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DPARTEMENT

DTUDES DU MONDE ANGLOPHONE

IAV A021_A

GRAMMAIRE

2016-2017

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Enseignants coordinateurs : A. Ceccaldi, F. Conesa

I. Supports du cours
La prsente plaquette dexercices
Livre de grammaire recommand: Oxford Practice Grammar (Advanced), George
Yule.
Manuel de vocabulaire (pour la traduction) : Du mot la phrase, M. Dumong, J.
Pouvelle, C. Knott. Ellipses, 1994.

II. Evaluation
Un examen final sans aucun document autoris qui regroupe la grammaire et la traduction
(dure totale : 1h30)
Rappel important : la prsentation de la carte tudiant ou dfaut, de tout autre
document officiel didentit est obligatoire lors des examens.

III. Travail personnel


 2 heures de TD hebdomadaires ne peuvent suffire vous prparer lpreuve
dexamen. Elles doivent tre assorties dun travail personnel rigoureux et rgulier
(effectuer le travail demand dune semaine sur lautre, sentraner refaire les exercices
qui posent le plus de difficults, lire les pages du livre correspondant aux exercices, etc.)
 Lapprentissage rgulier du vocabulaire vu en classe est galement indispensable pour
une bonne russite lexamen final et plus largement pour la suite de votre parcours
dtudes.
 Vous devez lire la presse crite anglophone rgulirement. De nombreux journaux et
magazines sont disponibles la bibliothque universitaire (B.U.) ou en ligne.
 Regarder des missions en langue anglaise vous permettra galement damliorer votre
anglais crit et parl, ainsi que votre connaissance de la culture anglo-saxonne
contemporaine.

IV. Programmes du semestre


Programme grammatical

I. INTRODUCTION TO THE ENGLISH SENTENCE.... 4


II. ORDINARY VERBS, AUXILIARIES AND OPERATORS ................... 7
III. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS... 9
IV. PRESENT SIMPLE AND PRESENT CONTINUOUS. 12
V. PAST SIMPLE AND CONTINUOUS. 16
VI. PERFECT VS. SIMPLE. . 18
VII. MULTI-WORD VERBS..........................25
VIII. MODALS AND MODALITY.... . 33
IX. EXPRESSIONS................... 46

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Programme lexical (vocabulaire)

o Grammaire :
- Connatre le sens et lemploi des multi-word verbs (chapitre VIII)
- Verbes irrguliers

o Traduction :
- Voir la plaquette de version.

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I. INTRODUCTION TO THE ENGLISH
SENTENCE
A. Types of sentences
There are 4 types of sentences, corresponding each to a communicative function:
STATEMENTS
Statements are used to convey information. A statement is presented as true (even though it
may very well be a lie):
1) Its raining.
2) I dont like chocolate.

QUESTIONS
Questions obviously indicate lack of information:
3) Is there any beer left?
4) What time is it?

COMMANDS
Commands are normally expressed in the imperative, and are used to instruct someone to
perform an action:
5) Have some more chocolate.
6) Listen and repeat.

EXCLAMATIONS
Exclamations allow the speaker to express his own feelings:
7) How charming she is!
8) What a silly thing to say!

Sentence types correspond to syntactic classes. The same communicative function can be
expressed through various sentence types:
9) I would like you to buy a new car. (STATEMENT + REQUEST)
10) Will you buy a new car, please? (QUESTION+ REQUEST)
11) Buy a new car, please. (COMMAND + REQUEST)
12) How Id like you to buy a new car! (EXCLAMATION + REQUEST)
Conversely, one sentence type can express different communicative functions:
13) Did you ever hear such nonsense? (QUESTION + COMMENT)
14) What time is it? (QUESTION + LACK OF INFORMATION)
15) Can you pass me the salt, please? (QUESTION + REQUEST)
16) Isnt she cute? (QUESTION + EXPRESSION OF SPEAKERS FEELINGS)

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All sentences belong to one type. One sentence cannot belong to more than one type. In
addition, all sentences are either negative or non negative, emphatic or non emphatic:
17) I dont like music. (STATEMENT, negative, non emphatic)
18) I do like music. (STATEMENT, non negative, emphatic)
19) I dont like music. (STATEMENT, negative, emphatic)
20) Dont you like music? (QUESTION, negative, non emphatic)
21) Who did open the door, then? (QUESTION, non negative, emphatic)
22) Do come in. (COMMAND, non negative, emphatic)
23) Dont ever / Never stroke a cat when it is angry (COMMAND, negative, emphatic)

B. The verb phrase


All sentences normally consist of two parts: a subject and a predicate. The subject can be
defined as what the speaker is talking about, and the predicate corresponds to what the
speaker says about the predicate.
Subject and predicate can vary in length:
(1) John / ran.
(2) John / told me about one of the most wonderful books he had ever read.
(3) One of the twenty-five young girls who arrived from London yesterday / called.

The verb phrase typically consists of a main verb, and optionally a series of auxiliaries and
one or more complements. Tense is always on the first verb of the sequence. There are only
two tenses in English: past and present. From simple to complex:
(4) John ran. (past tense and main verb).
(5) John was running. (past tense, BE+ING and main verb)
(6) John has been running. (present tense, HAVE+EN, BE+ING and main verb)
(7) John might have been running. (past tense, modal, HAVE+EN, BE+ING and main
verb)

EXERCISES
I. What do the following sequences of verbs consist of?
1. The poor boy looked so miserable.
2. The old man had left his wallet on the table.
3. Boys will be boys.
4. You should have returned this book last Wednesday.
5. I know.
6. She may have been delayed.
7. Or she might be waiting outside the wrong theatre.
8. She has seen both films twice.
9. They'd given her up.

II. Are the following sentences correct or incorrect?


1. He must have been waiting for hours.

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2. He has had been here for two days.
3. He can't have had lunch already.
4. Who do you have seen ?
5. He does be unpleasant at times.
7. I must have had done it.
8. They should can fish.
9. Why was he been arrested?
10. He must have been dreaming.

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II. ORDINARY VERBS, AUXILIARIES
AND OPERATORS
(  YULE p. 17)
An operator is a verb that can be used to construct a question, a negative sentence or an
emphatic sentence. Be, have are operators. Modals (can, may, must...) are also operators.
(1) John is American. Is John American? John is not / isnt American.
(2) Mary was arrested. Was Mary arrested? Mary was not / wasnt arrested.
(3) John has finished. Has John finished? John has not / hasnt finished.
(4) Alice can swim. Can Alice swim? Alice cannot / cant swim.

NB : In British English, have can be used as an operator, or not:


(5) Have you an appointment, Sir? Do you have an appointment, Sir?
An auxiliary is a verb that belongs to the sequence of verbs, but is not the main verb.
Get, have to are auxiliaries.
(6) John has to sing. (auxiliary, main verb)
(7) John is singing. (auxiliary, main verb)
Modals are also auxiliaries. There can be more than one auxiliary in a sequence:
(8) John may have been arrested. (auxiliary auxiliary auxiliary main verb)
NB : when be is the only verb in the sequence, it is NOT an auxiliary :
(9) John is intelligent. (main verb)
The great majority of verbs are ordinary verbs. They are neither operators nor auxiliaries.
When there is no operator, in order to construct a question (10), a negative sentence (11) or an
emphatic sentence (12), we must use DO:
(10) Do you smoke?
(11) I did not see him.
(12) I do like this song.

Have to, though an auxiliary, is NOT an operator, thats why we must use Do to construct
interrogative and negative sentences including have to, as in :
(13) Do you have to leave now?
(14) I dont have to go to school on Sundays.

EXERCISE
Turn the following statements into a question then into a negative sentence.
1. You have a car.
2. He is to arrive tonight.
3. She has to hurry.

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4. They are working on it.
5. She seems to be tired.
6. I did it.
7. He may stay up until 11:00.
8. He got run over by a police car.
9. I used to suck my thumb to fall asleep.
10. They ought to have arrived by now

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III. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE
VERBS
(  YULE pp. 6-9)
1. Transitive verbs take an object direct (1), (2), (3) or indirect (4), (5), (6):
(1) John wrote a letter.
(2) John met his neighbour.
(3) John needed help.

(4) John listened to the radio.


(5) John looked after the children.
(6) John commented on the poem.

2. Intransitive verbs do not take any complements or objects:


(7) John slept. (8) John died. (9) John shaved.

Some verbs can be used transitively or intransitively. Compare:


(10) John smokes. (10) John smokes cigars.
(11) John was reading. (11) John was reading the paper.

3. Ditransitive verbs take a subject and two objects: one direct object and one indirect object:

(12) Tom gave his grandmother the letter.

In this sentence, his grandmother is the indirect object, the person receiving something (or
recipient) and the letter is the direct object (or theme), i.e. the thing that someone gives.

In the active voice, some ditransitive verbs allow for more than one pattern ( = schma). The
two objects may follow each other directly or be separated by a preposition. Observe :

Two patterns : with and without a preposition

(13) Tom gave his grandmother the letter


Tom gave the letter to his grandmother

(14) Jenny ordered her mother a birthday cake


Jenny ordered a birthday cake for her mother.

Other ditransitive verbs allow one pattern only:

a. Direct pattern only:


(15) The bank refused him a big loan
*The bank refused a big loan to him

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b. Indirect pattern only:

(16) *The teacher explained the students the lesson


The teacher explained the lesson to the students. (indirect pattern)


GIVE  2 patterns. To is always used in the indirect one.
Other examples are grant, teach, bring, award, serve, hand, lend, offer, owe, pass, pay,
post, promise, read, sell, show, take, tell, throw, write.

ORDER  2 patterns. For is always used in the indirect one.


Other examples are make, buy, book, build, choose, cook, fetch, find, get, leave, pick,
reserve, save.

REFUSE  direct pattern only:


Other examples are allow, ask, charge, cost, deny, envy, fine, forgive, wish.

EXPLAIN  indirect pattern only. Prepositions cant be omitted and vary with the verbs.
Other examples are provide, blame, supply, borrow, describe, hide (from), etc.

EXERCISES
I. Give alternative constructions corresponding to the utterances
1. I made the cake for you.
2. She's ordered a drink for you.
3. They awarded him the Nobel Prize for Literature.
4. He taught him Latin for a few years.
5. Cinderellas godmother granted her 3 wishes.
6. He brought the cake to me.
7. He gave a present to his mother.
8. Their grandmother told them the story of her life.
9. They blamed the failure on him.
10. The government provided food for everyone.
11. Ive saved a seat for you.
12. They provided the fighters with nuclear weapons.
13. My mom supplied us with chocolate.
14. Could you make some coffee for us ?
15. Book a flight for me, will you ?
16. Can you write the manager a memo ?
17. You should leave a message to my secretary.
18. Paul fetched the files for me yesterday.

II. Write the information in one sentence. Put the underlined parts at the end of the
sentence.
Ex. Daniel lent something to Vicky. It was his calculator  Daniel lent Vicky his calculator.
1. Mark sent a message. It was to his boss .....................................................................
2. Emma sold her bike. Her sister bought it 

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3. Tom told the joke. He told all his friends 
4. Melanie gave some help. She helped her neighbour 
5. Ilona wrote to her teacher. She wrote a letter ..

4. Linking verbs (  YULE p.10)


Linking verbs are verbs that do not show action but rename or describe the subject.

Ex. be, seem, become, grow (=become), feel, etc.

They do not take an object, but a predicative complement, which can be an adjective (17),
a noun phrase (18), an adverb (19) or a prepositional phrase (20):
(17) John is rich. (18) John is a rich man.
(19) John is here. (20) John is in the kitchen.

Most linking verbs can also be used as transitive verbs (i.e. take an object). In that case, they
have a different meaning. Compare and translate:
(21) John grew rich. (21) John grew potatoes.
(22) John felt tired. (22) John felt the heat of the sun.
(23) The soup tastes good. (23) John tastes the soup.

EXERCISES
I. Observe the underlined sequences and say whether they are objects, predicative
complements or other.
1. They met at the station and walked all the way to her place.
2. She even showed him her etchings.
3. He felt a fool and almost went berserk.
4. He felt her pulse; she didn't look unwell but he thought she was.
5. He saw her off at the station.
6. He got rid of his old computer.
7. Bob looked at the old woman who was walking her dog. Suddenly she disappeared.
8. He stood his bike against a post, and then stood on the pavement for a while.
9. Everyone considered his campaign a success, and they elected him president.
10. President addressed the country but the senate opposed his project.

II. Translate the above sentences.

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IV. PRESENT SIMPLE AND PRESENT
CONTINUOUS
(  YULE p.18)
I. Comment.
1. Does she sing? / Is she singing?
2. You are silly / You are being silly
3. He can't see her / He can't be seeing her
4. I go to work by bus / I'm going to work by bus
5. I often think about her / I'm thinking about her
6. I think she's very pretty / *I'm thinking she's very pretty
7. When the baby sucks his thumb, he falls asleep / When the baby sucks his thumb, he
is falling asleep
8. He is sick / He is being sick

II. Objective utterance vs comment


It is possible to justify BE+ING (present continuous) by opposing the objective, neutral
nature of the present simple and the more subjective, comment-type nature of the present
continuous. BE+ING is not normally used to introduce new information, but, on the contrary,
to indicate that the predicate is known to both speaker and addressee. The present continuous
is thus used to indicate a repetition (a), a decision (b) or reproach (c):
a. repetition
(1) When a woman of twenty marries a man close to eighty, it is obvious that she is
marrying him for his money.
(2) Is anything the matter, Jeremy? What do you mean, Frances? Im asking
you if theres anything the matter.
In (1) the first occurrence of marry is in the present simple, because it is the first mention of
it. But when it is repeated, BE+ING is used, to attract the addressees attention, and indicate
that the speaker is making a comment on something they both know. In (2) the speaker first
asks a question, and so can use ask (referring to the question) in the present continuous to
make a comment.
b. decision
When you use the simple present you only give neutral information concerning the future (3
& 4), whereas with BE+ING you inform the addressee of a decision you have made (5), or
you justify your attitude (6). That is why BE+ING cannot be used in (7):
(3) I leave tomorrow.
(4) The sun rises at 7:32 tomorrow.
(5) I am leaving tomorrow.
(6) I cant go out with you tonight: Im getting up early tomorrow.
(7) *The sun is rising at 7:32 tomorrow.

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In negative sentences, BE+ING can express the speakers or the subjects refusal to do
something:
(8) Im not leaving. (= I refuse to leave)
(9) Youre not leaving. (= I refuse to let you leave)
(10) Hes not leaving. (= I refuse to let him leave / he refuses to leave)

c. reproach

Combined with always or adverbs with a similar meaning BE+ING is used to express
reproach. Compare:
(11) He always smokes a cigar after dinner. (neutral statement)
(12) He is always smoking cigars. (reproach) In this case it is possible to use BE+ING
with verbs that are not normally compatible with this form:
(13) She is always seeing ghosts!
(14) But the company was always wanting new plays, and we had two theatres now.

EXERCISES
I. Put the verbs in brackets into the present simple or the present continuous. Use the
interrogative form whenever appropriate.
1. What Tom (think) of the Budget? He (think) it
most unfair. I (agree) with him.
2. What this one (cost) ? It (cost) forty pence.
3. You (hear) the wind? It (blow) very strongly
tonight.
4. He never (listen) to what you say. He always (think)
about something else.
5. This book is about a man who (desert) his family and (go)
to live on a Pacific island.
6. You (understand) what the lecturer is saying? No, I (not
understand) him at all.
7. What you (have) for breakfast usually? I usually (eat)
a carrot and (drink) a glass of cold water.
8. Why you (walk) so fast today? You usually (walk)
quite slowly. I (hurry) because I (meet) my mother at 4 o'clock and she
(not like) to be kept waiting.
9. You (recognise) that man? I (think) that I
have seen him before but I (not remember) his name.
10. Look at that crowd. I (wonder) what they (wait)
for.
11. This message has just arrived and the man (wait) in case you (want)
to send a reply.
12. Stop! You (not see) the notice? I (see) it but
I can't read it because I (not wear) my glasses. What it (say)
? It (say) 'These premises are
patrolled by guard dogs'.
13. She always (borrow) from me and she never (remember)
to pay me back.

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14. It (save) time if you (take) the path through the wood? No, it (not
matter) which path you take.
15. I (save) up because I (go) abroad in July.
16. I (think) it is a pity you don't take more exercise. You (get)
fat.
17. Tom never (do) any work in the garden; he always (work)
on his car.
18. What he (do) to his car now? I (think) he
(polish) it.
19. How Peter (get) on at school? Very well. He (seem)
to like the life.
20. This is our itinerary. We (leave) home on the 8th, (arrive)
in Paris on the 9th, (spend) the day in Paris, and (set)
out that night for Venice. That (sound) most interesting. You must tell
me all about it when you (get) back.
21. This story is about a boy who (make) friends with a snake which he
(find) in his garden. Then he (go) away but he (not
forget) the snake and some years later he (return) and
(look) for it.
22. How you (end) a letter that (begin) , 'Dear Sir'?
I always (put) 'Yours truly', but Tom (prefer)
'Yours faithfully'.
23. What the word 'catastrophe' (mean) ? It (mean)
'disaster'.
24. What you (wait) for? I (wait) for the shop
to open. But it (not open) till 9.00. I (know)
but I (want) to be early, as their sales (start) today.
25. Who (own) this umbrella? I (not know) .
Everybody (use) it but nobody (know) who (own)
it.

II. Same exercise


1. He always . a cigar after dinner (to have). 2. He is a doctor, he
. in a hospital (to work). 3. Cats . milk (to like). 4.
How I . there (to get)? You . (to turn) right
and then left. 5. You . (to be) very generous, thank you. 6. What
. I now (to do)? You .the dish in a hot oven
(to put). 7. What . next (to come)? 8. Here .(to come)
the champion! 9. He . (to run) and . (to shoot), and its
a goal! 10. . you . with me (to agree)? 11. Look! It
. (to rain)! 12. I . to you (to talk)! 13. Has he finished?
No, he . (to work + still). 14. You . again (to smoke)!
15. You . (to go out + not)! 16. He . of leaving (to
think). 17. It . in this country (to rain + always)! 18. What
. he . now (to do)? Can you hear him? 19.
.they. lunch with us today (to have)? 20. Dont forget
that they . tomorrow (to leave). 21. .
you. he will win (to think)? 22. I . anywhere (to go +
not)! 23. What time the next boat . ? It .

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tomorrow at 6 a.m. (to leave). 24. you . him a lot (to
see)? 25. I . for the noise last night (to apologise).

III. Translate.
1. Que fait John ? Il fait ses devoirs. Il fait toujours ses devoirs cette heure-ci.
2. Non, je ne sors pas ce soir. D'ailleurs, il pleut.
3. Je me demande o est John. Il doit travailler l'tage.
4. A la tlvision : "Je verse de l'encre sur ce drap, je pulvrise Super Clean sur la tache, et
voil: la tache a disparu."
5. Pourquoi me tlphones-tu toujours quand je regarde un match de foot la tl ?
6. Regarde-le : il prend son pouls (feel one's pulse). Apparemment, il ne le sent pas.
7. Vous n'tes pas raisonnable : vous m'achetez toujours des bijoux !
8. Que prenez-vous ? Une pomme ou une poire ?
9. Je t'achterai une voiture quand tu auras dix-huit ans.
10. Titre de journal : LE TUEUR FOU A ENCORE FRAPPE.
11. Je ne peux pas, je pars aux Etats-Unis demain.
12. Le soleil se lve 7h12 demain.

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V. PAST SIMPLE AND CONTINUOUS
(  YULE p.20)
The forms and basic uses of the past simple and perfect form are considered as known.

Compare:

I. Equivalents of the French Imparfait

We can use the past continuous to translate the French imparfait, but this is possible only with
actions or events that have begun and not ended. The imparfait is used in other circumstances
in French, and is translated in various ways:
(18) Tous les jours, il achetait son journal. [habit in the past] => Every day he bought /
would buy his newspaper. [past simple or WOULD]
(19) Quand je suis rentr, les enfants travaillaient depuis une heure. [duration] =>
When I came in the kids had been working for one hour. [past perfect continuous]
(20) Il tait nerveux ; il regardait sa montre, allumait une cigarette, lteignait,
[description, series of consecutive actions in the past] => He was nervous; he looked
at his watch, lit a cigarette, put it out... [past simple]
(21) Quelques secondes avant la fin du match, Wiltord marquait le but galisateur.
[imparfait affectif, used to give a historic dimension to an event] => A few seconds
before the end of the match, Wiltord scored the equaliser. [past simple]

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EXERCISES
I. Put the verbs in brackets into the past simple or the past continuous. Use the
interrogative form where appropriate.
1. Mr Smith never (wake) . up in time in the morning and always (get)
. into trouble for being late; so one day he (go) . to town
and (buy) . an alarm clock. 2. To get home he (have to) .
go through a field where a bad-tempered bull usually (graze) .. 3. This bull
normally (not chase) . people unless something (make) .
him angry. Unfortunately, as Mr Smith (cross) . the field, his alarm clock
(go) . off. 4. This (annoy) . the bull, who immediately
(begin) . to chase Mr Smith. 5. Mr Smith (carry) . an open
umbrella as it (rain) . slightly. He (throw) . the umbrella to
the ground and (run) . away as fast as he could. 6. The bull (stop)
. and (begin) .to attack the umbrella. While he (do)
. this Mr Smith (escape) .. 7. When he (awake)
. she (sit) .by the window. She (look) . at
something in the street, but when he (call) . her she (turn)
.and (smile) .at him.
8. The murderer (carry) . the corpse down the stairs when he (hear)
.a knock on the door.
9. As they (walk) .along the road they (hear) . a car
coming from behind them. Tom (turn) . round and (hold) .
up his hand. The car (stop) ..
10. The prisoner (escape) . by climbing the wall of the garden where he
(work) .. He (wear) . blue overalls and black shoes.
11. She said that the car (travel) . at 40 k.p.h. when it (begin)
. to skid.
12. While he (make) . his speech the minister suddenly (feel)
. faint. But someone (bring) . him a glass of water and after
a few minutes he (be able) . to continue.
13. I (take) . my friend to a murder trial the other day. Who (be)
. tried? A man called Bill Sykes. Was he acquitted? I don't know. They
still (listen) . to the evidence when we (leave) ..
14. I (be) . sorry that I (have to) . leave the party early,
because I (enjoy) . myself.
15. I (see) . you yesterday from the bus. Why you (use) . a
stick? I (use) . a stick because I had hurt my leg that morning falling off a
horse. Whose horse you (ride) .?

II. Translate :
1. Le lendemain, la police fouillait son appartement et trouvait la drogue.
2. Alors que la police fouillait son appartement, il sauta par la fentre et s'enfuit.
3. Quand Peter est rentr, sa femme prparait le dner.
4. Quand Peter est rentr, sa femme a prpar le dner.
5. Il tait trs nerveux : il allumait une cigarette, l'teignait, ouvrait un livre, le refermait
6. Il nous regardait, l'un aprs l'autre.
7. Son pre parlait italien.
8. Il faisait des tas de gestes : il parlait certainement italien.

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VI. PERFECT vs SIMPLE
(  YULE pp. 22-23)
I. Translating cest la premire fois que...
You must use the present perfect when you translate this, and similar expressions, and, of
course, the past perfect to translate ctait la premire fois que... (3):
(1) This is the first time I have seen her.
(2) This is the third cup of coffee he has had tonight.
(3) It was the second time I had seen her.

II. Date
Whenever the date of the event is mentioned, more or less explicitly, you cannot use the
present perfect, but the past simple:

(4) *I have seen John yesterday.


(5) I saw John yesterday.
(6) I saw John on January 17th 2007.
(7) I saw John a short while ago.
(8) I saw John when I was in Paris.
(9) I saw John in Paris. [i.e. when I was in Paris]
(10) When did you see John? (*When have you seen John?)

Note that with recently and lately, you can use either the present perfect or the past simple.
With adverbials that can refer to the past or the present, such as today, this morning, this
week, this month, etc., you can use either the present perfect or the past simple, with a
difference in meaning:
(11) I have written three letters today. [This is what I have done so far, I may write
more letters today]
(12) I wrote three letters today. [the day is over from this point of view; I will not write
any more letters today]

III. Translating venir de


You should use HAVE+EN combined with just. Compare:
(13) I have just talked to him. (Je viens de lui parler)
(14) I just talked to him. (Je viens de lui parler [possible en anglais amricain] ou je
lui ai simplement parl (je ne lai pas frapp))

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IV. Location in time and duration
a. AGO

(21) He let me down badly. Since then I refuse to have anything to do with him.
(22) Since youve been gone, I can do what I want.

Also note that since can be followed by an ING form:


(23) John has been world-famous since discovering a new molecule.
Finally, note that since can be used on its own, like depuis in French. But when it is used in
initial position it is combined with then (25):
(24) He last came here in November, and I havent seen him (ever) since.
(25) He last came here in November. Since then, I havent seen him.

c. FOR
(26) I have lived here for ten years. [present perfect: Jhabite ici depuis dix ans]
(27) I lived here for ten years. [past simple: Jai habit ici pendant dix ans]

Note that in some negative sentences, in can be used instead of for (28). In informal English
there can sometimes be no preposition at all (29).
(28) I havent played baseball in ages.
(29) Ive been here two hours.

19
V. Typical mistakes
With events that have no duration it is not possible to use the present perfect in combination
with for or since. These verbs can be described as punctual action verbs.
(30) *They have arrived for a long time. (Ils sont arrivs depuis longtemps.)
(31) *He has died for several years. (Cela fait plusieurs annes quil est mort.)
(32) *He has left since one oclock in the afternoon. (Il est parti depuis une heure de
laprs-midi.)

First solution: past simple + ago


(33) They arrived a long time ago.
(34) He died a long time ago.

Second solution: present perfect + BE + adjective or adverb with a verb expressing the
corresponding result
(35) They have been (t)here for a long time.
(36) He has been dead for several years.
(37) He has been away since one oclock in the afternoon.

Compare:
(38) He has been out for five minutes. (il est sorti depuis cinq minutes)
(39) He has gone out for five minutes. (il est sorti pour cinq minutes)

VI. Tense in the SINCE-clause


You can either use the past simple (by far the best and easiest solution) to refer to the
beginning of the duration, or the present perfect to refer to the entire duration:
(40) Ive been sick since I arrived here. (41) Ive been sick since Ive been here.
(42) Ive liked them since I met them. (43) Ive liked them since Ive known them.

VII. IT- constructions


3 rules to remember about these constructions
o you must always use SINCE
o there can never be a negative adverb
o there cannot be a BE+ING form

(43) Its five years since I left London


Cela fait cinq ans que jai quitt Londres.

(44) Its five years since I started playing chess.


Cela fait cinq ans que je joue aux checs NOT *its five years since Ive been playing
chess

(45) Its five years since Ive been interested in grammar.


Cela fait cinq ans que je mintresse la grammaire.

20
To translate negative sentences, there are two solutions:

preterit tense + reference to the last occurrence of the event (last or for the last time)
present perfect

(46) Il y a dix ans que je ne lai pas vu.


 Its (it has been) ten years since I last saw him.
 Its (it has been) ten years since I have seen him

(47) Cela fait une ternit quil ne pleut plus.


 Its (its been) ages since it last rained.
 Its (its been) ages since it has rained.

VIII. Questions
One rule to remember: questions about duration cannot contain a negative adverb.
a. How long ?
(48) How long have you been here?
(Depuis combien de temps tes-vous ici ?)

(49) How long have you been waiting?


(Combien de temps cela fait-il que vous attendez ?)

(50) How long has he been teaching English?


(Il y a combien de temps quil enseigne langlais ?)

(51) How long did you stay in London?


(Combien de temps tes-vous rest Londres ?)

Note that you cannot use FOR in such questions (51) except in sentences like (52):
(51) *For how long did you stay in London?
(52) How long are you here for? (Pour combien de temps tes-vous ici ?)
Events that have no duration: 2 solutions (see above)
(53) Depuis combien de temps est-elle partie ?
(54) How long has she been away ? (*How long has she left?)
(55) How long is it / has it been since she left?

Negative questions: 2 solutions (see above)


(56) Depuis combien de temps navez-vous pas vu Mike ?
(57) How long is it / has it been since you last saw Mike?
(58) How long is it / has it been since you have seen Mike?

b. How long ago ?


(59) How long ago did you meet Jane?
(60) How long ago did you last see Peter?

21
c. Since when ?
This construction is not very natural, and how long is normally preferred:
(61) Since when has Ireland been a republic?
(How long has Ireland been a republic?)

(62) Since when have you been here?


(How long have you been here?)

When the present tense is used in combination with since when, we have a rhetorical question:

(63) Since when do children answer their mothers back like that?

EXERCISES
I. Comment
1. He has lived in London for several years / He lived in London for several years
2. She has been to New Zealand / She has gone to New Zealand
3. I have lived in Liverpool, but since 1980 I have lived in London
4. I have written three letters today / I wrote three letters today
5. They have just arrived / They arrived just now
6. * What have you bought last summer? / What did you buy last summer?
7. I have worked on Labor Day / I worked on Labor Day
8. I have seen a ghost once / Once, I saw a ghost

II. Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect or the past simple. In some cases it
is also possible to use the present perfect continuous. Use the interrogative form
wherever appropriate.
1. This is my house. How long you (live) here? I (live) here since 1970.
2. He (live) in London for two years and then (go) to Edinburgh.
3. You (wear) your hair long when you were at school? Yes, my mother (insist) on it.
4. But when I (leave) school I (cut) my hair and (wear) it short ever since.
5. Shakespeare (write) a lot of plays.
6. My brother (write) several plays. He just (finish) his second tragedy.
7. I (fly) over Loch Ness last week. You (see) the Loch Ness monster?
8. I (not see) him for three years. I wonder where he is.
9. Chopin (compose) some of his music in Majorca.
10. When he (arrive)? He (arrive) at 2.00.
11. I (read) his books when I was at school. I (enjoy) them very much.
12. I can't go out because I (not finish) my work.
13. I never (drink) whisky. Well, have some now.
14. I (write) the letter but I can't find a stamp.
15. Here are your shoes; I just (clean) them.
16. The concert (begin) at 2.30 and (last) for two hours. Everyone (enjoy) it very much.
17. The play just (begin). You are a little late.
18. The newspaper (come)? Yes, Ann is reading it.
19. The actors (arrive) yesterday and (start) rehearsals early this morning.
20. It (be) very cold this year. I wonder when it is going to get warmer.
21. We (miss) the bus. Now we'll have to walk.
22. He (break) his leg in a skiing accident last year.

22
23. Mr Pound is the bank manager. He (be) here for five years.
24. Mr Count (work) as a cashier for twenty-five years. Then he (retire) and (go) to live in the
country.
25. You (be) here before? Yes, I (spend) my holidays here last year. You (have) a good
time? No, it never (stop) raining.

III. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form. Pay attention to the use of
interrogation and negation.
1. (you / hear) ..the Prime Minister's press conference?" No, I (miss)
. it but from what I (read) in the papers, he (not say)
anything new. He claims the economy (improve)
since he (take). office, but the number of unemployed
(go) .. up so his efforts (do) no good.
2. "Sylvester Robbins! What a surprise! I (not see) .. you since we (leave)
..school. Where (be) .you .. all this time?" "Well, I (go)
to graduate school in the U.S. where I (meet) .. my wife
Samantha. We (live) in Edinburgh ever since. " 3. "I (receive)
..just .. a letter saying we (not pay) ..this month's
rent. I (not give) .you the money for that last week? "Yes, you (AUX)
.. but I (spend) .. most of it at the bookshop. Then I (meet)
my sister who is really hard up so I (lend) .. the rest to her."
4. Although we (live) .. in this neighbourhood for several years, we (not
get) ..to know many people yet. The neighbours (be) .. very
helpful when we first (move in) .. but they soon (lose) ..
interest. Mind you, we (not invite) .. them back either.

IV. Rephrase the following utterances, using the prompts given, in order to keep the
same meaning. Use after / when / since / until / as / for / it be the first time

1. I will go when I have an answer. => I won't go .................................................................


2. I haven't seen him for ages. => It's been ages ....................................................................
3. For the first time I was on a plane. => It was .....................................................................
4. He saw her and then he left for Australia. => He left ........................................................
5. He started working two years ago. > He's been ...............................................................
6. When I was a child I used to feel neglected. =>.. a child.................................................
7. She'll have something to eat and then she'll go home. => She'll go home..........................

V. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.

1. Once he (pass) ................................................... his exams, he'll be qualified for the job.
2. As long as you (stay).............................. with them, you'll get no opportunity of a new job.
3. He said he would stay till I (arrive)......................................
4. I (see) ................................................. anything like it yet. It seems so unusual.
5. I knew that they would help me as long as I (need)...........................................................
6. They told me I was to go once I (finish).............................................................
7. Don't stop until you (finish)..........................................................
8. I knew that as soon as he (be)...................................................... there he would get over it.
9. When will you do it? As soon as you (stop) ................................................. asking me.

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VI. Rephrase the following utterances as in the example below: find the verb expressing
the result of the action to replace the punctual action verb.
He bought his computer last year. => He has had his computer since last year / for a year.
1. They got married in July.
2. I broke my collar-bone two weeks ago.
3. She died in 1995.
4. We met them at Easter.

VII. Translate

1. Cette librairie existe depuis longtemps ?


2. La machine vapeur a t invente il y a trois sicles.
3. Ca fait un temps fou quil donne des concerts.
4. Ca fait des annes quelle ne donne plus de concerts.
5. Les Beatles ont pass pas mal de temps en Inde dans les annes 70.
6. Le voisin est sorti de chez lui dix heures. Il a ouvert son garage et il est parti. Il avait l'air
tout fait normal.
7. Avouez ! Aprs tre entr dans la boutique, vous avez frapp le bijoutier avec une
matraque, non ?
8. Regarde, le vent a cass l'antenne de la tlvision, a s'est pass pendant la tempte hier.
9. Quelqu'un a mang mes chocolats. L'emballage est dchir.
10. C'est quelqu'un que jai rencontr il y a des annes.
11. C'est quelqu'un que je connais depuis des annes.
12. Je suis dsol d'tre si sale, je jardinais.
13. Depuis que je suis un membre actif de la SPA je reois une quantit de courrier.
14. a fait deux heures que tu pluches des patates.
15. Nous avons de la chance. a fait des jours quil na pas plu. L'anne dernire il a plu
pendant 3 semaines.

VIII. Translate
1. Il est arriv voici deux heures.
2. Il est ici depuis deux heures de l'aprs-midi.
3. Il y a deux heures qu'il est ici.
4. Il a cette voiture depuis longtemps.
5. Il a cette voiture depuis qu'il a vendu sa moto.
6. Il est parti il y a deux heures.
7. Je ne dors pas depuis que j'ai appris la mauvaise nouvelle.
8. Depuis combien de temps tes-vous ici ?
9. Je suis arriv il y a trois quarts d'heure, et depuis, j'attends la porte.
10. Il y a une ternit que je ne suis pas all au cinma.
11. Quand je suis arriv, il dormait depuis quelque temps dj.
12. Il a travaill dans une banque pendant trois ans, mais, il y a six mois, il a t licenci, et il
est au chmage depuis.
13. L'mission avait commenc depuis dix minutes quand elle fut interrompue, et un
journaliste annona que le prsident venait de dmissionner.
14. Ctait la premire fois quelle prenait le train.
15. Depuis combien de temps vous connaissiez-vous quand vous vous tes maris ?
16. Tu es couvert de peinture. Qu'est-ce que tu as encore fabriqu ?
17. Qu'est-ce que tu as fait ce matin ?

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VII. MULTI-WORD VERBS
There are thousands of multi-word verbs in English (the Cambridge Phrasal Verbs Dictionary
lists around 6,000). Below are some examples of use of a few phrasal and phrasal-
prepositional verbs. Students are expected to read widely and to know several hundred multi-
word verbs by the end of the second year of study.

1. The structure of multi-word verbs

These are the three main types of multi-word verb:

(1) phrasal verbs transitive phrasal verb (ph.v.tr.):

Verb + Direct Object + particle // Verb + particle + Direct Object

turn the offer down // turn down the offer

intransitive phrasal verb (ph.v.intr.): Verb + particle

wake up
come about

(2) phrasal-prepositional verbs (ph-pr.v.): Verb + particle + preposition + Noun Phrase


come up with a suggestion
run out of options

(3) prepositional verbs (pr.v.): Verb + preposition + Noun Phrase


wait for the announcement
look into the matter

2. The meanings of multi-word verbs

Some multi-word verbs have 'transparent' or 'compositional' senses; that is, the meaning of the
multi-word verb can be understood from the meaning of the verb + the meaning of the particle
or preposition.
Example: Before putting the bottle on the table, Susan pulled off the price label. (ph.v.intr.).
[=remove the price label]

25
Very many phrasal and phrasal-prepositional verbs are 'opaque' or 'idiomatic'; that is, the
combined verb + particle results in a different sense from that of the simple verb.
Example: Total has a market value of 68bn compared to Shell's 94bn, but it may still be
able to pull off a takeover. [= russir une reprise]
Many phrasal verbs have several different meanings and are disambiguated by the context.

EXERCISES
I. Compare the following sentences.

(1) He turned on the light


(2) He decided on the green car

- Replace the underlined sequences by a pronoun.


- Move the particles after the underlined sequences.
- Turn the above sentences into relative clause (Start with He showed me the light /
the green car and place the particle before the relative pronoun).

II. Say which of the underlined particles are prepositions and which are adverbs.

1. The cat was frightened. It leapt through the window.


2. Trying to make up for the time lost, he ran up the two flights of stairs and stormed into
his room to put on fresh clothes.
3. There was plenty of room, but there were too many of them. They couldn't put up their
cousins Flo and Ted.
4. He stripped off his clothes in a hurry, scattering them about and messing up his room.
5. If she went out with John after turning down an invitation from Paul, he'd look on it as
an insult.
6. Slipping on his best shirt, he rushed to the door, slipped on his dirty shirt and lost his
balance.
7. Ive worked out the sum three times, and I can't find out where I made a mistake.
8. He knocked himself out as his head bumped against the bedpost.
9. Some big companies were ready to take over their firm.
10. As night closed in, he came to and looked around the room carefully.
11. We can't completely rule out the possibility.
12. As it was obvious that a big storm was brewing up, the shepherd crowded his sheep
into the old barn.

26
III. Move the particle(s) where possible.

1. I don't want to break up the party.


2. We must hurry to make up for lost time.
3. Why don't you take off your coat?
4. We must find out the answer somehow.
5. Please send this telegram off urgently.
6. The meeting broke up in disorder.
7. He caught up with the leaders.

A. PHRASAL VERBS

EXERCISES
1. Transitive phrasal verbs
Replace the underlined segments with a phrasal verb from the list below:
put forward, turn on, find out, give up, fill out, hold up, look up, put up, bring about, sort out,
try out, turn off, use up, fill in, give off, set up
1. The increasing use of variant spellings on the internet has been caused by people
typing at speed in chatrooms and on social networking sites.
2. The 2011 census was hailed as a "great success", despite the fact that about one in 20
people had failed to complete forms.
3. One police officer spent 13.5 hours completing forms to follow a burglar who had
three previous convictions.
4. Nobody will ever discover who gave the order - did it go up to President Putin
himself?
5. Between 100 and 150 passengers were evacuated from the train, which was emitting
"a bit of smoke". // Bromine is a reddish-brown liquid that emits a very unpleasant
smell.
6. Fidel Castro stopped smoking his cigars in 1985 for health reasons.
7. The building known as the Cheese Grater has been planned for a decade, but, like
everything else, was delayed by the crash of 2008.
8. He is unable to check the official emigration statistics because his office in Larnaca
lacks a computer.
9. Administration was the last thing we wanted. We had suggested several proposals, but
it wasn't to be and we were stopped from trading.
10. They were accommodated in the best suites in the best hotels and thanked for their
contribution. // Those caught out by the south-east snowfall included a group of 120
German students who were accommodated overnight at Hastings town hall.
11. The government is to establish a scientific panel to review marine park boundaries.

27
12. The financial services sector needs to be put right, with more muscular regulation. //
Difficult issues will have to be solved at next year's climate conference.
13. At this weekend's event the team will be testing one of their new ideas - extending
their range of products into desserts.
14. Extinguish the lights before you leave, please. // Scientists in California have found a
way to "switch off" a gene that makes cancerous cells lethal.
15. Switch the computer on, please.
16. The point of Pancake Day was to finish any leftovers in the house before the Lenten
fast.
2. Intransitive phrasal verbs
Replace the underlined segments with a phrasal verb from the list below:
go away, set out, come across, break down, be over, hold on, slow down, hang on, look up
17. The worst of the crisis seems to be finished.
18. Our van stopped working in France and we had to leave it there. // Trade negotiations
between the US, India, Brazil and the European Union failed today.
19. Paula visited to see us last week-end.
20. We often hope that if we ignore them long enough, our financial problems might
disappear.
21. Customers are very rarely rude, though we once asked someone to wait while we
finished setting up the stall, and they went off in a huff.
22. Many programs, including Firefox, ask you to wait while they refresh, and then
demand to be restarted.
23. While sales had slowed a little in the summer, things are now improving with the
return of students to university.
24. The riders started their journey at five o'clock.
25. The UK economy is in decline.

3. Phrasal-prepositional verbs
Replace the underlined segments with a phrasal verb from the list below:
look out for/watch out for, come/go down with, put up with,run out of, look forward to, fit in
with
26. We have had a few players and staff who have caught the flu.
27. The Open University's staff now maintain key parts of the Moodle software, which
enables them to directly influence the direction of Moodle's development to match
their needs.
28. A nation that fails to invest in new technology on a continuing basis can expect long-
term economic decline. //Plenty of people were expecting an on- stage appearance by
Twitter chief executive Evan Williams.
29. Shopkeepers should be warned against fraudulent cheques.

28
30. "We are going to have to tolerate a bit of Germanophobia," wrote Jakob Augstein in
Der Spiegel.
31. Apple's critics say the once wildly inventive company has no ideas left.

4. Translate, using phrasal verbs


1. II a laiss tomber ses tudes lanne dernire.
2. Mlanie a dcouvert que Paul la trompait.
3. Pourriez-vous teindre la radio sil vous plat ?
4. Attendez ! Je vais vous prter un parapluie.
5. Remplissez ce formulaire de candidature.
6. Loffre dApple ne correspond pas du tout aux besoins de notre entreprise.
7. Pouvez-vous me loger pour la nuit ?
8. Les passants ralentirent pour regarder laccident.
9. Un problme de taille a t soulev lors de la dernire runion.
10. Mes anciens voisins nous ont rendu visite jeudi dernier.
11. J'attends Nol avec impatience.
12. Son discours a entrain un changement de lopinion publique
13. La bouilloire laissa schapper de la vapeur.
14. Mon frre ne trie jamais ses chaussettes.
15. Je ne tolrerai pas un tel comportement.

B. PREPOSITIONAL VERBS

EXERCISES
I. Fill in the blanks with a preposition
1. I entirely agree ... you ... this point.
2. He apologised ... her ... losing his temper.
3. I dont like to borrow money ... my friends.
4. I don't care ... your problems!
5. He congratulated her ... her successes.
6. I can't tell you now. It depends ... the weather.
7. He really lacks ... tact.
8. I'm not interested ... politics.
9. Her father insisted ... paying.
10. She was red ... anger.
11. How many people participated ... the conference?
12. Who is responsible ... all this trouble?
13. Peter wants the lecture to start exactly ... time.

II. Fill in the blanks with verbs from the list below, and add the right preposition.
appeal, refer, rely, belong, hope, insist, qualify, result, suffer, sympathise, pay
1. All last winter he ...... coughs and colds.
2. The accident on the A1 ...... the death of a child.
3. The police are ...... witnesses to come forward.
4. The poor driver - I really ...... him, it wasn't his fault.

29
5. It wasn't his car. In fact I don't know who it ......
6. The buses are often late, so you can't ...... them.
7. We are still ...... improvements in the bus service.
8. Nurses are very badly paid. I think they should ...... higher rates of pay.
9. Do you ...... a state pension when you're 65?
10. Keep enough money to ...... your ticket.
11. He didn't understand all the words, so he . a dictionary.

III. Fill in the blanks with verbs from the list below, and add a preposition if necessary.
Listen, meet, upset, fit, trust, feed, ask, pay, undress, obey, rely, remind, explain, announce,
account, attend, congratulate, steal, shave, resist.
1. They didn't understand anything so he ..... the whole thing ..... them again.
2. Before going to bed, Mary always ..... in the bathroom.
3. They ..... ..... Beethoven's 6th symphony.
4. He is extremely touchy, she didn't say no to him as she didn't want to ..... him.
5. This is not your size, this dress doesn't ..... you at all.
6. When Jack is on holiday, he never ....., but that doesn't mean he wants to grow a beard!
7. Don't answer back like that and simply ..... your mother!
8. I ..... him because he is extremely competent.
9. He never ..... meetings, he always has something else to do.
10. He's so charming, you just can't ..... him.
11. Dracula ..... ..... blood.
12. He invited me to California and ..... ..... everything, I didn't need to spend a penny!
13. He didn't know what to say and couldn't ..... ..... the disappearance of the money.
14. I had no idea who he was so I ..... ..... his name.
15. You can ..... ..... him , he is trustworthy.
16. This stout lady .....me ..... your mother. How is she?
17. I can't find my purse! Someone must have ..... it ..... me last night at the concert.
18. They ..... last year in Spain.
19. He finally ..... ..... them he would resign at the press conference.
20. Everyone was happy for him and we all ... him ... this success.

IV. Translate
1. Marjorie a admis avoir trich aux examens.
2. Vous pouvez choisir parmi des centaines de parfums.
3. Le budget de lentreprise slve deux millions de dollars.
4. Le FBI na pas rpondu aux questions des journalistes.
5. Il a accus son voisin de lavoir insult.
6. Il sest dj excus auprs de Jane vendredi dernier.
7. Nous avons assit cette runion parce que nous navions pas le choix.
8. Les ministres se sont affronts sur des questions concernant le budget.
9. Tout le monde a approuv cette dcision.
10. Mon frre a emprunt trop dargent la banque et il ne peut plus payer.
11. Ils m'ont demand de commenter un passage de la Bible.
12. Comment peut-on expliquer cette dcision ?
13. Vous devriez faire une demande de passeport avant la fin du mois.
14. Puis il prit son arbalte et visa la pomme.
15. Ces livres appartiennent mon arrire-grand-pre.
16. Je suis tomb sur mon ancien professeur en sortant le chien.

30
17. Lenfant sapprocha du train mais il ne vit pas son pre.
18. Luniversit vient de nommer trois nouveaux professeurs danglais.
19. Ils ont fini par accepter de partir plus tt.
20. Des cambrioleurs se sont introduits dans le garage la nuit dernire.
21. La vieille dame a t reconnue coupable de 7 meurtres.

I. List of prepositional verbs in context

1. The company had lost well over a million dollars and no one could account for the loss.
2. She accused him of failing to represent the interests of a young boy whose father was
killed in a car accident.
3. The man addressed me in English as if he knew me, "Nice day today, isn't it?
4. He admitted to stealing five classified security documents from the National Archives.
5. I agree with you about the need for education (I et You partagent la mme opinion).
6. They agreed on a date (decision commune).
7. They finally agreed to your proposal. (le sujet accepte de faire ce quon lui demande)
8. The strategy aims at reducing poverty and promoting equitable growth.
9. The Agencys budget simply did not allow for such a massive increase.
10. Iran and Japan trade volume amounts to US $9.8 billion.
11. The manager answered him that he already has found another job as Quality Manager
close to his new home.
12. They apologised to him for the inconvenience and assured him that it would not happen
in future.
13. On the other hand the idea appealed to me.
14. John applied for a loan from a bank, but was turned down.
15. It made sense to appoint a banker to this job.
16. He slowly approached the front door.
17. The committee approved the appointment of two associate editors proposed by the
editor-in- chief.
18. An overwhelming majority of Latino American Catholics approve of the selection of
Pope Francis.
19. He was arguing with his ministers about foreign policy.
20. It may be impossible to arrive at a satisfactory solution through mediation.
21. He asked the bank for a 1200 overdraft to build a factory in his hometown.
22. His benefit was withdrawn after he failed to attend a job interview.
23. UNICEF sent supplies to attend to the population's basic needs.

31
24. The copyright to all contents on this Website (documents, figures, images and photos)
belongs to the Company.
25. The board was very disappointed and blamed the manager for this problem.
26. The houses will boast the latest energy-saving technology.
27. He had borrowed a lot of money from the bank and bought an expensive boat.
28. The burglars tried to break into the house.
29. Two soldiers were charged with negligent homicide in the death of a detainee in June
2003.
30. The telephone company charged customers 15 cents/minute for all long- distance calls.
31. Choose from hundreds of virtual hairstyles and get a new hairstyle.
32. Terry came across the treasure using a simple metal detector.
33. Fever may be a sign of flu coming on.
34. He doesn't look European but I can't tell where he comes from.
35. Scotland Yard refused to comment on a report by Sky News that several people had been
arrested.

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VIII. MODALS AND MODALITY
I. What is modality ?

Observe the following examples. They all have the same subject (John) and the same
predicate (live in Boston) :
(1) John lives in Boston.
(2) John might live in Boston.
(3) Perhaps John lives in Boston.

In (1) the speaker only presents the predicative relation (PR) as validated, and does not
comment on it. On the contrary, in (2) and (3), the predicative relation is not validated, and
the speakers role is to give his opinion as to the validation of the PR. In other words, (2) and
(3) are modal utterances because they contain a modal adverb (perhaps in (2)) or a modal
auxiliary (may in (3)), and consequently the speaker expresses a judgement/opinion about
the predicative relation.

II. Types of modality


Compare the following examples :
(4) John must go to bed at once.
(5) John must be in bed now.

In (4) the speaker exerts pressure on the subject (John) in order to validate the predicative
relation (John /go to bed). This is an example of root modality. Root modality is always
oriented towards the subject. Here are other examples :

(6) You may leave if you want.


(7) John can speak Spanish and French.
(8) You shall marry him, whether you love him or not.

In (5) the speaker does not exert any pressure on the the subject, but says it is probable that
the predicative relation will be validated. This is an example of epistemic modality. In this
type of modality the speaker asserts the chances of validation of the predicative relation. Here
are other examples :
(9) John has not turned up ; he may be ill.
(10) John should have arrived by now.
(11) John will come with us tomorrow.
Summary :

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Epistemic modality :
Here are examples of epistemic modals, from the most probable to the least probable :
This will be Jenny.
This must be Jenny.
This should be Jenny.
This may be Jenny.
This might/could be Jenny.
This shouldnt be Jenny.
This cant be Jenny.
This couldnt be Jenny.

Root modality :
Here are examples of root modals, from the greatest pressure exerted to the slightest pressure :
You shall marry him/her.
You must marry him/her.
You should marry him/her.
You may/can marry him/her.

III. Modals
1. Can, could (  YULE pp. 34-37)

Can and cant

We use can to say that something is possible (1)


that someone has an ability (2)
to ask for / grant permission (3) / (4)

(1) I can go to the music room in my college and play the piano whenever I want to.
(2) My mother can play the guitar.
(3) Can I go to the cinema with David tomorrow ?
(4) You can wait in my office if you like.

The negative is cant or cannot :


(5) I cant speak Chinese.
(6) I cannot believe youre getting married.

Could and couldnt

We use could to express ability (7) or opportunity (8) in the past.


(7) Natasha could play the piano when she was four.
(8) When we had a car, we could travel very easily.

Occasional characteristics

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Can and could are sometimes translated by pouvoir or il arrive de, as in the following
examples:
(9) John can be nasty.
Il arrive John dtre mchant / John peut (parfois) tre mchant
(10) England can be sunny.
Il arrive quil fasse soleil en Angleterre.
(11) John could be nasty when he was young.
Il arrivait John dtre mchant quand il tait jeune.

Be able to

Be able to also expresses ability and opportunity, often in the past, as in (12) and (13).

(12) Natasha could / was able to swim when she was quite young.
(13) When we had a car, we could/were able to travel very easily.

To say that the ability or opportunity resulted in a particular action, we use was/were able to
instead of could, but in negative sentences (16) and questions (17), we can use either forms.

(14)The plane was able to take off at eleven oclock, after the fog had lifted
* The plane could take off at eleven oclock..

(15)The drivers were able to stop before they crashed into each other.
* The drivers could stop before they crashed into each other.

(16) It was foggy, so the plane couldnt / wasnt able to take off

(17) The drivers couldnt / werent able to stop and crashed into each other.

In the present tense, be able to is a little more formal and less usual than can (18).
(18) I can / I am able to speak Chinese

2. May, might (  YULE pp. 35-37)


We use may to ask for/grant permission (19) (20), express probability (21), and might to
express a weakened probability (22):
(19) May I borrow your car?
(20) The generally accepted practice is that, if a professor is 15 minutes late, you may
leave
(21) It may rain tomorrow. (il se peut quil pleuve)
(22) It might rain tomorrow. (il se pourrait quil pleuve)

To refer to a past event, we have to add HAVE + EN in the sequence:


(23) He may have bought this car.
(Il se peut quil ait achet cette voiture)

(24) He might have bought this car.

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(Il se pourrait quil ait achet cette voiture) = il la peut-tre achete
(Il aurait pu acheter cette voiture) = il ne la pas achete

a. Concession
In a concessive sentence the speaker starts by saying that he agrees with the addressee, and
then, in the second part of the sentence, says something that is in contradiction with the first
part.
(25) He may be ugly, stupid and mean but I love him
(Il est peut-tre laid, bte et mchant, mais je laime. / Daccord, (je vous le concde),
il est laid / Il a beau tre laid)
In order to make a concession in the past, we will use HAVE + EN.
(26) He may have done silly things, but he was trying to help.
Here are more concessive expressions with which may can be used, or has to be used:
(27) Whatever you (may) do, (Quoi que vous fassiez / puissiez faire, )
(28) Strange as it may seem, (Aussi trange que cela puisse paratre, )
(29) Clever though he may be, (Quelque intelligent quil soit, )

b. Making Suggestion(s)
In this case, might is almost always used:
(30) You might write to the manager.
(31) You might have written to the manager.

Note that might as well means faute de mieux:


(32) All the pubs are closed; we might as well go home, and have a cup of coffee.

c. Expressing wish
This use of may is rather rare nowadays, but you may come across such expressions as:
(33) May you be happy.
Soyez heureux / puissiez-vous tre heureux.

(34) May God be with you!


Que Dieu soit avec vous / vous protge.

3. Must (+have to) (  YULE pp. 38-40)


We use must to express that something is necessary:

(35) You must do your homework (Im warning you)


(36) You must hurry up, Vicky. We dont want to be late.

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(37) I must put the heating on, I feel really cold.

In examples (35) to (37), the speaker feels that something is necessary and expresses it using
must to put pressure on the subject (root modality).
Sometimes, it is the situation which makes something necessary. In this case, well use have
to, as in:

(38) Mark has to get the car repaired. There is something wrong with the brakes.
(39) Daniel has to go to the bank. He hasnt got any money.
(40) Andrew has to go to the hospital. Hes broken his leg.

Both must and have to express necessity, but we use them differently.

Wish

Must and have to can also express a wish, as in:

(41) I must buy a newspaper. I want to see the results.


(42) We have to invite Trevor and Laura. They are wonderful company!

EXERCISE

Must or have to?

1. I to the airport, Im meeting someone.


2. You...........make less noise. Im trying to concentrate.
3. I work late at the office tomorrow. Were really late at the office.
4. The police got my car away. Ive got it back now, but I pay a lot of money.
5. My brother starts work at 5 oclock. He get up at 4 every morning.

4. Will and would (  YULE pp. 24, 32, 33)

a. Future and instant decisions


We use will to talk about facts in the future; will does not express an intention or that we are
planning something (see be going to):
(1) My sister will arrive tomorrow.
(2) Ill be twenty next week.
We also use will for instant decisions (3), and to order things in a restaurant for example (4):
(3) Im thirsty. I think Ill make some tea.
(4) Ill have the salad, please.

a. Request
We use will in invitations and requests:

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(5) Will you open the window for me, darling?
(6) Would you open the window for me, darling?

Note that (6) appears as more polite than (5), simply because would is weaker than will.

b. Will in subordinate clauses (  YULE pp. 185-188, 190)


It is important to learn the correspondences between the subordinate clause and the main
clause:
(7) If you spend some time in England, you will improve your English.
(8) If you spent some time in England, you would improve your English.
(9) If you had spent some time in England, you would have improved your English.

In some cases we have a different correspondence:


(10) If you had spent some time in England, you would speak better English now.
We sometimes hear or read that will cannot be used after when. That is not true. Will can very
well be used in interrogative clauses (questions indirectes):
(11) I wonder when I will see him.
Je me demande quand (est-ce que) je le verrai.

However, will (or would) cannot be used in time clauses:


(12) I will tell him when I see him.
* I shall thell him when I will see him

(13) I will phone the bank as soon as I get the money.


*I Will phone the bank as soon as I will get the money.

Note and learn the four possibilities we have in time clauses:


(14) I will call you when I see him.
Je tappellerai quand je le verrai.

(15) I said I would call you when I saw him.


Jai dit que je tappellerais quand je le verrais.

(16) I will call you when I have seen him.


Je tappellerai quand je laurai vu.

(17) I said I would call you when I had seen him.


Jai dit que je tappellerais quand je laurais vu.

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c. Will vs. Be going to (  YULE pp. 24, 32)

We use will to give or ask information about the future (1) (2), and also to predict the future
to say what we think, guess or calculate will happen (3) (4) :
(1) It will be spring soon.
(2) One day, we will travel to Mars.
(3) Who do you think will win?
(4) Youll never finish that book.
Be going to is common when we predict the future by using present evidencewhen we can
see that a future event is on the way, or starting to happen:
(5) Look ! Its going to rain.
(6) Look out ! Were going to crash !
We also use be going to when we talk about plans, decisions, and intentions:
(7) Were going to get a new car soon.
(8) When are you going to get your hair cut ?

5. Shall (  YULE pp. 24, 32)

Future
Although it is rather rarely used with this meaning, shall can express the future, especially in
Great Britain:
(1) I must get out of here or I shall say other things.
(2) I shall not dwell on the comments made by the Leader of the Opposition.

6. Should / ought to (  YULE p. 41)


We use should and ought to for advice, to say what is the right or the best thing to do.

(3)Youre not very well, Perhaps you should see a doctor.


(4)Your uncle was very kind to me. I ought to write him a letter of thanks.

We can also use it to translate the French conditional (5) and (6), in polemical questions (7) or
to present something as highly hypothetical (8) :
(5) If I had a car, I should take you there. (more naturally : I would take you there)
(6) I should tell her the truth. (= If I were you, I would)
(7) Why should I do the washing up ?
(8) If you should / Should you see her, tell her I miss her. (Si par hasard tu la vois,)

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IV. Verbs and expressions with modal characteristics

1. Be to
Be (to) can only be used in the present simple or the past simple. Also, even though it can
have various meanings, it is very regularly translated by devoir in French.
(1) He is to arrive at 6.
When used in the past, we do not know whether the event took place or not (1). If we use
HAVE + EN, we clearly mean that it didnt take place (2):
(2) He was to arrive at 6. (=> he may or may not have arrived at 6)
(3) He was to have arrived at 6. (=> he did not arrive at 6)
We also use be (to) in the past tense, and do as if we were making a prediction, when we are
talking about a past event:
(4) He was to die two years ago.
(5) He was nowhere to be found.
We use be (to) to translate the French future tense when we narrate someones life. In
English, we cannot use the present tense. So we use the past simple, and the concluding
sentence can either be in the past simple also, or with be (to) (6). In French, we can use the
present tense in this case, and conclude with the future (6):
(6) He was born in 1920. He studied at Rummidge and became famous in 1956, when his
first novel was published. In 1977, he had a heart attack. He died two years later / He
was to die two years later.
Il naquit en 1920. Il fit ses tudes Rummidge et devint clbre en 1956, quand son
premier roman fut publi. En 1977, il eut une crise cardiaque. Il devait mourir deux
ans plus tard.
(6) Il nat en 1920. Il fait ses tudes Rummidge et devient clbre en 1956, quand
son premier roman est publi. En 1977, il a une crise cardiaque. Il mourra deux ans
plus tard.
Here is another occurrence of be (to) expressing an inevitable event, in a hypothetical clause:
(7) If he were to die, (sil devait mourir,)

2. Would rather

2.1. Referring to the present or the future


a) One subject
In this case would rather is followed by a bare infinitive:
(1) Id rather play tennis. (Je prfrerais jouer au tennis)
b) Two different subjects
The second subject is followed by the past tense:
(2) Id rather you played tennis. (Je prfrerais que tu joues/vous jouiez au tennis)

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2.2. Referring to the past (regret)
Here again, we use HAVE + EN, combined either with a bare infinitive (one subject) or with
the past tense (two different subjects past tense + HAVE + EN => past perfect)
a) One subject
(3) Id rather have played tennis. (Jaurais prfr jouer au tennis)

b) Two different subjects


(4) Id rather you had played tennis. (Jaurais prfr que tu joues/vous jouiez au tennis)

Present or future Past

One subject Id rather play tennis Id rather have played tennis

Two subjects Id rather you played tennis Id rather you had played tennis

Note that we can also use Id sooner or Id (just) as soon with the same construction.

EXERCISE
Rephrase the following sentences, using would rather.
Ex : Id prefer you to stay where you are => Id rather you stayed where you are.
1. Theyd prefer us not to come.
2. We would have preferred them to keep their mouths shut.
3. Id prefer you not to wait for me.
4. Shed prefer him not to call her Gladys.
5. Id have preferred you not to mention the incident.
6. Hed prefer us to leave very early.
7. Wouldnt you prefer us not to wake you up ?
8. Id prefer you to stop treating me like a child.
9. They would prefer me to come by car.
10. Wed prefer you not to have brought him a present.

3. Had better (  YULE p. 41)


Had better is only constructed with a bare infinitive and can only refer to the present or the
future (not to the past):
(1) Youd better stay with us.

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Vous feriez mieux de rester avec nous
Consequently, we cannot translate (2) by (2) :
(2) Vous auriez mieux fait de rester avec nous.
(2)*Youd better have stayed with us.
The only acceptable translations of (2) are (3) and (4):
(3) You should have stayed with us.
(4) You would have done better to stay with us.
Note that example (4) illustrates the use of the expression : to do better to do something, to
be distinguished from had better do something.

EXERCISE

Complete the following sentences using had better :

1. The plane is at six oclock. You (start) packing.

2. Tell Mary she (not forget) .my birthday this time !

3. I (do) ...some washing, or we wont have anything to wear.

4. You (not tell) ...Jane whats happening ; shell get upset.

5. You (not say) ...that again.

4. Likely (probability)
The adjective likely allows two constructions:
(1) It is likely that John will win. (Il est vraisemblable que John gagnera / John a de
bonnes chances de gagner)
(2) John is likely to win. (id)
Note that the subject can be there, as in:
(3) There is likely to be a fight. (It is likely that there will be a fight)

5. Sure/certain
The adjectives sure and certain have the same characteristics as likely. Consequently, (1) and
(2) are synonymous:
(1) It is sure that Jenny will win
(2) Jenny is sure to win
Jenny va gagner, cest sr / il est certain que Jenny va gagner.

Examples (1) and (2) both express the speakers belief. To convey the subjects belief, we
must use a different construction, with that (3):
(3) Jenny is sure that she will win. (Jenny est sre de gagner)

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6. Bound
Contrary to the above-mentioned adjective, bound has only one constuction:
(1) John was bound to fail. (Il tait fatal que John choue)

7. Happen
The verb happen indicates that an event or a state is fortuitous, accidental. Like likely, sure
and certain it has two synonymous constructions:
(1) It so happens that I play the piano. (Il se trouve que je joue du piano)
(2) I happen to play the piano. (id)
(3) There happened to be a policeman in the bank. (Le hasard a voulu quil y ait un
policier dans la banque)

I happen to does not mean il marrive de


If you need to translate il marrive de , just use sometimes:
(4) Il marrive de jouer du piano => I sometimes play the piano.
8. Wish
We can use wish to express regret, on condition that we respect two rules:
a) We always use a past tense after wish (a past simple or a past progressive to refer to
the present, or a past perfect to refer to the past.)

b) When there is a negation in French with regretter (or in English with the verb
regret) there is no negation with wish in English, and vice versa.

(1) Je regrette que tu ne sois pas l.


(1) I wish you were here.
(1) I regret that you are not here.
(2) Je regrette que tu ne partes pas avec nous.
(2) I wish you were going with us.
(2) I regret that you are not going with us.

(3) Il regrette que tu aies dit cela.


(3) He wishes you had not said that.
(3) He regrets that you said that.
Note that wish can also be used with the modals can and will (in the past, of course):
(4) I wish you could go with us.
(5) I wish you would go with us.
Finally, note that the past tense can also be used to refer to the present (or even the future)
after other verbs or expressions than wish, such as:

43
(6) It is time we left.
(7) If only I had a car!
(8) If I won the match tomorrow I would be the happiest person on earth.
(9) Suppose you had a plane.
In this case the normal form of be is always were, whatever the person. But in less formal
English, we can also find was :
(10) If I were [was] you I would turn down the offer.
(11) He spoke to me as if he were [was] my father.

EXERCISES
I. Rephrase the following sentences, using I wish.
Ex : Why did they come ? => I wish they hadnt come.
11. Why have they given up ?
12. Why is she so difficult ?
13. Why didnt you ask them to come ?
14. Why am I not paid the same thing ?
15. Why do I have to waste so much time ?
16. Why cant they come ?
17. Why wont you eat your soup ?
18. Why hasnt he been consulted ?
19. Why were we left on our own ?
20. Why mustnt I open this door ?

II. Same exercise with Id rather.

III. For each utterances below, give two sentences, one beginning with if only and
one beginning with I wish (  YULE pp. 188, 190)
Ex. I am not in England. => If only I were in England. / I wish I were in England.
1. I didnt know him when he was in Paris.
2. I am so busy today.
3. They wont tell us the truth.
4. I have such bad teeth.
5. They cant help us.
6. Its a pity that its so cold there.
7. Its a shame that I dont know where they are.

44
8. Its a pity ther was so few people.
9. I regret selling my car.
10. Its a pity that he made that silly remark.

IV. Translate the following sentences using wish or would rather :

1. Jaimerais que ce soit fini.


2. Nous regrettons que vous ne soyez pas venus hier.
3. Je voudrais que vous me disiez la vrit.
4. Je regrette quelle ait mal compris ma lettre.
5. Nous prfrerions que vous veniez en juillet.
6. Il regrette de navoir pas pu venir avec vous.
7. Je vais leur dire que vous savez jouer du piano. Je prfrerais que vous vous absteniez.
8. Je regrette de navoir pas apport mes lunettes de soleil.
9. Je regrette quelle ne puisse pas vous entendre.
10. Jaimerais croire ce quil dit, mais cest videmment un mensonge.
11. Je prfrerais que tu fasses ton travail dabord.
12. Je regrette davoir brl ces papiers.
13. Il regrette de vous avoir fait confiance.
14. Nous prfrerions quils namnent pas leurs enfants.
15. Nous regrettions davoir promis dassister sa confrence.
16. Nous regrettions quil ait oubli de nous prvenir.
17. Jaimerais quil mapprenne lallemand.
18. Il regrette de ne pas avoir de fils.

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IX. EXPRESSIONS

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