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Performance and Component Efficiencies of a Two-Shaft

Gas Turbine Engine


AE 451A -- Experiments in Aerospace Engineering-III
Department of Aerospace Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, India, 208016

LIST OF SYMBOLS:
SI
Symbol Meaning SI Units Symbol Meaning Units
Specific heat at
Cp constant pressure J/(kg-K) P0 Total pressure Pa
ma air mass flow rate kg/s T0 Total temperature K
mf fuel mass flow rate kg/s T Static temperature K
Heating value of Ratio of specific
Q(hv) fuel MJ/kg heats -
P Static pressure Pa Density kg/m3

OBJECTIVE:
The objective is to understand performance of a gas turbine engine, and determine the
component efficiencies.

DESCRIPTION OF EXPERIMENT:
To investigate the performance of gas turbine over a wide speed range, a two-shaft gas
turbine, GT85-2, Gilbert, Gike & Gordan Ltd. England is used. Its cycle involves three
processes, namely, compression, combustion and expansion.

The compression is carried out by a single stage centrifugal compressor operating at


speed upto 90,000 rpm with pressure ratio upto 2.2. The compressor is driven by the first
stage turbine whose only function is to provide power for the compressor.

The discharge from the compressor is fed to the combustion chamber where it is used
to burn aviation turbine fuel (ATF) with operating air/fuel ratio of approx. 70:1.

The combustion products, at temperature upto 700 C are fed to the first turbine and
then to the power turbine where the residual gas power is absorbed by the load dynamometer.
Output power is approx. 7 kW.

The discharge from the power turbine is then exhausted to atmosphere.

CHECKLIST BEFORE STARTING:


1. Check water supply is ON for cooling purpose.
2. Check that oil supply pressure and temperature is appropriate.
3. Make sure there is sufficient fuel for a complete test run.

PROCEDURE:
1. Before starting the experiment, familiarize yourself with the various components of
the test set as well as the instrument panel. A schematic layout and panel
instrumentation with appropriate labels is given in the test setup.
2. Learn the starting procedure and operation of the test set with the help of Technical
Handbook provided by the manufacturer and the Laboratory staff. Do not operate the
test set in the absence of lab staff member.
3. The operational speed range of gas turbine set is as given below and must not be
exceeded.

Gas Generator speed: 50,000 < N1 < 90,000 rpm.


Power Turbine speed: 5,000 < N2 < 40,000 rpm.

OBSERVATIONS/MEASUREMENTS:
1. For the steady running of the set at a particular rpm, record the values of all the
variables such as pressure, temperature, etc. readable on the instrument panel at
different sections of gas turbine.
Note that all the pressure and temperature measurements are static values and may be
assumed to be the total values.

PRECAUTIONS:
1. Do not operate unless a lab technician or teaching assistant is present.
2. NEVER exceed the maximum fuel flow rate limit of 0.21 LPM.
3. While increasing the fuel supply, do so slowly, in the stipulated increments only.
4. Keep in mind the maximum power turbine speed is 40,000 rpm, if it exceeds 40,000
rpm give the load by using load dynamometer.
5. During the experiment, the gas turbine components will get very hot. Do not touch
any part of the gas turbine during the experiment behind the panel.
6. Stay well away from the exhaust of the gas turbine during operation.

CALCULATION PROCEDURE:
Block diagram with station numbering and example data set for calculation procedure

Ta T1 T3B T5
T2 T3A T3C T4

FAN POWER
COMPRESSOR COMBUSTOR TURBINE
TURBINE
a 01 02 03 04 04A 05

Station Number a 01 02 03 04 04A 05


Pressure (bar)
Temperature (oC)
Air mass Flow Rate
(kg/s)
Fuel flow rate
(LPM)

Station a - Ambient conditions and fan inlet


Station 01 - Fan exit and compressor inlet
Station 02 - Compressor exit and combustor inlet
Station 03 - Combustor exit and turbine inlet
Station 04 - Turbine exit
Station 04A - Power turbine inlet
Station 05 - Power turbine exit
1. Units Conversion and other assumptions:

0.95971
( ) = 1

()
( ) = 601000

Where, = 840 /3

Temperature is in kelvin.

Pressure is in bar & .

= 1.4 = 1.33


() = 1005 ( ) () = 1150 ( )
. .

2. Ambient Conditions:
Pressure (Pamb) = measured from barometer in lab or assume 1.01 bar
Temperature (Tamb) (K) = measured from thermometer in lab

3. Compressor Pressure Ratio (P02/P01):


Since the measured value is gauge pressure, we add ambient pressure to get absolute
pressure.

4. Compressor Efficiency:


( )

= ( )

5. Turbine Efficiency:

( )

= ( )

1( )

6. Air/Fuel ratio:

=

7. Equivalence Ratio:

8. Power:
= ( + ) () (05 04)

9. Overall Efficiency:
(+)()(0504)
= ( )
()

Where Q(hv) = 42 MJ/kg

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:


1. Record in a tabulated form the computed results for different fuel flow rate.
2. Discuss the behaviour of the observed and the calculated data obtained for this gas turbine
in the light of the general characteristics of the gas turbine learnt by you in lecture classes.

REFERENCES
[1] Cohen H, Rogers G, Saravanamuttoo H. Gas Turbine Theory. Fourth. 1996.
[2] Walsh P, Fletcher P. Gas Turbine Performance. Second. 2004.