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Preprint 11-053

P. Koh, CSIRO Minerals Down Under Flagship, Clayton South, VIC, Australia

P. Schwarz, CSIRO Minerals Down Under Flagship, Clayton South, VIC, Australia

components, pressure and volumetric fractions.

A novel approach incorporating computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

r

and flotation modelling has been used for investigating flotation cell ( i iU i i Di i ) = Si (1)

designs. CFD modelling has increasingly been employed to enhance

understanding of the cell hydrodynamics in mineral and coal flotation.

Opportunities for improving the flotation cell performance can be identify

r r

( r r

( i iU i U i ) = . i ( L , i + T , i )(U i + (U i )T ) (2)

r

+ i (Bi Pi ) + Fi + SiU i

by modelling. The CFD-flotation model from CSIRO incorporates cell

hydrodynamics that affect particle-bubble interactions. Information from

the model includes velocities, turbulent dissipation rates, gas hold-up,

particle-bubble attachment and detachment rates. The attachment and The source terms include the pressure sources, the mass source or

detachment rates have been found to be effective measures of cell sink of gas entering and leaving the vessel, the generalised inter-phase

performance for cell design. force including drag and buoyancy forces. Turbulent kinetic energy k and

turbulent dissipation rate are solved for the continuous pulp phase. The

INTRODUCTION turbulent viscosity is calculated using the standard k- turbulence model

by Launder and Spalding [3]. The transport of solids within the pulp phase

Flotation is a well-established process in the mineral and coal is modelled using the algebraic slip model to ease computational effort.

industries. Most flotation operations are carried out in air-sparged or For viscous pulps, there is usually a yield stress and extra coding is

induced-air cells with or without mechanical agitation. Flotation is used for required for non-Newtonian flows, eg. [4].

separating particles containing valuable material in the ore and this is

achieved when the particles preferentially attach to air bubbles and float to The bubble size distribution is obtained with a population-balance

the surface forming a froth layer. The particles are removed from the froth technique. This involves solving transport equations for the transfer of the

by means of an overflow launder. The remaining slurry is discharged from number of bubbles by convection and turbulent diffusion, and changes in

the cell. The dispersion of fine air bubbles required for the flotation is the bubble numbers by breakage and coalescence. The tendency for

generated by a rotor-stator or sparging mechanism, which also serves to bubbles to break up or remain stable is determined by a critical Weber

mix the slurry and air bubbles. Various proprietary mechanisms have number, being the ratio of the disruptive forces to the restoring surface

been used for mineral and coal flotation. tension force. A general form of the population balance equation is given

as follows:

Every improvement in flotation recovery is important because of the

large quantity of ores treated by flotation so that significant benefits are r

available even with a small percentage increase in recovery. As ores mi + (miU i ) = B B D B + BC DC (3)

containing more easily recovered minerals are being mined out, more t

accurate computer models are needed to help improve the design of

larger flotation cells or to increase the throughput of existing cells. There where mi is the number of i-th sized bubbles per unit volume, BB and BC

are also urgent issues to be investigated, eg. energy savings, plant are the birth rates due to breakage and coalescence, and DB and DC are

optimisation and new cells. These issues are generally influenced by the the death rates due to breakage and coalescence respectively.

flow conditions inside the cell. The flotation effect is modelled as three sub-processes involving

At CSIRO, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models have been collision, attachment and detachment. In simulating flotation kinetics, the

developed for large-scale industrial flotation cells through AMIRA and transfer of particles between the pulp and bubbles is achieved by applying

ACARP projects (see Koh et al [1]). The models incorporate fundamental source terms for particle number concentration ni in the transport equation

aspects of flow with bubble-particle interactions including bubble-particle as follows:

collision, attachment and detachment as reported by Koh and Schwarz

( i ni ) r

[2]. + ( i niU i ) = a + d (4)

Opportunities for improving the flotation performance can be found

t

by CFD modelling of the flotation behaviour in the cell. The results from

where a and d are sources or sinks specifying attachment and

the model help to identify regions in the cell where particles and bubbles

detachment rates respectively. The local particle-bubble attachment and

are attaching or detaching. The information allows cell design or operation

detachment rates are from the flow field using equations shown in Table 1

to be modified for improved recovery through maximising the attachment

as reported previously by Koh and Schwarz [2]. The Bond number

rate or through minimising the detachment rate. This approach is an

represents the ratio of forces acting on the bubble-particle aggregate and

advance on existing methods of cell design and operation.

bond strength between a particle and a bubble. It determines the

MODEL DESCRIPTION probability of stabilisation in any local position for calculating the rates of

attachment and detachment. The equations are solved within the CFX-4.4

Fundamental equations for the conservation of mass, momentum computer code [5]. The model predictions have been extensively validated

and turbulence quantities are solved in the model. Using the Eulerian- by measurements in laboratory batch tests and in pilot-scale cells.

Eulerian multi-fluid approach, the gas and pulp phases are treated as

SME Annual Meeting

Feb. 27-Mar. 02, 2011, Denver, CO

Table 1. Equations for particle-bubble interaction. Model for turbulence gave similar results as the k- turbulence model, and

dn p1 did not improve significantly the match between measured and predicted

Net attachment rate = k1 n p1 nbT (1 ) + k2 nbT velocities. The turbulence level is generally highest near the stator and

dt reduced as the wall or free surface is neared. Other higher-order

Attachment rate

k1 = Z 1 Pc Pa Ps discretisation schemes have also been tested and found to be no better

constant than the hybrid upwind scheme generally used in the model.

Detachment rate

k2 = Z 2 (1 Ps ) Spatial Model

constant

CFD-flotation modelling deals with the actual geometry of the

np2

= where Smax = 0.5S and flotation cell. Important physical details of the cell, such as rotor-stator and

S max nbT launders, can be included in the model. Through 3-dimensional (3-D)

Bubble loading 2

meshing, the cell is divided into small segments where local properties

d can be calculated. The model is ideal for non-uniform systems where the

S = 4 b local properties vary over a wide range spatially in the cell. Multi-phase

d

p simulations are generally more compute intensive so it is not possible to

use an extremely fine grid because of run time and memory storage

d p + db

2

'2 1/ 2

U p + U b'

Collision frequency limitations. A compromise between the accuracy and the convenience of

Z 1 = 5.0

2

across eddies obtaining results is required so that useful solutions can be obtained fairly

2 quickly. Sensitivity study of the model predictions to grid size found that no

significant changes in velocity fields were obtained when the number of

15 f U 'f

2

= cells was doubled.

i

i crit

o

The model needs to be fully 3-D (ie. 360 ) to enable inflows and

outflows, as occur in most industrial cells, to be investigated. Importantly,

d p + db

3

8

1/ 2

Collision frequency

Z1 = a fully 3-D model allows residence time distributions and flotation kinetics

2

within eddies 15 to be calculated within the CFD-flotation model. This type of calculation

2/3

can only be performed in fully 3-D models. For example, Figure 1 shows

0.4 4 / 9 d i7 / 9 i f 3

the mesh with 280,000 elements for an Outotec 150-m cell used in nickel

Turbulent fluctuating

U i' =

2

velocity 1/ 3 flotation.

f

1

Detachment C1 3

Z2 =

frequency

(d p + db ) 3

2

2

4 dp

Probability of collision Pc = 1.5 + Re b0.72 2

15 db

2

Bubble Reynolds d b U b'

number Re b =

(45 + 8 Reb0.72 ) U b' tind

2

Probability of

adhesion 15db (db / d p + 1)

75

Induction time tind = d p0.6

Probability of 1

Ps = 1 exp As 1

stabilisation

Bo *

2 d d 3

1

4

d p2 p g + 1.9 p 3 p + b + 1.5d p d b f g sin 2

2 2 db 2

Bond number Bo* =

3

6 sin sin + Figure 1. CFD mesh of Outotec 150-m cell with rotor, stator, launders,

2 2

inlet and outlet.

For predicting the hydrodynamics in flotation cells containing three

Numerical Model phases (liquid, solids and gas), fundamental equations for multi-phase

There has been a considerable amount of validation of underlying flow are solved to obtain the velocity, void fraction, bubble size and

numerics for the CFD model at CSIRO. The numerical validation work has turbulence quantities. Validation of the CFD model predictions have been

built on an extensive experience that had been accumulated over several reported elsewhere (eg. Lane et al [6] and Evans et al [7]).

years simulating agitated vessels of various kinds (see discussion below

on cell hydrodynamics). In modelling the rotor motion, steady-state Figure 2 shows velocity vectors in a Metso Minerals flotation cell that

simulations have been performed with the multiple-frames-of-reference has been validated by detailed measurement in the laboratory [1]. The

technique: it is faster than the transient sliding-mesh method and it has velocity field in the cell was measured using Laser Doppler Velocimetry

been found to give essentially the same result. When the sliding mesh (LDV). However, Particle-Image-Velocimetry (PIV) is the method currently

technique was used, a periodic steady state was achieved after about 20 used at CSIRO. The horizontal baffle in the Metso design separates the

rotations of the impeller. cell into two zones: a turbulent zone for particle collection and a quiescent

zone for froth stability. Three vortexes have be observed: one vortex

More detailed turbulence models have been tested to compare below the impeller, another below the horizontal baffle and a third vortex

against the k- turbulence model. For example, the Differential Stress near the surface.

2 Copyright 2011 by SME

SME Annual Meeting

Feb. 27-Mar. 02, 2011, Denver, CO

flow that rises in the centre with downward flow near the wall. The

maximum attachment rates occur at the centre of the column as well as

near the feed and sparger exits where the bubble concentrations are high.

Although the column is well designed, further improvements are still being

investigated in the ACARP project.

scale Metso Minerals flotation cell (Koh et al [1]).

From the flow field, it is possible to characterise the flow of a flotation

cell in detail and prevent potential problems such as short-circuiting and -3 -1

solids settling. The power consumption can be estimated from the energy Figure 3. Particle-bubble collision frequency (m s ) in a pilot-scale

dissipation rates obtained in the simulation. The results will also assist in Wemco flotation cell.

providing suggestions for modifications to the flotation cells.

Flotation performance can be affected by other hydrodynamic

effects. The transport of bubble-particle aggregates from the collection

zone to the froth layer and the transport of the particles within the froth

layer are significant processes. These are especially significant in plant-

scale cells where the distances are large. This is one of the reasons why

flotation rates are much better in laboratory cells where the bubble-particle

aggregates have much shorter distances to reach the froth layer.

Particle-Bubble Collision Model

The flotation effect in the CFD model is based on turbulent collisions

between particles and bubbles in the cell. The particle-bubble collision

frequency depends on the cell hydrodynamics as well as the sizes and

numbers of particles and bubbles. The turbulent velocities of the particles

and bubbles relative to the liquid are continually fluctuating and estimates

of these fluctuating velocities have been obtained from the local turbulent

3

dissipation rate as shown in Table 1. The collision frequency in a 1-m

pilot-scale Wemco #56 cell is shown Figure 3. Model results have been

compared against hydrodynamic measurements in a physical cell at

CSIRO laboratories for an AMIRA sponsored project.

Attachment and Detachment Model

The particle-bubble attachment and detachment rates are calculated

from the collision frequency using equations in Table 1. CFD-flotation Figure 4. CFD predicted velocity vectors (m/s) in the Microcel column

modelling allows individual cells to be investigated to identify regions in with 12 spargers; only six are visible.

the cell where particles and bubbles are attaching or detaching. The Figure 6 shows the local detachment rates in a standard B6000-20

information allows cell design and operation to be modified by retro-fitting Jameson Cell used for coal flotation. It has a diameter of 6 m operating

if necessary. Improved flotation recovery is obtained by maximising with 20 downcomers. As most of the attachment occurs inside the

attachment rates or through minimising detachment rates. For comparing downcomers, data from Harbort et al [8] indicate that 80% of the particles

cells with different operating conditions, the attachment rate per particle are attached to the bubbles at the exit of the downcomer. The

and the detachment rate per particle should be used because the particle attachments outside the downcomers are treated as a secondary process.

number concentration changes with the feed rate, pulp density, particle The main consideration outside the downcomer is to minimise the rates of

size and particle density. The rate per particle can be obtained by taking detachment in the cell. The maximum detachment rates have been found

the total rate and dividing it by the particle number concentration. near the wall of the inner launder where the turbulent dissipation rates are

The Microcel flotation column of 4.9 m diameter operating with 12 highest. In order to improve the flotation, it is important to minimise these

spargers and four feed inlets was investigated in an ACARP project for regions with high turbulent dissipation rates to minimise detachment.

coal flotation. The velocity vectors and attachment rates in the column are

shown in Figure 4 and Figure 5 respectively. There is a general circulating

3 Copyright 2011 by SME

SME Annual Meeting

Feb. 27-Mar. 02, 2011, Denver, CO

particles (Koh and Schwarz [11]). Detachment of particles can be

deduced from changes in the bubble loading which reaches a maximum

near the impeller and decreases towards the top of the cell. The impeller

speed of 1200 rpm used in this situation is probably too high for floating

120-m particles.

1.6E+09

1.4E+09

1.2E+09

1.0E+09

8.0E+08

6.0E+08

4.0E+08

2.0E+08

-3 -1

Figure 5. CFD predicted attachment rates (m s ) in the Microcel column. 0.0E+00

1 2 3 4 5 6

Figure 7. Detachment rate at froth interface in the standard cell and five

design modifications.

1.4E+09

Average attachment rate (1/s/m3)

1.3E+09

1.2E+09

1.1E+09

-3 -1

Figure 6. Particle-bubble detachment rates (m s ) in the Jameson

Cell.

1.0E+09

1 2 3 4 5 6

Plant Optimisation

For optimising existing cells, CFD-flotation modelling can be Figure 8. Overall attachment rate in the standard cell and five design

performed for individual cell operations to obtain the cell attachment and modifications.

detachment rates. Similar simulations can be carried out for different

design modifications. Results of the existing (standard) case and design

modifications are analysed to find the best outcome. For example, Figure

7 shows the detachment rate at the pulp-froth interface in an existing cell

and five design modifications, and Figure 8 shows the overall attachment

rate for the same cases. These results can be analysed together to find

the modification that produces the maximum attachment rate and the

minimum detachment rate. In this example, the second modification

appears to give the best compromise between attachment and

detachment rates.

Kinetic Model Validation

Validation of the CFD-flotation model has been carried out with data

obtained from carefully controlled batch experiments at CSIRO. The

experiments involved flotation of narrowly-sized spherical ballotini in a 3-L

CSIRO cell which is a modified Denver laboratory cell. The particles have

been made hydrophobic by methylation with trimethylchlorosilane.

Flotation recoveries and rate constants obtained from the

experiments were in good agreement with model predictions (see Koh et Figure 9. Bubble streamlines with colour representing fraction of

al [9]; Koh and Smith [10]). The effects of particle size, hydrophobicity and bubble surface covered by 120-m particles in 5-L Denver cell.

stirring speed on flotation in the model have also been investigated and

found to compare favourably with experiments. As flotation rates in laboratory cells are generally faster in

comparison to the flotation rates observed in plant-scale cells, this work

Other details, such as the bubble loading are also predicted by the helps to relate metallurgical performances in the laboratory with those in

model. Figure 9 shows bubble streamlines in a 5-L Denver cell where the the plant.

4 Copyright 2011 by SME

SME Annual Meeting

Feb. 27-Mar. 02, 2011, Denver, CO

development of various flotation cells.

The paper has described a novel approach using CFD modelling to

increase understanding of the hydrodynamics of flotation cells and to REFERENCES

identify opportunities to improve cell design and operation. The

hydrodynamics and particle-bubble interactions in a number of 1. Koh P T.L., Schwarz M.P., Zhu Y., Bourke P., Peaker R. and

commercial flotation cells have been investigated. The attachment and Franzidis J.P., (2003), Development of CFD Models of Mineral

detachment rates have been found to be effective as a comparative Flotation Cells, in Third International Conference on

measure of cell performance for cell design. The CFD-flotation model has Computational Fluid Dynamics in the Minerals and Process

been shown to be a powerful tool for design, scale-up and optimisation of Industries, Melbourne, Australia, December 2003, p. 171-175.

industrial cells. 2. Koh, P.T.L. and Schwarz, M.P., (2006), CFD modelling of

NOMENCLATURE particle-bubble attachments in flotation cells, Minerals

Engineering, 19, No. 6-9, pp 619-626.

As constant = 0.5

B buoyancy reduction force (N/m )

3 3. Launder, B.E. And Spalding, D.B., (1974), "The numerical

Bo bond number computation of turbulent flows", Comp. Meths. Appl. Mech.

C1 constant = 2 Engng., 3, 269-289.

d bubble or particle diameter (m) 4. Koh, P.T.L. and Schwarz, M.P., (2008), CFD modelling of slimes

2

Di diffusivity of phase i (m /s) flotation at Mt Keith Operations, In MetPlant2008 - Metallurgical

3

F drag force (N/m ) Plant Design and Operating Strategies, Perth, 18-19 August, p.

2

g gravitational acceleration vector (m/s ) 325-337.

2 2

k turbulent kinetic energy (m /s )

3

k1 attachment rate constant (1/m /s) 5. CFX User Guide, Release 4.4, (2001) Computational Fluid

k2 detachment rate constant (1/s) Dynamics Services, AEA Industrial Technology, Harwell

3

m bubble number concentration (1/m ) Laboratory, Oxfordshire, UK.

3

n particle number concentration (1/m )

2 6. Lane, G.L., Schwarz, M.P. and Evans, G.M., (2005), Numerical

P pressure or probability (N/m )

modelling of gas-liquid flow in stirred tanks, Chemical

Re Reynolds number

Si mass source or sink (kg/m /s)

3 Engineering Science, 60:2203-2214.

S surface ratio 7. Evans, G.M., Doroodchi, E., Lane G.L., Koh, P.T.L. and Schwarz,

t time (s) M.P., (2008), Mixing and Gas Dispersion in Mineral Flotation

U velocity (m/s) Cells, Chemical Eng. Research and Design, 86: 1350-1362.

3

Z collision frequency (1/m /s)

volume fraction 8. Harbort, G.J., Cowburn, J.A. and Manlapig, E.V., (2005), The

bubble loading parameter effect of residence time and aeration on coal recovery within the

shear rate (1/s) high intensity zone of a flotation machine, Proc. Centenary of

turbulent eddy dissipation rate (m /s )

2 3 Flotation Symposium, Brisbane, p. 449-456.

particle number source or sink (1/m /s)

3

9. Koh P.T.L., Hao F.P., Smith L.K., Chau T.T. and Bruckard W.J.,

contact angle (degree) (2009), The effect of particle shape and hydrophobicity in

dynamic viscosity (Pa s) flotation, International Journal of Mineral Processing, 93: 128-134.

2

kinematic viscosity (m /s)

density (kg/m )

3 10. Koh, P.T.L. and Smith, L.K., (2010), Experimental validation of a

th

surface tension (N/m) flotation cell model, 25 International Mineral Processing

Congress, Brisbane, 6-10 September, p. 2055-2064.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

11. Koh, P.T.L. and Schwarz, M.P., (2007), "CFD model of a self-

The authors acknowledge financial support from the AMIRA aerating flotation cell", International Journal of Mineral

International, Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP) Processing, 85, No. 1-3, p. 16-24.

and CSIRO, with technical support from Metso Minerals, Outotec,

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