation of the general energy equa-
fm tion, all irreversibilities and non-idealities, except for those cov-
Various explicit equations have been presented which pro- ered by the real gas law, have been collected into the friction
vide a direct solution for the friction factor. The equation below loss term.
was proposed by Chen30 and is accurate and is almost identical Empirical methods historically and currently used to calcu-
to the Colebrook equation over Reynolds Numbers (4000 to late or predict the flow of gas in a pipeline are the result of
4(10)8) and roughness factors (e/D) from 0.05 to 5(10)7. various correlations of the transmission factor substituted into
1.1098
the general energy equation.



D
Examination of the relationships presented by various au-
5.8506
Re
A = log + 0.8981 thors shows that their forms differ primarily in the inherent or
2.8257 Eq 17-11a
specified representation of the transmission factor which de-
1 fines the energy lost in resistance to flow for various pipe sizes,
f m =
roughnesses, flow conditions, and gases.

3.7065
2
D 5.0452 A
2 log To obtain Equation 17-15, which is convenient for general
Re Eq 17-11b
calculations, a number of simplifying assumptions have been
Equivalent Length of Valves and Fittings made. For other than pipeline sections with a very high pres-
sure gradient, the change in the kinetic energy of the gas is not
The pressure drop effects of valves and fittings can be ac- significant, and is assumed equal to zero. It is also assumed
counted for by addition of the equivalent lengths of the fit- that the gas temperature is constant at an average value for the
tings to the actual piping lengths. This augmented pipe length section considered; the compressibility factor is constant at the
is then used in any of the following pressure drop calculation value characterized by the average gas temperature and pres-
techniques. A table of equivalent lengths for a number of repre- sure; and in the term giving the effect of elevation change, the
sentative valves and fittings appears in Fig. 17-4. pressure is constant at the average value. In the range of condi-
tions to which pipeline flow equations are ordinarily applied,
Compressibility of Gases averages are usually sufficiently accurate. Average tempera-
tures are calculated as indicated in Fig. 17-1.
For more accurate values of Z, refer to Section 23. For more
approximate calculations, the value of the average compress- The average pressure in the line can be computed by:
ibility factor, Zavg, may be calculated from the following equa-
2 P1 P2
3 P1 + P2
tions: Pavg = P1 + P2 Eq 17-16

1
Zavg = In the absence of field data indicating otherwise, an efficien-
(Fpv)2 Eq 17-12 cy factor, E, of 1.0 is usually assumed.
and The AGA Equations The AGA Equations were devel-
0.5
(Pavg) (0.0527) (105) (10(1.785) ()) oped to approximate partially and fully turbulent flow using

Fpv = 1 +


Ta3v.g825 Eq 17-13 two different transmission factors. The fully turbulent flow
equation accounts for the relative pipe roughness, /D, based on
the rough-pipe law.4 This equation uses the following transmis-
Fig. 17-5 contains a plot of the deviation factor, Fpv2.
sion factor:
An estimate for Zavg at pressures below 700 kPa is:
3.7 D


1 1/ff = 4 log10 Eq 17-17
Zavg = Eq 17-14
1 + 0.00003 Pavg
When the transmission factor for fully turbulent flow is sub-
stituted in the general energy equation (Equation 17-15), the
SINGLE PHASE FLOW AGA Equation for fully turbulent flow becomes:
0.5
Transmission Line Gas Flow Ts 3.7 D P21 P22
Ps Lm Tavg Zavg
Q = 0.018 E 4 log10 d2.5

Isothermal Flow The steady-state, isothermal flow be-
havior of gas in pipelines is defined by a general energy equa- Eq 17-18
tion of the form:

17-4
FIG. 17-3
Relative Roughness of Pipe Materials and Friction Factors for Complete Turbulence5

17-5
FIG. 17-4
Equivalent Length Le of Valves and Fittings

Ball valve Reduced bore 40 mm (112 in.) and smaller *


65 D
Reduced bore 50 mm (2 in.) and larger 45 D
Gate valve Standard bore 13 D
Reduced bore 40 mm (112 in.) and smaller 65 D
Globe valve, Straight pattern 340D
Valves (fully open)
Y pattern 160 D
Angle pattern 145 D
Check valve Swing type 135 D
Ball or piston type 40 mm (112) in. and smaller 340 D
Plug valve Regular pattern 45 D
Butterfly valve 150 mm (6 in.) and larger 20 D
Tee-equal Flow straight-through 20 D
Flow through side outlet 65 D
Elbow 90, R = 112 D 20 D
45, R = 1 2 D
1
16 D
Fittings
Bend 90, R = 4 D 14 D
90, R = 5 D 16 D
180, R = 4 D 25 D
180, R = 5 D 28 D
Strainer Pump suction Y-type and bucket type 250 D
Miscellaneous
Nozzle Suction nozzle vessel/tank 32 D
*D = nominal size in meters

1/2
The partially turbulent flow equation is based on the Ts P21 P22 2.667
Ps L TZavg
Eq 17-22
smooth-pipe law4 and is modified to account for drag-inducing Q = (0.1182) E d

elements. The transmission factor for this equation is:
The Weymouth formula for short pipelines and gathering
Re systems agrees more closely with metered rates than those cal-
1/ff = 4 log10 0.6 Eq 17-19 culated by most other formulae. However, the degree of error
1/ff increases with pressure. If the Q calculated from the Weymouth

formula is multiplied by 1/Z, where Z is the compressibility fac-
Substituting 1/ff from Equation 17-19 into Equation 17-15 tor of the gas, the corrected Q will closely approximate the me-
does not provide an equation which can be solved directly. For
tered flow. Fig. 17-5 shows a plot of the deviation factor, 1/Z, of
partially turbulent flow a frictional drag factor must also be ap-
a common gas and can be used safely if exact data is not avail-
plied to account for the effects of pipe bends and irregularities.
able.
These calculations are beyond the scope of this book and the
AGA Steady Flow in Gas Pipelines6 should be consulted for a The equation cannot be generally applied to any variety of
detailed treatment of partially turbulent flow. diameters and roughness, and in the flow region of partially
developed turbulence, it is not valid. The Weymouth equation
The Weymouth equation The Weymouth equation,
may be used to approximate fully turbulent flow by applying
published in 19127, evaluated the coefficient of friction as a
correction factors determined from the system to which it is to
function of the diameter.
be applied. Graphs showing gas flow calculations based on the
0.0235 Weymouth equation are shown in Fig. 17-6a and 17-6b.
ff = 1/3 Eq 17-20
d Panhandle A equation In the early 1940s Panhandle
Eastern Pipe Line Company developed a formula for calcula-
1/ff = 6.523 d1/6 Eq 17-21 tion of gas flow in transmission lines which has become known
as the Panhandle A equation. This equation uses the following
When the friction factor, ff, is substituted in the general en-
expressions of Reynolds number and transmission factor.
ergy equation, Weymouths equation becomes:

17-6
FIG. 17-5 Panhandle B equation A new or revised Panhandle
8
Equation was published in 1956. This revised equation is
Deviation Factors known as the Panhandle B equation and is only slightly Reyn-
olds number dependent. Therefore, it more nearly approxi-
mates fully turbulent flow behavior. The transmission factor
used here is:

Q 0.01961
Eq 17-26
d
1/ff = 19.08 = 16.49 (Re)0.01961


Substituting Equation 17-23 for 1/ff in the general energy
equation (Equation 17-15), the Panhandle B equation becomes:
0.51
Ts 1.02 P21 P22
Ps L Tavg Zavg
Q = 0.339 E 0.961 d2.53 Eq 17-27

The equation can be adjusted through the use of an efficien-


cy term that makes it applicable across a relatively limited
range of Reynolds numbers. Other than this, however, there are
no means for adjustment of the equation to correct it for varia-
tions in pipe surface. Adjusted to an average flowing Reynolds
number, the equation will predict low flow rates at low Reyn-
olds numbers, and high flow rates at high Reynolds numbers,
as compared to a fully turbulent flow equation. Efficiencies
based on the Panhandle B equation decrease with increasing
flow rate for fully turbulent flow. The efficiency factor, E, used
in the Panhandle B equation generally varies between about
0.88 and 0.94.
Conclusions The successful application of these trans-
mission line flow equations in the past has largely involved
compensation for discrepancies through the use of adjustment
factors, usually termed efficiencies. These efficiencies are fre-
quently found in practice by determining the constant required
to cause predicted gas equation behavior to agree with flow
data. As a result, the values of these factors are specific to par-
ticular gas flow equations and field conditions and, under many
circumstances, vary with flow rate in a fashion that obscures
the real nature of flow behavior in the pipe.
(15 C) The Reynolds number dependent equations, such as the
Note: Refer to Section 23 for more accurate compressibility factors. Panhandle equations, utilize a friction factor expression which
yields an approximation to partially turbulent flow behavior in
Q the case of the Panhandle A equation, and an approximation to
= 1734.55
Re Eq 17-23 fully turbulent behavior in the case of the Panhandle B.
d
These equations suffer from the substitution of a fixed gas
Q 0.07305
Eq 17-24 viscosity value into the Reynolds number expression, which, in
d
1/ff = 11.85 = 6.872 (Re)0.07305 turn, substituted into the flow equation, results in an expres-

sion with a preconditioned bias.
The transmission factor assumes a Reynolds number value
from 5 to 11 million based on actual metered experience. Regardless of the merits of various gas flow equations, past
practices may dictate the use of a particular equation to main-
tain continuity of comparative capacities through application of
Substituting Equation 17-24 for 1/ff in the general energy
equation (Equation 17-15), the Panhandle A Equation be- consistent operating policy. A summary of comparisons between
comes: transmission factors used in the above gas equations are shown
0.5392 in Fig. 17-7.
Ts 1.0788 P21 P22 2.6182
Ps L Tavg Zavg
Q = 0.191 E 0.853 d Reference should be made to Steady Flow in Gas Pipe-

Eq 17-25 lines,6 published by American Gas Association, for a complete
analysis of steady flow in gas pipelines.
This equation was intended to reflect the flow of gas through
smooth pipes. When adjusted with an efficiency factor, E, of Low Pressure Gas Flow
about 0.90, the equation is a reasonable approximation of the
partially turbulent flow equation. The equation becomes less Gas gathering often involves operating pressures below
accurate as flow rate increases. Many users of the Panhandle A 690kPa. Some systems flow under vacuum conditions. For
equation assume an efficiency factor of 0.92.

17-7
FIG. 17-6a
Gas Flow Based on Weymouth Formula

17-8
FIG. 17-6b
Gas Flow Based on Weymouth Formula

17-9
FIG. 17-7
Comparison of Gas Equation Transmission Factors for Nominal 500 mm Pipe

these low pressure conditions, equations have been developed tor. This simplification was checked over a wide range of flows
that give a better fit than the Weymouth or Panhandle equa- and densities for pressure drops of 6 to 35 kPa/100 m. Density
tions. Two such formulas are: was varied over a range of 100 to 1; flows varied over a range of
75 to 1. Pressure variation was from atmospheric to 7000 kPa
The Oliphant Formula9 for gas flow between vacuum and
(abs). The error from using the simplified approach as compared
690kPa:
to the actual friction factor calculated in the Darcy formula was
2.5 d3 99.3 Tb from zero to 5%, with the simplified approach giving consistent-
151.19 Ps 288.9
= 0.051
Q d + ly lower calculated pressure drop for a given flow.

1/2
The Darcy formula can be written in the simple form:
T L
0.6 288.9 P21 P22 Eq 17-28

W2 62 530 (102) f

P100 =
The Spitzglass Formula for gas flow below 7 kPa (ga) at 15 C: d5 Eq 17-30
1/2
62.530 (1014) f


(P1 P2) d5 Eq 17-29 Simplifying,
C1 = W2 (109), and C2 = , then
Q = 0.821
91.44 d5
d
L 1+ + 0.00118 d
C1 C2
100 =
P
Plant Piping Gas Flow Eq 17-31

For estimating pressure drop in short runs of gas piping, (P100)


C
1= = discharge factor from chart, Fig. 17-8
such as within plant or battery limits, a simplified formula for C2
compressible fluids is accurate for fully turbulent flow, assum-
ing the pressure drop through the line is not a significant frac- (P100)
C2 = = size factor Fig. 17-9
tion of the total pressure (i.e. no more than 10%). C1
The following method is a simplification of the Darcy for- C2 incorporates the friction factor, assuming clean steel. Us-
mula, which eliminates calculation of fm, the Moody friction fac- ing this simplified approach, new lines can be sized by setting

17-10
FIG. 17-8 Example 17-2 Calculate the required line size (of Schedule
40 pipe) to give P100 = 25 kPa or less when flowing 34 000 kg/h
Simplified Flow Formula for Compressible of methane at 2800 kPa and 38 C. The compressibility factor is
Fluids5 Values of C1 0.96 (from Fig. 23-5).

Solution Steps
16.062 (2800)
= = 18.12 kg/m3
8.3145 (273 + 38) (0.96)
C1 from Fig. 17-8 is 1.16
(P100) 25 (18.12)
C2 = = = 390.5
C1 1.16

From Fig. 17-9 the smallest size of Schedule 40 pipe with C2


less than 390 is 8-in. pipe. For 8 in. Sch 40 pipe, C2 is 257. The
actual pressure drop can then be calculated as:
1.16 (257)
P100 = = 16.45 kPa/100 m
18.12
using Equation 17-31 for the above flow conditions.

Liquid Flow
For the calculation of pressure drop in liquid lines, the Dar-
cy-Weisbach method, Equation 17-6, can be used. The calcula-
tion is simplified for liquid flows since the density can reason-
ably be assumed to be a constant. As a result, the Darcy-Weisbach
calculation can be applied to a long run of pipe, rather than
segmentally as dictated by the variable density in gas flow. In
addition, several graphical aids are available for pressure drop
calculation. Elevation pressure drops must be calculated sepa-
rately using Equation 17-32. These elevation pressure gains or
losses are added algebraically to the frictional pressure drops.
Pe = (0.00981) L Ze Eq 17-32
Water A graph showing pressure drop for water per 100 m
as a function of flow rate in m3/h and pipe size is shown in Fig.
17-10. These data are based on the Hazen and Williams empiri-
cal formula10 using a C constant of 100 which is commonly used
for design purposes in welded and seamless steel pipe.
Hazen and Williams formula for flow of water:
P1 P2 0.54
L
the desired P100 and solving for C2 with a given flow. For a q = 3.765 (10)6 d2.63 C
given flow and pipe size, P100 can be solved directly. Eq 17-33

Example 17-1 Calculate the pressure drop in a 10-in., Sched- Where:


ule 40 pipe (250 mm) for a flow of 68 400 kg/h of methane. Tem- C = 140 for new steel pipe
perature is 15 C and pressure is 5200 kPa. The compressibility
factor is 0.905 (from Fig. 23-8). C = 130 for new cast iron pipe
C = 100 is often used for design purposes to account for
pipe fouling, etc.
Solution Steps
Hydrocarbon A graph showing pressure drop for hydro-
16.042 (5200) carbons per 100 meters as a function of flow rate in m3/h and
=
= 38.48 kg/m3
8.3145 (273 +15) (0.905) pipe size is shown in Fig. 17-11. This graph assumes a relative
density of 1.0 (water). To correct for different liquid densities,
C1 from Fig. 17-8 is 4.7 the value read from Fig. 17-11 must be multiplied by the actual
C2 from Fig. 17-9 is 78.7 relative density to obtain the correct pressure loss.

C1 C2 4.7 (78.7)
P100 = =
38.48
= 9.61 kPa/100 m using Equation 17-31

17-11
FIG. 17-9
Simplified Flow Formula for Compressible Fluids5
Values of C2

Nominal Nominal Nominal


Schedule Schedule Schedule
pipe size Value of C2 pipe size Value of C2 pipe size Value of C2
number number number
in. in. in.
1
8 40 s 13 940 000 000 8 20 234. 18 10 4.35
80 x 46 100 000 000 30 243. 20 4.51
1
4 40 s 2 800 000 000 40 s 257. ... s 4.68
80 x 7 550 000 000 60 287. 30 4.86
3
8 40 s 561 000 000 80 x 326. ... x 5.05
80 x 1 260 000 000 100 371. 40 5.24
1
2 40 s 164 600 000 120 444. 60 5.90
80 x 327 500 000 140 509. 80 6.64
160 756 800 000 ... xx 558. 100 7.66
... xx 19 680 000 000 160 586. 120 8.87
3
4 40 s 37 300 000 10 20 69.9 140 10.08
80 x 65 000 000 30 74.1 160 11.77
160 176 200 000 40 s 78.7 20 10 2.48
... xx 1 104 000 000 60 x 90.5 20 s 2.65
1 40 s 10 470 000 80 100.1 30 x 2.83
80 x 17 000 000 100 114.8 40 2.98
160 39 600 000 120 132.5 60 3.36
... xx 200 800 000 140 159.3 80 3.82
114 40 s 2 480 000 160 185.2 100 4.42
80 x 3 720 000 12 20 27.6 120 5.05
160 6 140 000 30 29.6 140 5.89
... xx 24 000 000 ... s 30.8 160 6.78
112 40 s 1 100 000 40 31.7 24 10 0.940
80 x 1 590 000 ... x 34.3 20 s 0.994
160 2 920 000 60 36.3 ... x 1.051
... xx 8 150 000 80 40.7 30 1.081
2 40 s 297 000 100 47.0 40 1.146
80 x 415 000 120 54.0 60 1.304
160 859 000 140 61.6 80 1.470
... xx 1 582 000 160 74.4 100 1.711
212 40 s 117 000 14 10 16.70 120 1.970
80 x 162 000 20 17.53 140 2.242
160 257 000 30 s 18.41 160 2.600
... xx 669 000 40 19.34 30 10 0.2959
3 40 s 37 700 ... x 20.33 ... s 0.3025
80 x 50 500 60 21.89 20 xs 0.3163
160 85 000 80 24.92 30 0.3308
... xx 170 000 100 29.16 36 10 0.1130
312 40 s 17 600 120 33.40 ... s 0.1151
80 x 23 200 140 38.37 20 xs 0.1194
4 40 s 9 100 160 44.35 30 0.1239
80 x 11 880 16 10 8.15 40 0.1287
120 15 730 20 8.50 Note: The letters s, x, and xx in the
160 20 770 30 s 8.87 columns of Schedule Numbers indicate
... xx 32 720 40 x 9.66 Standard, Extra Strong, and Double Extra
5 40 s 2 798 60 10.77 Strong pipe respectively
80 x 3 590 80 12.32
120 4 734 100 14.15
160 6 318 120 16.30
... xx 8 677 140 19.34
6 40 s 1 074. 160 21.89
80 x 1 404.
120 1 786.
160 2 422.
... xx 3 275.

17-12
FIG. 17-10
Pressure Drop for Flowing Water

17-13
FIG. 17-11
Pressure Drop for Hydrocarbon Liquids in Smooth Pipe

Steam Flow At the downstream end of a pipeline, it is frequently neces-


sary to separate the liquid and vapor phases in a separator. The
Fig. 17-12 contains a graphical representation for calculat- presence of liquid slugs complicates this process, and a slug
ing pressure drop in steam lines. catcher may be required (see Section 7).
The Babcock formula5 for steam flow is: Flow Regime Determination
d + 91.44 W L2
Several empirical flow regime maps have been presented
d6
P
f = 673.9
Eq 17-34 that determine vapor-liquid flow patterns as a function of fluid
properties and flow rates. Diagrams of these flow patterns are
Fire Stream Flow shown in Fig. 17-14. One map commonly used was developed by
Fig. 17-13 is a table permitting rapid computation of the Gregory, Aziz, and Mandhane12 for horizontal flow. This map
behavior of various sized fire nozzles. The table also includes appears as Fig. 17-15. The coordinates of the map are:
the estimated pressure drop in 30.5 m of 212 inch diameter fire
hose.
VsL = superficial liquid velocity
TWO PHASE FLOW = QL/A Eq 17-35
Two-phase flow presents several design and operational dif- Vsg = superficial gas velocity
ficulties not present in single phase liquid or vapor flow. Fric-
tional pressure drops are much harder to calculate. For cross- = Qg/A Eq 17-36
country pipelines, a terrain profile is needed to calculate Mandhane proposed a fluid property correction to the super-
elevation pressure drops. Commercial software is available to ficial velocities, but concluded that the fluid property effects are
simulate these complex two-phase flow situations.

17-14
FIG. 17-12
Pressure Drop in Steam Pipes by Fritzsches Formula11

17-15
FIG. 17-13
Table of Effective Fire Streams

Smooth nozzles, size 18 mm (34") 21 mm (78") 25 mm (1")


Pressure at hydrants, 221 296 372 448 517 586 234 317 393 476 552 627 255 345 427 517 600 690
kPa
Pressure at nozzle, kPa 207 276 345 414 483 552 207 276 345 414 483 552 207 276 345 414 483 552
Pres. lost in 30.5 m, 21/2 14 21 28 34 34 41 28 41 48 62 69 76 48 69 83 103 117 138
in. hose, kPa
Vertical height, m 15 18 20 22 23 24 15 19 22 23 25 26 15 20 22 24 26 27
Horizontal distance, m 11 13 15 16 18 18 13 15 17 19 20 21 14 17 19 20 22 23
m3 discharge/h 20.4 20.4 23.6 26.3 28.3 31.1 33.4 27.9 32.3 36.1 39.5 42.7 45.7 36.6 42.2 47.2 51.3 55.9 59.7
Smooth nozzles, size 28 mm (118") 31 mm (114") 34 mm (138")
Pressure at hydrants, 290 386 483 579 676 772 338 448 558 669 779 889 400 531 655 800 931 1062
kPa
Pressure at nozzle, kPa 207 276 345 414 483 552 207 276 345 414 483 552 207 276 345 414 483 552
Pres. lost in 30.5m, 21/2 83 110 138 165 193 207 131 172 214 255 296 338 193 255 310 386 448 510
in hose, kPa
Vertical height, m 16 20 23 25 27 28 16 20 23 26 28 29 17 21 24 26 28 30
Horizontal distance, m 15 18 20 22 23 25 16 19 21 23 25 26 17 20 22 24 26 27
m3 discharge/h 46.8 54.1 60.4 66.1 71.3 76.3 58.1 67.2 75.2 82.4 89.0 96.2 71.5 82.4 92.2 101.1 109.0 116.7

Using 30.5 m of 212 in. ordinary best quality rubber lined hose between nozzle and hydrant or pump.

The vertical and horizontal distance in above table are effective streams. The effective stream, is one that has not broken up into a spray and
which will project three fourths of the water through a circle 254mm in diameter, at the distance indicated.
The bulk of the stream and extreme drops will carry a greater distance, but the stream is spread out too much to penetrate a hot fire and reach the
burning materials before evaporation. The vertical height h in meters, which the bulk of the stream will carry, may be computed by formula
h = 0.91 V2

2g
0 . 000 278 m3/h
The m3/h discharge in the above table check approximately with the formula: V = C2g H =

A
then 3 VA
m /h =
0.000278 V = Velocity in meters per second g = Acceleration due to gravity = 9.80 m/s2
A = Area of nozzle, in square mm C = Coefficient for smooth nozzles = 0.98 H = Head in m = pressure x 0.335

Reference: Adapted from Fire Protection Handbook, 1976, 14th Edition, National Fire Protection Association

insignificant compared to the errors in the empirical map. The latter method also contains explicit pipe diameter effects but
map reports the flow regimes: stratified, wavy, annular mist, lacks any way of accounting for surface tension.
bubble, slug, and dispersed. Care should be taken in the inter-
pretation of these flow maps as the regime boundaries are For vertical flow, the stratified flow regime cannot exist as
strongly affected by pipe inclination. In particular, horizontal there is no preferred direction for the liquid to settle. An em-
flow regime maps must not be used for vertical flow, and verti- pirical flow regime map developed by Aziz14 for vertical upward
cal flow regime maps must not be used for horizontal flow. The flow is shown in Fig. 17-16. The coordinates for this flow map
Mandhane map given in Fig. 17-15 was developed for horizon- are the same as for the Mandhane map in Fig. 17-15 except that
tal lines flowing air and water at near atmospheric pressure. fluid property corrections are used. The coordinates used in the
Inclinations in the range of 0.1-1.0 degrees can cause substan- Aziz vertical map are:
tial regime boundary movement. In addition, flow regime Nx = Vsg XA Eq 17-37
boundary adjustment has been observed due to fluid pressure,
pipe diameter, and surface tension.13,22 The gas density increase Ny = VsL YA Eq 17-38
caused by high pressure acts to move the slug-mist boundary to g 0.333

a
lower superficial gas velocities, while increased pipe diameter X
A= YA
acts to increase the stratified wavy flow regime at the expense Eq 17-39
of the slug flow regime. In addition, foamy fluids having a high Lwa 0.25

w
surface tension have been observed to flow in the dispersed flow YA =
Eq 17-40
regime even though Mandhane would have predicted superfi-
cial liquid velocities too low to cause dispersed flow. A flow re- For pipe inclinations greater than 10-20 degrees, flow regime
gime map generated by Taitel and Dukler13 contains explicit patterns resemble those of vertical flow more than those of hori-
inclination effects and should be used for inclined pipes. This zontal flow, and the Aziz vertical map should be used. For verti-

17-16
FIG. 17-14 FIG. 17-16
Two Phase Flow Regimes Vertical Up-Flow Regime Map14

Slug
Bubble

Annular Mist

Stratified Wave

FIG. 17-15
Horizontal Flow Regime Map12

m3/h measured at actual conditions. What flow regime is to be


expected?

Solution Steps
(832.8) (72.4) 107
0.25

(999.5) (20) 107


YA = = 1.32 using Equation 17-40

(32) 0.333
1.224
XA = (1.32) = 3.91 using Equation 17-39

51/3600
Vsg = = 0.451 m/s using Equation 17-36
(/4) (200/1000)2
17.3/3600
VsL = = 0.153 m/s using Equation 17-35
(/4) (200/1000)2
Nx = (0.451) (3.91) = 1.76 m/s using Equation 17-37
Ny = (0.153) (1.32) = 0.202 m/s using Equation 17-38

Fig. 17-16 shows that this flow is in the slug flow regime.
cal downward flow, the flow patterns can be more complicated. A Pressure Drop Calculation
generally accepted vertical down-flow map is not available.
Calculation of pressure drop in two-phase flow lends itself
Although the designer frequently does not have the choice, better to computer calculation than to hand calculation. Several
avoidance of the slug flow regime in horizontal flow and the two-phase pressure drop correlations are available for both
slug and froth flow regimes in vertical flow is desirable. Slug horizontal and vertical flows.15,16,17 Due to the complexity of
flow introduces a flow rate and pressure intermittency that two-phase flow, uncertainties associated with pressure drop
may be troublesome to process control. In some cases, slug flow calculations are much greater than uncertainties in single-
may be avoided by the choice of smaller pipe sizes. Of course, phase pressure drop calculations. As a result, errors in calcu-
frictional pressure drop may be increased by use of this smaller lated two-phase pressure drops in the order of plus or minus
pipe. In vertical upflow, oversizing the pipe may result in a twenty percent may normally be anticipated, especially in cir-
bubble flow regime, and a large liquid inventory. This liquid cumstances where fluid velocities are unusually high or low,
inventory may cause excessive hydrostatic presure drops. where terrain is rugged, or where fluid properties are inade-
Example 17-3 A vapor-liquid mixture is flowing vertically quately known. In addition, different two-phase flow correla-
upward in a pipe having an inside diameter of 200 mm. The tions may give significantly different pressure drops. In order to
fluid is a hydrocarbon liquid-hydrocarbon vapor mixture. The evaluate these differences, several correlations should be used.
liquid density is 832.8 kg/m3 and the vapor density is 32.0kg/ A method suggested by the American Gas Association18 can
m3. The interfacial surface tension is 20 (10)7 N m. The liquid serve as a basis for hand calculation generated by Dukler19 and
volumetric flow rate is 17.3 m3/h and the vapor flow rate is 51 an elevation pressure drop correlation by Flanigan.20

17-17
Frictional component18 Using the Dukler frictional The remaining quantity to be calculated in the Dukler
pressure drop calculation method, the frictional pressure drop scheme is an estimate of the liquid holdup, HLd. This holdup can
is given by the equation: be estimated using Fig. 17-18. This figure gives liquid holdup as
fn ftpr k Vm2 Lm a function of and Rey. Since Rey is itself a function of liquid
Pf = Eq 17-41 holdup, the calculation is, in general, iterative. For most calcu-
2 d
lations, however, the Rey line can be used for a first estimate.
where
L 2 g (1 )2 Elevation component The elevation component of pres-
k = + Eq 17-42
HLd (1 HLd) sure drop can be found using the Flanigan method. In this
and method, the elevation component is calculated using the equa-
QL tion:
= Eq 17-43
QL + Qg L HLf
P
e= Ze
The single phase friction factor, fn, can be obtained from the 100 Eq 17-49
correlation:19 where HLf is determined from Fig. 17-19 or calculated according
fn = 0.0056 + 0.5 (Rey)0.32 Eq 17-44 to the formula:
This equation is an approximate correlation of the Moody 1
friction factor, fm for turbulent flow having a Reynolds number HLf =
1 + 1.078 (Vsg)1.006 Eq 17-50
higher than 4000 in a smooth pipe. A plot of this Moody friction
factor is shown as the axis fm in Fig. 17-2. The term Ze is the vertical elevation rise of a hill. The rises
are summed. No elevation drops are considered. This is tanta-
The mixture Reynolds number, Rey, is calculated according mount to ignoring any possible hydrostatic pressure recoveries
to the equation: in downhill sections of pipeline and may lead to a considerable
(0.001) k Vm d error in the pressure drop analysis.
Re
y= Eq 17-45
n
Once the frictional component or pressure drop is found us-
Calculation of this Reynolds number requires determina- ing the Dukler method, and the elevation component is found
tion of mixture velocity, Vm, and mixture viscosity, n. These using the Flanigan method, the overall two-phase pressure
quantities can be determined according to: drop is found by summing the friction and elevation compo-
Vm = VsL + Vsg Eq 17-46 nents.
n = L + g (1 ) Eq 17-47 Pt = Pe + Pf Eq 17-51
The two-phase friction factor ratio, ftpr, representing a two- Since fluid properties and liquid holdups can change rapidly
phase frictional efficiency can be determined by reference to in a two-phase line, accuracy is improved if this AGA calcula-
Fig. 17-17 or by the equation: tion procedure is performed segmentally. The need for segmen-
y tal calculations is one of the reasons why two-phase calcula-
1.281 0.478y + 0.444y2 0.094y3 + 0.00843y4
ftpr = 1 + tions are best suited for computer calculation.

Liquid holdup The liquid holdup correlation given in
Eq 17-48 Fig. 17-18 is intended only for use in the Dukler friction pres-
where y = ln().

FIG. 17-17
Two-Phase Friction Factor Ratio18

17-18
sure drop calculation. A correlation by Eaton et al.21 is better Example 17-4 A pipeline segment with a 6-inch inside diam-
suited for liquid holdup determination in liquid inventory cal- eter (150 mm), 1200 m long, transports a mixture of gas and oil.
culations. The pipeline has a gradual upward slope and rises 30 m over the
1200 m length. The inlet pressure of the pipeline is 2800 kPa
The Eaton21 holdup correlation is shown in Fig. 17-20. In (abs), liquid viscosity is 0.02 Pa s, the vapor viscosity is 0.000015
this figure, the holdup fraction, HLe, is plotted directly as a func- Pa s, and the interfacial surface tension is 1.5 x 106 N/m. The
tion of the dimensionless group, NE. This dimensionless group liquid flow rate is 17 m3/h and the vapor flow rate is 425 m3/h.
is of the form: The density of the liquid phase is 880 kg/m3, and the density of
the gas phase is 20.8 kg/m3 at operating conditions. What is the
Pb
Pavg 0.05
1.84 (NLv)0.575 (NL)0.1 pressure at the downstream end of the line segment, and what
Ne = Eq 17-52 is the liquid inventory of the line?
Ngv (Nd)0.0277
Solution Steps
where
0.25 Calculate the flowing liquid volume fraction using Equation
L

NLv = 0.0565 VsL Eq 17-53 17-43.
17
= = 0.038
L 0.25 425 + 17

Ngv = 0.0565 Vsg Eq 17-54
Calculate the mixture viscosity, n using Equation 17-47.
L 0.50

Nd = 0.00003134 d Eq 17-55 n = (0.02) (0.038) + (0.000015) (1.0 0.038)
= 0.000774 Pa s
1 0.25 For a first guess, assume HLd = and estimate k using
L3
NL = 0.001769 L Eq 17-56
Equation 17-42.
The Eaton correlation has been found reasonably accurate (880) (0.038)2 (20.8) (1.0 0.038)2
k = + = 53.45 kg/m3
by several investigators, particularly for low holdup flows. 0.038 (1.0 0.038)
The liquid holdup fraction, HLe, is the fraction of the flow Calculate the superficial velocities and the mixture velocity.
area of the pipe occupied by liquid. To calculate the liquid in-
ventory in the pipe, IL, the pipe internal volume is multiplied by 17
VsL = = 0.259 m/s
this holdup fraction. (/4) (152.4/1000)2 (3600) using Equation 17-35
IL = (7.853) (107) HLed2L Eq 17-57 425
Vsg = = 6.472 m/s
Since holdup fractions may change along the length of the (/4) (152.4/1000)2 (3600) using Equation 17-36
pipe, a segmental calculation is more accurate.
Vm = 0.259 + 6.472 = 6.731 m/s using Equation 17-46

FIG. 17-18
Liquid Holdup Correlation18

17-19
Calculate an estimate of the mixture Reynolds number, Rey, Determine the elevation component of pressure drop, Pe,
using Equation 17-45 using Equation 17-49
(0.001) (53.45) (6.731) (152.4) Pe = (0.01) (880) (0.12) 30 = 31.68 kPa
Re
y= = 70 839
(0.000774)
Find the total pressure drop, Pt, using Equation 17-51
From Fig. 17-18, determine a better estimate for the holdup
fraction HLd using = 0.038, Rey = 70 839 Pt = 317.9 + 31.68 = 349.6 kPa

HLd = 0.12 Find the segment discharge pressure

Using this improved HLd, recalculate k using Equation 17- P2 = 2800 349.6 = 2450.4 kPa
42 The pipeline segment has a discharge pressure of
(880) (0.038)2 (20.8) (1.0 0.038)2 2450.4kPa.
k = + = 32.463 kg/m3

(0.12) 1.0 0.12 To calculate the liquid inventory, the liquid holdup fraction
Using this improved k recalculate Rey using Equation 17- from Eatons correlation must be found. First determine the
45 nondimensional parameters:

(0.001) (32.463) (6.731) (152.4) NLv = (0.0565) (0.259) (880/1.5 106)0.25 = 2.277
Re
y= = 43 024 using Equation 17-53
(0.000774)
From Fig. 17-18 with = 0.038 and Rey = 43 024, HLd = 0.16. Ngv = (0.0565) (6.472) (880/1.5 106)0.25 = 56.91
Another iteration using HLd = 0.16 indicates Rey = 40 900 and using Equation 17-54
HLd = 0.16. Nd = (0.00003134) (152.4) (880/1.5 106)0.5 = 115.69
Calculate the single phase friction factor with Rey = 40 900 using Equation 17-55
using Equation 17-44
1 0.25

(880) (1.5 10 )
fn = 0.0056 + 0.5 (40 900)0.32 = 0.0223 L = (0.001769) (0.02)
N = 0.152
6 3
using Equation 17-56
Determine the two-phase friction factor, ftpr, from Fig. 17-17
using = 0.038 Determine Eatons nondimensional abscissa, NE, using
Equation17-52
ftpr = 2.59
(1.84) (2.277)0.575 (2800/101.56)0.05 (0.152)0.1
Now for = 0.038, HLd = 0.16 then k = 30.86 using Equation NE =
(56.91) (115.69)0.0277
17-42.

l = 0.0445
Calculate the frictional component of pressure drop Pf us-
ing Equation 17-41 From Fig. 17-20, read the holdup fraction, HLe
(0.5) (0.0223) (2.59) (30.86) (6.731) (1200)
2
HLe = 0.14
Pf = = 317.9 kPa
152.4
Note that this estimate is close to the HLf predicted in
Find HLf from Fig. 17-19 using Vsg = 6.472 m/s Fig.17-19 for elevation pressure drop determination. It also co-
incides closely with the value of 0.16 from Fig. 17-18.
HLf = 0.12

FIG. 17-19
Flanigan Liquid Holdup Correlation20

17-20
FIG. 17-20 FIG. 17-21
21
Eaton Liquid Holdup Correlation Example Line Drip

GRADE

GAS FLOW

DRIP
BELOW
LINE
DRIP LIQUID
DRIP
VESSEL
DRIP
VALVE NO

the sag out as a slug. Changes in pipeline inlet flow rate can
also cause slugs. When the inlet flow rate increases, the liquid
inventory in the pipeline decreases, and the excess liquid forms
a slug or series of slugs. Finally, pigging can cause very large
liquid slugs as the entire liquid inventory of the line is swept
ahead of the pig. Of the four mechanisms described, wave
growth normally produces the shortest slugs, followed in length
by terrain generated slugs. Methods for calculating wave in-
duced slugs were described by Greskovich and Shrier22, and by
Brill et al.23 A preliminary scheme for calculating terrain gener-
ated slugs was reported by Schmidt.24 Analytical methods for
determining inlet flow rate generated slugs were given by Cun-
Calculate the pipeline segment liquid inventory from Equation liffe,25 and a method of analyzing pigging dynamics was given
17-57 by McDonald and Baker.26

IL = (7.853) (107) (0.14) (152.4)2 (1200) = 3.064 m3 Slug Catchers Refer to Section 7 for a discussion on
Slug Catchers.
The pipeline segment contains 3.064 cubic m of liquid at any
instant. An example of a line drip catcher is shown in Fig. 17-22. A
drip vessel is connected to the incoming pipeline and often laid
Liquid Slugging beneath it. A flow line from the drip vessel is used to blow the
liquids out to a storage or surge vessel as they accumulate.
Purpose of Separators The slug flow regime is fre-
quently encountered for pipe sizes and flow rates used in pro- Pigging Pipelines are pigged for several reasons. If wa-
cess and transmission piping. Liquid slugging introduces an ter is present in the line, it must be removed periodically in or-
additional design and operational difficulty as liquid and vapor der to minimize corrosion. This water accumulates in sags in
must generally be separated at the downstream end of the two- the pipeline, and these low spots are particularly susceptible to
phase flow line. The downstream separator serves both as a corrosion. Pipelines are also pigged to improve pressure drop-
liquid-vapor disengaging device and as a surge vessel to absorb flow rate performance. Water or hydrocarbon liquids that settle
the fluctuating liquid flow rates caused by slugging. In order to in sags in the pipeline constitute partial blockages that increase
size the separator or slug catcher, the length of the incoming pressure drop. Pigging can remove these liquids and improve
slugs must be determined. Slug length calculation methods are pipeline efficiency. Pigging can also be used as a means of limit-
not well developed, and there is large uncertainty in slug length ing the required slug catcher size. By pigging at frequent inter-
determination. vals, liquid inventory buildup in a pipeline can be reduced, and
the maximum slug size can be limited. The required down-
Mechanisms of Slug Generation Liquid slug lengths stream slug catcher size must take into account pigging fre-
are difficult to determine in part because there are at least four quency.
identifiable mechanisms for liquid slug generation. Slugs can
form as the result of wave formation at the liquid-gas interface Operational hazards are associated with pigging. The very
in a stratified flow. When the liquid waves grow large enough to large slugs swept ahead of the pig may overwhelm inadequately
bridge the entire pipe diameter, the stratified flow pattern sized downstream facilities. Pigs may also occasionally be de-
breaks down and a slug flow is formed. stroyed in the pipeline and the resulting debris may damage
downstream fittings or equipment. Even worse, the pig may be-
Slugs can also form due to terrain effects. Liquid collects at come stuck in the line and require an expensive shutdown for
a sag in the pipeline and blocks the gas flow. The pressure in location and removal.
this blocked gas rises until it blows the accumulated liquid in

17-21
FIG. 17-22 FIG. 17-23
Working Pressures Refinery Piping Working Pressures Transmission Lines

To determine allowable internal working pressure for To determine allowable internal working pressures for pip-
straight sections of pipe in accordance with ANSI B31.3, ing outside of refineries and other processing facilities in ac-
Code for Pressure Piping, Petroleum Refinery Piping, use cordance with ANSI B31.8-1999, Code of Pressure Piping,
the following: Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping, use the follow-
ing:
tm = t + c
2 S t
Pido 2 tSE Pi = (F) (E) (T)
t = or Pi = do
2(SE + PiY) do 2 tY
Where
do or Pi
For
t> > 0.385 calculation of pressure design Pi = Design pressure, kPa (ga)
6 SE
S = Specified minimum yield strength, kPa
thickness requires special consideration.
do = Nominal outside diameter, mm
where: t = Nominal wall thickness, mm
tm = minimum required thickness, satisfying F = Construction type design factor,
requirements for pressure, and mechanical, Table 841.114A and Par. 840.2 (see note)
corrosion, and erosion allowances, mm. Location Class F
Selected thickness shall be no less than tm plus 1 Div 1 .80
the manufacturers negative tolerance. The Div 2 .72
typical negative tolerance is 12.5%. 2 .60
t = pressure design thickness, mm 3 .50
c = the sum of the mechanical allowances 4 .40
(thread depth and groove depth), corrosion, and
erosion allowances, mm
Pi = internal design pressure, kPa (ga) Complete details are covered in Par. 841.
do = outside diameter of pipe, mm E = Longitudinal joint factor, Table 841.115A
S = allowable stresses, kPa Normally a factor of 1.0 is used for seamless
and welded pipe except for the following:
E = longitudinal weld joint factor:
Fusion Welded A 134 and A 139 0.80
Seamless = 1.000, ERW = 0.85
Spiral Welded A 211 0.80
Y = coefficient having values for ferritic steels
as follows: 0.4 up to and including 480C Furnace Butt Welded ASTM-A53, API-5L 0.60
0.5 for 510C
0.7 for 540C and above T = Temperature derating factor, Table 841.116A
Temp, C Factor T
120 or less 1.000
150 0.967
175 0.933
200 0.900
230 0.867
For intermediate temperatures, interpolate for
derating factor.

17-22
FIG. 17-24
Representative Allowable Stresses in Tension for Materials
(Developed from ASME B31.3, 2002, Tables A-1, A-1B)

17-23
FIG. 17-25
Design Properties and Allowable Working Pressures for Piping ASTM A106, grade B seamless pipe Petroleum
Refinery Piping Code for Pressure Piping ANSI B31.3-2002 Corrosion allowance = 1.3 mm

Weight of Allowable working pressures for temperatures (in C) not to exceed, Mpa (ga).
Nom pipe pipe kg/ Wall thk. I D mm Flow
29 to 38 93 149 204 260 316 371
size in. Sch. No. meter O.D. mm mm (d) area mm2
1/2 S40 1.27 21.3 2.8 15.8 196 15.57 15.57 15.57 15.57 14.72 13.47 12.85
3/4 S40 1.69 26.7 2.9 20.9 344 13.33 13.33 13.33 13.33 12.60 11.53 11.00
X80 2.20 3.9 18.8 279 23.80 23.80 23.80 23.80 22.49 20.59 19.63
1 S40 2.50 33.4 3.4 26.6 558 14.50 14.50 14.50 14.50 13.71 12.54 11.97
X80 3.24 4.5 24.3 464 23.92 23.92 23.92 23.92 22.60 20.69 19.73
160 4.24 6.4 20.7 337 39.45 39.45 39.45 39.45 37.28 34.12 32.54
XX 5.46 9.1 15.2 182 65.75 65.75 65.75 65.75 62.14 56.88 54.25
1-1/2 S40 4.05 48.3 3.7 40.9 1 313 11.53 11.53 11.53 11.53 10.90 9.97 9.51
X80 5.41 5.1 38.1 1 140 19.15 19.15 19.15 19.15 18.10 16.57 15.80
160 7.25 7.1 34.0 907 30.99 30.99 30.99 30.99 29.29 26.81 25.57
XX 9.56 10.2 27.9 613 49.85 49.85 49.85 49.85 47.11 43.12 41.12
2 S40 5.45 60.3 3.9 52.5 2 165 10.13 10.13 10.13 10.13 9.57 8.76 8.36
X80 7.49 5.5 49.3 1 905 17.16 17.16 17.16 17.16 16.21 14.84 14.16
160 11.10 8.7 42.8 1 442 31.72 31.72 31.72 31.72 29.98 27.44 26.17
XX 13.46 11.1 38.2 1 145 43.34 43.34 43.34 43.34 40.96 37.49 35.76
3 S40 11.30 88.9 5.5 77.9 4 769 11.31 11.31 11.31 11.31 10.69 9.79 9.33
X80 15.28 7.6 73.7 4 261 17.60 17.60 17.60 17.60 16.63 15.22 14.52
160 21.36 11.1 66.6 3 489 28.43 28.43 28.43 28.43 26.86 24.59 23.46
XX 27.70 15.2 58.4 2 680 41.99 41.99 41.99 41.99 39.68 36.32 34.65
4 S40 16.09 114.3 6.0 102.3 8 213 9.92 9.92 9.92 9.92 9.38 8.58 8.19
X80 22.35 8.6 97.2 7 417 15.69 15.69 15.69 15.69 14.83 13.57 12.94
160 33.56 13.5 87.3 5 989 27.43 27.43 27.43 27.43 25.93 23.73 22.63
XX 41.06 17.1 80.1 5 034 36.60 36.60 36.60 36.60 34.59 31.66 30.19
6 S40 28.30 168.3 7.1 154.1 18 639 8.31 8.31 8.31 8.31 7.86 7.19 6.86
X80 42.61 11.0 146.3 16 817 14.22 14.22 14.22 14.22 13.43 12.30 11.73
160 67.54 18.2 131.7 13 633 25.88 25.88 25.88 25.88 24.46 22.39 21.36
XX 79.27 21.9 124.4 12 151 32.13 32.13 32.13 32.13 30.37 27.79 26.51
8 S40 42.58 219.1 8.2 202.7 32 275 7.57 7.57 7.57 7.57 7.15 6.55 6.25
X80 64.71 12.7 193.7 29 460 12.86 12.86 12.86 12.86 12.14 11.12 10.60
XX 107.94 22.2 174.6 23 950 24.51 24.51 24.51 24.51 23.17 21.20 20.22
160 111.37 23.0 173.1 23 520 25.51 25.51 25.51 25.51 24.11 22.07 21.05
10 S40 60.38 273.1 9.3 254.5 50 874 7.05 7.05 7.05 7.05 6.66 6.10 5.81
X60 81.55 12.7 247.7 48 169 10.23 10.23 10.23 10.23 9.68 8.86 8.44
160 172.50 28.6 215.9 36 610 25.77 25.77 25.77 25.77 24.35 22.29 21.26
12 S 73.95 323.9 9.5 304.8 72 966 6.12 6.12 6.12 6.12 5.79 5.30 5.05
X 97.51 12.7 298.5 69 957 8.59 8.59 8.59 8.59 8.12 7.43 7.08
160 238.99 33.3 257.2 51 956 25.51 25.51 25.51 25.51 24.11 22.07 21.05
14 10 54.72 355.6 6.4 342.9 92 347 3.35 3.35 3.35 3.35 3.17 2.90 2.77
S30 81.40 9.5 336.6 88 959 5.57 5.57 5.57 5.57 5.26 4.81 4.59
X 107.49 12.7 330.2 85 634 7.81 7.81 7.81 7.81 7.37 6.75 6.44
16 10 62.77 406.4 6.4 393.7 121 736 2.93 2.93 2.93 2.93 2.77 2.54 2.42
S30 93.33 9.5 387.4 117 841 4.86 4.86 4.86 4.86 4.59 4.20 4.01
S40 123.45 12.7 381.0 114 009 6.81 6.81 6.81 6.81 6.43 5.89 5.62
18 10 70.67 457.2 6.4 444.5 155 179 2.60 2.60 2.60 2.60 2.46 2.25 2.14
S 105.26 9.5 438.2 150 777 4.31 4.31 4.31 4.31 4.08 3.73 3.56
X 139.40 12.7 431.8 146 438 6.04 6.04 6.04 6.04 5.71 5.22 4.98
20 10 78.57 508.0 6.4 495.3 192 676 2.34 2.34 2.34 2.34 2.21 2.02 1.93
S20 117.19 9.5 489.0 187 767 3.88 3.88 3.88 3.88 3.66 3.35 3.20
X30 155.20 12.7 472.6 182 921 5.43 5.43 5.43 5.43 5.12 4.69 4.48
24 10 94.52 609.6 6.4 596.9 279 829 1.94 1.94 1.94 1.94 1.84 1.68 1.61
S20 141.04 9.5 590.6 273 907 3.23 3.22 3.22 3.22 3.05 2.79 2.66
X 187.11 12.7 584.2 268 048 4.55 4.51 4.51 4.51 4.26 3.90 3.72
Note: The above allowable working pressures are calculated from Fig. 17-22 using a reduction in tm to 87.5% of the wall thickness shown above to recognize mill
wall tolerance of 12.5%.

17-24
FIG. 17-26
Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping
Code for Pressure Piping ANSI B31.8-1999
Carbon Steel and High Yield Strength Pipe
(Values apply to A106, API 5L and API 5LX pipe having the same specified minimum yield strength as shown)

Allowable Working Pressures up to 120C, in MPa (ga)


Nom Construction Type Design Factors
Wall
Pipe O.D.
Thk. Type A, F = 0.72* Type B, F = 0.60 Type C, F = 0.50 Type D, F = 0.40
Size mm
mm GR.B GR.B GR.B GR.B
in.
241.4 289.7 317.2 358.6 413.8 241.4 289.7 317.2 358.6 413.8 241.4 289.7 317.2 358.6 413.8 241.4 289.7 317.2 358.6 413.8
(STD) 3.9 22.5 18.8 15.7 12.5
2
60.3 5.5 31.9 26.6 22.2 17.7
3.2 12.4 20.7 10.3 8.6 6.9
4.0 15.5 12.9 10.8 8.6
88.9 4.8 18.7 15.6 13.0 10.4
3 (STD) 5.5 21.4 17.9 14.9 11.9
6.4 24.8 20.7 17.2 13.8
7.1 27.9 23.3 19.4 15.5
7.6 29.8 24.8 20.7 16.6
3.2 9.7 11.6 12.7 8.0 9.7 10.6 6.7 8.0 8.8 5.4 6.4 7.0
4.0 12.0 14.5 15.8 10.0 12.0 13.2 8.4 10.0 11.0 6.7 8.0 8.8
4.8 14.5 17.4 19.1 12.1 14.5 15.9 10.1 12.1 13.3 8.1 9.7 10.6
114.3 5.6 16.9 20.3 22.2 14.1 16.9 18.5 11.8 14.1 15.4 9.4 11.3 12.4
4 (STD) 6.0 18.3 22.0 24.1 15.3 18.3 20.0 12.7 15.3 16.7 10.2 12.2 13.4
6.4 19.3 23.2 25.4 16.1 19.3 21.2 13.4 16.1 17.6 10.7 12.9 14.1
7.1 21.7 26.0 28.5 18.1 21.7 23.8 15.1 18.1 19.8 12.1 14.5 15.8
7.9 24.1 28.9 31.7 20.1 24.1 26.4 16.7 20.1 22.0 13.4 16.1 17.6
8.6 26.0 31.2 34.2 21.7 26.0 28.5 18.1 21.7 23.8 14.5 17.4 19.0
4.0 8.2 9.8 10.8 12.2 6.8 8.2 9.0 10.1 5.7 6.8 7.5 8.4 4.5 5.5 6.0 6.8
4.8 9.9 11.8 13.0 14.6 8.2 9.9 10.8 12.2 6.8 8.2 9.0 10.2 5.5 6.6 7.2 8.1
5.6 11.5 13.8 15.1 17.1 9.6 11.5 12.6 14.2 8.0 9.6 10.5 11.9 6.4 7.7 8.4 9.5
168.3 6.4 13.1 15.7 17.2 19.5 10.9 13.1 14.4 16.2 9.1 10.9 12.0 13.5 7.3 8.7 9.6 10.8
6
(STD) 7.1 14.7 17.6 19.3 21.8 12.2 14.7 16.1 18.2 10.2 12.2 13.4 15.2 8.2 9.8 10.7 12.1
7.9 16.4 19.6 21.5 24.3 13.6 16.4 17.9 20.2 11.4 13.6 14.9 16.9 9.1 10.9 12.0 13.5
9.5 19.7 23.6 25.9 29.2 16.4 19.7 21.6 24.4 13.7 16.4 18.0 20.3 10.9 13.1 14.4 16.2
11.0 22.7 27.2 29.8 33.7 18.9 22.7 24.8 28.1 15.7 18.9 20.7 23.4 12.6 15.1 16.6 18.7
4.0 6.3 7.5 8.3 9.3 5.2 6.3 6.9 7.8 4.4 5.2 5.7 6.5 3.5 4.2 4.6 5.2
4.8 7.6 9.1 10.0 11.3 6.3 7.6 8.3 9.4 5.3 6.3 6.9 7.8 4.2 5.0 5.5 6.3
5.2 8.2 9.8 10.8 12.2 6.8 8.2 9.0 10.1 5.7 6.8 7.5 8.4 4.5 5.5 6.0 6.8
5.6 8.8 10.6 11.6 13.1 7.4 8.8 9.7 10.9 6.1 7.4 8.1 9.1 4.9 5.9 6.4 7.3
6.4 10.1 12.1 13.2 15.0 8.4 10.1 11.0 12.5 7.0 8.4 9.2 10.4 5.6 6.7 7.4 8.3
219.1 7.0 11.2 13.4 14.7 16.6 9.3 11.2 12.2 13.8 7.8 9.3 10.2 11.5 6.2 7.4 8.2 9.2
8
7.9 12.6 15.1 16.5 18.7 10.5 12.6 13.8 15.6 8.7 10.5 11.5 13.0 7.0 8.4 9.2 10.4
(STD) 8.2 13.0 15.6 17.1 19.3 10.8 13.0 14.2 16.1 9.0 10.8 11.8 13.4 7.2 8.6 9.5 10.7
8.7 13.9 16.6 18.2 20.6 11.6 13.9 15.2 17.2 9.6 11.6 12.7 14.3 7.7 9.2 10.1 11.4
9.5 15.1 18.1 19.9 22.5 12.6 15.1 16.5 18.7 10.5 12.6 13.8 15.6 8.4 10.1 11.0 12.5
11.1 17.7 21.2 23.2 26.2 14.7 17.7 19.3 21.9 12.3 14.7 16.1 18.2 9.8 11.8 12.9 14.6
12.7 20.2 24.2 26.5 29.9 16.8 20.2 22.1 24.9 14.0 16.8 18.4 20.8 11.2 13.4 14.7 16.6
4.8 6.1 7.3 8.0 9.0 5.1 6.1 6.7 7.5 4.2 5.1 5.5 6.3 3.4 4.1 4.4 5.0
5.2 6.6 7.9 8.6 9.8 5.5 6.6 7.2 8.1 4.6 5.5 6.0 6.8 3.6 4.4 4.8 5.4
5.6 7.1 8.5 9.3 10.5 5.9 7.1 7.8 8.8 4.9 5.9 6.5 7.3 3.9 4.7 5.2 5.8
6.4 8.1 9.7 10.6 12.0 6.7 8.1 8.9 10.0 5.6 6.7 7.4 8.3 4.5 5.4 5.9 6.7
273.1 7.1 9.0 10.8 11.9 13.4 7.5 9.0 9.9 11.2 6.3 7.5 8.2 9.3 5.0 6.0 6.6 7.4
10
7.8 9.9 11.9 13.0 14.7 8.3 9.9 10.9 12.3 6.9 8.3 9.1 10.2 5.5 6.6 7.2 8.2
8.7 11.1 13.3 14.6 16.5 9.3 11.1 12.2 13.8 7.7 9.3 10.2 11.5 6.2 7.4 8.1 9.2
(STD) 9.3 11.8 14.2 15.5 17.5 9.8 11.8 12.9 14.6 8.2 9.8 10.8 12.2 6.6 7.9 8.6 9.7
11.1 14.2 17.0 18.6 21.0 11.8 14.2 15.5 17.5 9.8 11.8 12.9 14.6 7.9 9.4 10.3 11.7
12.7 16.2 19.4 21.2 24.0 13.5 16.2 17.7 20.0 11.2 13.5 14.8 16.7 9.0 10.8 11.8 13.3
4.8 5.1 6.2 6.7 7.6 4.3 5.1 5.6 6.3 3.6 4.3 4.7 5.3 2.8 3.4 3.7 4.2
5.2 5.5 6.6 7.3 8.2 4.6 5.5 6.1 6.9 3.8 4.6 5.1 5.7 3.1 3.7 4.0 4.6
5.6 6.0 7.2 7.8 8.9 5.0 6.0 6.5 7.4 4.1 5.0 5.4 6.2 3.3 4.0 4.4 4.9
6.4 6.8 8.2 9.0 10.1 5.7 6.8 7.5 8.4 4.7 5.7 6.2 7.0 3.8 4.5 5.0 5.6
7.1 7.7 9.2 10.1 11.4 6.4 7.7 8.4 9.5 5.3 6.4 7.0 7.9 4.3 5.1 5.6 6.3
323.9 7.9 8.5 10.2 11.2 12.6 7.1 8.5 9.3 10.5 5.9 7.1 7.8 8.8 4.7 5.7 6.2 7.0
12
8.4 9.0 10.8 11.8 13.4 7.5 9.0 9.9 11.1 6.2 7.5 8.2 9.3 5.0 6.0 6.6 7.4
8.7 9.4 11.2 12.3 13.9 7.8 9.4 10.3 11.6 6.5 7.8 8.6 9.7 5.2 6.2 6.8 7.7
(STD) 9.5 10.2 12.3 13.4 15.2 8.5 10.2 11.2 12.7 7.1 8.5 9.3 10.5 5.7 6.8 7.5 8.4
10.3 11.1 13.3 14.6 16.4 9.2 11.1 12.1 13.7 7.7 9.2 10.1 11.4 6.2 7.4 8.1 9.1
11.1 11.9 14.3 15.7 17.7 10.0 11.9 13.1 14.8 8.3 10.0 10.9 12.3 6.6 8.0 8.7 9.9
12.7 13.6 16.4 17.9 20.2 11.4 13.6 14.9 16.9 9.5 11.4 12.4 14.1 7.6 9.1 10.0 11.2
*Type A construction also applicable to Liquid Petroleum Transportation Piping Code, ANSI B31.4-2002

17-25
FIG. 17-26 (Contd.)
Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping

Allowable Working Pressures up to 120C, in MPa (ga)


Nom Construction Type Design Factors
Wall
Pipe O.D.
Thk. Type A, F = 0.72* Type B, F = 0.60 Type C, F = 0.50 Type D, F = 0.40
Size mm
mm GR.B GR.B GR.B GR.B
in.
241.4 289.7 317.2 358.6 413.8 241.4 289.7 317.2 358.6 413.8 241.4 289.7 317.2 358.6 413.8 241.4 289.7 317.2 358.6 413.8
5.6 4.8 5.7 6.2 7.1 8.2 4.0 4.8 5.2 5.9 6.8 3.3 4.0 4.3 4.9 5.7 2.6 3.2 3.5 3.9 4.5
6.4 5.4 6.5 7.1 8.1 9.3 4.5 5.4 6.0 6.7 7.8 3.8 4.5 5.0 5.6 6.5 3.0 3.6 4.0 4.5 5.2
7.1 6.1 7.3 8.0 9.1 10.5 5.1 6.1 6.7 7.6 8.7 4.2 5.1 5.6 6.3 7.3 3.4 4.1 4.5 5.0 5.8
7.9 6.8 8.1 8.9 10.1 11.6 5.6 6.8 7.4 8.4 9.7 4.7 5.6 6.2 7.0 8.1 3.8 4.5 4.9 5.6 6.5
16 406.4 8.7 7.5 9.0 9.8 11.1 12.8 6.2 7.5 8.2 9.2 10.7 5.2 6.2 6.8 7.7 8.9 4.2 5.0 5.5 6.2 7.1
(STD) 9.5 8.1 9.8 10.7 12.1 14.0 6.8 8.1 8.9 10.1 11.6 5.7 6.8 7.4 8.4 9.7 4.5 5.4 6.0 6.7 7.8
11.1 9.5 11.4 12.5 14.1 16.3 7.9 9.5 10.4 11.8 13.6 6.6 7.9 8.7 9.8 11.3 5.3 6.3 6.9 7.8 9.1
12.7 10.9 13.0 14.3 16.1 18.6 9.1 10.9 11.9 13.4 15.5 7.5 9.1 9.9 11.2 12.9 6.0 7.2 7.9 9.0 10.3
15.9 13.6 16.3 17.8 20.2 23.3 11.3 13.6 14.9 16.8 19.4 9.4 11.3 12.4 14.0 16.2 7.5 9.1 9.9 11.2 12.9
20 6.4 4.3 5.2 5.7 6.5 7.4 3.6 4.3 4.8 5.4 6.2 3.0 3.6 4.0 4.5 5.2 2.4 2.9 3.2 3.6 4.1
7.1 4.9 5.9 6.4 7.3 8.4 4.1 4.9 5.4 6.1 7.0 3.4 4.1 4.5 5.0 5.8 2.7 3.3 3.6 4.0 4.6
7.9 5.4 6.5 7.1 8.1 9.3 4.5 5.4 5.9 6.7 7.7 3.8 4.5 5.0 5.6 6.5 3.0 3.6 4.0 4.5 5.2
8.7 6.0 7.2 7.9 8.9 10.2 5.0 6.0 6.6 7.4 8.5 4.2 5.0 5.5 6.2 7.1 3.3 4.0 4.4 4.9 5.7
(STD) 9.5 6.5 7.8 8.6 9.7 11.2 5.4 6.5 7.1 8.1 9.3 4.5 5.4 6.0 6.7 7.8 3.6 4.3 4.8 5.4 6.2
508.0 10.3 7.1 8.5 9.3 10.5 12.1 5.9 7.1 7.7 8.7 10.1 4.9 5.9 6.4 7.3 8.4 3.9 4.7 5.2 5.8 6.7
11.1 7.6 9.1 10.0 11.3 13.0 6.3 7.6 8.3 9.4 10.9 5.3 6.3 6.9 7.8 9.1 4.2 5.1 5.6 6.3 7.2
12.7 8.7 10.4 11.4 12.9 14.9 7.2 8.7 9.5 10.8 12.4 6.0 7.2 7.9 9.0 10.3 4.8 5.8 6.3 7.2 8.3
15.9 10.9 13.0 14.3 16.1 18.6 9.1 10.9 11.9 13.4 15.5 7.5 9.1 9.9 11.2 12.9 6.0 7.2 7.9 9.0 10.3
19.1 13.0 15.6 17.1 19.4 22.3 10.9 13.0 14.3 16.1 18.6 9.1 10.9 11.9 13.4 15.5 7.2 8.7 9.5 10.8 12.4
7.1 4.1 4.9 5.4 6.0 7.0 3.4 4.1 4.5 5.0 5.8 2.8 3.4 3.7 4.2 4.8 2.3 2.7 3.0 3.4 3.9
7.9 4.5 5.4 5.9 6.7 7.7 3.8 4.5 5.0 5.6 6.5 3.1 3.8 4.1 4.7 5.4 2.5 3.0 3.3 3.7 4.3
8.7 5.0 6.0 6.5 7.4 8.5 4.2 5.0 5.5 6.2 7.1 3.5 4.2 4.5 5.1 5.9 2.8 3.3 3.6 4.1 4.7
(STD) 9.5 5.4 6.5 7.1 8.1 9.3 4.5 5.4 5.9 6.7 7.8 3.8 4.5 5.0 5.6 6.5 3.0 3.6 4.0 4.5 5.2
24 609.6 10.3 5.9 7.1 7.7 8.7 10.1 4.9 5.9 6.4 7.3 8.4 4.1 4.9 5.4 6.1 7.0 3.3 3.9 4.3 4.9 5.6
11.1 6.3 7.6 8.3 9.4 10.9 5.3 6.3 6.9 7.8 9.1 4.4 5.3 5.8 6.5 7.6 3.5 4.2 4.6 5.2 6.0
12.7 7.2 8.7 9.5 10.8 12.4 6.0 7.2 7.9 9.0 10.3 5.0 6.0 6.6 7.5 8.6 4.0 4.8 5.3 6.0 6.9
15.9 9.0 10.9 11.9 13.4 15.5 7.5 9.1 9.9 11.2 12.9 6.3 7.5 8.3 9.3 10.8 5.0 6.0 6.6 7.5 8.6
19.1 10.9 13.0 14.3 16.1 18.6 9.1 10.9 11.9 13.4 15.5 7.5 9.1 9.9 11.2 12.9 6.0 7.2 7.9 9.0 10.3
7.1 3.8 4.5 4.9 5.6 6.4 3.1 3.8 4.1 4.7 5.4 2.6 3.1 3.4 3.9 4.5 2.1 2.5 2.7 3.1 3.6
7.9 4.2 5.0 5.5 6.2 7.2 3.5 4.2 4.6 5.2 6.0 2.9 3.5 3.8 4.3 5.0 2.3 2.8 3.0 3.4 4.0
660.4 8.7 4.6 5.5 6.0 6.8 7.9 3.8 4.6 5.0 5.7 6.6 3.2 3.8 4.2 4.7 5.5 2.6 3.1 3.4 3.8 4.4
(STD) 9.5 5.0 6.0 6.6 7.4 8.6 4.2 5.0 5.5 6.2 7.2 3.5 4.2 4.6 5.2 6.0 2.8 3.3 3.7 4.1 4.8
26 10.3 5.4 6.5 7.1 8.1 9.3 4.5 5.4 6.0 6.7 7.8 3.8 4.5 5.0 5.6 6.5 3.0 3.6 4.0 4.5 5.2
11.1 5.8 7.0 7.7 8.7 10.0 4.9 5.8 6.4 7.2 8.4 4.1 4.9 5.3 6.0 7.0 3.2 3.9 4.3 4.8 5.6
12.7 6.7 8.0 8.8 9.9 11.5 5.6 6.7 7.3 8.3 9.6 4.6 5.6 6.1 6.9 8.0 3.7 4.5 4.9 5.5 6.4
15.9 8.4 10.0 11.0 12.4 14.3 7.0 8.4 9.2 10.3 11.9 5.8 7.0 7.6 8.6 9.9 4.6 5.6 6.1 6.9 8.0
19.1 10.0 12.0 13.2 14.9 17.2 8.4 10.0 11.0 12.4 14.3 7.0 8.4 9.2 10.3 11.9 5.6 6.7 7.3 8.3 9.6
7.9 3.6 4.3 4.8 5.4 6.2 3.0 3.6 4.0 4.5 5.2 2.5 3.0 3.3 3.7 4.3 2.0 2.4 2.6 3.0 3.4
8.7 4.0 4.8 5.2 5.9 6.8 3.3 4.0 4.4 4.9 5.7 2.8 3.3 3.6 4.1 4.7 2.2 2.7 2.9 3.3 3.8
(STD) 9.5 4.3 5.2 5.7 6.5 7.4 3.6 4.3 4.8 5.4 6.2 3.0 3.6 4.0 4.5 5.2 2.4 2.9 3.2 3.6 4.1
762.0 10.3 4.7 5.6 6.2 7.0 8.1 3.9 4.7 5.2 5.8 6.7 3.3 3.9 4.3 4.9 5.6 2.6 3.1 3.4 3.9 4.5
30
11.1 5.1 6.1 6.7 7.5 8.7 4.2 5.1 5.6 6.3 7.2 3.5 4.2 4.6 5.2 6.0 2.8 3.4 3.7 4.2 4.8
12.7 5.8 7.0 7.6 8.6 9.9 4.8 5.8 6.3 7.2 8.3 4.0 4.8 5.3 6.0 6.9 3.2 3.9 4.2 4.8 5.5
15.9 7.2 8.7 9.5 10.8 12.4 6.0 7.2 7.9 9.0 10.3 5.0 6.0 6.6 7.5 8.6 4.0 4.8 5.3 6.0 6.9
19.1 8.7 10.4 11.4 12.9 14.9 7.2 8.7 9.5 10.8 12.4 6.0 7.2 7.9 9.0 10.3 4.8 5.8 6.3 7.2 8.3
*Type A construction also applicable to Liquid Petroleum Transportation Piping Code, ANSI B31.4-2002
Notes: 1. All dimensions are as shown
2. See Fig. 17-23.

17-26
FIG. 17-27
Pressure-Temperature Ratings for Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings from ANSI B16.5-1996

CLASS 150 300 400 600 900 1500 2500


A105 (1) A216-WCB (1) (2), A515-70 (1)


Material Group 1.1 (Carbon Steel) A516-70 (1) (2)
A350-LF2 (1), A537-C1.1 (3)
C Pressures are in MPa (ga)
29 to 38 1.97 5.10 6.83 10.21 15.31 25.55 42.55
93 1.79 4.66 6.21 9.31 13.97 23.28 38.79
149 1.59 4.52 6.03 9.07 13.59 22.62 37.72
204 1.38 4.38 5.83 8.76 13.10 21.86 36.41
260 1.17 4.14 5.52 8.28 12.38 20.66 34.41
316 0.97 3.79 5.03 7.55 11.31 18.86 31.45
343 0.86 3.69 4.93 7.41 11.10 18.52 30.86
371 0.76 3.69 4.90 7.34 11.03 18.38 30.62
399 0.66 3.48 4.62 6.97 10.41 17.38 28.97
427 0.55 2.83 3.79 5.69 8.52 14.21 23.66
454 0.45 1.86 2.45 3.69 5.55 9.24 15.38
482 0.34 1.17 1.59 2.38 3.55 5.93 9.86
510 0.24 0.72 0.97 1.41 2.14 3.55 5.93
538 0.14 0.34 0.48 0.72 1.07 1.79 2.97
A182-F304 (5), A182-F304H


Material Group 2.1 (Type 304) A240-304 (5), A351-CF8 (5)
A351-CF3 (4)
29 to 38 1.90 4.97 6.62 9.93 14.90 24.83 41.38
93 1.59 4.14 5.52 8.28 12.41 20.69 34.48
149 1.41 3.72 4.97 7.45 11.17 18.62 31.03
204 1.31 3.41 4.55 6.86 10.28 17.14 28.55
260 1.17 3.21 4.28 6.41 9.62 16.07 26.76
316 0.97 3.00 4.00 6.03 9.03 15.07 25.10
343 0.86 2.97 3.97 5.93 8.90 14.83 24.69
371 0.76 2.93 3.90 5.86 8.79 14.66 24.41
399 0.66 2.86 3.83 5.72 8.59 14.31 23.86
427 0.55 2.79 3.72 5.55 8.34 13.90 23.17
454 0.45 2.72 3.66 5.45 8.21 13.66 22.76
482 0.34 2.69 3.59 5.38 8.03 13.41 22.34
510 0.24 2.62 3.52 5.28 7.90 13.17 21.93
538 0.14 2.21 2.97 4.41 6.66 11.07 18.45
566 2.14 2.83 4.24 6.38 10.66 17.72
593 1.76 2.38 3.55 5.31 8.86 14.79
621 1.38 1.83 2.76 4.10 6.86 11.41
649 1.07 1.41 2.14 3.21 5.31 8.86
677 0.79 1.03 1.55 2.34 3.90 6.52
704 0.59 0.79 1.17 1.76 2.97 4.93
732 0.41 0.55 0.86 1.28 2.14 3.55
760 0.34 0.45 0.62 1.00 1.66 2.76
788 0.24 0.31 0.48 0.72 1.17 1.97
816 0.17 0.24 0.38 0.55 0.93 1.59

Notes: (1) Upon prolonged exposure to temperatures above about 800F (425C), the carbide phase of carbon steel may
be converted to graphite; permissible but not recommended for prolonged use above 425C
(2) Not to be used over 455C
(3) Not to be used over 371C
(4) Not to be used over 425C
(5) At temperatures over 540C, use only when the carbon content is 0.04 percent or higher
(6) For temperatures above 540C, use only if the material is heat treated by heating it to a temp-
erature of at least 1040C and quenching in water or rapidly cooling by other means

17-27
PIPE AND FLANGE DATA Data for Isothermal Two-Phase, Two-Component Flow in Pipes
Chemical Engineering Progress, Vol. 45, No. 1, January 1949,
The Petroleum Refinery Piping Code (ANSI B31.3) is used pp. 39-48.
to determine the allowable pressure limits for piping inside re- 16. Beggs, H. Dale, and James P. Brill. A Study of Two-Phase Flow
fineries and other processing facilities. Refer to Fig. 17-22 for in Inclined Pipes Trans. AIME, May 1973, pp. 606-617.
the calculation method.
17. Orkiszewski, J. Predicting Two-Phase Pressure Drops in Verti-
The table of allowable stresses, Fig. 17-24, is extracted from cal Pipe J. Pet. Tech, AIME, June 1967, pp. 829-838.
ANSI B31.3. The designer is strongly urged to consult the latest
ANSI B31.3 publication for full description of the code. A tabu- 18. Baker, O., et al. Gas-Liquid Flow in Pipelines, II. Design Manu-
al AGA-API Project NX-28, October 1970.
lar compilation of maximum allowable working pressures cal-
culated according to ANSI B31.3 appears in Fig. 17-25. 19. Dukler, A.E., Moye Wicks, III, and R.G. Cleveland. Frictional
Pressure Drop in Two-Phase Flow: B. An Approach through Sim-
For piping outside of refineries and other processing facilities, ilarity Analysis AIChE Journal, Vol. 10, No. 1, January 1964,
a separate code applies for determining allowable pressure limits, pp. 44-51.
ANSI B31.8. Refer to Fig. 17-23 for the calculation method.
20. Flanigan, Orin. Effect of Uphill Flow on Pressure Drop in De-
The designer is encouraged to refer to the latest ANSI B31.8 sign of Two-Phase Gathering Systems Oil and Gas Journal,
standard for comprehensive code description. A tabular compi- March 10, 1958, pp. 132-141.
lation of maximum allowable working pressures computed ac- 21. Eaton, Ben A., et al. The Prediction of Flow Patterns, Liquid
cording to ANSI B31.8 appears in Fig. 17-26. Holdup and Pressure Losses Occurring During Continuous Two-
Phase Flow in Horizontal Pipelines J. Pet. Tech. AIME, June
Fig. 17-27 provides pressure ratings for steel flanges and 1967, pp. 815-828.
flanged fittings.
22. Greskovich, Eugene J., and Adam L. Shrier. Slug Frequency in
Horizontal Gas-Liquid Slug Flow Ind. Eng. Chem. Process De-
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report, May 2, 1960.

17-28