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ASIAWISE STUDY CENTER, INC

Asiawise Upgrade: NMAT Review


City of Naga

NMAT BIOLOGY MOCK EXAM

I. Choose the best answer.

1. Why are carbohydrates important molecules for energy storage?


a. The CH bonds found in carbohydrates store energy.
b. The double bonds between carbon and oxygen are very strong.
c. The electronegativity of the oxygen atoms means that a carbohydrate is made up
of many polar bonds.
d. They can form ring structures in the aqueous environment of a cell.

2. Plant cells store energy in the form of _________, and animal cells store energy in
the form of ___________.
a. fructose; glucose
b. disaccharides; monosaccharides
c. cellulose; chitin
d. starch; glycogen

3. Which carbohydrate would you f nd as part of a molecule of RNA?


a. Galactose
b. Deoxyribose
c. Ribose
d. Glucose

4. A molecule of DNA or RNA is a polymer of


a. monosaccharides. c. amino acids.
b. nucleotides. d. fatty acids.

5. What makes cellulose different from starch?


a. Starch is produced by plant cells, and cellulose is produced by animal cells.
b. Cellulose forms long f laments, and starch is highly branched.
c. Starch is insoluble, and cellulose is soluble.
d. All of the above.

6. What monomers make up a protein?


a. Monosaccharides c. Amino acids
b. Nucleotides d. Fatty acids

7. A triglyceride is a form of _______ composed of ___________.


a. lipid; fatty acids and glucose
b. lipid; fatty acids and glycerol
c. carbohydrate; fatty acids
d. lipid; cholesterol

8. Amino acids are linked together to form a protein by


a. phosphodiester bonds.
b. -(14) linkages.
c. peptide bonds.
d. hydrogen bonds.

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ASIAWISE STUDY CENTER, INC
Asiawise Upgrade: NMAT Review
City of Naga

NMAT BIOLOGY MOCK EXAM


9. Which of the following is NOT a difference between DNA and RNA?
a. Deoxyribose sugar versus ribose sugar
b. Thymine versus uracil
c. Double-stranded versus single-stranded
d. Phosphodiester versus hydrogen bonds

10. Which part of an amino acid has the greatest inuence on the overall structure of a
protein?
a. The (NH2) amino group
b. The R group
c. The (COOH) carboxyl group
d. Both a and c

11. A mutation that alters a single amino acid within a protein


can alter
a. the primary level of protein structure.
b. the secondary level of protein structure.
c. the tertiary level of protein structure.
d. all of the above

12. Binary fssion in prokaryotes does not require the


a. replication of DNA.
b. elongation of the cell.
c. separation of daughter cells by septum formation.
d. assembly of the nuclear envelope.
13. Chromatin is composed of
a. RNA and protein. c. sister chromatids.
b. DNA and protein. d. chromosomes.

14. What is a nucleosome?


a. A region in the cells nucleus that contains euchromatin
b. A region of DNA wound around histone proteins
c. A region of a chromosome made up of multiple loops of chromatin
d. A 30-nm fber found in chromatin

15. What is the role of cohesin proteins in cell division?


a. They organize the DNA of the chromosomes into highly condensed structures.
b. They hold the DNA of the sister chromatids together.
c. They help the cell divide into two daughter cells.
d. They connect microtubules and chromosomes.

16. The kinetochore is a structure that functions to


a. connect the centromere to microtubules.
b. connect centrioles to microtubules.
c. aid in chromosome condensation.
d. aid in chromosomes cohesion.

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ASIAWISE STUDY CENTER, INC
Asiawise Upgrade: NMAT Review
City of Naga

NMAT BIOLOGY MOCK EXAM


17. Separation of the sister chromatids occurs during
a. prophase. c. anaphase.
b. prometaphase. d. telophase.

18. Why is cytokinesis an important part of cell division?


a. It is responsible for the proper separation of genetic information.
b. It is responsible for the proper separation of the cytoplasmic contents
c. It triggers the movement of a cell through the cell cycle.
d. It allows cells to halt at checkpoints.

19. What steps in the cell cycle represent irreversible commitments?


a. The S/G2 checkpoint c. Anaphase
b. The G1/S checkpoint d. Both b and c

20. The metaphase to anaphase transition involves


a. new force being generated to pull the chromatids apart.
b. an increase in force on sister chromatids to pull them apart.
c. completing DNA replication of centromeres allowing chromosomes to be pulled
apart.
d. loss of cohesion between sister chromatids.

21. The main difference between bacterial cell division and eukaryotic cell division is
that

a. since bacteria only have one chromosome, they can count the number of copies
in the cell.
b. eukaryotes mark their chromosomes to identify them and bacteria do not.
c. bacterial DNA replication and chromosome segregation are concerted processes
but in eukaryotes they are separated in time.
d. none of the above

22. During development, cells become


a. differentiated before they become determined.
b. determined before they become differentiated.
c. determined by the loss of genetic material.
d. differentiated by the loss of genetic material.

23. Determination can occur by


a. the action of cytoplasmic determinants.
b. induction by other cells.
c. the loss of chromosomes during cell division.
d. both a and b.

24. The rapid divisions that occur early in development are made possible by
shortening
a. M phase. c. G1 and G2 phases.
b. S phase. d. all of the above.

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ASIAWISE STUDY CENTER, INC
Asiawise Upgrade: NMAT Review
City of Naga

NMAT BIOLOGY MOCK EXAM


25. A pluripotent cell is one that can
a. become any cell type in an organism.
b. produce an indefnite supply of a single cell type.
c. produce a limited amount of a specifc cell type.
d. produce multiple cell types.

26. Plant meristems


a. are only present during development.
b. contain stem cells.
c. undergo meiosis.
d. all of the above

27. Pattern formation involves cells determining their position in the embryo. One
mechanism that can accomplish this is
a. the loss of genetic material.
b. alterations of chromosome structure.
c. gradients of morphogens.
d. changes in the cell cycle.

28. The process of nuclear reprogramming


a. is a normal part of pattern formation.
b. reverses the changes that occur during differentiation.
c. requires the introduction of new DNA.
d. is not possible with mammalian cells.

29. Which of the following statements regarding all species of chordates is false?
a. Chordates are deuterostomes.
b. A notochord is present in the embryo.
c. The notochord is surrounded by bone or cartilage.
d. All possess a postanal tail during embryonic development.

30. During embryonic development, a neural crest would be found in all of the
following chordates, except
a. cephalochordates. c. birds.
b. reptiles. d. mammals.

31. The ________ of the bony fsh evolved to counter the effects
of increased bone density.
a. gills c. swim bladder
b. jaws d. teeth

32. Why was the evolution of the pulmonary veins important for amphibians?
a. To move oxygen to and from the lungs
b. To increase the metabolic rate
c. For increased blood circulation to the brain
d. None of the above

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ASIAWISE STUDY CENTER, INC
Asiawise Upgrade: NMAT Review
City of Naga

NMAT BIOLOGY MOCK EXAM


33. Which of the following groups lacks a four-chambered heart?
a. Birds c. Mammals
b. Crocodilians d. Amphibians

34. Morphogenesis is the development of


a. growth form. c. a phase change.
b. reproductive structures. d. meristems.

35. Vernalization induces owering following exposure to


a. water. c. cold.
b. drought. d. heat.

36. Photoperiod is perceived by


a. phytochrome and cryptochrome.
b. phytochrome and chlorophyll.
c. cryptochrome and chlorophyll.
d. phytochrome, cryptochrome, and chlorophyll.

37. Your roommate is taking biology with you this semester and thinks he understands
short- and long-day plants. He purchases one plant of each type and decides to see
the difference himself by frst trying to cause the short-day plant to ower. He
places both plants under the same conditions and exposes each to a regimen of
10-hr days, expecting that the short-day plant will ower, and the long-day plant
will not. You play a trick on your roommate and reverse the outcome. Specifically,
what did you have to do?

a. Lengthen the time each is exposed to light


b. Shorten the time each is exposed to light
c. Quickly expose the plants to light during the middle of the night
d. None of the above

38. One of the most notable differences between gamete formation in most animals and
gamete formation in plants is that

a. plants produce gametes in somatic tissue, whereas animals produce gametes in


germ tissue.
b. plants produce gametes by mitosis, whereas animals produce gametes by
meiosis.
c. plants produce only one of each gamete, but animals produce many gametes.
d. plants produce gametes that are diploid, but animals produce gametes that are
haploid.

39. The amphibian decline is best described as


a. global disappearance of amphibian populations due to the pervasiveness of
local habitat destruction.
b. global shrinkage of amphibian populations due to global climate change.
c. the unexplained disappearance of golden toads in Costa Rica.
d. None of the above

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ASIAWISE STUDY CENTER, INC
Asiawise Upgrade: NMAT Review
City of Naga

NMAT BIOLOGY MOCK EXAM


40. Habitat fragmentation can negatively affect populations by
a. restricting gene ow among areas that were previously continuous.
b. increasing the relative amount of edge in suitable habitat patches.
c. creating patches that are too small to support a breeding population.
d. all of the above.

41. When populations are drastically reduced in size, genetic diversity and
heterozygosity
a. are likely to increase, enhancing the probability of extinction.
b. are likely to decrease, enhancing the probability of extinction.
c. are usually not factors that inuence the probability of extinction.
d. automatically respond in a way that protects populations from future changes.

42. A captive-breeding program followed by release to the wild


a. is very likely, all by itself, to save a species threatened by extinction.
b. is only likely to succeed when genetic variation of wild populations is very
low.
c. may be successful when combined with proper regulations and habitat
restoration.
d. None of the above

43. Which of the following statements concerning the somatic division of the peripheral
nervous system is INCORRECT?

(A) Its pathways innervate skeletal muscle.


(B) Its pathways are usually voluntary.
(C) Some of its pathways are referred to as reflex arcs.
(D) Its pathways always involve more than two neurons.

44. Which of the following is a function of the parasympathetic nervous system?

(A) Increasing blood sugar during periods of stress


(B) Dilating the pupils to enhance vision
(C) Increasing oxygen delivery to muscles
(D) Decreasing heart rate and blood pressure

45. Which of the following correctly traces the circulatory pathway?

(A) Superior vena cava right atrium right ventricle pulmonary artery
lungs pulmonary veins left atrium left ventricle aorta
(B) Superior vena cava left atrium left ventricle pulmonary artery
lungs pulmonary veins right atrium right ventricle aorta
(C) Aorta right atrium right ventricle pulmonary artery lungs
pulmonary veins left atrium left ventricle superior vena cava
(D) Superior vena cava right atrium right ventricle pulmonary veins
lungs pulmonary artery left atrium left ventricle aorta

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ASIAWISE STUDY CENTER, INC
Asiawise Upgrade: NMAT Review
City of Naga

NMAT BIOLOGY MOCK EXAM


46. Which of the following is true regarding arteries and veins?

(A) Arteries are thin-walled, muscular, and elastic, whereas veins are
thick-walled and inelastic.
(B) Arteries always conduct oxygenated blood, whereas veins always carry
deoxygenated blood.
(C) The blood pressure in the aorta is always higher than the pressure in the
superior vena cava.
(D) Arteries facilitate blood transport by using skeletal muscle contractions,
whereas veins make use of the pumping of the heart to push blood.

47. A person has a heart attack that primarily affects the wall between the two
ventricles. Which portion of the electrical conduction system is most likely
affected?

(A) AV node
(B) SA node
(C) Bundle of His
(D) Left ventricular muscle

48. In an experiment, enteropeptidase secretion was blocked. As a direct result, levels


of all of the following active enzymes would likely be affected EXCEPT:

(A) trypsin.
(B) aminopeptidase.
(C) chymotrypsin.
(D) carboxypeptidase A

49. Which of the following INCORRECTLY pairs a digestive hormone with its
function?

(A) Trypsinhydrolyzes specific peptide bonds


(B) Lactasehydrolyzes lactose to glucose and galactose
(C) Pancreatic amylasehydrolyzes starch to maltose
(D) Lipaseemulsifies fats

50. Which of the following correctly lists two organs in which proteins are digested?

(A) Mouth and stomach


(B) Stomach and large intestine
(C) Stomach and small intestine
(D) Small intestine and large intestine

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