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Nonlinear effects in WDM systems

Wang jianquan, Wu Sunning1, Cheng Xiaofei2, Gu Wanyi3, IEEE member


Optical communication center; Beijing University of Posts & Telecommunications, Beijing,
China.

ABSTRACT

A synthetical equation set about optical fiber nonlinear in WDM transmission system is proposed in this paper. A
supplementary Split-Step Fourier Method to solve the equation is proposed too. The equation and its numerical method
can be used to analyze different fiber nonlinear effects, which will also do great help to simulating and analyzing the
performance of WDM transmission system.

Key words: Split-Step Fourier Method, Four Wave Mixing(FWM), Wavelength division multiplexing(WDM),
ALL-OPTICAL NETWORKS, Coherent Crosstalk.

1. INTRODUCTION

Detailed research has been done on the fiber nonlinear effects [1], especially on the nonlinear effects of single
channel. Nowadays, the rapid development of information technology and the sharp increase of communication
capacity drive up the WDM technology dramatically, and WDM has been widely applied. With the explosive expand of
todays communication traffic, the need of ultra-speed and long-haul of fiber communication is enhanced. As far as the
development trend of WDM technology is concerned, the channel spacing becomes smaller, the speed of single-channel
becomes higher and the haul of transmit becomes longer. The increasing haul of non-electronical relay need optical
amplifier on the line to compensate the loss, and higher power, smaller dispersion and channel spacing will cause
nonlinear effects behaving severe. Of all the nonlinear effects, FWM is the most severe in equal channel spacing WDM
system. Because FWM not only causes impairment of the channel power, but also produces many new frequencies
which cause homodyne crosstalk that affects SNR of the channel greatly. Many research on how to avoid FWM effect
have been reported in [3]+[4]+[5]+[6]. Generally, FWM can be avoided by adopting unequal channel spacing
technology. But few synthetical equations about nonlinear effects are proposed in detail. This paper presents a
synthetical equation set about nonlinear effects in multi-channel system and gives a numerical method to solve these
equations.

2. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS

Considering the condition that signal transmission in single channel system, we can describe which using the


jackie3003@263.net; phone +86-10-62283383; fax +86-10-62284327; Optical communication center; Beijing
University of Posts & Telecommunications optical. BOX: 128, Number 10, Xitucheng road, Beijing, China.
1
shiningwu@smth.org
2
ch_xf@263.net
3
wyg@bupt.edu.cn.

Optical Fiber and Planar Waveguide Technology, Shuisheng Jian, Yanming Liu, Editors,
16 Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 4579, APOC 2001, Beijing, China (2001) 2001 SPIE 0277-786X/01/$15.00

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following equation:

u '' 2u i 2
i + u + u u = 0 1
z 2 t 2
2

Since there is no consideration about the effects between channels in Eq.(1), it cannot be adopted in the
circumstance that signal transmission in WDM systems. When channel spacing and the dispersion coefficient are large,
the effects between channels can be ignored, e.g. the channel spacing is larger than 1.5nm [2]. While if channel spacing
and the dispersion coefficient are small, the nonlinear effects between channels then should be taken into account. To
analyze the nonlinear effects in detail, some equations under WDM conditions should be given as,

Under multi-channel condition, the total electric field E is given by

N
1
E (z , t ) = F (x , y )A (z , t ) exp ( j
i i i t j i z ) + c .c . 2
2 i =1

where Ai ( z , t ) is slowly varying amplitude of a channel i, i is center frequency of the channel i and i is
propagation constant, c.c. stands for complex conjugate.

When N=3, the nonlinear component PNL can be given by

PNL ( z, t ) = 0 (3) E 3 (z , t ) (3)

Assuming the number of channels is N, the equation of signal transmission of the ith channel can be expressed as


Ai j 2 Ai 1 3 Ai 2 2
Ai + Ai + i 1 + i2 i3 = j Ai + g ki A k Ai
z 2 t 2 t 2 6 t 3 k =1 (4)
k i

+ j d lm Al A m A n* exp [ j ( i + n l m )z ] f lmn i {1, , N }


l n ,m n

i=l+ m n

1 l = m (L eff )2
k i 1
Lcoh 1
where d lm = g ki = 1 f lmn = ,
2 l m k i L NL . LW
Leff n m n l

A j (T j ) = A j (Ti + ij ) , j = l , m, n . And

1 1 1
ij = z (D i + D j )(i j ) (5)

v gi v gj 2

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1 L = T0 1 exp( L )
2
2 2 T0
Lcoh = = , L = , L = , W , Leff =
k M 2 s
2 D
2
NL
P 0 d

n2 0 1 1
= and d = i1 (i 1)1 = .
cAeff g (i ) g (i 1 )

where Ld is the dispersion length, LNL is the nonlinear length, LW is the walk-off length, Lcoh is the coherence length,

and Leff is the fiber effective length respectively.

In addition, T0 is pulse width, d is the walked-off parameter, P0 is the single channel power, is the nonlinear

factor, is the attenuation factor respectively, and coefficient g ki and flmn in equation (4) express weight
coefficient.

is equal to 2 when the two optical fields at different wavelengths are linearly polarized along one of the
principal axes of a polarization-preserving fiber that they maintain their polarization during propagation. And is
equal to 2/3 when coupling between orthogonal polarized components. If we only consider the effects between channels,
leaving the walked-off effect out of consideration, then should be equal to 2.

Equation (4) includes fiber loss, GVD, SPM, XPM and FWM effects. Its a quite complicated nonlinear set of
equations. Under the condition that n denotes the number of channels of WDM system, the complexity and computing
amount of solving the problem will increase exponentially as n increases.

The effects of the fiber loss, dispersion and SPM are independent to the number of channels and channel spacing,
But XPM and FWM effects are different. Different channels have different effect on a certain channel because of XPM
and FWM effects. The interaction of adjacent channels will be greater than that of the non-adjacent channels, which
makes the equation (4) more complex. Because it express not only the interaction between channels but also the
different effect among different channels. That is to say, the weight coefficient should be expressed in the equation set.

If the weight coefficient of interaction is 1when the spacing between 2 channels is W, the weight coefficient will
be 1/n when the spacing between 2 channels will be nW. Except for having relation with the channel spacing, nonlinear
effects are limited by the power of single channel signal. In view of the signal power decreases during the transmission,
the nonlinear effects will also be attenuated. Therefore, the weight coefficient of non-adjacent channels will be less than
1/n because the fold-time of the two channels is too short, and their power has been lower than the original power
when they fold together.

3. NUMERICAL METHODS

3.1 simplification and transformation

By making the transformation Ti = t z i1 , and using equation (5), we can obtain

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j 2 Ai 1 3 Ai
+ g ki Ak (T k )
2 2
Ai + Ai + i 2 i3 = j Ai Ai
z 2 2 t 2 6 t 3 k =1 (6)

k i

+ j d lm Al (T l )Am (T m ) An* (T n )exp [ j ( i + n l m )z ] f lmn i {1, , N }


l n ,m n

i=l+mn

The eigenvalue can be expanded in a Taylor series about the carrier frequency 0 as follows,

1 1
( ) = 0 + 1 ( 0 ) + 2 ( 0 )2 + 3 ( 0 )3 + (7)
2 6

At the same time, according to i = l + m n , lmni can be expressed as

2 ( 0 )
lmni = i + n l m = [ ( i 0 ) + ( n 0 ) ( l 0 ) ( n 0 ) ]
2 2 2 2

2
3 ( 0 )
+
6
[
( i 0 )3 + ( n 0 )3 ( l 0 )3 ( m 0 )3 ] (8)

2 ( 0 ) ( )
=
2
( i2 + n2 l2 m2 ) + 3 0 ( i3 + n3 l3 m3 )
6

where i ,l , m, n = i , l , m, n 0 .


j 2 Ai 1 3 Ai
+ g ki Ak (T k )
2 2
Ai + Ai + i 2 i3 = j Ai Ai
z 2 2 t 2 6 t 3 k =1
(9)

k i

+ j d lm Al (T l )Am (T m ) An* (T n )exp [ j lmni z ] f lmn i {1, , N }


l n,m n

i=l +m n

At the same time, one can introduce normalized amplitude U by using the definition

Ai ( z , t ) = P0 i exp ( i z / 2 )U i ( z , ) (10)

where P0 is the peak power of the incident pulse. The exponential factor in Eq. (10) accounts for fiber loss. By
using Eq. (6) and Eq. (10), the normalized amplitude U satisfies the propagation equation is given by


2U i 3U i
j 1
= j P0 i exp ( i z )U i (T i ) + g ki P0 k exp ( k z )U k (T k ) 2 U i
2
U i + i2 i3
z 2 Ti
2
6 Ti
3
k =1

k i

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1 (11)
+ j d lm P0l P0m P0n exp ( l + m + n )z U l (Tl )U m (Tm )U n (Tn ) exp[ j lmni z ] f lmn
*

l n ,m n 2

i =l + m n

It is quite difficult to solve Eqs.(6), (9), (11) because these equation set include not only nonlinear effects but also
its complex conjugate. Therefore, exact solution is impossible to obtain, moreover, a method to get numerical value
solution is also not easy to find, especially when the input is anomalistic signal. And this needs lots of iteration and
computing.

3.2 Improved Split-Step Fourier Method

Eq.(6) can be transformed as the following,

^ ^
Ai (12)
= D + N Ai + j d lm A l A m A n* exp ( ln mi ) f lmn
z l n ,m n

i=l + m n


where ^ j 2 1 3 ^
.
N i = j A i (T i ) + 2 g ki A k (T k )
2 2
Di = i2 2
+ i3 3
,
2 Ti 6 Ti 2
k =1

k i

The accuracy of the split-step Fourier method can be improved by adopting a different procedure to propagate the
optical pulse over one segment from z to z+h. In this procedure Eq. (7) is replaced by

^ ^
Ai ( z + h , Ti ) F 1 exp h D ( j ) F [U i ( z , Ti )] exp( h N i ) + Ai (13)

^ ^
The numerical method to solve A i = D i + N A has been presented in detail [1]. This paper just explain
z i

i

how to induce Ai and what theory it depends on.

According to the theory of the improved Split-Step Fourier Method, we know that Ai just pay attention to

the FWM effect. From Eq.(12) and Eq.(13), we can find that Ai is governed by


Ai = j d lm Al (Tl )Am (Tm ) An* (Tn )exp [ j lmni z ] f lmn i {1, , N } (14)
z l n,m n

i=l +m n

and Ai can be expressed as

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Al (Tl )Am (Tm ) An* (Tn )exp [ j lmn z ] f lmn
z+h
Ai j z
d lm
l n ,m n

i=l+m n
15

h h h
d lm Al z + , Tl Am z + , Tm An* z + , Tn f lmn exp [ j lmn z ]dz
z+h
j 2 2 2 z
l n,m n

i=l+m n

h h * h e j lmni ( z + h ) e j lmni ( z )
= j lm l 2 l m 2 m n 2 n lmn
d A z + , T A z + , T A z + , T f
j lmni
l n ,m n

i=l+m n

where A(z, T ) can be replace by A z


h
, T using trapezium theorem to diminish the calculating error.
2

4. NUMERICAL RESULITS

1
SI 652(20000,8,10,400*1e-12) 1
G
0.9
0.9
0.8
0.8
0.7
0.7
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.3

0.2 0.2

0.1 0.1

0 0
-6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6

Fig.1(a) (2.5G) Fig.1(b) (10G)


Fig.1(a) and Fig.1(b) compare the transmission circumstances of 2.5G and 10G signals in 40km G.652 fiber, respectively.

Figs.2-Fig.4 show the transmission circumstances of 4 channels in G.653 fiber.

1 1

0.9 0.9

0.8 0.8

0.7 0.7

0.6 0.6

0.5 0.5

0.4 0.4

0.3 0.3

0.2 0.2

0.1 0.1

0 0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

Fig,2aL1.6nm Fig.2bL0.8nm
Fig. 2(a) and Fig.2 (b) compare the transmission circumstances of the channel spacing is 1.6nm and 0.8nm when signal speed is 10G
and peak power of channel is 1mW.

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1
1
0.9
0.9
0.8
0.8
0.7
0.7
0.6
0.6

0.5
0.5

0.4
0.4

0.3
0.3

0.2 0.2

0.1 0.1

0 0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

Fig.3a L20km Fig.3a L80km


Fig. 3(a) and Fig.3 (b) compare the transmission circumstances of fiber length is 20km and 80km when the channel spacing is
0.8nm; the peak power of channel is 1mW and signal speed is 2.5G.

1 1

0.9 0.9

0.8 0.8

0.7 0.7

0.6 0.6

0.5 0.5

0.4 0.4

0.3 0.3

0.2 0.2

0.1 0.1

0 0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

Fig.4a P=1mW Fig.4b P=10mW


Fig. 4(a) and Fig.4 (b) compare the transmission circumstances of the peak power of channel is 1mW and 10mW when the
channel spacing is 0.8nm; fiber length is 40km and signal speed is 2.5G.

It is not difficult to find that input pulse is just broadened in G.652 fiber, that is to say, dispersion is the key factor
while nonlinear effects is secondary.

In G.653 fiber, the factors that affect signal transmission are signal speed, signal peak power, channel spacing and
transmission distance. From Figs.2-Fig.4, we can see that the increase of the signal speed, the number of channels,
signal peak power and transmission distance, the decrease of channel spacing will exacerbate nonlinear effects. At the
same time it will make the quality of signals degradation. Of all these factors, the signal power and the channel spacing
are the most important to the quality of signals.

5. CONCLUSIONS

A synthetical equation set about optical fiber nonlinear in multi-channel transmission system is proposed in this
paper. At the same time its numerical method to solve the equations is also proposed. Through analytical modeling and
computer simulations, the synthetical nonlinear effects in G.652 and G.653 fiber are studied. The result shows that
many factors affect signal transmission, which include dispersion, SPM, XPM and FWM effects. Whats more, it shows
that the peak power of channel, signal speed, the number of channels, the channel spacing and the transmission distance

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affect the quality of signal when transmitting. The equation set and its numerical method can be used to analyze the
different nonlinear effects in WDM system and to do synthetical research on different nonlinear effects. In addition, it is
of a great help to the transmission performance simulation, the layout of WDM system, and the comparing of different
nonlinear effects.

REFERENCES

[1] NONLINER FIBER OPTICSSecond Edition, Govind P.Agrawal, The institute of optics University
ofrochester Rochester, NewYouk.

[2] A Mean Field Approach for Simulating Wavelength-Division Multiplexed Systems, T.Yu, W.M.Reimer,
V.S.Grigoryan, and C.R.Menyuk. IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETERS, VOL.12, NO.4, APRIL 2000.

[3] WDM Systems with Unequally Spaced Channels, Fabrizio Forghieri, Member,IEEE, R.W. Tkach,
Member,IEEE, and A.R. Chraplyvy. JOURNAL OF LIGHT TECHNOLOGY,VOL.13. NO. 5. MAY 1995.

[4] Reduction of Four-Wave Mixing Crosstalk in WDM Systems Using Unequally Spaced Channels, Fabrizio
Forghieri, R.W. Tkach, A.R. Chraplyvy, and D.Marcuse.

[5] Four-Wave mixing efficiency in installed dispersion-shifted dfibers: effects of zero-dispersion wavelength
variations, Dag R.Hjelme, Jan Eide, OFC98 Technical Digest Wednesday Afternoon , P.209.

[6] N.S.Bergano, C.R.Davidson, M. Ma, A.Pilipetskii, S.G.Evangelides, H.D.Kidorf, J.M. Darcie,


E.Golovchenko, K. Rottwitt, P.C. Corbett, R.Menges, M.A. Mills, B. Pedersen, D.Peckham, A.A. Abramov, and A.M.
Vengsarkar, 320 Gb/s WDM transmission (645Gb/s) over 7,200 km using large mode fiber spans and chirped
return-to-zero signals, in proc. OFC98, Feb. 1998, PD12.

Proc. SPIE Vol. 4579 23

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