Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 51

1

ZzgzZwD Z)

,
Zki
E8r
vZE ]|
# +Z[x(?**
WgxZg ZsZeY}zg
!* $uf *Z


 ?
C

Tel: 8050527485
E-mail: mdtahirshahi01@gmail.com
2

4  1
6 ~sZ} Z 2
6 s zZ$z_ Z Z 3
8 x lZ Z 4
9 ZgzZwD Z) 5
9 ,YkZgzZt)0: <
{^ Z 6
13 ?VYkC]gz Z) 7
14 ){y6,
]ZG@* tLZ 8
16 tyZgzZ] {y6,
tLZ) 9
19 Zt) 10
? R6,
21 ~ +
z0y0tLZ ) 11
21  ~ +
z0y) 12
24 Z g 0*
LtL wD Z) 13
25 Z 14
Y Zg WY f)6,
27 Zg~ +
z0 Z g 0*
y6, 15
29 ri?xsZ 0 Z g 0* 16
Zg#
30 [Z **
tkZ 17
3

31 ZZ 18
]gkZ[ZgzZ~\zZyz
36 w#
G @* Z 19
38 wD Z)gzZ 20
38 ]gz 21
40 ggz/gzZg 22
41 23
42 ?kZgzZZ
# Zz~gz { 24
44 t)0 25
44 zg Zzg gZg) 26
45 Zzq -Z) 27
GG
47 53Z Z qg) 28
zzG
47 gZ[ZgzZwD Z) 29
G
49 x 0*' { 30
50 U Z% 31
4

ZZvZp

e ^ (]$^j o ] ] ]j ]u v]
:gzZ YYHgZ Z Z}u:|gZ LE &** VzzZ
# gzZ Z6,Z g]gz Z J
Z hgZ]gz
# wVz  M
-Z
~gzZpg!*
e
$
/ ZxsZz+Y fIsZ!*
$iq
%ze ~g7]gz
]gz]!* {iZzg Znuzg6,
gc*
pzsz@*
**
]gz Z 7GLgJ gzZ g wzZgz
-#
)Yg!*oZkZYc*
6, w}yKZ
/Zg/w
gpZ&y'
6,
Zg{Zgz
h{z\WLZYx
6, Zg{Zg {zikC
g~}g!*
Z0zZ ZZ
yZ%gDyzo Z ?3Zg {z|
XqZ*
*Zg
Z  g ZY Zg WV 0 z Z
y g D o Z
c* wV"
 sZ} (,q
zLZ7Z vZ}g* -ZwDZ) g D
sZ %GM} Zit + ]| ~
A & +Z vZ
VD YY xsZs)zzZ DZg 9KZ~b)
{ i Zzg Z HtCZ 6,z Z z HtCZ~ b) )
5

s zZz _ Zg g n kZgzZ ~g kZ Z
# p g @* 6,kZgzZ g
O S 1CZt1{ ^ ,Y q wq]g0
-g !* GL!ZgzZ ZkZ
Z 4,
Z) ~" tOwJ[zZ ~kZ)xq
$U*
Ht),Zzz" ]!*
$U* kZ~!}g7kZg !* ZJ
6, -
tH z Z~gz kZ~zgg Z),Zz]!*
tgzZ H~gzZgzZ
X eg
Z( 2) Z( 1) : c6,
( 3)~yg 0* Vzq&~!kZ
Zg BZ e { pD Wtz BZ e: Z],
,Z6,twD Z)V-
Z Q ( 2) b Z ( 1)wD Z)bkZ 
~ yg 0* Wt&{z
7gzZ c5!*
6,VV b( 3)b**
X wEZzgZy WykZ n
pg
V !kZgzZ
Y qJs~{g!*
KZlzq**
kZ {z Y \vZ
X }Wz**
~h
gn n& ki n ^e & ni ^

Z

C

6

Z
~sZ}
ri?p~ Z
: V-#
Z ) ] nvj `r] e ] /^`jq]
ri? 3:m Z
(#
*snqx
X*
: ~p ZyZ~
_vZ z{ 
]|pkZgzZ
`r] ]j] ^] `m ^ o /^`jq] nu
-) nnj] ^`j/ n] n>] ^u] ]/&
GG
| 1176 ~ _vZ z {  53Zz Zx Z G
2:m G 5BEZ
( GG
g Z Zg Z
 CW~bkZ pz | Z =Y 
G EG
~E E
3 
45k ! 0 G $ 0O Z *
Z G5{ *swM
L [
Xk q )Z<
: Z x Z
Z ) m>] ^ue ] g `jr] e
# i? 3:m Z
( r
*sKZ~qDx Z $
X*
7

s zZ$z_ Z Z
< nZ. 46,Zp~V bkZ: iJ
W!* - ~a
kZ Z # p 7_ Z n$z Z~: i k Q6, CT { c* i
E4G
3E5k!x Z < ._ZpLZ ]Z|
L z yW W (Z: i
6,Zp | (,46,Zp c*
Z{pg !*
i q
Z<gzZ+ +$z[Z } +Z h
.z60 e
H q )ZgzZ t Z
~ Xs zZz _ Zt Z 6,T s zZz _ Z$z
) : bkZ _ Z{+$z[Z N Y I Z Z zN Y N 0*
: ~
N
(] h^j V] ] q `jr]
`^q& ] ^ m^ (]
^fj] m a ^n] (] (`j]
h^j ^vm rm ]& ] h^j] v]
E3
Z1Z Z Z[ 120B10:~ E wZ b) ^q&
( | 1403wsZ GE 4)Z| 516 ~ E
0G 3Z
E
D-vZ [ ( 1) q
rgD b0*+Z LZ {z$
g0
~ L ( 2)DyZ 0 b)zx Z]c*
V wg< W
xY f( 3)0x ZDg
$ qZyZD-
~! ( 4)!*
k ( 5)C wZ Z %Zz)Z
$E
X 0* L z [~XD
: L q )Zz <
X}YikZ,i
:bkZ _ Z Z~[ **
kzg > $L L
^a^f ^u] l^mR ni ^e ] /^`jq] Q
e _] ^fj ]] ] m^j] ]
8

Wz Z!Zfkzg > $) e]]


Z 41:m~y
#
( | 1435~BZ]Z Z {g Z Z| 1362 ~
ZsZ
( 2) D}( 1) t ( Y07$ W%X) Z

yZtW0b)zx Z~u 0* }g7
yW
b)zx Z hu{zx bZ ( 3)qDz -
i ! D ( 4) D yZ  B
~g7 ~ y!* bg m
( 6) ( n D cz t**
T) D g @*( 5) ]g '
J
Xqx Z Z 5ZL &

x lZ Z
&wZ Zs %ZZ+$z ZY 
:y9gec*
Z H Z~< VM {z ]Z|Zz WnkZ :$ ( 1)
g Z 0 Z%G ~ qz
L yW
kgzZ q )Z < CZ }
z wZgzZ g
X G E 4G
3E5k!x Zz

E)Z $ ( 2)
g Z 0 Z~ zg *Zz wZ {gHf *Z LZ  ]Z|{z :<
e#x Z LZ~ ]b
f ]Z|t  Dg b~g7 6,E 4G
3E5k!x Z
X
Z LZ7we
$Zzg {yZ c*
x Z~]b
X :bRZ $ ( 3)
h#~wZ: x Z LZ]Z|tDyx ZyZ
X ~qz:M
G
ZgzZpg pbhZwZ x Z LZ : G 3 Z $ ( 4)
~6,wVZz ], 34
E

,"zw
/ yZ c*
x ZDg 6, kZ]Z|tzz
]!*
X
GEZ wZ ) X {)z ) H7g ~ Z lZna kZ V :^

~iZ 0Z g Z Z E

.G>EZ 0 @0 Z wzZ
IBE-.Z [!* 463B1: G
Zz wZ RZ
9

rq~gxsZ 46:mz Z D| 1427


( | 1435zxZg ZO ZxsZ #

ZgzZwD Z)
Y x DybkZ pkZ Z b ZZ
# wD Z)
:tp Z) ?
pkZ {y
~b Z sZLGEp *
*p Z g Z ~
Zg: Z Zi W~Z  {z kZ
,
~i * k+ 228 :msZ ] G
2 +]
5;XZ h .) X Y n
-sZ
( Y 1986,
iZzgwZ L X3Z~ pkZ {y KZ )
z aKZ 7~0*
X HkZ ._
E)Z Z c*
Z c*
< Z ?b Z) LE
&]!*
tV
` Wb Z) M ]!*
)iwZkZ ?bRZ
zg & Z) ib)6 6: i=gfX M
hYG z wZzZ 6
:DZztLZp~Z Dy
~i y c* =( 1) :zg & Z q <
- 4, Zg
c* +<
VZ {Z Z E4hbO snTp ~ Zi W~
LG
YwEZ g0
$ +Zzu}< m ~ Zi Wz( 2)
E 4hbO&?~X, Z m T ~ Zi Wm{z ( 3)
LG
Zc], Z CZ~[kZ1c* hgVV < Z
kZ J -~ Zi W~ ~i y Ogz J -wzZ
]gz Z ) Zz< L IZ6,g~7~
~i * k,+
2 229 :msZ ] G +]
5;XZh .)X H7g Z L
10

-sZ
( Y 1986,
Z tZ b ZZ
# ) @*
xbZkZ kZ
X exg kZ { i Zzg ZJ
-~aZp)c*

,YkZgzZt)0: <
{^ Z
Q CW]!*
q ZwD Z)F
-Z~V~f D]!* g]!* #
tZ
Zsw<
Z: b#
Z ~g7 VY Z 0 <
Z: Zg )
]gz ZgzZ3
Z ~g7Zg) ~XkZ Zz 7et,]!*
#
:DZz~[LZ {zT Z ZZg
VZ y W
6,T f ,Y VZ yQ Z
e {^ #
: C uzg 6,KZ : yZ *@Y s
E
RgzZ ~g Z Zzgz ~ yZ kZ @',6,2Z z M W Lrz
-gzZzg}g kZ 
~g kZ p C q
CZ f Z }] }g z!*
s !*
Zy ~! gzZ Y
zy 6,yZ YY 7t n kZgzZ]Z
}<
Z xsZY f7 ~ kZ [{
kZ Q1 gZg +Z ~}g !*
VrZz!*
Z YY H7g Z ]gz Z
}<
Z 0*J'Z H e xg Dg ZZ',
yZ < GG3.G
Z',6, '{

V ]g+g0 +Z7
/ ?Zsw]ZgzZ w+Z
C
0
+i Z EZ]!*
LZZ g Zh + %Z kZ
/Zw Zi W
IF4&szzwZjZ s$
VZ ~ Cy z}L G +
 7]!* +Z ~ kZ q
- 4, } ( hLai Z
%Z kZpO !q
-Z 0
+ g Z u 0*
i 
yW
11

DG G
!
+ gs sZ C
D VZ {Z V  | 3

-Z n LZ Z  7t , i\W b) LZ
g uzg q
-sZ ~i *k
, ,+
2 260:msZ] G +]
5;XZh .)X ,
( Y 1986
]x W ~ Zz Zg KZ 0 <
Z : )~ kZ }g7 kZ
Zi Wk Q~ Zi W ZzbTJ
-I~a) 7uzg 6,
KZ
._
lz KZ gzZ ]ZKZ 7` W (g Z<
Z: )}] tgzZ ( g
Yzy < ZyZ Z
ZyZ 7etYzy 6,<
Z:  gt #
Zsw< Z ~g7 H Zz t )BB e **
&V; 7]!*
X gz{ .Z LE +Z 
Z: Z%s)Z
< # p tt ) Zz
` Wp,y~ZT ;g7tt)~gzZ ~pt0
kZ !*
6,tZ 0 < Z: }!Zj t q%)  , Z v
{g)V& szV!*
ob#  ] ^ & v]
) .Zz Zi W KZ @*
9]!* ]!*
x ]xW -Z~ kZ
q
gz V- yzZ 7yzZgzt Zgp @* W yW
x ]c*
Zi W KZ%0*
<
Z: ~wj , Z zx 46,Zp
/ZXC
H~gz **
yKZ n kZ Y e
0* Z xsZ Y0t Z + , hg
$i q
_vZ z{
:  ~
(n v e] ga]] `e ] &
Zx Z G Z-) nf ^` ^` ]]
5BE
GG
( gZ Zg Z| 1176 ~
_vZ z{ 53Zz
40:m G
kZ x ~ g <
Z g e yZ yY
12

X YZ (,
~]gnZZ
 YY7tnkZ lz KZg Z<
Ztt)]!*
~uz
kZ ]gzZz
/Z zy  n [ ZV [{ zy 6,yZ
7 Zhg% + }nY VY g7]gz ~gz kZp 7g Z
]gz" * zy ~, Z 1=
*]!* V,Z]geC zg~kZ
: 0Z)DyzzCZ:<
a * EG58~s Z[Z
4E

ga ']u] (^f ]$vm ](nj ^]


] ^ n^f ] m &nve ]
^ nj] h^nj (/q] j nj]
G-E.
i| 1252+$
c* +0Z 134:m Zg) gn^]
( | 1421-
8xix Z LZz!*
kZ pg 58
4E
A & Z EG
T* Z yZ zz
*(Z D6,
*qz<
{eVZ}n VZ zwZ,Z n]z
]
X 1q Z Vgex }nVY e**
V
ZzW7c*
6C gHwZzZ,ZqZ ]geC Z[Zn
<
+zD
+gZ<
Zg66,
]!*
tY } (, zzY1i7 X
} (,
0Z ~CZ4Z [~<
Zge 4Z hg7]gz+zD
+5
ZgeyZ
:0<
ZyZ h
ZkZg]Z|VY7`g{ <
#
+ fZz ] gzZg Zu %  <
Z !*
gZ
yZ {z7ht nyZ Zz Z Zzg Z -
$c*

ZgeyZ {z {],
< Z A hVY}wz<
Z
13


0Z xsZ  146 :m Z )X [~
A+ G !
( | 1370t ) Z wZ E
3 |728
Zg eyZ~
:0< _vZ z{ 
:ZbZ
wz yZ ~(,~g~ {],
Z<
Zg e yZ
Hk(,W: iVY Wxi Y Z (, ~ ]g

t ` W J {z -
-~a g 7~g Z0* $ Z
_ Z Z~ k QgzZ 9gzZd 9d {z7yZ
Z~T $
7_ Z Z~V` WV
,Y OZ6,Z zwZ ZkZ7_ Z
6Z7^
5]gg~zuyZgzZ Zswg Z<
Z
:
(n v e] ga]] `e ] &
qe nf v nf ^` ^` ]]
rm ^] kn `] e ^ ^ ^] ^`%^$
p o ] ^ ] o jm
nv] ^] ^m ] ( /^`jq] Q q a
`] o `i^rmi o ]m o ] ga]
^Q ] o] ]a ] h^j] `^fj]
-) o fjn ^fj ^ ^ &G nu / e] n&
G
| 1176 ~ _vZ z{ 53Zz Zx Z G
40:m G 5BEZ
( g Z Zg Z
)zz qg LE &tt)M h]!* tY]!* s Z /Z'
X,yWkZ 1qgtkZ LZ~gzZ

?VYkC]gz Z)
CW~ bkZ
CgzZzz "7,V1 6,yZgzZV1 )
14

Z~ wqC
Va ]J ( g Z< )~g V-6,VV yQ)
 ;e ) g DygzZ g| (,
W*gN *)
H: kZJ
-Z
#Mh7J z kZ F,
- * F,
gzZ e * e (,WV
{z Z6, e 6 Z nX 6 b) ;g| (,
W: i Y
Z )bkZ } 7,*
* Z nzZ gzZV7ib)tZ
F, Z uG%NIZ bT c* Cz:%uG
CgzZ HkC]gz
%N6,g~
:) } 7, *g
*
Z [Zp46,# Z~sZ5Q  uG %Nst Zg
6f VM uG %Nst  `q]Z f

~|L [Z * q -ZgzZ Hh ~ Zi W
]!* e $.tT 'J m, Zh t W
+
gzZkZS]ZgzZ]nq -Z
sZO7]ZgzZ]}g  YH
Z6,~ yZ * @YWt sdswwt 6,kZ Ae $Z
yZ g Za ,g55%Z uG %N ~g YgZ Vzg
yZ X ]!* gzZ ;g ]!* Z} (,} (,g*
{z Za w~ 0 +i yZ ;g6,yZ ]Z f zg0 +Z
5gzZNzigW55kZ gqzgzZ gw$ +
g i6 6yZ {zBBkZQ1])5
Zz W7sZ }uz 7g VG %X
N  ` W Z
gzZ zh Z Z H~y sZ @*
+' Za wZnkZ
lz ', i ~(,~ [Z wZkZp RY g Z
]mZ[Z kZ =6,gCZ f }IG 8x gzZ
7,
$
5h )X YY c*
,
~i * k+
2 250 :msZ] G +]
5;XZh .LG ~
( Y 1986, -sZ
IZ~g(ZtkZ)Zz]!*
uF, tkZkZ)x ZMg
b)6 6iN CZ7Zg ZiW byZJ
-Z :%
#  c*
15

XN 0*
7F,
byZgzZN 0*
7i

){y6,
]ZG @* tLZ
wJ W, Le *
7  @* *g G@* z ?]!*LZ WC ]!*
C
wyZ Z }7wJtkZ}# Z WZ HkC)h + }
]ZG@* )g ZkZ V~gz BVzq -ZG@* -Z nkZ c*
zq W
6fV-7n 0Z ) gtkZ L Z
VrZ i ZzWs wZ$kZ VM{z0Zx Z
Vgz LZgzZ ~]Vs gZz < L z[~b)x
x[Zz!* V6gzZ V#x %k Q = { 0G $E
6 n pg
I
i !
,g VZ D  wD Z) 3yZ L x gzZ gmZ V-Vh
V** g ~h
+0Zx ZZgq -[; Z0~V g~~{~
e '{ o zZ z V |g q -kZ [; Z0 i !* Z
]q6IG ~osZC ) !*
kZ @* i W0 + -ZxsZ
i5q ) !*q -ZVY
h$
5 )X s ` Za gzZV- {Z 6f Y 1 {^
+]
h .LG ,Y
( Y 1986, -sZ ~i *k, +
2 233:msZ] G 5;XZ
T e ** et)yMt ~gz k Q H (Z Z )~gz T
Z7' kC]gzkZ
HHg (ZkZ z 7bZgzZ 3 Z tZ
X e**
` WZ Z{Z #
+Z (, ZA$ ZZ # gzZ
: g Z .6X]LZ
Z 3E x Zw
D Z)
kZ H Z Zi W
~ ~,,Z
@* C&q
g OE -Z6,i W ~C H %Z kZBB
( 235:m Z )X
: HwHg ;Wz6,
-Z*~}tLZ)
q
gzZ  sZ Hg ;Wz6, ]*~ ;gE- y1 *
+y c* VZ wZ nZ !*
Zj ] G
5;XZ
sZ HyNtkZ Dtg ZI{
g@*
16

Dc* -Z V Z Zzt $
g Wsq Y =V-
gzZ W Z g yxg <
s~uzgzZ pz
pkZ{zZi I LZ V ]g yz
V
/g ZkZ 3g }W 0
F, Z
Z b
J-~{{g HJ WwHg ; Wz6, g~
X} Za ~ V ; x { c* -Z i Z ] G
i q 5;XZ
O Z wD Z ]z Z e 196 :mxsZ ]c*
y 0* +)
h
( Y 2002
HkC]gz ZZ zLZzzY]ZG @*
# ~ bkZ
z],
+t)Zz]!*
# 1w$
Z # ~gzZQ 1CZt Z Zi Wp
6,)Z
~ qg) 7)f}g ]!*
Z z]ZG@*
{7[Z  n w$
+p)
Xz [Z

tyZgzZ] {y6,
tLZ)
O
 :w)Hz e
$WyW
}tLZwD Z)
 {z ( Z ) kZ~ b Z sZ}
TgzZ Y nZg: Z Zi W~Z
^n ]a^q m]I e $WkZyW
h V&~ 6
+
228:msZ] G +]
5;XZh .)X6,I^f `m`
-sZ ~i *k
( Y 1986, ,+
2
:w)Hgz~ u ZLZ}gzZ
$
tg
igzZ ( Z ) kZ g
{ c* -Z [
$u q ggQ

f ]| \ @Y #
$ZzgO *
W e sz
E
[ VrZ ?z~G3]5 c*

HgH ^
17

vZ ?Q7g ~g v~yZ vZ[


/Zp ._vZ
6,kZ ?~I ** /Zp ._<
L
wg < L w
g
!Zj )X Vz Zg p~Q f
( .
wD Z) {zkZ Hgz ( Zg*Z 6) ], }n}gzZ
z ]ZG @*
X HtLZ =g f]P
xsZyW -gz ZZ HybkZN
ZJ

Z LZ LZq b)x {W7 @*
-ZC : S) {wZy Z
x(ZC
{ i Zzg ZJ
-gzgz ZZZ
#fei<
L f =g f
eiyW
wg< 7 {i Zzg Z ` W *
e **
L gzZ *yW @Y Hi Zb)
*ib)6 6=g fg(ZgzZ ~ Zi WkZ
z Z Zc6,kZgzZ e *
z Z e 198 :mxsZ]c*+)X B{i Zzg kZgzZ ,"
h $U* z Z 8Z
{g !* #
O ZwD Z]
( Y 2002y 0*
-i W~~a ~ HytNZuz wD Z)
ZJ
C
t | s ZgA
$k/Q d
$ y z}~xs
$
d
Zi WbY wzZz}g n ]c* gzf(,yz d
$n
$E
Wz ~ ( Z Zi W )0G xsZ G
SE
@G4E
-G& BBW]q: f ex
kZ Y7VY6,kZ ` W A $k/Z Z * @YH6, Z~wzZgzZ
#
$ Z e **
5xsZ Y t ~g 6,# 6,kZ ` W ._N
( . 0Zj )X M hi Wb)Vzwzwq
L vZ[ D_ g Z E
wg< L7Es ZZ
#  D HytNZ
n Y gZgzZ ]** +'
kZh ZgzZn zG<
Z }g kgzZ q )Z vZ
Z 6 b)6 x Z Zi W g R]!*
kZ ` W *
@Y Zz
18

( . 0Zj )X ,i
{ztkZgzZVLe* yZ~k
*7t6, , ]{y)
{
VyZtt 1 qgtkZ~gzZ #
rVY7wD Z|g#
X CZt Z ~gzkZ}g]yZ {y) ~# .
}
6, Z Zi W 7y sZJ
-gzZgz ZZ NnZ
y{ {  )| 132gz  x ,_ g @*
Z 892B1:xsZ g @* /Z @*

0
+Zg Z ~ !* )| 656( | 1426 0
Z 343B2:xsZ g @*
Wy{ { +Zg Z ~ !*
W
-
y ZJ zkZgzZ ;g @* Z Zi WJ
6, -| 656._) ;gJ
- ( | 1426
{zkZ ZJ
-~~a 7J Z ~
-| 6566, ! 9 7
Zi Wt]!*
:Dwy )#
j uO ~ uzg6,
ry{g(i Z Hc*
kZ h
{W7p
/Z q >gzZ ~ <
-4, Z 4Z [Z
]Z|Z pg !* ZZ ~ b)
@*
#
xZ)X Y:gzZ e: gzZ t gzZ [ 6,+$
GG E
xZgZ # 116 :m G
u **
rg(y{ iZ 5.Z
5 3Z ]mZ G
(Y 2014-
VY -| 656 6, Z !
H 6,~a 7J ~ Zi W Zx kZ kZ
.Zz {zZc6, Z !
gzZ. ~ Zi W ~gz kZgzZ gz +zD
+gz J
- ~a
7vgzZ.
kZVa~ i` WgzZ~g Zz R @*
7**
zC
v
ZyNkZ~gz kS Z
]!* { i Zzg kZ g7]gzkZgzZg
Hc*
X 79gzZ
g *
*
-~a ~ HyNZuz )
$k/QJ
 ) A
,
k0Zx Z`
@ ZizZx Z~X D Z vgzZ ( Z Zi W
0Zx Z 
X g N1Zx Z~d
19

Z {z / Z ~T zz kZ t**
W~z A
$k~gz kZ
$kbkZ D Yg zckZv @*
$kt p 0A
A q
< -Z CZ
t!Zj {E
]!* +L L# u ~g eyZg7!*
rg(y{i Z
D
gj qm ^ e e ^] o $
GG E
g(y{i Z 110:m G 3Z]mZ G
u** 5 5.ZxZ ) ]
( Y 2014-xZg Z
{g !* yZs~s gzZ $
x ** Zz + YyZQ
H
X
wZZgzZ~g e 4Z {zZ
#y p A
s !* $k Zx]g kZ
Z ]Z Zg Z[Z j: ]Z Z]+$gzZ}I )g e
) ]!*
h+ g gt Zi Wz Z~gz kZ
7 CkZ [Z
X 1qgtLZ)6, CT W~w
DZ
Z h _ ~
+' . sZ Hy bkZN Z wD Z)
+'
h Z ]x W  g !* ]!*t ) @*
Zzn Y g ZgzZ ]** kZ
VY 0* Z L X3ZJ
-~~a gzZ ~ h Z L X3Zt1 D Zz ]** kZ
-~a C]gzV Czq {Cg A
J $]gz
0* 7 Z L X3Z g7]gz+zD +kZ[Z Hy+gzZ 0* {z ]gzyZ
(*
{z $ * ` Z 5Z {h .b
+] +$Z )]gz ZgTV; N Y
Z ]c* ~gz` W Z N Y 0*
W W IZkZgzZ ggz
59 :m ~y W z Z )X 7 g **kC]gzh .LGEE
+] # zD
LG + gzZ gt
) S ~BZ]c*
( | 1435 Z {g Z Z ~ Z
#

Zt)
? R6,
TbgzZ 1 qg~gzZ LZt Z Zi W )
pgt Z!Zj)~gz kS   vp Zz y W
n
20

Za wZttzgkZyZ ~z)Y ikZ


6,kZ~gz kZ H @*
& *]g ~
o* Z~ ni]!*
ZsZ ]|# kZ ? Y
:p Z]|
I
z]gzKZ R\C
`T C Z  {Cg
Z { lg!* # q lg !*
~ `Z C~ ~
V;z C7,{ c* z~
i ~uV  C` # qN Z b
g "kZD} (, yzZVzg Y
bZ ],
Za vCq ~ } (,} (,]gz g
$u E# zD
LG +J
-Z
#
~g g ~ g $u L 3XZgzZ gzZ D7,z[Z
+ E# zD
LG +J
-Z
# bZ7 ( g $ qZ ) bgzZ
+ Va [Z ! l ~ Vt Z ]gz
]gzZ Z [Z  ` <XO+&Z z wZgzZ [ y
t ZZ C7,]gz Z [ZgTV; g7
` Z 5Z {h
+]  +$ Z !*
.b
~ W z Z )X
Z 59 :m ~y
# 8
( | 1435~BZ]c* Z {g Z Z| 1362
Z g7]gz Z[Z _+ E # zD
LG + c*
Zz~kZkZ]|
:~g @* )lLZy z0Z]!* 76,
kZ
] / e] a ^] nj]
^ ^ ] h^e ^] a]
n o& /^& > ^ /^`jq] fi o& ]
]] r^e ]u me me $m a
// `] ]` /^`jq] o nj] o& ^] ]/
o n] ] a ^ ni r` nf o
,ZZ 566B1:yz0Z g @* ) e] ] a ni
21

( | 1408]zZg Zyz0Z0ZD
/ ZgeyZ` W c*
_~< Zzyz0Z)~kZkZ
Z
:~gz kZ z% kZ @* /Z~gz kZ Z g7yZ~ Z
kZ: YYH Z
+"gt bkZ~gzkZ Z Y6,
X {Z

~z0
+y0tLZ )
M k)**
ZK s Z + ._s Z ZyZp)
wD Z ) 7Cc*
p Zi W ~W{z6,
CT( | Z;gE- ]%vZY  49:mwD
 c* # O ` ZY f ~ **
tt CZ )Z kZgzZ~ Zc6,q
Y H Zi Wf ~g 6,V~f LZ D{ .Z ]xyW
qz royZgzZ G @*
c* Y f ` ZY f Y h
+] # zD
LG
.E +}
:~ +
z0y)q
-Z0ZO
wZ e { ~Wq -Z6,y zwZwq U it{oZ
C&xsZ z }"
gzZ OE
$U* GG +Z 6W
"O$ Z
z kZ ~ x
z x { Z (,
yKZ
gzg6,sZ E 4E
LG&Z c*g n~ Zi WKZ c*y
~Zg **
xsZ< ~VY x i
zt n
E+G
z (Z ~ xsZ L g @*
+
h gzZ ;gY 6,K: i c*

z kZ
Wg]wD Z )X c*
G 190 :mg !* W7L kZ
( Y 1977 !* $g ~wD Zy ~ !*
Wg wd W ZZ
kZ[Z ]|DC
tz Zg KZ )~T { zt
t# VY ?7c*
Z f (ZttC W[Z #
c* r]!*
X ~Wc*
c* c*
W~G@* WQ Z

 ~z0
+y)
22

kZ # r M7r Zu ,Z~ eg kgv Z%b!* )gzZ#r


E4J&: i LZ~Vzk
LG ,KZ ~ +y)gz Zp ~[Z
z0
Z
: D6,
-wD ZgzZ Z#
J ZI e
$h
+].x  ]!*
Nt
b & Z [f 7(Z q
-Z  9g b & Z xsZ

pg7qZ %$
n +kZgzZT e $
+xsZ
Le
W
~y fgzZo zZZ V Y 7! ~ yZ
Zgn e\WLZ n`zLZ7Z u
7 ] LZ wgkZvZ ?A V
!3 * M VZ \g-
&**
LE gzZ t~(,
wD Zt Z t
kZ ]x + ugzZ * [f t
[f` u
ggzZ Z+: Y36,6,e
! fV V wD Z]hY 36,6,e kZ bz
}uw+Zx t H"
$U* ,z
yW
-Z
 1g (Zg(Zq wxj%wD Z n
3
gbZ { ~ g@*
V'I gzZ ~ g @*
~z
yZ> aallamahiqbal,blogsky.c om/139/...) X
( {~ +
z0y6,wDZ]
h
s Z~W 7~G@* [Z t)~
c* +
z0y~kZkZ
c g Z Zz ~
C6,y sZ ` W VY **
~W ! Z Y {
: Zg [Z~T7 X [Z% y sZ g7]gzVZP*z
:
a
0Z)H: z{gzZ
23

ga ']u& (^fa ]$vm (nj ` ^


] ^ n^f ] m &nve ]
^ nj] h^nj (/q] E j nj]
G.
c*i| 1252 +$ +0Z 134:m - Zg ) gn^]
( | 1421-
kZ 8xix Z LZz!* pg A & Z EG 58
4E

T* Z yZ zz
*(Z D6,
*qz<
{eVZ}n VZ zwZ,Z n]z
]
X 1qZ Vgex }nVY e**
V
kC]gz Z z!*
kZQ 1qZ [Z %C #
Z a0Z) w
qgtkZ) W~gzZ) |h
+ gz!*
$ =}
X 1
24

Z g 0*
LtL wD Z) O
 @* # z ~ p Zg0*
o bs
V & qz qkZ
Z  ~ m, W
Z Z g (Parliament) g0* W ~ K]!*
G EY
g Z kZ :  D W ]!*
5 %1 p T (Parlement)
t {z ;g~ pTwE Z kZ~: i}g Z *
*?kb!*c*
Ib!*
Z% g 0*
E
~kZgzZ6, Vz{kZx Z c* >+Zq- Z~g Z 0O8 
wEZ g 0*
@* ' i 6,> bkZ CWz c6,b)0
c*
g
*@Y c* (Senate) c*(National assembly) Z DkZ~
x **
bkZ g 0* H
~ (wiki pedia) c* 4G
5F
G
&z (Encyclo padia) sg Z >],
5G Z szc
Z% g 0* ~ h +]
.Z# i y >E 4G
0E O!N Z% g 0*
yp
~q))X V N Z n c6,b)
c* -Z Z
g  >+Z q Z
( Y 2010gsZZ
+Zi iq 362B2:_Cc*-Z ZZ
q
V yQ @* Za wZ[Z Z Zi Wt*) Zx cJ -[Z
Q c*
U nY f.
U n**
Q c* z C W T e *
c* Z L8n)
$U*
*"
 CZz]!* t[),_]h)Z # Z nY f
) U
yg 0* nY f.
U :gzZT e* n**
$U*
*" zC: Z L8)
:wD Z)Ob ZZ=g fY f~
]Zg xsZq . ZsZLGE
}gzZ q )Z ~
- 4,
25

$.kZ ]!*
6,g Z e p Z { c* ~
i
npg C[p[p g Z ~~xsZp
/Z
L  Z 7( Z L S(,7W w q
-Z w kZ
+
n kZh 8g (Z ]g}g Z Z xq
-Zgt ~sZ
kZtc*VZuKCyZ~xsZZ # xg X!
$ q
~Z Y ~ ^}g Z Z G
= -Zq )Z s
Z h Z ~ Z {Z
+$ Z + Y #gzZ
-Z nkZOkZg~B;
 >xq
Nt wq gq i yQg x %Z e
{ c*
gzZyZ  gZ '55 ~ *
z kZ @*
yEZ
~ V~f V 7 ]!*
( x Z Z ! f
sZ ;gZa g]**
kZkZgzZ7zg q )Z
Zi F,Z (,q D/Wi y gzZ z bzg ~g/~
-Zx g +
U
U
La }g Z< Z t kZ x
V- , v G $ LW ht CZ  n
= pg h Z
kZ en kZ  N ~ V
Va y
~ ~(,~gZ yZ Y f)VW',h
+' ^ q )Z
z
-Z q
Tiq }z~ kZ  n
- 4, pg
i Z {Zp~}] }g  bzg kZ 0 +i x
+ !
Za L gZ q +Z kZ V- M
-Z g0 h g Zu
-sZ ~i *k
, ,
+
2 268 :msZ ] G +]
5;XZh .)X
( Y 1986
R {zW6,yZgzZc. Z&zykZ)PC
Y Z b
26

Lan kZ 1qgtkZ )Va._~g p


mkZV
XN J (,
W]!*
%kZgzZ,:f

Z g 0*
Y Zg WY f)6,
H tzg H Y f) H7 Z g 0* # ) @*
tCZ Z -Z
Za wZq
CZ ) bkZ[Z kZ ~h )
+ F, c* B )+
c*
gzZ h t)Y fg;ZYu 0*
+ F, Z g 0*
zyR', e**  Hyt

Z c*
I**) Z ]hgzZ c* x ]c*
g Z )ZgzZ ~
CxsZwD Z]h
:  #
r
~ !* ~ yZ Hs%Z VX wD Z
W[Z Z **
~z **
gzZ zZp ~ !*
c* ~z0
.Z **
g ] +y
~i *k ,+w t wq w
2
D Zp  G 5O8E
sz ] ]h wD Z VrZ Z
# # D Z
t);e
C+Z~]zZ)Z ~',
Z ~q)) X V H
H~ @*
x7p=
gsZZ
+Zi iq 367B2:_Cc*-Z Z
q
( Y 2015
p 5)zg Y f
ztkZ) H { i Z0
z kZ +Z kZ kZ
+zY=0
:~[KZwD Zh + wD Z)
i
 ~ +y) :I
z0 ) Z ]h~ +y
z0
( .!Zj )X 4* [kZ
@YH: 
O Zg bZ 0 wD Z
D z kZ ~ +ZdZ1Z)
z0
:
Reconstruction of Z  ]h kZg yZ
~ ~ m,
27

yZgzZ  Religions Thoght in Islam


x **
X Xg Zz ],Z Z F, ~ ! gzZzg Z
_ Z +%)Z < L IZgzZsz@*
( .!Zj )X $ Y
:h
+' ~wD Zl[KZ
:gzZ &7$x ZgzZ Z gzZ klzx9wDZ~
yZ 6VZo Z
Zu~Zu bgzZ
7ZxyZ
zg sggzZg V &~ { +m
Wz]gzZ gq
-Z !* <[Z W
p z k0*
zC
Q,+Z,osZV;wDZWyZ~
kZ bVZ l6,~ *
*tZX
-zxEkZgzZ7 4yZxsZ7b
J
Z', +gLZt s 7 ZyZ
',
yZgD{ .Z
yZ Ugz$,Z~,g**
gz qgzZ D37 x  gzZz D
+ZdZ1Z 34:mwDZ l)X5 77Z
>| 1420 ~z0
(| 1431~xsZ]c*
z]
{zVY 7* t) ]ZWY fZ
$U*
*"
h
z!* eqg) ** VyZ=["
]!* $U* eqg)
h
XCZt bkZ`W!ZjyZ

Zg~z0
+ Z g 0*
y6,
KZ KZ Y fv6, Z g 0*
)z 7Zg: Z** L tL wD Z)V
Z g * 0 [{zwD Z)VY yZg ~WKZ ~ +yf *Z
z0
J
ZI Z L $ )~[LZ ) 6,V!*
** **
wgzZ . 0
28

* Z=gf Y f g 0*
*]!* )~gz,Z yZh V6& ~ ZgzZ Zi W
X {)z
: ~z0
+y)
q)wD Z _ Z{z  G _ Z n Z Y f*
=gfZ Z Z VrZ N W: ~

Z~Z 0*
 $ Z _ ZZ
7~ Z

# c*
]!*
NZ VZ  M
h 0 q
-Z N Z #
Z V|Zt [Y ~ y*zy
Z ? $
Z',yKZ x 6,b ]Zz)
-Z  ',
q C ]!*
NZ
h}^zzZzLs~yZ
: i {zM # : i
ZZy 0*
WZg ZkZ B7. H

-Z Z Zq))X hgY ]Z| Wq
q -Z mH xE
( Y 2010gsZZ
+Zi iq 369B 2:_Cc*
{z 
!* 0G
+ F,
h $E
)y wZ $
+T ~ +yV
z0
[Z ]!* H3^ ~XkZ yKZ 'f 6) @*
kZ ? Za t wZ1 w
:ODi~ +
z0f *Z)
sZ Hg66,7w!*
t wD Z
M [f
.Zt ]q Z q )ZgzZg/ ~g/ bzg y
~
y Zg V j~g/6,W7b)6
} w  g/gzZ q )Z~yZ Z ]gzZ Y 1 z
V{ W wZ kZxj%wD Z Z%x ZHg/~sZ
Za lpZet ~ ` u! f VrZ mZp
( 371B2:Z )X Vg "+ZV;xj%wD ZgzZ
29

:D 
x g ZW~ +
z0yDh J$kZxj%wD Z
+ F,
~z) ]q Z g 0*
xE bg Z $g/g/ )Z
gzZ e
xsZ L7Et g Z /Zz** g @*
sZ
vyY ft7x ZxY fq )Z 7Y xq )Z~
~g/x ( q ) Z wZ kZ V
0Zj)X t~(, xj% wD Z 'w  g 0*
}g Z Z
( .
)VY g7,wD Z)` Ws@yZ g,WY f6,tkZ
KZ ]ZWyZ {z   !*
: 6,tkZ ` W]Z| 1 qgtkZ
X

ri?xsZ 0 Z g 0*
Zg#
E8 i?xsZ + szczggz {
# { vZ E
{g (Z VZ
x ** Z c*
zC Z|XkZ xsZ ]| ~ 7,6, Z g 0*

~gz kZ x t ~gz**
e wZD}Dg
$uDDnkZ 7
CB; IZ **
?O %Z q *
-Z c**Zj yg 0*
kZ w 7
:  #
r
l^e^j kuj] p ^ ^a
] a h^v n ^n^f] o& /^`jq] m
mq n m u % a ^n^f] n jm ^
a & ] ]` g> ] `fj] ^q fjm
/^`jq] o a^rj] `r] o nf ]
n n>] ] /^`jq] nnv] i^nj
v] `r] e a ^& (/r] ^nvi
30

pj g_jm ] R] ^ o >]
n ] &mv] nj^e ] ^n
i ^ n^m m e h/ ga Q
& n] ^`e^j m>] m p
m^e ` ^ o fjm n] ^n^f] ^
n_m ^ `nvi `n& /^`jq] mj
:m Z Z ) (a n o& n_] ] ]` mi
( i? 10
/YZ+T{ ZegzZq
t{z H -ZV;}g
t I qkZY c* h Z
!g 0*
+4 iZh+] .{z Y t Z g 0* 6,T
nZkZ G%WZg Zg0* VYi
EGG E!
6,Ic* 5 !kZgzZ Z 0- t  D
] G { 3
7x ** Zg [ Z ~sZ < F
c* F
.x6,
kZgzZ4z] C<
Z% Z
L zyW
$un%z x
~ xE {)z}wZgzZ}g
7q})}k
{z @* , cg~xEyZgzZ ~gz
ZC
CyZEkZpC
g r~ ~xE}uz
` W 7e* . xE yZ n kZ 5:
}
* #
C cg~xE c*
76, D LZ WZg Z g 0*
1yZ ZWZg ZyZg *
C9 0 : D YG
*4VIZ **
X *  qt :
-ZgzZ **
Zq

[Z **
tkZ
31

 Z g 0*
~ ];z kZ Z7w=Y !ZgzZ ;g7. LtL )
: $
tg W~
ZZc*
hBZkZ H7t ZZs: )( 1)
~a zz Y Zg7 ]gzq=g f Z
Y ft !*
6,g~ ZZ: ~gz kZ Z
H U ZZ { i Zzg kZ [ {i Zzg Z
tx kZ ) e** 6,gZ: Y6, Z
~gz kZ zg z=x  c*
tt6,
X ;g7. CkZ 1

(+Zyg 0* Z Z~yg 0*
q ]!* =g fY fwD Z) ( 2)
X i Zx ZsZV;z7
tBBZ Z~ yg 0*
) ]!* =g fY f) ( 3)
# 7 IZ Z)Z
7IZZ # nz~kZgzZ nq
-ByZ
X
g * -kZ
*q

ZZ
]gkZ[ZgzZ~\zZz
]gz g} <]i YZ ZZ Q]!*
tBZ e {
/Z6,
|
Q~/BVkZzz (F,
~@* p6, z
kZ
 [Z,yWTBt
p 6,kZ ~gz kZ}ggzZ
? ]i YZkZ<
^ne n n ^e & =] ^m Vk V^ z
(me^] ^`] ]^Q V^ [^i ^ o`
.
AE
:Z[!* 172B2:zZ Z) ^ p n ]i
Z}&ZgZ:**
(|1415{C .[ZZ1ZZ0y|360
Z E
/Z !v
T7gX (Z ~ De
Z wg c* $ZzgZ

, ]!*
\W~ ]gkZ :%Z 0
32

iXkZ {gt:W+$ 
+gzZY  c* 
g Z v
Zwg
X ,
Z +$+gzZY 
zb){g) c*
ei# Z v $ukZ
Zwg~ g
&
yZ0yO H6,kZ~gz LZ LZ kC]gzx Z/Z# ,i
:Dy0&
1Z]|
q ] h^j n / ]& ze e ^
a h^j] rm (e o (e om ^ n
t m & (e o ^` ( n @f] k^
] h^j l ] ] o^i ^ (n]
i ` ^nQ q @]
V]^ a] n& ^ ^e [^e o @f]
v] ^ @] ^e (] ]e n o
^/ ^n & @^nf vm ^n q ]
`m jq] ] (a^>j^ a ^ n]
GA-E4
XGZ1Z@0Z 196B10:~Z) e o o
0.Z^Zg Z| 458
( | 1424]z G
[0kZ @*
7g)lZ &
# k0* 1Z
._kZ D 0*
~vZ[ Dl~vZ
 l ~ wg <
L D 0*: ~ vZ [
/Z
kZ @* /Z ? "
x 0 kZ ~
$U* Vg
D W @* L
: x l~ </ZgzZ D ._
~ c* } Dc*
W)lV#V#k0* g V gzZ
"H c*
0* L zvZ[0 kZ
7 Hl~wg<
33

~DVL? c*
@* Z H ~
Vg0 kZ
Vg~XV# C} 9{z
H bkZ ~
gzZ D._kZgzZ DwJ{z ~
Vg&
1Z
 H V ,Z yxg }g  D y p vZ
vZ [ D YWb /Z  G pVh~
Vg
Y fyZgzZY gy~V:gzZ~<
L :gzZ D 0*
: ~
gZ D{gt yZ 0)lkZgzZ D
# 6,
yZ Z
._kZ CY 5Zg6,0)lkZ Y f
X
W7~gz/
:c* ]| D
Z', -Z ZZ
ZZzgzZq
^r] o nfj] j ^] @ ] f
R ^f fm @] k m q i ^>i
k m R ^ fm @] k Vm
]^ ( o ]j^ (j & ^e fm @]
j] p ^ ze e f oju o
^q o& (]& q n Q ( ^]
@] h^v Q^ & V^ ] h^v
jri oj e jm ^] o ji oj
n jri ] ]^ (n ^] jrm o
Q (n] n ^m km ^ V]^ (`m ^
(% >e ^ ^ $ j ]nQ e Vz ^ (^n
nfj] ]rm o a ]q^ (`ne ] ]q]j
:mgU*
s Zb) o a q ^r] o
34

G

| 321 : ~z C Z0ZQ1Z ^ .2E5Z [!*
,Z ZG 319
( -BZ
,Z ZrZ v 
s %Z ~ ^ g vZ
{6, * w
,Z Zr g ~ @*
^ $Zzg ~zZg g
e
$Zzg Z ]Zr0*
e  ~ @*$Zzg Zuz ]
e
BZyxgVXtbkZ]Zrg e @*

~ s%Z kZV /# wZ &
Z 1Z
vZ ?gzZ c*
Zx Z/ /
Zg*t 
6,\W
g s %Z yxg}g vZ
# ~XkZ / w
g
6,q # ,s%Z ~ kZ v }g v
-Z ?Z
Tg6,q
?6, -Z ZN YW6,kZ v t Z
[Z x Z/yZg // t Z
]|c*
Z , z o\W0.ZZ} Z V; Y ~
~ G {gt= ?7 /
]|z {gt\W
t Z6,kZzg~/{q
-Z b\W
Z yxg yZ t bkZ  g e ,r {i i  1
H
X
X * c*
* # ~gz LZ L Z /v 7BVz s
@Ys %Z~XZ
6,kZikZ Dzg~XkZ6,gZ @*
i?O D Y 5 W7
:  #
r
>] v] `ne ^n ^>m ze^v] ^ ]a
j] ^] ] nj mq
:m Z Z ) ^r] /^`jq^e /] a ]a (^`n
35

( i?8
X D niXO ;g+$[Z Z Z
6,
/
Vz rx ZgZz
LZ # 1ZWZx Z~kZ f
et Z6,
q-Zzg
gZ { c*
Dzg6, ikZ c* wD > ZZ
-ZV
~Xq
E8i? DiXkZQ
:vZE
^>jm ]^ e^v] ` e `jr] ] ]
jrm ^r q `e (`ne ^n
s`] ]a o `jQ] ] n`] ^] ]jm n
(e^v ne pQ /^`jq] q ] nu e ^] a
`ne pQ fa ^] ^& {] ] m
^f (m] ]/^`jq] `/ e n fjm
$ |_m ^ n o^i vn]
]`Q a^m ^ m (a ^ m
( i? 9:m Z Z ) %
g} ]i YZ Z Z < Zz ]!*
t ]%z ]c*
ZzgyZ
z/) Zgz Z {g zz
6,kZ ~ ( @*
{i Zzgg zZ ]gz VY ;g @*
X ~gzkZ}g
N Y G z Z g6 7 Z }nY p
{ ` Z 5Z yZQ c*
kZ Y gzZ Z7~: i kZ q zX]b
yZ Y H ` Z 5Z }ui Z ]b

,i wZY gzZ,;6,:z LZ Y  Z Z 
7
X
->,i~zg T eXikZZOg c*
q ]!*
t1
-~ >kZ W{z N Y 0*
q _ Z~ ]Z|
/Z ~gz **
7_ Zsfzgq
36

t Z ]|Z # ~ &>
V vZVY g 7 OZ LE H1q - /Z Y 7
E8# GE
~> bkZvZE ri?~zgkZ+$ +ZzY <XZzgz 
c* c*ei
GEG
$ \WLZ TZzq
- ( 1) : ~gz**Yc*oz~V Zzq
0* -
+Zzq
] VY$ - ( 2) Y7q rg n+Z
-~kZ)Zc*
:5]g r
# ? C Za yxg!*
zh~yKZ ,q+Z z
me^] ^`] ]^Q Vg^ e e @] ^
jm grm &mv] ]a @f] x
m] a ^`] f m V^Q /^`jq] ]a %
^vf ] njm ^ (m] j ` ]
m] ]`jn ^ ` o^i
/^f] nj] me^] m DNE( 112:/)
nni ^] i j] ^] a pj]
o^i ] ^u o ^r fm ^f] v] ne
rm ] ]ji & o^i ] ^ o`>j] /re
( i?B12:Z Z ) ( 29:wZ ) ^^

w#
G@* Z
kZgzZzzu ZZz~qgz ~ ]|#
ZsZ ** Z
:  0~(,
g Z]!*
 Z
6,
Y ]b *gH Z Z
,Y *
X2 7^
,Y[Z ` Z 5Z yZ` ` J}n
]gzVY7^
kZ Y gzZ Z7~: ik Q q z ]b X%Z g7
E
,Y6,:z LZ yZ t E
^ 5$ Z ]b
, Z 
7
7<:gzTg~: iC
v, ZgzZ
37

~ Dx]Z|7^
,Y n kZh
+]. Z 5Z 6b
gzZ
~ V!*
n~ +Z 4~@i~ ~
Z

)b xl Z yZ
!* zng (,
W z Z )X ^
:m ~y * Z ~6
,Y *
~BZ ]Z Z {g Z Z | 1362: ~ Z 58
ZsZ #
( | 1435
38

wD Z) OgzZ

6,tLZ {i [fgzZ w Zi W q e
$
/ X ~ wD Z
%z Z ~(,
6,g q} (, g Z~ d $ wD Z)gzZ Zjg7 w D Z)
wD ZgzZ ?;gH yZ~g Zz ZZ?0G$E
HZzw
D Z)}g !*
kZ @*
7
kZgzZ]gzkZx|zpac6,
Vzq~gyZ ^z~Z
XnYHt9wD Z
mkZ @* g*Mg w
~gz**
:DV-p~
ZZ0dZ :p
nv ]j m m ^n n ^] ^fi] nj]
n] q fj] ]a n] o& n
yuZ b Zs ) n/ f^_ n /
( Y 1996ya| 1158: ~ ZZ0ZZ 500B 1:xZz
]oE L j8~c* w}uz t p
5?% BhkZ } q nZ kZ
c*
c_?%kZ c*
w)Zz q nZ kZ
X 1g ; LZ
:D~p ZyZp
**
DZ
G
v) n/ n n] f a nj] &
EG
5 GG
| 1143: ZDZ 5 :m G Zz G
3 5 3ZyHZ
39

G
( | 1432 HF,G
G G3B Z
X%Gc_?
8wJw)t

]gz
*ZgkZgzZ
 *
yW ) Z vZ W~ * yKZ { ]!* t
p]!* t ( 56:]c* $Wu 0*
] $ r] k ^ e
g Z f ) fn $&
H._%kZ~%C + Z
C # A $q ~qg kZgzZ ) Z vZ~
:y 
\vZZzx|zX( 1) :nzx Z {y~< L zyW
Y
-Z": Z',
q gzZ ( 12:]Zv) ^e e$ gjm
}uz
7C
Xx|z X( 2) YC
Zzpe
$WkZ
$Wu 0*
:e Y
yW
( 228:{) $$ $ ^*e e$ jm l^$_]
&\WLZOg~g OZ'gZzt :
-Yz
XJ
C
yZZz]c*
W nZ Y7C
c*
Z%H z $WkZ
~e
( Z X)x Zn~uzp Y._<
L z yW
~XkZ Y
-/p]zZ g ]!*
# n7J
Z VzgzZ Y7C
x|z
:De $Zzg? q0~ ]|~! Zwi ** iyZ
! y!*
yW
$WZ
ne* ] n] n$ fjm oj$ u ]eQ] ] e #
$WL8X~yt }g /* ] n]
D6,
e
yZ 8 -Z 8
-gCq -gq
-Z~T V( z
HgzZ 3gn LZ Vz
3JZ ~HQ
t ;g @*
!*
~8-g LZV(gp7c*
Cg 
vZ c*
ZzgzZ Zq~# . ~
} V kZg~
40

qq 241B 2:M0Z)X c* ex|zp9e$W=~ V


( Y 2006zM0ZY Z EZ1Z+Z
7px|z u 0*
0* x Z/g rL ZxZz kZ
yW
n Kp9 < ~gz kZ ,Z p yZ gzZ qg ~
L z yW Vg
V2Vz {h
+',yQZ}
/ .n._% Z}
.~%C +gzZ
C
:%GyZ yZ O c*
yW gzZ 9<z < L z yW

n kZN 0*
i x ZZz E4G
3E5k! g
$ qZz]c* yQ:N 0*
W W 9< Lz
:  r? C7,
0*
# ]gzOnkZ C7, ]gz
gz tE xE 6 (Z !*
c* 0E
~ G4& xEwq
G
yz$+Zz**
 {)z ~gzz ~g %V-g gzZ z
+Zz**
Zzyz$ ~ G0E
4&xE,Z 7{g eZz
G
# ? 29B2: GEZ OZ )X 7{g e
: 0*r
( | 1341cZxZgZ| 1396

g gz/
gzZ ~
Vg
~a:gzZ 7g ZzZa gz}g sV& obZz]!* -Z
gzZq
s Zg Z] )Oh!*
*g Z kZ~gz/%g ZzZa
kZ 7uwTgzZ CB7' kZ uwTt q VY
X CB'
+E
-GBE
:  4
~^ 0Z)
ru e srv] pu& n e ] nj]
+E
-GBE
: 0Z+Z+i) 394:mg Z bg BZ ) ^`
( | 1422ya]z G0.Z^Zg Z| 970
6,wkZ: uwT *
*6,wkZ
41

X%f ?
HH6,b)x~
t V \WgJ
-Z
#~Vg._pz {kZ
D~ Yg !*
V \Wc* u~h}g w ~
V \WVY 7
}uzq
-Z~ :Wn/VY ) t *
*xX~ :W/

gzZg Zza
X qz ,pMg [Z ( 7uw
:VLe* -Zs~gz/7g"Z
*ywVq
HY7Xt/
 $Zzg ]|
0vZ]|De
# gzZ Z
~kZ hr ~ 6,}uz
# Zz n
} ZZ + {z @*
s6,okZg

Xc* IkZgzZc*
gZ ) {z(kZ/
( I** 0ZvZ]|
q z e ] f ] f e ^
v] gu^ n q o& q] o m] m
) o` z e ] f ] rm
=ZZ0 +Z !* Z Y Y [!* $%Z g
2479:g
E
-1Zy0h
( | 1425]Zg Z E +Zi Gpb:** | 179:
Vg 7g ZzZa ~a c*
~ gz}g s Zz~ ]!*
kZ wVt
Zz LZ f LZ]c* bkZZ qzgz/
!* gzZ
O6,
X e** g}g7


? Dc 6,x Z yZ ~uz q
-Z : C bz
:#
r
E"
X n W L 3E
( 43:-) i j & ( ] a]* ]^*^
42

Xc* gDIZ Y7? /Z


( 59:Y K) * ] o]. $ ] ]n]* ] ]n]*
) Z%ZzZgzZz
X ) Zv ) Z\vZ
Zwgz
: ]!* g n 6, C]c*
W bkZ
? 18B 2: GEZOZ )X Z
# Zz
) Zz <
L IZ q )!*
( | 1341cZxZg Z| 1396:

?kZgzZZ
# Zz~gz {
p Vz z g (Z LZ LZ~ @*
gzZ/
~]gbT f(,46, W: i~~uz
Hk(,
~V
[Z ._nKZ W6, +Z Y~]g[Z 60
gkZ 60 +Z Y
}<
W ~Z t q )Z }!*
# Zz]!* g Z
# Hc*
O
r {  # Zz~~uz bkZ }7
xiz Z
: 
^ `^ne m`jr^e gaj ] `n ` ni] e
s%Z:L ys Z ) ^] gq]] a ]a
]z E3E
Zg Z | 1176 : ~
_vZ z {
70 :m
( | 1404
<
z kZgzZ _C
~V~~uz
# Zzq
X Z
# Zz ~~uz Zx wr
gz kZ Z _Z # { 

W:gzyZ ~ v Zq nZ ~]ggzZ ~
._ Zp LZ ~ h W[Zz < }76,b) ._ <
L z yW L z yW

,Yq )Zz#
X 7^  }
Zt !*
43

}z
: DW6, 0Z)
vvm m k m m k
] ^i^e rm ]a % p`] ] gve
m^e gj] h^e xjm ^q^e rm ]a
gve nvj] mvj] m o& m] xjm
4E_
1Z+Z i M 5 > P%Z `zH,
EG [!* 204B3:Z z2Z ) ]a]
0.Z^Zg Z|728:0ZkmZ
( | 1408 G
b   D x Z kZ ~
gzZ g Z -Z
zq
9kZ x Z kZ~
z nKZtgzZ gZ z}uz
,Y )!*
7^ ,Y**
t ^ # * (Z zz
Z t !*
*
C:
w' [+tVY
L tgzZ { i Zzg **
]ZpzY ZZgZx Zwz
X Y6,
:  ~ #
zx ZDyzz0* Z
jm o& o ^Q ga ^fi] ^q `q
mvj] nvj] ne njm ]a ^fj ga]]
nj] e v] o& p/m ]r] hq]
o m ga ^nj] `jrm m ]a o
E + A +
: ~zZ+Z[c* i1Z88B1:[ Z bq .EZ ) nnj]
IE
( | 1417#ipZz l4Zz G 5 Zg Z| 676
E
~ ]g ]i YZ ~gz kZ Hy ~
z) ~ kD Z kZ
kZ Z Wxi t Z + T Y Hg (Zi Z z [ z #
w._nKZ
X xi zZ *00*
# Zz * q
-Z ~gz
44

t)0
t Zg Zi W V2N F,
VyZgzZN ~g6,# D Z)
Z w
)YikZykZ gzZ c* ~gzkZgzZ 1g (Zt Z Zi Wp Hg (Z
g Z
z)Yi Z ~ Zi WkS |6,)Z
# ~gzZp z
YW46,
tCZ) Zp Ye
$
/ Z YZa g _
%# OZ~I
ZY }g* ~ (F,
< Z VgzZ 1CZt+$Qsp
Z Z DZ)X gzZs~6,<Tg~zu
p
( gBzR, Z {q7Z 59:mY 1992D 1932 ~/
~**

zg Zzg g Zg)
Zz {)z]uZzbT)
Zzg ZyS ),Z @*
@*
&
)g} (F, 6,]Z <G Zs sZgzZ #
XM-BEz < Z)~T
:V-g Z
E!
i Z p g e / 0- w ',
o F-#Fb ',Zg x
CG / +Z Z
o zZ y i g0
F,p yg ', ZMZ / y Zi
{ Wni Z V 0*
g / { $!*
k e W=
F,q
- 4, !*V
gz / -g !*c g V
F,q
+ ~i @*I z',
0 W / + ~i Zg z Q tzf
0
45

M2- g | 1938 :w
D Z)Z e 63:m ~ 6ig ~)
( g
:  #
rZ [DF,
zg Zxg Z)6,

E!
s sZ : / 0- 6,w
o I
Q p / o zZ gz / CZ Z
F,p Vg ZMZ / u x { Z
: { W CZ f L}G
! / mw yZ =
: {

, g XL3i @ / q -g !*Vg
V ~i Zg z Q zf / ! V ~i @*
G {z [Z
L $ y
E
E
$
]m x / ] L Z# Y
~ F,
L h! / ~ F, s sZ Zg
( 46:m Z (F,
) ~ 6ig )
Zz w
DZ)6,x ZMg _gZ yZ)V &~
] kZ#
Z 7l{ twD Z) Zz ]!*
t [
 ZZz Z~g ZyZg Dg Z6,
CZs sZ { ZggzZg DZ
ZgzZg
?c*
gzZtt Z7Zztp t)

-Z)
Zzq
 Y Zz T ;g Y 7Zz ( Zq
-Z s)sz&Z Zg6,kZ
7? | (,
T (ZZzt $ ZzkZV&~ ~gzZt)
gzZ Y 1934Zzt Vzy~p Z4ZZz#
rpZzkZ~ Y7g Z
:  # r Z~Y 1938wZ )
rZZz#
[~ kZggzZ gzZ Wk0*
}~ Z~(,v
*wJV x yZ n } ZZpg
e*
46

yZ t{zgzZ Hg (Z3 ZggzZq


-Z~nkZ 7
c* ~ ]g! B VZgzZh
Z  z sVzVz
+',
Zgz xsZ L L[ AzZ ~6,qsZ V- Y
6,
z k Q3 Zg W Tg-i~i WY 1934
~V ~y
yZ y} q |@*
W x ** wD Z
z Yx **
-Z= $
Z 7q s ]5 yZ J +p
y jZ x  # H7k- = ]u}
~Z
~ [ZXg/C
}= z kZ Z 4Z ~
wD Z
yZ {yj6,gzZ 6,A
g'!*
p Z e ~zyZ W~n k
sg b!* , ~h
V H qz z WKZ wD Z ]
kZ @*
7, c*
=J gl@!Q Zhg
-VG
+Z yZ gf gz Z6,g @*
i Z0 sZ {z
z
LZ~ZcyW]!*
C + Z,Z O[Zr
 6{ E
Bg Z- ) ~
/ {z ;g V9
 6,l
gW W W~ i ZzWgzZ g f ;ug
pgzZu Z}g7 WyZ Y ! l{z
\W~ H#= uzgWKZ VrZ 7
-eZ  g
I= {z  \WgzZV[| 7,6, ZgzxsZ L L[
EE G
Z p$ Z G s% Z Z O{$\W= s
}gt ~ kZ  gg* gz zZ Tp gzZ
]%Z z ~ xsZ kZ~ Zg ~ u **
gzZ Cc*
gzZ (,g_
s !*
}g kZy OZ ~z 6f kZ Z~
47

Z DZ)X Y {g)**
p !*@*J e C
**
Z {q7 Z 59 :mY 1992D 1932 ~/ Z
BzR,~**
( g
 D]!*
t gzZ
H Zzt)6,x ZMg _Zz kZ
tgzZ 1tgzZ 1 qg Z LZ~gzZ ) .Zz
Zz ]!*
p)X];z 7, Zzz %Z%s)
{ i Zzg Z~#
Z6,CX];z gzZ`y~Zz{g

Hc*
X 0*
GG
zzG
53 Z Z qg)
GG
;g^gz {zt c* 5 3Z Z qg~ZzgzZg Z LZ )
Zz Vz Azz G
7 Z~Tgz {zt 7e**
Yc*~ Z/ ZqZ~gzT
0*
Y e$ Z Za g_
%#
/ OZ~ I% Z [!* ~gz T gz {zt
t)Z# Y** 0* yZgzZ * ZZz E
* 6, 4G
3E5k! < #
L zyW Z
X 1CZt Z) W~

g Z[ZgzZwD Z)
6 Hg (Z Zt0g Z~[Zg e b ZVX)
+t0g Z[Z bZ
1w$ # ~gzZp Hy 
 z .
sz s Z e** z I Z Z~gz kZ 1t Z Zg #
Zg/gzZ

VY Y :L ,v0* { zyZ Y [Zg e y Z s ~ Z
[Z ) s sZ Z Ye Z xs Z Y
$i q Zo IY fbkZ
:DyV- ~g Z)ZgZ Bx o ( g Z
E!
i Z p g e / 0- w ',
48

o F-#Fb ',Zg x
CG / +Z Z
o zZ y i g0
F,p yg ', ZMZ / y Zi
E
F,q
- 4, !*V
gz / -g !*c g V
F,q L
M2- g | 1938 :w
D Z)Z e 63:m ~ 6ig ~)
( g
:DV-# rZ F,
g Z)6, tkZ
E!
s sZ : / 0- 6,w
o I
Z p / o zZ gz / CZ Z
F, p Vg } ZMZ / u x { Z
$E
E
]m x / # Y
] L Z
~ F,
L h! / ~ F, s sZ Zg
( Z  46:m(F,
) ~ 6ig )
7{zg Z[Z c*
Zz~g ZyZ )._w}
v0ZO #
Zg/Zg gpe
$
/%#
Z ~g Z[Z2 Y
: D 
V

Ve] ] n ni rm ^j] ^ ^^ ^
] ] fu e u nu e ^ ^>]
+ 4<X
I-G 4 5.
: wZ Zv0Z 474:mg Z b GZ ) oF^i
E E
IE -.
( | 1428#ipZzl4` <XEZg Z| 974
 w
1Z gZ[Z~gz kZ}g D 
 x Z[Z
X 7^ ,Y{zN
m
0Z
z B)~gzZ {zgZ[Z
:  ~
f] a ` e] ]a ^q^ ^
49

r? 31B2: GEZOZ!Zfg ZgZZ~z B) ^]


#
( | 1341cZxZg Z| 1396:
)$
X~g Zz +IZ {z
H< Zg eyS 
`zy
z B)~ ]g kZ
Z g e yZ Hy ] ~(, ~
<
@Y
* ~ {%ig Zz
)$ Z
+IZ {], ) Zz< ,v0*
L IZ {z @*
_vZ z{
:  ~ :Z
^`^fi] e] a & v] ga]] k] ^
/]] ^q ^` t] (] /] ^^fi]
Zg Z| 1176: ~_vZ z{  5BEZ-) ]
41:m G
( | 1415 GG
g Z
q nZ WZ Z q nZ yZ ~g e yZ<
Z Z
#

X `zyWZZq nZ,v0*
`zy
yZ
G
x 0*' {
,Y: Zg ZY)]zg ZwD Z)-
H7{^ | ZzX
Juo KZ6,
Y yZ~XkZxyZgzZ]Zk
,)ptgzZ
H
Z Y }n Ogtz0Vz Z c*
]
t~Z[Z
tz e { i Zzg Z Zg #
Z gzZ }n0
D CZ {Zg Z  kZ yKZC
~gz kZt Zg yZ 0gzZN CZ
D Z)._y}g e *
w Z<
*6,<z +{g~{],
Z {z V ZpgzZ Zg~VZ
Dg Z6,ZgzZ (F,
o ZyKZikC):gz g~zu<z + D CZt: z: 5 Z
X {@xZg 6 *
@Yx
Zz"7,
gzZ} i ZqJY !ZzkZ!kZVY \zug nvZ
50

x dZ~ kzZ <!*


A  {~k
, =
HkZ 

/^Q] nf o& /^`] ]X }W 

U Z%
*yW ( 1)

Zt . Z ^Z g Z | 671 Z 0 vZ 1Z ?
{C yWZ x Z ( 2)
E | 1384
-
]Zg Z E1Z y0h +Zi Gpb** | 179 =Z Z 0 ( 3)
| 1425
-BZ| 321 ~z CZ0ZQ1Zg U* s Z b. ( 4)
A
| 1415 {C Z}&Zg Z| 360 ZGE .[ZZ1ZZ0yzZ E
G Z ( 5)
A-E4 A -4
E
| 1424]z G 0.Z^Z gZ| 458 XGZ1Z@0Z XGZ ( 6)
+
Y 1951t )A Z wZ G 3!|728EG
E G 0ZxsZ  Z ( 7)
G G G
HF,G 0G3B Z GE 3! | 1143 Z DZ G35Zz G 53Z y HZ G v ( 8)
| 1432
Y 1996ya| 1158 ~+E ZZ0xZzyuZ b Zs ( 9)
-B
ya ]z G 0.Z ^Z g Z | 970 GE0Z +Z +i) g Z bg BZ ( 10)
| 1422
G) E
3Z@1Z ~ E E 3wZ b ( 11)
| 1403]z wsZ E3 Z| 516 ~ E
IE
4 E A +
G
l Zz E 5 Z gZ | 676 ~zZ +Z [ c* i 1Z [ <X+ Z b q .EZ ( 12)
| 1417 #ipZz

| 1427~iZ0Zg Z Z E .>EZ0@0 G
G ZzwZ RZGEZwZ ( 13)
| 1408]zZg Z|808yz0Z0Zyz0Z g @*( 14)
| 1408 G 0.Z^ZgZ|728 b U0Zk I-G
4 m
X Z1Z+Z i ~Z ~z.2 Z ( 15)
I E E + < 4E
5 Z ( 16)
| 1428 #ipZzl4` <X-. Zg Z| 974 wZ Zv0Zg Z b EG
]z E3E Zg Z | 1176 ~ _vZ z { s%Z : L y s Z ( 17)
51

G | 1404
G
Y 1995g Z Zg Z| 1176 ~ _vZ z{ G53 Zz Zx Z G 5BEZ- ( 18)
E8#
vZE ri?xsZ E Z Z ( 19)
H G-.
| 1421-7 E i| 1252+$
& c* +0Z/0}Z Zg .b ( 20)
| 1176 ~ _vZ z{  s%GZ: L ys Z ( 21)
G E
Y 2014-xZg Z# rg(y{i Z u G
53 Z]mZ G 5.ZxZ ( 22)
| 14260 +Zg Z ~ !*Wy{{ ZxsZ g @*( 23)
~BZ]Z Z {g Z Z| 1362 ~ ZsZ# Z~y Wz Z ( 24)
| 1435
g6, M2-gY 1938# rwD Z) ~ 6ig ( 25)
Z 
(F, ) ~ 6ig ( 26)
5, - sZ ~i *k , +WwD Z ]hsZ ] G
2 +]
5;XZ h . ( 27)
Y 1986
Y 2010gsZZ +Zi iq_Cc* q -Z ZZ~q) ( 28)
Y 2002y 0* O ZwD Z]zZ exsZ] c* h + ( 29)
| 1431 ~xsZ]c* z]>| 1420 ~z0 + ZdZ1Z ** wD Zl ( 30)
Wg wd
!* $g ~wD Zy ~ !* W ZZGg !* Wg] wD Z ( 31)
Y 1977
BzR,~** Z {q7 ZY 1992DY 1932~/ Z p Z DZ ( 32)
g
| 1341c ZxZg Z| 1396 0* r? GEZOZ ( 33)
#
Y 2006z OGM0ZY Z EZ1Z+Z qqM0Z ( 34)
- z xZg Z O Z xsZ r q **
# xsZ gzZ Z ( 35)
| 1435