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Novatex Limited

INTERNSHIP REPORT

SYED ANAS | Polycon | June 16, 2016


INDEX

S.NO. CONTENTS PAGE NO.

1 INTRODUCTION 2

2 GROUP PRODUCTS 6

3 HSE (HEALTH AND SAFETY ENVIRONMENT ) 7

4 RAW MATERIALS 10

5 PROCESS 13

6 POWER HOUSE 1 27

7 POWER HOUSE 2 29

8 E&I (ELECTRICAL AND INSTRUMENTATION) 30

9 QUALITY 32

10 MECHANICAL 43

11 UTILITIES 45

12 HAT TIP 52

PAGE 1
INTERNEE INTRODUCTION

SYED ANAS BIN ASHAB


(2nd Chemical Engineering from NED University of Engineering &
Technology)
Contact# +92-345-3535953

PAGE 2
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The report is specially meant for the students of NED University of Engineering & Technology. It is
concerned to a brief study of operations, process, functions, tasks and services of Novatex Limited.

Production play very important role in the commerce and economic development of a country. Now-
a days Plastic are widely using in this modern world and Novatex is the largest PET Resin production
company in Pakistan, thats why I decided to do my internship training in the Novatex Limited.

In preparation of this report I have tried my best to provide all possible information about the
operations, process, functions, tasks and the corporate information of Novatex Limited in brief and
comprehensive form.

Then internship report ends with some recommendation after identification of problems that I
observed during the course of my internship training.

PAGE 3
INTRODUCTION

OBJECTIVE OF INTERNSHIP

Two cogent reasons / purposes of the study are following.

General Purpose / Objective

To get acquaintance to the industry.


To see the application of our Professional studies especially.

Specific Purpose / Objective

Specific purpose of the study includes.

A partial fulfillment as a requirement for getting experience.


To objectively observe the operations and process of PET Resin.
To get an experience in Petrochemical Industry as an internee.

PAGE 4
OVERVIEW OF NOVATEX LIMTED

HISTORY AND BACKGROUND

Novatex Limited is a part of G & T group, which is in business since 1955. It


covers an area of 66 acres. It is the only pet resin bottle grade manufacturer of Pakistan
with a brand name Gatronova.

The group is in polymer production since 1988 and in pet resin since 1997. The
total pet resin production capacity is 125000 metric ton per year out of which over 80 %
is exported to more than 45 countries of the world mainly western Europe countries. It is
certified to meet FDA and EEC standards. Pet preforms are also made in Novatex Ltd,
with a capacity of producing 1.5 billion preforms per year. More than 50% preforms
manufactured are exported to foreign countries.

Textile and film grade polyester chips are also manufactured in Novatex Ltd,
which are used for both domestic and export purpose.

The company is ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 certified.

Novatex plant consist of 2 Poly condensation units namely POLY 1 and POLY 2
whose capacities are 300 ton per day and 600 ton per day respectively, 3 S.S.P units, 2
Power houses, quality lab, moulding, utilities and an independent firefighting unit.

HISTORY BY YEARS (1996-2016)

1996 (Poly-1)

2001 (SSP-1)

2006-2008 (SSP-2, Poly-2, Moulding)


2016 (SSP-3)

PAGE 5
GROUP PRODUCTS

PET Resin Bottle Grade

PET Preforms for Bottles

PET Bottles

Polyester Chips Textile Grade

Polyester Filament Yarn

Warp Knit & Rachel Fabrics

Curtains

Ready-Made Garments

Scarves

Bed Linen

Home Textiles

Circular & Flat Knit Fabrics

PAGE 6
HSE (HEALTH AND SAFETY ENVIRONMENT)
SAFETY CONCEPTS
HEALTH AND SAFETY
HAZARD
RISK
CONTROL MEASURE
ACCIDENTS
INCIDENTS
NEAR MISS
UNSAFE ACT
UNSAFE CONDITIONS
LOCKOUT/TAGOUT

TRIANGLE OF FIRE:
There are three things need for fire.
1. Heat
2. Air
3. Fuel

PRINCIPLES OF FIRE:
STARVATION:
When we remove fuel from the fire then this is known as
starvation.

SMOOTHERING:
When we remove air from the fire then this is known as smothering.

COOLING:
When we remove heat from the fire then this is known as cooling.

CLASS OF FIRE:
There are four classes of fire.

PAGE 7
A class fire:

Fire of the wood.


Water is use to remove this fire.

B class fire:

Fire of the liquids, liquids like oil, paints etc.


Foams is use to remove this fire.

C class fire:

Energized electrical appliances.

CO2 is use to remove this fire.

D class fire:

Fire of the metals.


Dry chemicals is use to remove this fire.

Water is not use for metal fire because metals have very high temperature
about 1000 C and water boils at 100 C so when water boils hydrogen and
oxygen produce and oxygen increases the fire.

PASS TECHNIQUE:
Pass technique is use to remove the fire.
P: pull the pin
A: aim the nozzle
S: squeeze the level
S: sweep side by side

In fire extinguisher if needle on the red it means it cannot use but if


the needle is on yellow or green then it can be used.
CO2 extinguisher has a big discharge nozzle and has not any meter.
16 is the telephone number for fire brigade.

PAGE 8
Q: What should we do in case of fire?

1. Raise the fire alarm and shout fire, fire , fire


2. Telephone (16) for fire brigade.
3. Fire extinguisher/ fire hydrant.
4. Went to assembly point after watching the scenario.

PAGE 9
RAW MATERIALS

TEREPHTALIC ACID:

Terephthalic acid is the organic compound with formula C6H4(COOH)2. This


colorless solid is a commodity chemical, used principally as a precursor to the polyester
PET, used to make clothing and plastic bottles. Several billion kilograms are produced
annually. It is one of three isomeric phthalic acids.

Terephthalic acid is poorly soluble in water and alcohols.

Terephthalic acid is produced by oxidation of p-xylene by oxygen in air:

The oxidation is conducted using acetic acid as solvent and a catalyst composed
of cobalt and manganese salts, using a bromide promoter. The yield is nearly quantitative.
The most problematic impurity is 4-formylbenzoic acid, which is removed by
hydrogenation of a hot aqueous solution. The solution is then cooled in a stepwise
manner to crystallize highly pure terephthalic acid.

Virtually the entire world's supply of terephthalic acid and dimethyl terephthalate
are consumed as precursors to polyethylene terephthalate

ETHYLENE GLYCOL:

Ethylene glycol (IUPAC name: ethane-1, 2-diol) is an organic compound widely


used as an automotive antifreeze and a precursor to polymers. In its pure form, it is an
odorless, colorless, syrupy, sweet-tasting liquid. Ethylene glycol is toxic, and ingestion
can result in death.

Ethylene glycol is not to be confused with diethylene glycol, a heavier ether diol,
or with polyethylene glycol, a nontoxic polyether polymer

PAGE 10
Ethylene glycol is produced from ethylene (ethene), via the intermediate ethylene
oxide. Ethylene oxide reacts with water to produce ethylene glycol according to the
chemical equation-

C2H4O + H2O HOCH2CH2OH

In the plastics industry, ethylene glycol is important precursor to polyester fibers


and resins. Polyethylene terephthalate, used to make plastic bottles for soft drinks, is
prepared from ethylene glycol.

ANTIMONY TRIACTETATE:

Antimony (III) acetate is a metal complex compound. It has the appearance of a


white powder and is used as a catalyst in the production of synthetic fibers. It can be
prepared by the reaction of Antimony (III) oxide with acetic acid:

Sb2O3 + 6 HC2H3O2 2 Sb(C2H3O2)3 + 3 H2O

TITANIUM DIOXIDE (CATALYST):

Titanium dioxide, also known as Titanium (IV) oxide or Titania, is the naturally
occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula TiO2. When used as a pigment, it is called
titanium white, Pigment White 6

Titanium dioxide is the most widely used white pigment because of its brightness
and very high refractive index (n = 2.7), in which it is surpassed only by a few other
materials. Approximately 4 million tons of pigmentary TiO2 are consumed annually
worldwide. When deposited as a thin film, its refractive index and color make it an
excellent reflective optical coating for dielectric mirrors and some gemstones like "mystic
fire topaz". TiO2 is also an effective opacifier in powder form, where it is employed as a
pigment to provide whiteness and opacity to products such as paints, coatings, plastics,
papers, inks, foods, medicines (i.e. pills and tablets) as well as most toothpastes. In paint,
it is often referred to offhandedly as "the perfect white", "the whitest white", or other
similar terms. Opacity is improved by optimal sizing of the titanium dioxide particles.

COBALT ACETATE (RED TONER):

Cobalt (II) acetate is the cobalt (II) salt of acetic acid. It may also be found as the
tetra hydrate.

It may be formed by the reaction between cobalt oxide or hydroxide and acetic
acid

CoO + 2 HC2H3O2 Co(C2H3O2)2 + H2O

PAGE 11
DOWTHERM:

A heat transfer fluid is a eutectic mixture of two very stable


Compounds, biphenyl (C12H10) and diphenyl oxide (C12H10O). These compounds have
practically the same vapor pressures, so the mixture can be handled as if it were a single
Compound. DOWTHERM A fluid may be used in systems employing either liquid phase
or vapor phase heating.

CO-MONOMERS:

PURE ISOPHTHALIC ACID (PIA):

Isophthalic acid is a colorless crystalline solid. It is used as an intermediate


primarily for unsaturated polyester resins and alkyd and polyester coating resins; other
applications include use in aramid fibers, as a component of co-polyester resins and in
high-temperature polymers. At one time, some producers sold isophthalic
acid/terephthalic acid mixtures, which contain from less than 1% to 30% terephthalic
acid. In recent years, however, the trend has been toward nearly pure isophthalic acid
with a purity of >99.8%. This material is called purified isophthalic acid or PIA.

PIA has three major uses:

PET copolymer, which is used in bottle resins and to a much lesser extent, for
fibers. PIA reduces the crystallinity of PET, which serves to improve clarity and
increase the productivity of bottlemaking manufacture.
Unsaturated polyester resins, where the addition of PIA improves thermal
resistance and mechanical performance, as well as resistance to chemicals and
water.
Polyester/alkyd surface coating resins, where PIA increases resistance to water,
overall durability and weather ability.

DIETHYLENE GLYCOL (DEG):

Diethylene glycol (DEG) is an organic compound with the formula


(HOCH2CH2)2O. It is a colorless, practically odorless, poisonous, viscous, and
hygroscopic liquid with a sweetish taste. It is miscible in water, alcohol, ether, acetone
and ethylene glycol. DEG is a widely used solvent. Diethylene glycol is used in the
manufacture of unsaturated polyester resins, polyurethanes and plasticizers.

PAGE 12
PROCESS
PASTE PREPALATION VESSEL :-(11 TA-01)
The key point of paste preparation process is to ensure definite ratio of EG/PTA &
IPA in 11-TA01 so that it is required to feed PTA,EG,IPA and the catalyst, and the
additives solution in accordance with the set ratio.

PTA and IPA is tipped into the paste preparation vessel in which IPA is 20kg and
PTA is 840kg at the ratio of 0.023, where agitation is done to form a fine paste. Different
additives are also tipped into this except H3PO4, it is fed into the esterification 2 reactor
(13R01). Nitrogen gas is also passed through this vessel so as PTA cant stick with each
other to form lumps. Two pumps use to transfer the paste into 13R01.two sets of paste
pumps 11-P01 are installed. The capacity of each pump should meet the requirement of
the whole load of the line. During normal operations two sets of pumps are in operation
but if there is something wrong with one of them another pump shall take over the whole
load.

ESTERIFICATION 1 :-(12-RO1)
The paste which is formed is pumped to the first reactor. It is basically the
continuous stirred tank reactor having a temperature of 260C.
In this reactor, the two heating material is used to give an appropriate temperature to the
paste or a material present in it. One is the sandotherm present in liquid form in the coils
and the other is the dowtherm present in vapors from in the jacket. Agitation is done in all
the reactors to convert in monomers.

ESTERIFICATION 2 :-(13-R01)
The purpose of this reactor is same as the first reactor that is to increase the
intrinsic viscosity by agitation. The temperature of this reactor 267c.it is also the
continuous stirred tank reactor. The conversion is 96.5%.

COLUMN :-(13C01)
After passing through two reactors the vapors of EG as well as water is then fed
into the column in which the temp of bottom is at about 180c, so water vapors go up in
the column with very small amount of EG .by showering of EG liquid, the vapors of EG

PAGE 13
condensed and go down and water vapors is condensed by off gas sprinkling tower so as
to remove contents of aldehyde.

TOP VAPOR FRACTION TO CONDENSER

REFLUX

FEED

VAPOURS

It is controlled that EG content in water at top of column is less than 0.5 wt. %
and water content in EG in bottom of column is less than 1.5%.

PRE POLY- CONDENSATION 1: (14-R01)


The product is fed into the chamber of 14R01 from 13R01 due to pressure difference.
This is basically the plug flow type reactor at a temperature of 277.5 degree centigrade.
14R01 is in vacuum condition. The purpose of vacuum is to decrease B.P of a mixture so
as to separate vapors of water and E.G immediately and easily. E.G produce in poly
condensation reaction and water produce in esterification reaction are evaporated at a
very high speed so product is mixed completely and it is not necessary to install an
agitator in the reactor. The HTM is used for heating inner coils as well as jacket. The
intrinsic viscosity of 14R01 at the outlet is 0.13.

SCRAPPER CONDENSOR: (14-E01)

Mixed vapor of E.G and water is fed into the scrapper condenser from 14R01 and
contact with spray E.G in opposite direction. The most of E.G and a part of water in
vapor will be condensed. The vapors of E.G and water that coming from 14R01 having

PAGE 14
some amount of oligomers vapors which is then converted into solid after being contact
with spray E.G and then blocked the line that's why we use scrapper condenser that
scraps these solid oligomers.

PRE POLY-CONDENSATION 2: (15-R01)


Material flows from 14-R01 into 15-R01 under pressure difference. 15R01 is
horizontal reactor with disc rings. Material between two discs is mixed completely by the
rotating disc. This is disc ring reactor having the temperature of 282.4 degree centigrade.
15R01 is equivalent to a series of completely mixed reactor in function so that reaction in
the reactor is increased. The intrinsic viscosity at the outlet is ranging from 0.25 to 0.30.
The revolution of a disc is controlled by an inverter.

SCRAPPER CONDENSOR: (15-E01)

The vapors of E.G and water from 15-R01 is condensed by contact with spray
E.G in adverse current. This is same as 14-E01.

FILTER: (16-F01)
The material is then fed into the filter where the dust and impurities separated out
to ensure the purity of the material. The size of 16F01 is 100 micron and has 70 candles.

DISC RING REACTOR: (17-R01)


Final poly condensation reactor 17R01 is a horizontal reactor with disc rotor and
driven by a double shaft. HTM vapors is present in the jacket to melt the polymer that
stick with wall as the material is so viscous as well as to maintain the temperature of the
reactor at 283.5 degree centigrade. The purpose of using disc ring reactor is to mix the
material as we know that the mixture is highly viscous that agitator can't do this
operation.

SCRAPPER CONDENSOR: (17-E01)

The vapors of E.G and water is fed into 17E01 where it is condensed but some
amount of E.G vapors remain uncondensed and it is low velocity vapors therefore a
supersonic velocity vapors of E.G that coming from glycol evaporator take these slow
vapors to the jet through venturi to maintain the pressure.

PAGE 15
E.G VAPOUR JET: (17-J01)

17-J01 is a unit with 4 stage of E.G vapor jet and three condenser. Off gas from
17E01 is sucked by the first jet where it is condensed by showering of spray E.G with
jacketed heating to prevent the formation of oligomers. It is then fed into second and at
last third jet where the remaining vapors are condensed. 17T02 is used to collect the
condensed E.G from the three jets. 17TO3 is used to collect all spent E.G including E.G
condensate by 13C01, 14E01 and 15E01. The remaining uncondensed is then sucked by
the vacuum where it is further condensed and remaining E.G is then vent to the
atmosphere but it is less in amount.

FILTER: (18-F01)
The material from 17R01 is enter into 18F01 where the further impurities is taken
out. 18F01 is the filter with the size of 40 micron and having 74 candles. The material
from 17R01 is highly viscous and due to its smaller micron size as compared to 16F01,
18F01 filter is blocked easily and then sent to the filter cleaning area.

CUTTER
The material from 18F01 is then divided into 2 sections. One goes to three cutters
and other goes to another three cutters by passing through dia head having 78 laces, 39 in
front and 39 at the back. Diehard has 19 sensors that alarm at any dangerous and
unhealthy conditions, in this situation cutter goes at the waste. It uses three types of
water:

1) CONVEYING WATER:
It is used in the cutter to prevent from high temperature.

2) OVER FLOW WATER:


It is used to convey the laces or spaghetti.

3) SPRAY WATER:
It is used to maintain the temperature during conveying.

The cutter consists of 2 parts to ensure efficient cutting:

1) UPPER FEED ROLLER


2) LOWER FEED ROLLER

PAGE 16
DRYER
After cutting, the chips are fed into the dryer where the water content is removed
from them by an air sucked with the help of blower.

VIBRO
Over size and under size chips is separated in this section and then sent to the SSP
plant by the help of conveying air.

EVAPORATOR
The evaporators (12V01, 14V01, 15V01 and 17V01) are used to heat up the
condensate of HTM vapors by using HTM liquid. HTM vapors are responsible for
jacketed heating.

PROCESS SUMMARY
The basic raw materials for the polyester formation are Terepthalic acid and
Ethylene glycol. The reaction that proceeds is known as esterification. The forward
reaction is favored by continuous removal of product. Chain length is increased in
polycondensation units and different grades of product, as measured by its intrinsic
viscosity, are obtained as required by the customers.

Wet and uncrystallized chips at ambient temperature are conveyed from the
storage silos to the surge silo of the unit. This proceeds to gravity feeder unit where
throughput is adjusted.

The chips then enter the pre-crystallizer unit where the fines are heated up.
Circulating nitrogen fluidizes the chips. This nitrogen flows through the heat exchanger
and pre-crystallizer.

Dust is separated from the circulating nitrogen by means of a twin cyclone. The
dedusted chips are fed into the two crystallizers before being fed to the reactor. In the
reactor solid state polycondensation takes place and chain length is increased.

Solid polycondensation involves high temperature treatment of PET chips in


oxygen free environment for sufficiently long enough residence time to permit the
desired conversion.

Removal of reaction products and volatile impurities such as acetaldehyde is


accompanied by diffusion to the chips surface and hence into the carrier gas stream
(nitrogen).

PAGE 17
The reactor is a continuous stirred tank reactor with a heating jacket to avoid heat
losses. Heat transfer medium is Diathermic oil.

Nitrogen enters the reactor and flows through distribution rings and flows counter
current to the chips through the reactor. The gas stream coming from the reactor and first
crystallizer, after a dedusting cyclone, is mixed with nitrogen from the pre-crystallizer.

An equal amount of gas is taken from the mixed stream and sent to purifying
section. Hydrocarbon byproducts are combusted and nitrogen is dried and recycled. From
the nitrogen purification unit a wet stream is taken out and sent to the second crystallizer.

After leaving the tubular reactor the chips are cooled down. Feeding first a cooler
deduster fluidized bed under cold nitrogen and then a static cooler where PET chips are
cooled by means of circulation of cooling water.

The additives are added such as blue and red toner to alter appearance. Intrinsic
viscosity is altered so multiple grade products could be obtained. The chips are then
conveyed, sliced through cutters and finally to product storage silos.

POLYCON AND SOLID STATE


POLYCONDENSATION
DEPARTMENT
PASTE PREPARATION:

For textile grade PTA, MEG, poly condensation catalyst SbAC3 and TiO2 are fed
and for bottle grade DEG, IPA, cobalt acetate (red toner), blue toner (optical brightener)
and TiO2 are fed in the mixing vessel at a definite ratio. The paste is made by agitating
the continuous streams of PTA powder coming from PTA silo and MEG coming from
mother vessel.

ESTERIFICATION:

At this stage the pure terephthalic acid and mono ethylene glycol react to form
Mono/Di ethylene glycol terephthalate (DGT), while water is split. Polycondensation
reaction is also initiated here due to which MEG split off. Thermal stabilizer, phosphoric
acid (H3PO4) for amorphous chips production and TiO2 solution for textile grade
production are also fed 2nd esterification reactor.

PAGE 18
The parameter involved in controlling degree of esterification and
polycondensation are pressure, temperature and residence time.

The water form during esterification and a part of MEG are discharged from the
reactor in the form of vapor and subjected to separation column. The separated water is
discharged at the top of column where it is condensed and further treated in stripping
column. Main amount of water is discharged as waste water and remaining amount is
refluxed to the process column and stripping column.

The process column and reactor internal coils are heated with liquid heat transfer
medium (HTM) from secondary HTM circuits. All vapor lines are heated by HTM vapor
system.

PRE-POLY CONDENSATION:

The poly condensation initiated in the esterification is continued further in the pre
poly condensation and a low molecular weight PET is formed. For this purpose, the
product leaving the esterification is going to an un-agitated pre-condensation reactor and
then to second pre-condensation reactor with agitator, under a step down vacuum and
elevated temperature. The degree of poly condensation is set by maintaining the vacuum,
temperature and residence time at an appropriate level. The EG split off during poly
condensation is removed in the form of vapor, condensed in a spray scrapper condenser
by a cold glycol circulation. The non-condensable are removed by suction through a
vacuum pump system.

The poly condensation-I reactors internal coils are heated with liquid HTM. The
vapor lines are heated by HTM vapor system. Two pre-polymer filters are installed
between pre poly condensation and final poly condensation reactor.

FINAL POLYCONDENSATION:

Low molecular PET is poly condensed further to higher molecular PET in this
poly condensation section. For this purpose, the poly condensed product is directed to
DISC ring reactor (DRR) where the reaction takes place under agitated and increased
vacuum condition at an elevated temperature.

The degree of poly condensation and the viscosity is obtained to the desired final
value by maintaining the vacuum, temperature, and agitator speed and residence time at
an appropriate level. The MEG vapor are removed by suction with the aid of spray
scrapper condenser circuit and MEG vapor jet ejection, condensed with the cold MEG

PAGE 19
and finally sucked by the vacuum pump. The spent MEG is stored in the tank from where
required amount is feed to the EG tank for paste preparation.

The polymer result is fed to the chips production by means of product discharge
pump. The product filter, product line and disc ring reactor are heated by liquid HTM
circuit while jet system by HTM vapor.

CHIPS PRODUCTION:

The hot and highly viscous polymer melt is cooled and cut into chips. The
polymer extruded through die heads and passed in the form of strands (laces) through
strands guide. The polymer strands are cooled down by de-mineralized water and
solidified where upon they pass from chips cutter for cutting into chips granulates. Chips
are then cooled down with water cooling pipe to normal temperature. Water is removed
from the chips by de-watering sieves, which is an integrated part of granulator dryer. The
chips are dried by air supplied by blower. The uncut long polymer laces and small
undersize chips screen out in the over length separator located on the downstream of
dryer. The right size chips passes through the separator to silos or bagging area for bag
filling.

PAGE 20
SSP (SOLID STATE POLYMERISATION):
The amorphous chips coming from poly 2 is then feed into the three
storage silos having capacity of 300m,300m,80m and then it is conveyed by
air to the surge silo from the two silos 2PK2A and 2PK2B ,one is running at
a time and one is on standby.

SURGE SILO (4BE-100)


Automatic control system switch the feeding of chips, high level
condition switches off and low level condition switches on. The chips level
indicator indicates the level of the chips. In surge silo, there is a gravimetric
feeder which is continuously purged by the stream of nitrogen, the pressure
of nitrogen gas is slightly lighter from the loop pressure to allow the chips to
flow.
The surge silo is sized and shaped in such a way that the PET solids
remains inside the silo while the transport air will be vented to the
atmosphere outside the plant.

SHANK UNIT

Electric motor moves the paddle. The system measuring the torque of
wheel versus chips, measure the throughput (carioles principle) ,then
compare it by set value and then adjust the speed of upper rotary valve.

ROTARY VALVE

The rotary valve with variable speed controlled by the inverter used
for feeding and the other rotary valve 4G-100 with fixed rotary valve for
nitrogen isolation purpose.

PRE-CRYSTALLIZER
It is continuously fed through the rotary valve. In pre-crystallizer the
following operations are performed.
Heating the chips
Pre crystallization of chips of PET to about 35 % by weight with
agitation to prevent sticking I glass transition phase.

PAGE 21
Dedusting of polymer

In pre crystallization there are two chambers, the temperature of first


is 156 C and temperature of second is 150 C .the pressure of first is 155
mbar and the other is at 125 mbar. In pre-crystallizer the hot nitrogen gas
first fluidized the chips and then heat up to about 200 C in order to obtain
certain degree of crystallization. The fluidized nitrogen is processed to twin
cyclone.

NITROGEN LOOP
TWIN CYCLONE (4F-100 A/B)

The fluidized nitrogen is hen processed to twin cyclone .the major


amount of dust is removed through the twin cyclone and some amount of
chips that come here with nitrogen gas and then it collected in the dust
collection.

NITROGEN FILTER (4F-101)

The nitrogen gas is then processed in the nitrogen filter in order to


remove the further amount of dust if present.

HEATER (4E-100)

It is basically an oil to gas heat exchanger. After passing the nitrogen


filter the gas is blower to the heater. After the heater, nitrogen gas is again
recycling to the pre-crystallizer. The purpose of nitrogen gas used in pre-
crystallizer is to fluidize the chips and to prevent it from sticking at glass
transition state.

CRYSTALLIZATION
The PET is then fed to crystallizer 1 (4E-300) and then crystallizer 2
(4E-301) .the crystallization process is completed in the crystallizer and
chips temperature is increased up to the required conditions. The machines
are kept at crystallization temperature by recirculation of HTM in the paddle
type screw conveyors, two paddles running at about 10 rpm, as well as in the

PAGE 22
jacket. wet nitrogen removes the fines as well as acetaldehyde released
during heating by counter current .the nitrogen is then fed to cyclone 4F-401
for dust separation .the degree of crystallization at the outlet is about 45% by
weight.
The chips coming in the crystals having an amount of following groups.
Carboxylic end groups
Vinyl ester end groups
Hydroxyl end groups
Wet nitrogen having amount of water react with these groups to form
acetaldehyde.

SSP REACTOR
The hot chips from the second crystallizer 4E-301 are fed through the
rotary valve 4G-401 to the reactor. The reactor is jacketed vessel where
circulation of HTM is provided to maintain the temperature. The HTM is
pumped by 4G-705 a/b to the reactor. The hot nitrogen is flowed counter
currently to collect the side products and its temperature is controlled by the
heater 4E-402.the reactor is equipped with nine temperature indicators.
Nitrogen coming from reactor is mixed with nitrogen from second
crystallizer is then processed to cyclone 4F-401 and then sent to pre-
crystallization loop.

COOLING
The incoming chips are at about 210C but at the outlet of fluidized
bed (4E-500) its temperature is reduced to 173 C.

FLUIDIZED BED COOLER

In the cooler deduster 4E-500 the fluidization of the bed, the heat
exchange and the dedusting operations are performed.
The first phenomenon is directly related to the nitrogen velocity through the
bed.
The second one is related to the mass flow rate of nitrogen and
relevant temperature and pressure. The second one is related again to the
mass flow rate of nitrogen but also not the bed depth.

PAGE 23
STATIC COOLER

The second cooling step is take place in the static cooler 4E-501 .it is
a shell and tube heat exchanger tubes side chips and nitrogen, shell side
cooling water. In this device the PET chips are cooled down to 50 C before
being discharged through the rotary valve 4G-502.
The heat exchanging efficiency is strictly related to the chips residence time
inside the 4E-501 just in order to keep the right residence time the LIC-510
controls the level of chips, acting to the inverter controlled rotary valve 4G-
502.

NITROGEN PURIFICATION SECTION


The stream resulting from the mixing of following users is exhaust
nitrogen and is feed through the blowers 4G403/4 to the purification section.

PRECRYSTALLIZER
CRYSTALLIZER 1
CRYSTALLIZER 2
FLUIDIZED BED COOLER
REACTOR

The inert gas coming from these users having an amount of water,
acetaldehyde, ethylene glycol and vinyl end groups. The dirty nitrogen will
fed to purification plant by 4G-403 and 4G-404 blowers.
It is divided into two sections.

OXIDATION UNIT

The impurities are then oxidized in a catalytic bed reactor (4R-200)


using instrument air in the presence of Pt/Pd catalytic bed and the product is
CO2 and water.

PAGE 24
NITROGEN FILTERS (4F200 A/B)
It is then fed into the filters to remove solid particles.

GAS TO GAS ECONOMIZER (4E-200)


The nitrogen gas at about 208 C is then fed to economizer for the
partial recovery of reaction temperature heat. The nitrogen gas at its outlet is
about 288 C.

MIXING WITH AIR


The nitrogen gas is then mixed with a control flow of air in order to
supply the right quantity of combustion oxygen necessary to perform the
combustion catalytic reaction.

ELECTRICAL HEATER (4E-201)


It is used to lift the nitrogen gas temperature to the required reaction
temperature of about 320 C.
At the outlet of the reactor, amount of residual oxygen is measured by
analyzer and then through the controller, amount of reaction air will control.
After reactor nitrogen gas is fed to the 4E-200 economizer for the reaction
heat recovery.
Then this gas is free of hydrocarbon, just a few ppm with some moisture, in
order to verify the contents the hydrocarbon there is a flame ionization
detector is installed then this gas is sent to drying unit.

DRYING SECTION

HEAT EXCHANGER (4E-202)


The nitrogen gas that comes from 4E-200 heat recovery economizer at
a temperature of 250 C. will flow through the heat exchanger where it is
cooled down with cooling water to about 35 C.

DRYERS (4D-200)
The gas is fed through the number of automatic selection valves to the
one of the two dryers that is active.
In a dryer, a moisture adsorbent molecular sieve made up of aluminum
silicate that remove all the moisture present in the inert gas.

PAGE 25
DRYER REGENERATION SYSTEM
As was explained in the previous section that after some time, the
dryer is saturated with water.
The dryer generation system is made up of following two steps.
The heating of dryer saturated bed in order to remove the moisture.
The cooling down of dryer regenerated bed.

The heating of dryer saturated bed is the first phase and takes about 8
hours during which all moisture in the dryer will be removed.
The gas regeneration loop uses nitrogen as a regenerative gas at temperature
of about 250 C.

In period of 4 hours the dryer will cool down to the temperature of


about 40C.at this stage dryer is regenerated and ready for the exchange with
the saturated one.

HTM CIRCUIT:
The HTM uses are:

PRECRYSTALLIZER NITROGEN REACTOR


CRYSTALLIZER 1
CRYSTALLIZER 2
REACTOR
The oil circuit is connected to the HTM expansion vessel purged with
nitrogen.
The HTM oil that is delivered from HTM circuit to crystallizer 1 and 2 is
divided into three streams.
The crystallizer jacket
Crystallizer first shaft
Crystallizer second shaft
The three streams are then collected to the outlet of crystallizer. the oil
return header is connected to suction side of HTM pumps and also
connected to HTM expansion vessel.

PAGE 26
POWERHOUSE 1
Powerhouse 1 fulfills power requirements for SSP 1, PP1 and auxiliaries. The power is
provided by 6 engines, 4 of which are gas engines and 2 diesel engines. The diesel
engines are used as a standby and provide power to Polycon 1.

GAS ENGINE:

A high load internal combustion engine with 8 pistons on each side (16 total per engine)
are used to rotate an alternator which produces electricity.

SAFETY AT THE POWERHOUSE:

Gas alarms are installed in the powerhouse 1 so that leakages can be detected.
Concentration sensors give readings of the accumulated gas in the engine room. When
the gas concentration rises above 20% the situation is alarming and alarm sounds.
Powerhouse 1 is also equipped with firefighting hose, DCP and Carbon dioxide fire
extinguishers to combat any fire during operation.

POWER REQUIREMENTS OF THE PLANT:

POWER SUPPLIED BY A GAS ENGINE = 1278 KW

POWER SUPPLED BY A DIESEL ENGINE = 1005 KW (Only when required)

POWER SUPPLIED TO POLYCON 1 = 1800 KW

POWER SUPPLIED TO SSP 1 = 850 KW

POWER SUPPLIED TO AUXILARIES = 250 KW

LOAD PER ENGINE= 700 KW

SPARE POWER = 2500 KW

TYPICAL DATA FOR A GAS ENGINE:

LUBRICATING OIL PRESSURE = 4.40 bar

OIL TEMPERATURE INLET = 86 degrees C

JACKET WATER TEMPERATURE INLET = 75 degrees C

PAGE 27
JACKET WATER TEMPERATURE OUTLET = 82 degrees C

RECEIVER TEMPERATURE = 40 degrees C

AIR TEMPERATURE INLET = 24.4 degrees C (Subject to weather)

SUPPLY VOLTAGE = 26 V

ENGINE SPEED = 1500 /min

PAGE 28
POWERHOUSE 2
Powerhouse 2 was built to power Poly-2, SSP-2, SSP-3, HTM-2 and Molding
departments. It has 18 engines, 15 of which are gas engines and 3 are diesel engines. The
gas engines are based on German technology while Diesel engines are based on
American technology. Diesel engines are used as a standby as per requirement of energy.
Two diesel engines can provide 1.6 MW while one diesel engine can provide 1.4 MW of
energy. Seven gas engines deliver 1 MW while remaining can deliver 1.4 MW of energy.

Overall the energy requirement of the departments is 6.5 MW while maximum power
which can be delivered by powerhouse 2 is 18 MW. Safety provisions are same as for
powerhouse 1.The gas engines comprise of 20 pistons (10 each side) which rotate the
alternator to produce electricity.

ENERGY REQUIREMENTS:

Polycon-2 = 3 MW

SSP-2 = 900 KW

Molding = 2 MW

Auxiliaries = 500 KW

SSP-3 also

Powerhouse 2 is also equipped with 2 waste heat recovery systems. The sensible heat of
the flue gas is utilized by decreasing its temperature from 490 deg C to around 390 deg C.
The temperature is further dropped to around 290 deg C for the chiller unit.

ENERGY ANALYSIS:

OPERATING CUBIC METER GAS (X10) = 2732106 m3

NORMAL CUBIC METER GAS = 4112698 Normal m3

ACTIVE ENERGY = 14070.9 MWh

REACTIVE ENERGY= 4112700 Normal m3

GAS DELIVERY PRESSURE = 9 psi

MAINTAINAINCE PERIOD FOR AIR FILTER = 500 hours

MAINTAINANCE PERIOD FOR OIL FILTER = 2000 hours

PAGE 29
ELECTRICAL AND INSTRUMENTATION

Department of electrical and instrumentation serves mainly as a troubleshooting


department where all major and minor electrical and electronics breakdowns are rectified
to ensure smooth operation of equipments installed.

The production of Polycon 1 is around 600-700 tons per day and that of Polycon 2 is
around 300 tons per day and for such a high production rate breakdowns are frequent.
The MCC room is located at the ground level of Polycon department having variable as
well as fixed frequency drive motors. There are also standby motors for emergency.
Variable frequency drive allows the operator to alter the speed of the motor which is
sometimes essential for the operation. There are 3 phase 380V AC as well as single phase
AC with very few DC circuits.

The MCC room controls major equipments like pumps along with level, temperature,
viscosity, flow and pressure controllers. These equipments can also be controlled from
DCS system which enhances its flexibility.

Major transmitters installed for temperature are PT-100. These consist of a platinum rod
which has a very high electrical conductivity. Its variation in resistance is calibrated
against temperature and then used as sensing element. Very small variation in
temperature can also be observed at DCS system allowing easy and accurate monitoring
of temperature. Thermocouples are installed in few areas also but they are not so
common.

Along with temperature level controllers are also installed in majors units. These
generally work on the principle of hydrostatic pressure exerted by the fluid on the sensor.
In vacuum vessels like DRR reactor special technique is adopted which makes use of a
radioactive element cobalt 60. This is a source of gamma radiation. Gamma radiation
detects the level in the reactor just as SONAR works on the principle of ultrasonic waves.

Flow measuring devices generally include Rota meters and micro motion. Micro motion
has a very thin strip which obstructs the flow. Its frequency of vibration is then calibrated
against flow to detect flow in the pipe. The final control elements are generally gate and
globe valves. Globe valves have TV proportionator installed and it acts as a temperature
maintaining element as well. This is controlled by a 12P converter.

There are also special moisture analyzers installed in SSP plant.

PAGE 30
PIPELINE COLOR CODING:

RAW WATER = DARKISH GREEN

COOLING WATER = LIGHT GREEN (SEA GREEN)

SOFT WATER = GRAY

FIRE FIGHTING WATER = DARK RED

COMPRESSED AIR = NAVY BLUE (DARK SHADE)

INSTRUMENT AIR = SKY BLUE (LIGHT SHADE)

TECHNICAL NITROGEN = BROWNISH RED

PURE NITROGEN = WHITE

DRAIN LINE = BLACK

RAIN DRAIN LINE = GRAY

NATURAL GAS = YELLLOW

PAGE 31
QUALITY LAB
Quality assurance is the utmost priority for any company. The composition of product or
raw materials along with procedures to determine them is managed in quality lab
department. The main tests conducted in this lab are:

1. Determination of DEG in ethylene glycol vapor condensates, bottoms and head


products of the glycol distillation.

2. Determination of DEG concentration in the sample by gas chromatography using


an external standard.

3. Determination of the acid number of Pure Terephthalic acid and EG.

4. Determination of water content in PTA, EG and product using KARL FISCHER


titration.

5. Determination of color number (APHA) of PTA, EG and product by


spectrophotometer.

6. Determination of ash content of high purity Terephthalic acid, EG and product.

7. Sieve analysis of PTA for particle size.

8. Intrinsic viscosity determination for product samples by both ASTM and Zimmer
standards.

9. Sulphate concentration in Ethylene glycol.

DIFFERENTIAL SCALING CALORIMETER:

Differential scaling calorimeter is used to monitor melting point, crystallization


temperatures and glass transition temperatures for the polymer. The range is provided as:

Melting point (248-250 deg C)

Crystallization temperature (150-160 deg C)

PET glass transition temperature (70-82 deg C)

Heater heats the chips and a plot of power (mW) against time (min) is obtained which in
turns give the indication of these temperatures.

Heating rate is fixed that is 10 deg C/min.

PAGE 32
COLOR TESTING:

For color testing three parameters play an important role.

1. Lightness or brightness (L scale)

2. Red or green tone (a scale)

3. Yellow or blue tone (b scale)

The instrument is calibrated against a standard sample whose color index is pre-
determined. A typical plot obtained is as follows:

PAGE 33
REQUIRED RANGE FOR AMORPHOUS= L (78-81) and b (-1.5 to -2.5)

REQUIRED RANGE FOR SSP= L (82-84) and b (<1)

GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY:

Gas chromatography (GC), is a common type of chromatography used in analytic


chemistry for separating and analyzing compounds that can be vaporized without
decomposition. Typical uses of GC include testing the purity of a particular substance, or
separating the different components of a mixture (the relative amounts of such
components can also be determined). In some situations; GC may help in identifying a
compound. In preparative chromatography, GC can be used to prepare pure compounds
from a mixture.

In gas chromatography, the moving phase (or "mobile phase") is a carrier gas, usually an
inert gas such as helium or an unreactive gas such as nitrogen. The stationary phase is a
microscopic layer of liquid or polymer on an inert solid support, inside a piece of glass or
metal tubing called a column (a homage to the fractionating column used in distillation).
The instrument used to perform gas chromatography is called a gas chromatograph (or
"aerograph", "gas separator").

PAGE 34
The gaseous compounds being analyzed interact with the walls of the column, which is
coated with different stationary phases. This causes each compound to elute at a different
time, known as the retention time of the compound. The comparison of retention times is
what gives GC its analytical usefulness.

At Novatex, Gas Chromatography is performed to check acetaldehyde concentration in


sample which is produced as a result of temperature variation in the process. This
technique is both reliable and accurate. The procedure for checking a sample is:

1. Cut the preform into small chips for easy grinding. For small chips this is not
necessary.

2. Put the chips into a grinder and pour liquid Nitrogen to make it hard.

3. Grind the sample to about 500 mm.

4. Seal it in vails for checking.

5. Put the vails in the sample injection unit for pyrolysis. This will take one and half
hour.

The flow diagram of GC technique is as follows:

The required acetaldehyde concentration is:

FOR AMORPHOUS = 70-80 ppm

FOR SSP CHIPS = less than 1 ppm

FOR PET = less than 10 ppm

DETERMINATION OF INTRINSIC VISCOSITY (IV) OF SAMPLE:

Intrinsic viscosity is the resistance to flow of a material when its mass concentration
approaches zero. In polymer chemistry intrinsic viscosity relates to chain length of a
polymer. This also determines the strength of the polymer. During the initial process a
basic IV of 0.58-0.603 dL/g is maintained which is further increased as crystallization

PAGE 35
and polycondensation processes proceed. For bottle grade polymer an IV of 074-084
dL/g is desired and for textile grade an IV of around 0.65 dL/g is acceptable.

Intrinsic viscosity is measured using a concept of relative viscosity which is tabulated as:

Relative viscosity= time of flow of polymer/ time of flow of solvent

The relative viscosity obtained is then converted to intrinsic viscosity using a conversion
chart.

There are basically two methods of determining the relative viscosity. ASTM method
employs a constant temperature of 30 deg C with phenol and 1,1,2,2 tetrachloroethane
used as a solvent. This method is used for checking bottle grade IV. Zimmer method is
employed to check relative viscosity of SSP chips. Here a constant bath temperature of
25 C is maintained with phenol and 1, 2 dichlorobenzene being used as a solvent.

Blank Time is noted which the time obtained at zero percent concentration of the polymer
followed by a mean time of same concentration samples. The ratio of these times then
gives the relative viscosity which provides a value in conversion chart. The ratio of that
value to the weight of the sample then gives the intrinsic viscosity of sample.

1) DETERMINATION OF ALDEHYDES IN LIQUID SAMPLES:


PRINCIPLE:
The carbonyl group (=C=O) of many aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes and that
of aliphatic and hydro aromatic ketones with sodium bisulphite by forming addition
compounds so called alpha-oxysulphonic acid.
After this reaction, the excess sodium hydrogen bisulphite is first oxidized by
titration with iodine solution to form sulphate, then sulphite link to carbonyl group is
visually titrated with 0.1N iodine standard solution using starch solution as the indicator.
Upon oxidation some addition compounds is formed which is then decomposed by
adding sodium hydrogen carbonate.

ACCURACY:
+ 5 % relative/ - 5 % relative

TIME REQUIRED:
About 2 hrs.

2) DETERMINATION OF THE IV OF PET:

PRINCIPLE:
i) The polymer is dissolved in the mixture of phenol and 1,2 dichloro benzene or 1,1,2,2-
tetrachloroethane where upon the time of flow is determined in an ubbelohde viscometer.

PAGE 36
ii) The relative viscosity is obtained from the quotient of time of flow of polymer solution
to that of pure solvent.

iii) The relative viscosity is linked with intrinsic viscosity by "BILLMEYER'S


EQUATION"

iv) Intrinsic viscosity is defined as the limiting value of the ratio of natural logarithm of
relative solution viscosity to the concentration of polymer in the solution.

ACCURACY:
+1 % relative/ -1 % relative

TIME REQUIRED: 45 min

REQUIRED AMOUNT:
Amorphous: 0.580 - 0.620
S.S.P A-74 => 0.720 - 0.760
A-80 => 0.780 - 0.820
A-84 => 0.820 - 0.860

3) DETERMINATION OF CARBONYL END GROUPS IN PET:

PRINCIPLE:
The PET sample is dissolved at boiling temperature and the reflux in the mixture
of O-Cresol and chloroform. After cooling to room temperature, the carbonyl end groups
are determined photo metrically using bromophenol blue as an indicator.

REACTION:
R-COOH + KOH ---------------> R-COOK + H20

TIME REQUIRED:
45 min

ACCURACY:
+1 mmole/kg / -1 mmole/kg

REQUIRED AMOUNT:
35 - 50 mmole/kg

PAGE 37
4) DETERMINATION OF M.P OF POLYESTER:

PRINCIPLE:
The polymer specimen is observed b/w crossed polarizers while heated at a
constant heating rate. Differentiate scaling curve is plotted ranging from 30 - 300 degree
centigrade.
By this method, we can also determine the glass transition state and out of melt
(cool).

TIME REQUIRED:
1 hr. after the temperature calibration has been calibrated.

ACCURACY:
+ 1 degree centigrade absolute/ -1 degree centigrade absolute

REQUIRED AMOUNT:
BGC: 245 - 250 degree centigrade
FGC: 250 - 255 degree centigrade

5) DETERMINATION OF THE COLOUR NUMBER OF PET:

PRINCIPLE:
i) The tristimulun color difference meter determine the color of the sample in three
photocells which are considered by red, green, blue filter respectively.

ii) The crystallized and grinded sample contain in a measuring cup is exposed to
standard illumination C (daylight)/standard observer 2 degrees at an angle of 45 degree.

iii) The reflected beams are measured at an angle of 0 degree.

iv) The color is measured as X.Y and Z values, from these values yellowish ness index
(YI) or the color number l, a, b (hunter) can be calculated.

ACCURACY:
+0.3 units/ -0.3 units.

TIME REQUIRED:
Approx. 2 hrs.

6) DETERMINATION OF ACETALDEHYDE IN PET:

PRINCIPLE:
i) First the PET is cooled in liquid nitrogen at -197 degree centigrade then it is grinded to
500 micron particle size. The purpose of cooling is to prevent it from being vaporized as
it is so volatile during grinding.

PAGE 38
ii) It is then sealed in a small tube and gives the temperature of 150 degree centigrade in
head space and it becomes in gaseous form.

iii) Then injector injects the gas and fed into the gas chromatographer and then we can
determine the contents of acetaldehyde.

TIME REQUIRED:
About 90 min

REQUIRED AMOUNT:
Less than 1 ppm (0.73 is standard)

7) DETERMINATION OF MOISTURE CONTENTS IN PET:

PRINCIPLE:
I) The PET specimen is contained in a pointer in the heater at 205 degree centigrade and
nitrogen is then passed through the specimen and sucks the moisture from it.
ii) Then this moisture containing nitrogen gas is fed into detector (MECCO moisture
analyzer) that detects moisture contents.

REQUIRED AMOUNT:
S.S.P: Less than 100 ppm
amorphous: 600 - 700 ppm

TIME REQUIRED:
About 70 min

8) DETERMINATION OF YELLOW CHIPS IN PET:

PRINCIPLE:
A back of chips is holed on the screen and the ultraviolet rays is passed through
it by which we can determine yellow chips easily.

9) DETERMINATION OF ASH CONTENT IN POLYESTER:

PRINCIPLE:
A sample is taken in porcelain crucibles and then gradually increase the heating
led up to the heating stage 6 until all the carbonaceous matter is ashes. Transfer the
crucibles to the muffle furnace and ignite at 700 degree centigrade for 30 min. Transfer
the crucibles from the furnace to the desiccators and allow cooling and determining the
weight.

ACCURACY:

PAGE 39
+2 % / -2 %

TIME REQUIRED:
About 6 -7 hrs.

TEST FOR POLY II:

1) PTA/IPA :( ONCE PER DAY)

a) WATER CONTENT: Less than 0.2 % wt.


b) PARTICLE SIZE : < 40 micrometer (0 - 20 % wt.)
150 - 250 micrometer (0 - 15 % wt.)
> 250 micrometer (0 - 3 % wt.)
c) ACID NUMBER : 671 - 677 mg KOH per gram
d) COLOUR NUMBER : b => 0 - 2.5

2) PASTE:(ONCE PER DAY)

a) PTA CONTENT : 69 - 71 %
b) DENSITY : 1.331 - 1.431g/cm3
c) MOLE RATIO : 1.08 - 1.18

3) EST 1:(ONCE PER DAY)

a) ACID NUMBER : 47 - 53 mg KOH per gm.(every 8 hours)


b) COLOUR NUMBER : L => 94 - 98
a => -1 to 1
b => 0 - 1.5
YI => -0.2 to 2
c) SAP NUMBER : 550 - 570 mg KOH per gm.
d) IV : 0.08 - 0.1 dl/gm.
e) DEG : 1.05 - 1.3 %
f) IPA : 1.85 - 2.2 %
g) A.A : 40 - 85 ppm

4) PP II:

a) IV : 0.24 - 0.3 dl/gm.


b) CEG : 85 - 110 mole/kg
c) COLOUR NUMBER : L => 42 - 96
a => -1 to -0.25
b => -0.75 to +0.75
YI => -2 to +2
d) DEG : 1.1 - 1.5 %
e) IPA : 1.85 - 2.15 %

PAGE 40
f) A.A : 4.5 - 10.5 ppm

5) CATALYST:

a) Sb CONTENT PER BATCH: 6500 - 8000 ppm


6) R.T:

a) Sb CONTENT PER BATCH: 6500 - 8000 ppm

7) H3PO4:

a) H3PO4 CONC. : 0.85 %

8) B.T:

a) B.T CONC. : 0.0084 %

9) COLUMN:

a) ALDEHYDE: 0 - 500 ppm


b) E.G : 95 - 100 %
c) H2O :1-3%

S.S.P:-

1) PRE CRYSTALLIZER:(ONCE PER WEEK)

a) IV :
b) CARBONYL END GROUP :
c) MOISTURE :
d) COLOUR NUMBER :
e) CHIPS SIZE :
f) DEG :
g) IPA :
h) A.A :
i) Sb CONTENT :
j) M.P : (once per month)
The readings of above are same as amorphous.

2) FIRST CRYSTALLIZER:(ONCE PER WEEK)

PAGE 41
a) IV :
b) CARBONYL END GROUP :
c) MOISTURE :
d) COLOUR NUMBER :
e) CHIPS SIZE :
f) DEG :
g) IPA :
h) A.A :
i) Sb CONTENT :
j) M.P :

(Once per month)


The readings of above are same as amorphous.

3) SECOND CRYSTALLIZER :( ONCE PER WEEK)

a) IV
b) CARBONYL END GROUP
c) MOISTURE
d) COLOUR NUMBER
e) CHIPS SIZE
f) DEG
g) IPA
h) A.A
i) Sb CONTENT
j) M.P

(Once per month)


The readings of above are same as amorphous.

PAGE 42
MECHANICAL DEPARTMENT
MECHANICAL DEPARTMENT:

Mechanical department is recognized as the back bone of any industry. It


generally deals with the maintenance of the plant and its equipment like pumps,
compressors, agitators, heat exchangers etc. It also provides maintaining facilities at the
workshop.

MAINTAINANCE DEPARTMENT:

Maintenance at the plant is classified as preventive maintenance and predictive


maintenance.

Preventive Maintenance:

Preventive maintenance is defined as the scheduled maintenance that prevents


breakdowns. It is done to ensure that worn out components are repair or replaced before
they malfunction.

Predictive Maintenance:

Predictive maintenance is the measurement of equipment under operating condition to


detect symptoms that are out of line with physical parameters and classify the causes. It
includes planning and scheduling the right repair at right time. The devices used for
predictive maintenance are:

Vibration pan
Temperature gauge
Audio meter
Visual inspection

Shutdown Maintenance

It is a schedule maintenance.

Breakdown Maintenance

It is that maintenance when blackout or power failure occur.

PAGE 43
JOBS OF MECHANICAL DEPARTMENT AT THE PLANT:

Cleaning of cooling tower and cooler.


Maintenance of plate cooler and heat exchanger.
Cleaning of equipment (pumps, agitators, compressor etc.)
Greasing of bearings, sliding surfaces, joints, shafts etc. Application of oil and
grease is done according to the proper method by using oil can and grease gun.

TYPES OF PUMPS USED AT THE PLANT:

1. Gear pump
2. MAG pump
3. Screw pump
4. Nemo pump (screw pump)
5. Dosing pump
6. Vacuum pump
7. Sump pump
8. PIT pump
9. Barrel pump
CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS:

1. NIT pump
2. CNH pump
3. CNR pump
4. KSB pump
TYPES OF AGITATORS:

1. SNR type

2. SDR type

PAGE 44
UTILITIES

USERS
POLY I
POLY II
S.S.P I
S.S.P II
MOULDING

MAIN COMPONENTS OF THE PLANT:


Water treatment plant
Nitrogen generation plant (pure=tech N2)
Air compressor
Chiller
Air handing unit
Fresh water system
Waste water system
Chemical treatment of cooling water

WATER TREATMENT PLANT:-

SOFT WATER SET:-

We have to two cat ion/anion exchanger set for the preparation of soft water. One set
is kept in operation while second set remain as a standby. The quality of water is
monitored automatically by measuring the electrical conductivity. Required conductivity
is 20 S/cm. When it rises above the limit, stand by unit starts up. Exhausted unit is then
regenerated.

Pumps (two centrifugal, one used as a standby)


Two plate coolers
Blower (free CO2 in soft water)

PAGE 45
SOFT WATER CONSUMERS:-

Cooling towers
Demin plant
HTM circulation pump-primary
Filter cleaning area
Bottom discharge pump
TIO2 & additive feed lance at 21m

REGENERATION OF CATION AND ANION EXCHANGE:-

Reverse flushing of cat ion exchange


Filling of HCL
Rinsing of cat ion exchanger
Backwashing of anion exchanger
Filling of NAOH
Slow rinsing of anion exchanger
Fast rinsing of cat ion anion exchanger
Consumption of HCL regeneration = 346kg
Consumption of NAOH regeneration = 200 kg

DEMINERALIZED WATER PLANT

o It consists of cat ion filter and an anion filter


o Conductivity limit value is set at 1.5S/cm
o Two pumps are used (one as stand by), when the pressure reaches up to set value
of 5 bar, both pumps stop automatically and we keep the switch on O-mode

CONSUMER OF THE DEMINERALIZED WATER:

Pelleting plant
Centrifuge
Cutter section

PAGE 46
REGENERATION OF DEMINERALIZED WATER:

The quality if pure water is monitored by measuring its electrical conductivity. If


its conductivity exceeds the limit value, the desalinate is regenerated. Both cat ion and
anion exchangers are regenerated in the same way as done in soft water treatment plant.

DOSING UNITS:

o To control the corrosion rate Nalco73.404 (a corrosion inhibitor) is used through


the continuous dosing pump and the operation of water set.
o To increase the pH range (7.5-8.5) NaOH is added to the water through the dosing
unit during the operation of soft water plant.
o Greasing of pumps bearings is carried out according to the schedule (after 6
months).The bearing life is considered as 16000 operating lines. Monitoring is
done on weekly basis. Any abnormality which is observed is recorded and
corrective action is taken.

CHILLERS:

MAIN COMPONENTS

Two semi-hermetic Trane compressors


Water cooled condenser
Evaporator
Refrigeration circuits and two starter and control panels

CONSUMERS OF THE CHILL WATER

Pearl Mill
Water Cooler
Air handling units (2)
Nitrogen booster compressor
Air chemical laboratory

PAGE 47
VAPOUR COMPRESSION
VAPOUR ABSORPTION

VAPOUR COMPRESSION

First the refrigerant gases R-22, R-134A and R-404 is compressed to attain the
pressure, then this gas enters into the condenser where it is converted into small droplets
of liquid by using cooling water. The boiling point of refrigerant gases is about -40
degree centigrade. So below -40 degree centigrade it is in liquid form and after condenser
the small droplets of liquid are gathered in a expansion valve. After passing the
expansion valve the refrigerant liquid is entered into the evaporator where it cools the
chilled water and discharge it at 7 degree centigrade return to the process. In this way the
refrigerant gases vaporize and enters into the compressor and the cycle goes on. The
temperature of cooling water is equal to the wet bulb temperature and inlet of chilled
water is at 12 degree centigrade.

CHILLED WATER IN

C.W IN
EXPANSION VALVE

CHILLED WATER OUT


COMPRES
SOR
C.W OUT

VAPOUR ABSORPTION

The solution of lithium bromide (LiBr) and water is entered into the generator where
the water is vaporized at 100 degree centigrade by flue gas entering at 380 degree
centigrade. Lithium bromide is separated out from water and enters into the absorber
while water vapors fed into the condenser where it is condensed by cooling coil. Vapor
absorption cycle is basically under the vacuum and that's why water is condensed at very
low temperature, then this condensed water is entered into the evaporator where it cools
the chilled water and discharges it at 7 degree centigrade. In this way water is vaporized
and absorbed by LiBr in an absorber and again enters into the generator and cycle goes
on. The boiling point of LiBr is about 690 degree centigrade.

PAGE 48
FLUE GAS

H2O VAPORS CW OUT


GENERATOR CONDENSOR
CW IN
LiBr & H2O

H2O LIQUID

H2O VAPORS
ABSORBER EVAPORATOR

CHILLED CHILLED
WATER IN WATER OUT

COMPRESSOR

AIR COMPRESSORS

5 HIGH PRESSURE 3 LOW PRESSURE


(8-10 bar) (3-3.5 bar)

Instrument air conveying air

Air Filter
Low pressure Element
Inter cooler
High pressure Element
After cooler

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AIR FILTER
The air is entered at 1 bar pressure into the filter where the dust particles are
separated.

LOW PRESSURE ELEMENT


After the filtration, the air is compressed in the low pressure element by passing
it b/w the two different size screws, the pressure at the outlet of LP element is 3.0 - 3.5
bar. Cooling water is circulating in the LP element to maintain the temperature. Small
size screw rotates faster than large size screw. The different rotations of the screw done
by the help of a shaft in gear box driven by a motor.

INTER COOLER
After the L.P element the air is cooled by circulating cooling water in a coil. After
the L.P element, the temperature of air is high because of increase in pressure.

HIGH PRESSURE ELEMENT


After the inter cooler, the air is passed through high pressure element, this is same
as L.P element and they both are of a type of screw compressor. At the outlet, the
pressure is about 7.5 - 10 bar.

AFTER COOLER
Now this pressurized air is at last passed through another cooler where it is further
cooled by cooling water. The compressor with two elements and two coolers are
"DOUBLE STAGE COMPRESSOR" and the compressor with single element and a
cooler are "SINGLE STAGE COMPRESSOR". After cooler the air is dried to remove
moisture and then this air is distributed where it is use.

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DRYER
DESICANT DRYER
INSTRUMENT AIR DRYER
REFRIGERANT DRYER

DESICANT DRYER
The compressed air is entered into the desiccant dryer. A long shaft rotating in the
dryer driven by a motor. Silica Jel is in contact with the rotating shaft that adsorbs the
moisture from the air. Instrument air dryer is none but the two desiccant dryers connected
in series.

MOISTURE FREE AIR

COMPRESSED
AIR

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Especially,
Chaudhry Anees (GM),
Kaleemullah Quraishi (HR & OD HOP),
Iftikhar Hussain (Process HOD),
Shahid Ijaz (Mechanical HOD),

For giving us this honorable opportunity

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