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UNIT-2

DC MACHINES
In the energy hierarchy, Electrical energy holds the top rank. It is because, Electrical energy is
easily adaptable. At the same time, it can be easily controlled and is pollution free at the
consumer premises. The increase use of Electrical energy in different fields of daily life has been
primarily due to availability of a vast variety of Electrical Machinery for the purpose of
generation and utilisation.

ELECTRICAL MACHINERY

DC MACHINES AC MACHINES

DC GENERATOR DC MOTOR AC GENERATOR AC MOTOR

DC GENERATOR: An Electro Mechanical Device which converts Mechanical energy into


Electrical energy, which is DC (Direct Current) is called as DC Generator.

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF DC GENERATOR:

A DC Generator works on the principle of production of Dynamically Induced E.M.F.The


Principle is nothing but the Faradays Laws of Electro Magnetic Induction which states that
Whenever the Flux Linkages with a conductor changes then there is a production of EMF
in it.

Now the change in flux linkages can be obtained by providing a relative motion in between
Conductor and Magnetic Flux. This can be achieved by taking any one stationary and the other
one moving.

If conductor is moving and magnetic flux is stationary then the emf induced is called
Dynamically induced emf .The direction of induced emf can be found by using Flemings Right
Hand Rule.

Consider a Conductor of length (L), placed in a Magnetic field of Flux Density (B) and if the
conductor is rotated with a velocity (V), then the EMF induced in the conductor is given as

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E=BLV Volts.

Where V Velocity of conductor in m/sec

B Flux Density on Wb/2

L Length of Conductor in metres.

FLEMINGS RIGHT HAND RULE: It states that take the Thumb, Forefinger and the Centre
finger of Right hand and place mutually perpendicular to each other. Now by placing Thumb in
the direction of rotation of conductor, and forefinger in the direction of Magnetic flux, then the
Middle finger indicates the direction of Induced EMF.

Thumb Direction of rotation of conductor.

Forefinger Field Direction.

Centre finger EMF Direction.

SIMPLE LOOP GENERATOR:

Construction: It consists of two parts

1) Magnetic Field
2) Rectangular Coil
1) Magnetic Field: The magnetic field is provided by Permanent Magnet or an Electro Magnet.
It is also called as field and it is a stationary part.

2) Rectangular Coil: The Rectangular Coil consists of two conductors AB and CD .Those
conductors are connected together at one end and on other end they are connected to the load
through Brushes B1 , B2 and slip rings S1 , S2 .

The load is connected in between the points M and L. The Rectangular Coil is also known as
Armature and it is a rotating part. The Representation of Simple Loop Generator is shown below.

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WORKING OF SIMPLE LOOP GENERATOR:
As shown previously the simple loop generator, consider it and assume that Rectangular coil is
made to rotate in Clockwise Direction.

As it completes one revolution, makes an angle of 360 degrees. The emf induced in the
conductor changes due to the various positions it undergoes during one complete Revolution.
During the various positions, flux linkages with a conductor changes.

At 00 Position:

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In this position CD conductor will be in TOP position and AB conductor will be in BOTTOM
position. This position is known as Vertical position. In this position, the angle between the Field
axis and the Coil axis is 900 .At this position, the change of flux linkages are MINIMUM
.i.e., ZERO, But flux linkages are MAXIMUM.


So =0


Therefore e = N * =0

So E.M.F induced in the coil is zero. From the Rotation of Conductor from 00 to 900 , the
change of flux linkages are increasing, so simultaneously, E.M.F also gets increased.

At Position:

In this position AB conductor is towards North Pole and CD conductor will be towards South
Pole. This position is known as Parallel position. In this position, the angle between the Field
axis and the Coil axis is 00 .At this position, the change of flux linkages are MAXIMUM and
flux linkages are MINIMUM.


So exists, so emf will be induced.

Therefore e =

From the Rotation of Conductor from 900 to 1800 , the change of flux linkages are decreasing,
so simultaneously, E.M.F also gets decreased.

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At Position:

In this position AB conductor will be in TOP position and CD conductor will be in BOTTOM
position. This position is known as Vertical position. In this position, the angle between the Field
axis and the Coil axis is 900 .At this position, the change of flux linkages are MINIMUM
.i.e., ZERO, But flux linkages are MAXIMUM.


So =0


Therefore e = N * =0

So E.M.F induced in the coil is zero. So the conductor completes half revolution till now
(i.e., from 00 to 1800 ).During the next half revolution (i.e., from 1800 to 3600 ), emf induced in
the conductor will have same magnitude as like first half of the revolution but with opposite
polarity.

At Position:

In this position CD conductor is towards North pole and AB conductor will be towards South
pole. This position is known as Parallel position. In this position, the angle between the Field
axis and the Coil axis is 00 .At this position, the change of flux linkages are MAXIMUM and
flux linkages are MINIMUM.

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So exists, so emf will be induced.

Therefore e = -

Negative polarity is due to the change in the direction of the current to the load.

At Position:

In this position CD conductor will be in TOP position and AB conductor will be in BOTTOM
position. This position is known as Vertical position. In this position, the angle between the Field
axis and the Coil axis is 900 .At this position, the change of flux linkages are MINIMUM
.i.e., ZERO, But flux linkages are MAXIMUM.


So =0

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Therefore e = N * =0

So E.M.F induced in the coil is zero.

E.M.F WAVEFORM: After one complete Revolution, The emf values that are obtained at
different positions is shown below

So, we need Uni-directional current to flow through the load, but it is not happening. So in order
to convert Alternating current (AC) into Uni-directional current (DC) we are taking help of the
COMMUTATOR.

Now consider the Simple loop generator, with the commutator. The process of converting
Alternating current in Armature into Uni-directional current at load is called as Commutation.
Now consider the commutator with two segments (parts) which are insulated from each other
and the insulator material used is Mica. And the segments are also insulated from the shaft. The
flow of Current Direction during first half of Revolution and second half of revolution is shown
below.

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As we observe that in both the cycles, the current through the load is always from M to L, which
means there is no change in the current flow. Here the brushes are constant (fixed) and
commutator rotates with the conductors also .Hence Uni-directional current flow is achieved
with the help of commutator, which is a pulsating DC and we can convert that pulsating DC by
means of Filter. The generated EMF waveform is shown below.

CONSTRUCTION DETAILS OF DC MACHINE: (DC GENERATOR)

The essential parts of a DC Machine are

1) Yoke or Magnetic frame


2) Pole core and Pole shoe
3) Field winding
4) Armature core
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5) Armature winding
6) Commutator
7) Brushes and Bearings
8) Lifting eye (or) Eye bolt
9) Base

1. Yoke or Magnetic frame: It has two purposes.


(a) To act as a protective cover for the whole machine.
(b) To provide Mechanical support for the poles.

The yoke carries half the flux is produced by the poles. In small generators, Yokes are made of
Cast iron, but for Large Machines usually Cast steel or Rolled Steel is employed.

2. Pole core and Pole shoe: The field poles or field magnets are divided into two parts; they
are Pole core and pole shoe.

Pole core: It is bolted to the yoke by means of screws. The field winding wounded to pole core
produces a flux, when the supply is given to the exciting coils.

Pole shoe: It serves two purposes.

(a) They support the exciting coils.


(b) To provide uniform magnetic field.

Both pole core and pole shoe are laminated to reduce iron losses. These are made up of Cast Iron
or Cast Steel. The thickness of laminations is from 0.1mm to 0.25 mm.

3. Field winding: They are made up of Copper. When current is passed through these coils,
they Electro magnetise the poles which produce the necessary flux that is cut by the
revolving armature conductors.

4. Armature Core: The purpose is to hold the armature conductors and to rotate the armature
winding in that magnetic field and in addition to this its most important function is to
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provide a path of low reluctance for the flux passing from one pole to other pole. It is made
up of Silicon Steel material, which provides Low reluctance and high permeability. Core is a
laminated one in order to reduce the losses due to the eddy currents. The thicknesses of the
laminations are 0.5 mm.

5. Armature Winding: The armature conductors are placed in the armature slots which are
lined with tough insulated material and the conductors are insulated from each other .The
winding is made up of copper material. Its purpose is to induce an E.M.F in it, whenever it
cuts the Magnetic flux.

6. Commutator: The purpose of commutator is to convert alternating signal to unidirectional


signal. It is an arrangement consisting of commutator segments separated by some insulation.
Its shape is cylindrical. Segments are made up of copper and insulation material is mica.

7. Brushes and Bearings: The purpose of brush is to collect the current from the armature and
supply it to the external load .Brushes is made up of Carbon and Graphite. These brushes are
in the shape of rectangular block. These brushes are housed in brush holders usually of Box
type variety.

The purpose of bearings is to provide friction less motion. There are two types of bearings.
(a) Ball Bearings
(b) Roller Bearings

8. Lifting eye (or) eye bolt: The purpose of lifting eye is to carry the machine from one place
to another place.

9. Base: Provides Mechanical strength to the whole machine.

TYPES OF ARMATURE WINDINGS:

Armature windings are of two types: a) Lap winding b) Wave winding

a) Lap winding: Consider Z=Total number of armature conductors


P=Total number of poles in the machine

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Procedure:

1. Divide Z into P parts.

2. Connect each part in series

3. Connect all the series connected parts in parallel. Hence the winding formed is Lap winding.

Here the number of parallel paths (A) = P

b) Wave winding: Consider Z=Total number of armature conductors

Procedure:

1. Divide Z into 2 parts.

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2. Connect each part ( Conductors) in series.
2

3. Connect the two series connected parts in parallel. Hence the winding formed is Wave
winding.

Here the number of parallel paths (A) = 2

E.M.F EQUATION OF A GENERATOR:

Consider

Z= Total number of armature conductors

= No. of slots * conductors per slot

P= Total no of poles in machine

= Flux per pole in webres

N=Speed of armature in Revolution per minute (RPM)

A= No. of Parallel paths in armature windings

Eg= E.M.F generated in any one of the Parallel paths

= Average induced emf per conductor (since n=1)

Suppose flux cut per conductor in one revolution is given as = P * Webres



No.of revolutions per second = 60

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1 60
Time taken by the conductor to complete 1 revolution is given as dt = =
60


Average emf per conductor =

P P
= 60 = volts
60

The number of conductors present in each parallel path is given as


Total no.of conductors
=
No.of Parallel paths

E.M.F induced by each parallel path (Eg) = E.M.F induced per conductor * No. of conductors
present in each parallel path
P
Eg = *
60


Eg = * volts.

For Lap winding, A = P,


P
THEN Eg = * volts. = volts
60 P

For Wave winding, A = 2,



THEN Eg = * volts.

CLASSIFICATION OF DC GENERATORS:

DC generators can be classified based on the type of Excitation provided to the field winding.
There are two types of Excitations.

1. Separately Excitation: In this the field winding is excited with some external DC source
2. Self Excitation: If the field winding is excited with the own source (Generator) itself. This
can be achieved by providing a connection between the field winding and armature.

Classification of DC generators is shown below.

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Symbolic Representation of DC Generator:

Field

Armature

1. Separately Excited DC Generators:

Vdc = External DC Source

Rf= Resistance of field winding

Ra= Resistance of Armature

Ia= Armature current

Eg= Generated emf

V= Load Voltage (or) Terminal Voltage

Il= Load current

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The Generated Voltage in the armature is Eg; But the Eg is not appearing across terminals because
of voltage drop. The resistance offered by the armature will cause some voltage drop (Ia Ra) and
some voltage drop across the brushes (B.D).After overcoming these voltage drops, the remaining
voltage will be appearing across the Load.

V= Eg (Voltage Drops)

V= Eg (Ia Ra + B.D)

V= Eg Ia Ra B.D B.D Means Brush Drop

Here Ia = Il

Generated Power (Pg) = Eg Ia Watts


Load Power (Pl) = V Il Watts

2. Self Excited DC Generators:

a) Series Generator: If the field winding is connected in series with the armature, then it is
called as Series Generator and the field winding is called series field winding.

Rse = Resistance of Series field winding

Ise = Current in Series field winding

Here Ia = Il = Ise

V= Eg (Voltage Drops)

V= Eg (Ia Ra + B.D + Ise Rse)

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V= Eg (Ia (Ra +Rse) + B.D) (Since Ia = Ise )

V= Eg Ia (Ra +Rse) - B.D Ia Ra Means Armature Resistance Drop

Ise Rse Means Series Resistance Drop

B.D Means Brush Drop

In case of self excited generators, the initial emf will be generated by the RESIDUAL FLUX.
Residual flux means the flux which is present in the winding without any current passage.
Because of residual flux, an emf is induced in the armature that will supply current to field
winding. This process will continue until to generate the rated voltage.

Generated Power (Pg) = Eg Ia Watts


Load Power (Pl) = V Il Watts

b) Shunt Generator: If the field winding is connected in parallel with the armature, then it is
called as Shunt Generator and the field winding is called Shunt field winding.

Rsh= Resistance of Shunt field winding

Ish= Current in Shunt field winding

Applying KCL at Node 1

Ia = Il + Ish
Terminal Voltage (V) = Eg (Voltage Drops)
(V) = Eg (Ia Ra + B.D)

(V) = Eg Ia Ra B.D Ia Ra Means Armature Resistance Drop

B.D Means Brush Drop


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Voltage across the load and Shunt field winding are same due to they are parallel to each other.

Voltage across Shunt field winding is = Ish Rsh

Therefore Ish Rsh = V



Ish =

Generated Power (Pg) = Eg Ia Watts


Load Power (Pl) = V Il Watts

c) Compound Generator: If the field winding is divided into two parts and in which one part
is connected in series with the armature and other part is connected in parallel with the
armature, then it is called as Compound Generator.

Long Shunt Compound Generator: If the shunt field winding is connected in parallel to the
series combination of series field winding and armature, then the generator is called as Long
Shunt Compound Generator.

Rsh= Resistance of Shunt field winding

Ish= Current in Shunt field winding

Rse = Resistance of Series field winding

Ise = Current in Series field winding

Here Ia = Ise, Applying KCL at Node A

Ise = Il + Ish & Similarly Ia = Il + Ish

V= Eg (Voltage Drops)

V= Eg (Ia Ra + B.D + Ise Rse)


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V= Eg (Ia (Ra +Rse) + B.D) (Since Ia = Ise )

V= Eg Ia (Ra +Rse) - B.D Ia Ra Means Armature Resistance Drop

Ise Rse Means Series Resistance Drop

B.D Means Brush Drop

Voltage across the load and Shunt field winding are same due to they are parallel to each other.

Voltage across Shunt field winding is = Ish Rsh

Therefore Ish Rsh = V



Ish =

Short Shunt Compound Generator: If the shunt field winding is directly connected in
parallel to the armature and that combination is connected in series with the series field
winding, then the generator is called as Short Shunt Compound Generator.

Rsh= Resistance of Shunt field winding

Ish= Current in Shunt field winding

Rse = Resistance of Series field winding

Ise = Current in Series field winding

Here Ise = Il, and Applying KCL at Node A

Ia = Ise + Ish

V= Eg (Voltage Drops)

V= Eg (Ia Ra + B.D + Ise Rse)

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V= Eg Ia Ra Ise Rse B.D

V= Eg Ia Ra Ise Rse B.D Ia Ra Means Armature Resistance Drop

Ise Rse Means Series Resistance Drop

B.D Means Brush Drop

Voltage across the Armature and Shunt field winding are same due to they are parallel to each
other.

Voltage across Rsh is = Ish Rsh

Voltage across Armature is = Eg Ia Ra B.D

Therefore Ish Rsh = Eg Ia Ra B.D


.
Ish =

TYPES OF DC MOTORS

There are three types of DC motors

1. DC Shunt Motor
2. DC Series Motor
3. DC Compound Motor

1. DC Shunt Motor: If the Field Winding and Armature both are connected in parallel then the
type of motor is called Shunt Motor. The equivalent circuit is shown below.

V = Input Voltage
Il = Input Current
Ia= Armature Current
Ish = Current in Shunt field winding
Ra = Armature Resistance

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Rsh= Resistance of Shunt field winding
Applying KCL at Node (A)

I l = Ia+ Ish

Applying KVL at loop (1)

Terminal Voltage (V) = Eb + (Voltage Drops)

(V) = Eb + (Ia Ra + B.D)

Eb = V - Ia Ra - B.D Ia Ra Means Armature Resistance Drop

B.D Means Brush Drop

Voltage across the load and Shunt field winding are same due to they are parallel to each other.

Voltage across Shunt field winding is Ish Rsh

Therefore Ish Rsh = V



Ish =

Input Power = V Il Watts

Output Power = Eb Ia Watts

2. DC Series Motor: If the Field Winding and Armature both are connected in Series then the
type of motor is called Series Motor. The equivalent circuit is shown below.

V = Input Voltage
Il = Input Current
Ise = Current in Series field winding

Ia= Armature Current


Ra = Armature Resistance

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Rse = Resistance of Series field winding

Here Ia = Il = Ise

Terminal Voltage (V) = Eb + (Voltage Drops)

Eb = V (Ia Ra + B.D + Ise Rse)

Eb = V (Ia (Ra +Rse) + B.D) (Since Ia = Ise )

Eb = V Ia (Ra +Rse) - B.D Ia Ra Means Armature Resistance Drop

Ise Rse Means Series Resistance Drop

B.D Means Brush Drop

3. Dc Compound Motor: Based on the connections between Series Field and Shunt Field
Winding and Armature there are two types of Motors
a) DC Long Shunt Compound Motor: If the Shunt Field Winding is connected in parallel to the
series combination of Series Field Winding and Armature then the motor is called Long
Shunt Compound Motor.

The equivalent circuit is shown below.

Ish= Current in Shunt field winding

Ise = Current in Series field winding

Rse = Resistance of Series field winding

Rsh= Resistance of Shunt field winding


Ra = Armature Resistance
Applying KCL at Node (A)

Il = Ise + Ish & Similarly Il = Ia + Ish ( Since Ia = Ise )

Terminal Voltage (V) = Eb + (Voltage Drops)

Eb = V (Ia Ra + B.D + Ise Rse)

Eb = V (Ia (Ra +Rse) + B.D) (Since Ia = Ise )


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Eb = V Ia (Ra +Rse) - B.D Ia Ra Means Armature Resistance Drop

Ise Rse Means Series Resistance Drop

B.D Means Brush Drop

Voltage across the load and Shunt field winding are same due to they are parallel to each other.

Voltage across Shunt field winding is = Ish Rsh

Therefore Ish Rsh = V



Ish =

b) Dc Short Shunt Compound Motor: if the shunt field winging is connected in parallel to the
armature and the whole connection is connected in series to the series field winding then the
motor is called long shunt compound motor. The equivalent circuit is shown below.

Ish= Current in Shunt field winding

Ise = Current in Series field winding

Rse = Resistance of Series field winding

Rsh= Resistance of Shunt field winding


Ra = Armature Resistance

Here Ise = Il, and Applying KCL at Node A

Ia = Ise + Ish

Terminal Voltage (V) = Eb + (Voltage Drops)

Eb = V (Ia Ra +Ise Rse + B.D)

Eb = V Ia Ra Ise Rse B.D Ia Ra Means Armature Resistance Drop

Ise Rse Means Series Resistance Drop

B.D Means Brush Drop

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As there are two fields windings two fluxes will be there. Based on the direction of Shunt Field
Flux () and Series Field Flux () , there are two type of Motors.

1. Cumulative Compound Motor: If the Shunt Field Flux and Series Field Flux are in same
direction then the type of motor is called Cumulative Compound Motor. Here () will be
increasing which is shown below

= ( + )

2. Differential Compound Motor: If the Shunt Field Flux and Series Field Flux are in opposite
direction, then the type of motor is called Cumulative compound motor. Here () will be
Decreasing which is shown below

= ( )

TORQUE EQUATION OF DC MOTOR:

Torque is nothing but turning on twisting moment of a force about an axis is given by the
product of force and the radius at which this force acts.

Let us consider an example, a pulley of radius (r) metre, acted upon by a force for which the
pulley rotates at speed (N) as shown below

Torque =F * r (N-m) -------------- (A)

Work done by this force in one revolution = Force * Distance

W = F * 2r Joules.

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Power Developed =

F 2r 1
= 1 (Since time for 1 revolution= )

P = F * 2r * N watt (or) joule/second.

P = (F *r ) * 2N --------------(B) Where N is in RPS(Revolutions per second)

As we know that 2N = Angular Velocity () in radians/second and Torque =F * r

Substitute the above values in equation (B)

P = T * Watt --------------(C)
2N
If N is given in RPM, then = rad/sec
60

2N 2NT
Then P = T * Therefore P = Watt --------------- (D)
60 60

There are two types of Torque generated in the DC Motor. They are

1. Armature Torque (Ta)


2. Shaft Torque (Tsh)

It is shown through the figure

Armature torque: The torque produced by the Armature of a DC Motor is known as Armature
Torque (Ta).

DERIVATION:

Let us consider the following terms

Eb = Back Emf induced in the armature in volts

Ia = Armature Current in Amps

Ta = Armature Torque in N-m

= Angular Velocity in rad/sec

Power developed in Armature in terms of Electrical parameters is given by Pm = Eb Ia -------- (1)

Power developed in Armature in terms of Mechanical parameters is given by Pm = Ta* ----- (2)

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Equating (1) and (2) as both are equal

Eb Ia = Ta*
2N 2N
Eb Ia = Ta * (Since = )
60 60
60
Ta = Eb Ia * 2N
P 60 P
Ta = * * Ia * 2N (Since Eb = * )
60 60
1 P
Ta = * * Ia
2

= . ( ) Ia in N-m

In the above expression (P, A, Z) are constants, so Ia which means as (Ia) increases
Torque (Ta) also increases.

Shaft Torque: The Torque which is available at the shaft of a Motor is called Shaft Torque.This
is also known as Useful Torque.

DERIVATION: Let us consider the following terms

Tsh = Shaft Torque in (N-m)

= Angular Speed in rad/sec

Po = Power available at the shaft (or) Useful power.

As we did previously, Power = T *

Po = Tsh *

Tsh =

60 2N
Tsh = (Since = )
2N 60

Tsh = 9.55 * in N-m

Here Po = Useful Power, Po = Pm Mechanical Losses

It means the power generated at the armature after meeting the losses, the remaining power is
available at the shaft which is so called as Useful Power (Po).

Loss of Torque: Some Torque will be lost in between Armature and Shaft due to Mechanical
Losses .This torque is called as Loss of Torque. Given as TL = Ta Tsh .

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STARTING OF DC SHUNT MOTOR:

When DC Motor is directly connected to supply lines, it draws heavy current which will damage
Armature winding and in order to avoid that Starters are used during Starting conditions of motor
which will control Initial Excessive Current. Let us consider an example. Consider a 220V DC
Shunt motor with an armature resistance of 0.05 . During starting conditions when DC supply
is given to motor, Back emf at that instant will be zero and we know that

Eb = V Ia Ra
V Eb
Ia =
Ra

Since Eb = 0 Initially
220 0
Then Ia = = 4400 A
0.05

If we consider the current value ,which is very excessive which will damage the armature
windings ,commutator and brushes because of low Armature resistance ( Ra).In order to avoid
this some extra resistance is connected in series with armature at the time of starting. But after
starting it can be removed because Motor can develop Back Emf and itself Controls the armature
current.

The equipment which is used for starting of a DC Shunt Motor is called 3-POINT STARTER.

WORKING OF 3-POINT STARTER:

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The figure represents the internal wiring of a starter. The three terminals L, F, A of the Starting
Box are marked. The Point (L) is directly connected to the supply and the other end is connected
to the Starting Arm (Handle) through the Over Current Release. The Point (A) one end is
connected to the Armature Terminal and the other end is connected to the (Rs).The Point (F) one
end is connected to the field winding of Motor and its other end is connected to the Brass Arc
through the No Voltage Coil.

In this method, the Starting Arm (Handle) is moved towards right hand position through different
studs .When DC supply is given to the shunt motor, then starting handle is placed at Stud
Number (1).Then the DC Supply is automatically connected to field winding through Brass Arc.
At this instant an Extra Resistance (Rs) is connected with the (Ra).
V Eb V
Then Armature Current (Ia) = = (Since Initially Eb = 0)
Ra+ Rs Ra+ Rs

Hence, Ia will reduce as the Handle is moving from the stud (1) to stud number (2).The extra
resistance will be cut step by step when the arm is further moved, and when the arm reaches
running position the resistance is all cut out. So Motor will develop rated speed and Back emf
(Eb) will also be developed and itself will control Ia, given by the equation
V Eb
(Ia) =
Ra+ Rs

The Handle moves over the various studs against a strong spring which tends to move back again
the handle to OFF (or) starting position. There is a Soft Iron piece attached to the arm which
during the ON or Running position is attracted and held by an Electro Magnet which is being
energised by the shunt current. It is also known as Hold-On Coil or No Voltage Coil.

The normal function of Hold-On Coil is to hold on the Handle in the running position by soft
iron and in case of supply failure; it leaves the handle to OFF position, as it is de-energised. This
prevents the stationary Armature from being put across the lines again, when the supply is
restored (given again) after temporary shut down.

The Over Current Release consists of an Electro Magnet which will make the Starter operation
under Over load condition with the help of moving Iron piece. The Electro Magnet is connected
in the supply line. If the Motor becomes Overloaded beyond the certain value, then Moving Iron
piece is lifted and short circuits the No Voltage Coil to which the Handle is connected .Hence the
Arm (or) Handle is released and returns to OFF position.

SWINBURNES TEST:

It is an Indirect Method of testing DC Motors. It means the motor is not loaded directly but the
losses and efficiency at different loads can be estimated. It is commonly used to test for Shunt
Motors. Since Series Motors cannot be started without Load, the No-Load Tests cannot be
performed on DC Series Motors.

It is a simple method in which the losses are measured separately and from that data, efficiency
at any desired load can be predetermined in advance. In this test the flux in the Machines is
practically constant, i.e, for shunt and Compound Motor.

Prepared by A.S.S.Veerendra babu


The DC Motor is run as a DC Shunt Motor at No Load. The voltage applied to the Motor is
adjusted to the rated voltage of the motor. The speed is set to its rated value by means of the
rheostat in the field section.

The equivalent circuit is shown below.

The No-Load Current (Io) is measured by Ammeter (A1), where as Shunt field current(Ish) is
measured by Ammeter (A2).The No Load Armature current is given by

Iao = Io- Ish

Let supply voltage = V

No Load Input Power = V*Io Watts

Power Input to Armature = V*Iao

= V* (Io- Ish) Watts

Power input to Shunt = V * Ish Watts

No Load input power to armature supplies the following

1. Iron losses in the core


2. Friction losses in the core
3. Windage losses
4. Armature Copper losses
5. Shunt Field copper losses

As we know that Input power= Losses + Output power

In this no load condition output power of the Motor is Zero.

So, Input power= Losses only

V*Io = Wi + Wm + 2 Rsh + 2 Ra
V*Io = Wc + 2 Ra (Since Constant Losses = Wi + Wm + 2 Rsh)

The Armature Resistance (Ra) of the winding should be measured at working Temperature,
because the temperature increases which affects the Resistance value.
Prepared by A.S.S.Veerendra babu
At 00 c, Ra=Ro and at 0 c Ra=Rt

Where Rt=Ro (1 + t) where is temperature coefficient

Wc = V*Io - 2 Ra

Hence Constant Losses occurring in DC Machines can be calculated by the readings noted above
and by measuring the resistance of the armature winding. The value of (Wc) thus obtained can be
used for calculating the efficiency of DC Machine as a Motor or a Generator at any Load.

Calculating the Efficiency of DC Motor Based on the Test Results:

If No load test results for a DC motor are as follows

No Load Input Power = V*Io Watts

Line current = Io

No Load Armature Current (Iao) = Io- Ish

No load Input power = Losses only (Since output power of the Motor is Zero)

V*Io = Wc + 2 Ra
Wc = V*Io - 2 Ra

At Full Load:

Load current = IL

Armature current (IaL) = IL Ish

Armature Copper losses at IL = 2 Ra

Input Power to the Motor = V * IL

Total Losses = Wc + 2 Ra
Total output = Input Total Losses
= V* IL Wc 2 Ra
V IL Wc 2 Ra
% Efficiency () = * 100
V IL


Similarly at Half Load Condition Becomes , Then the Efficiency becomes as
2

V Wc 12 Ra
% Efficiency () = 2
* 100 Where ( 1 = Ish )
V IL 2

Prepared by A.S.S.Veerendra babu


SPEED CONTROL METHODS OF DC SHUNT MOTOR:
Factors affecting the speed of a DC Motor

As we know that Eb = *

Eb (Since P , A , Z , 60 are Constants)


Eb
----- equation 1

VIa Ra
( Since Eb = V Ia Ra ) ----- equation 1

From the above equation, we observe that the voltage applied (V) is very high when compared to
voltage drop (Ia Ra) and Ia (Ra+ Rse) due to small value of Ra and Rse.
Eb VIa Ra
Since From eq 1 & eq 2 ( )

Eb

Hence

From the above equation, we can conclude the factors affecting the speed of a DC Motor.

1. Flux ()
2. The Voltage across the Armature
3. The Applied Voltage (V)

For each factor there is a method available. They are

1. Flux Control Method


2. Armature Voltage control Method (or) Rheostatic Control Method
3. Voltage Control Method

1. Flux Control Method: In this method, we are controlling the flux produced in the Motor. As
we know that Shunt field flux () depend on Shunt field current (Ish).If you want to vary
(change) the , there is a need to change the Ish value.So we can change (or) control the
shunt field current (Ish) by providing a RHEOSTAT in series with the shunt field winding.
The Equivalent circuit is as shown below

Prepared by A.S.S.Veerendra babu


Assume, initially the rheostat is in minimum position. At this time, if we are applying a rated
voltage to the motor then it will run at some speed. If we are increasing Rheostat value from
minimum to Maximum Value, the shunt field current decreases and flux value ( ) also
decreases since ( Ish )
1
Hence the Speed of the Machine will be increased (Since ).In this method, the speed can

be controlled from Rated Speed to Above Rated speed. Here we are not controlling Eb, But Eb
value is also changing because the flux changes (Since Eb )




Eb1 Eb2
1 and 2
1 2

Advantages:

a) It provides simple and easy Speed control.


b) We can control the speed by using this method for above rated speeds.
c) As the field current is small, the size of the rheostat required is small.
d) Power loss in the Rheostat will be less because of less value of shunt field current.

Disadvantages:

a) The speed control below normal rated speed is not possible as flux can be increased only up
to its rated value.
1
b) As flux reduces, speed increases (Since ) .But High speed affects the commutation

making the motor operation unstable. So, there is a limit to the maximum speed above
normal speed which is possible by this method.

2. Armature Voltage Control Method: In this method we are taking the flux as a constant one
and we are controlling the Back emf (Eb) to control the speed since ( Eb ) .But Eb is
given as Eb = V Ia Ra .So in order to control or to change (Eb) ,there should be a change in
the voltage drop which can be done by changing Ra value. So for controlling Armature
Resistance (Ra) value, we will insert a rheostat in series with the armature of the Motor. This
method is also known as Rheostatic Control Method.
The Equivalent circuit is as shown below

Prepared by A.S.S.Veerendra babu


Initially assume the rated voltage is applied to the motor and the rheostat value is in minimum
position at this position the motor will be running at rated speed as the rheostat is increased from
minimum to maximum position value the armature resistance increases the voltage drop also
increases and finally Eb decreases and speed also decreases here we are controlling the armature
resistance here we can control the speed below the rated speed les us consider

Advantages:

1. Easy and smooth speed control below normal is possible

Disadvantages:

1. As the entire armature current passes through the external resistance there are more power
losses.
2. As armature current is more than field current rheostat required is of large size and capacity.
3. Speed above rated is not possible by this method.
4. This method needs expensive heat dissipation arrangements.

APPLICATIONS OF D.C GENERATORS:

Separately Excited Generators:

These are used for speed control of D.C motors over a large range.
These are used in areas where a wide range of terminal voltage is required.

Self Excited Generators:

1. Shunt Generators:
These are used as exciters for exciting the field of Synchronous Machines.
These are used for battery charging because its terminal voltage is almost constant or can be
kept constant.
Commonly used in ordinary lighting purposes and power supply purposes.

Prepared by A.S.S.Veerendra babu


2. Series Generators:
These are not used for power supply because of their rising characteristics.
Special purposes such as supplying the field current for regenerative breaking of D.C
locomotives (Railway Service).

3. Compound Generators:
Compound generators are used where constant terminal voltages have to be maintained for
different loading conditions.
a) Cumulatively Compound Generator: These are for domestic lighting purposes and for motor
driving which require dc supply at constant voltage and for heavy power service such as
electric railways.
b) Differential Compound Generator: The use of this type of generators is very rare and it is
used for special application like arc welding.

APPLICATIONS OF D.C MOTORS:

1. D.C. Shunt Motor:


Lathes
Fans
Belt-Driven Applications
In Industrial and Automotive Applications where great amount of torque precision is required

2. D.C. Series Motor:


Electric Traction
High speed tools.
Small Electrical Appliances
Winches
Hoists

3. D.C. Compound Motor:


Rolling mills and other loads requiring large Momentary Torques.
Reciprocating Machines
Presses
Machine Tools
Agitators And Mixers

Prepared by A.S.S.Veerendra babu