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# ANSWERS TO PROBLEMS ON HYDROLOGY

P.J.M. de Laat

## 1a Q = 0.5 m3/s = 0.5x86400x365/(800x106) = 0.0197 m/a = 19.7 mm/a

Water balance P E Q = S/t
S/t 0 because data refer to long-time averages, hence
E = P Q = 200 19.7 = 180.3 mm/a

1b P Erest Eirr Qnew = 0 (S/t 0 because water balance components refer to long-time
averages)
Express all water balance components in volumes (m3/a):
0.2 x 800x106 - 790x106x0.1803 - Eirrx10x106 - 0.175x86400x365 = 0
Eirr = 1.2 m/a = 1200 mm/a

2a

P E Q S S
Jan 250 5 150 95 95
Feb 205 25 110 70 165
Mar 165 30 80 55 220
Apr 50 50 5 -5 215
May 5 80 0 -75 140
Jun 0 100 0 -100 40
Jul 0 150 0 -150 -110
Aug 5 70 0 -65 -175
Sep 10 60 0 -50 -225
Oct 55 20 10 25 -200
Nov 65 10 15 40 -160
Dec 190 5 120 65 -95

## Largest amount stored end of March

Smallest amount stored end of September
Difference = 220-(-225) = 445 mm = 0.445 m
Volume difference (given area = 120 km2): 0.445 x 120x106 = 53.4x106 m3

2b Arid climate has P < 300 mm/a and humid tropical climate shows high evaporation in wet
period, hence this is a humid temperate climate (low evaporation is winter season).

## 3a Water balance root zone (see figure 1.2):

F + CR ET R 0, where infiltration F, capillary rise CR, evapotranspiration ET, recharge
groundwater system R
400 + CR 340 -100 = 0, hence CR = 40 mm/a

## 3b Water balance groundwater system:

R CR Qb 0, where base flow is Qb

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100 40 - Qb = 0, hence Qb = 60 mm/a

## 3c Interception water balance:

P Ei Ps 0, where interception evaporation Ei and precipitation reaching surface Ps
Ps = F + Qs, where surface flow is Qs
Q = Qb + Qs = 1.1x86400x365/(100x106) = 0.347 m/a = 347 mm/a
Qs = 347 60 = 287 mm/a
Ps = 400 + 287 = 687 mm/a
Ei = 800 687 = 113 mm/a
Alternative solution:
P Ei ET Q 0
800 Ei 340 347 = 0, hence Ei = 113 mm/a

## 3e Water balance groundwater system:

R CR Qb Qe 0, where the extracted groundwater is Qe
Qe = 0.16 m3/s = 0.16x86400x365/(100x106) = 0.05 m/a = 50 mm/a
100 0 Qb -50 = 0, Qb = 50 mm/a
Total runoff Q = Qs + Qb = 287 + 50 = 337 mm/a, hence decreased by 10 mm/a
Water balance root zone:
F + CR R ET 0
400 + 0 100 ET = 0, so ET = 300 mm/a, hence decreased by 40 mm/a
E = ET + Ei = 300 + 113 = 413 mm/a
As a result of groundwater extraction evaporation and runoff decreased!

4a Water balance polder (neglecting change in storage, because long-time average values):
P Eo Eg Qout + Qin + S = 0, where open water evaporation Eo, evapotranspiration grass Eg,
water pumped out Qout, water let in Qin and seepage S
Total area A = Ao + Ag = 10x106 m2, where open water area Ao = 2x106 m2 and grass area Ag
= 8 x 106 m2
Components of water balance are written in volumes:
0.8x10x106 - 0.6x2x106 - 0.75x0.6x8x106 - 5x106 + 0.7x106 + S = 0, hence
S = 1.1x106 m3/a = 0.11 m/a = 110 mm/a

## 4b Inaccuracy in rainfall measurement at least a few percent (> 20 mm)

Error estimated evaporation possibly > 10% (> 60 mm)
So error seepage computed from these water balance components could be larger than 10 mm

## 4c Lower water level causes lower evapotranspiration of grass,

hence new Eg* = 0.9x0.75x600 = 405 mm/a
Lower water level causes the seepage to increase,
hence new S* = 1.1x110 =121 mm/a
Set up water balance in volumes:
0.8x10x106 0.6x2x106 0.405x8x106 Qout* + 0.7x106 + 0.121x10x106 = 0
Qout* = 5.47x106 m3/a = 547 mm/a

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Hyetograph
Day Rain (%) Rain (mm/d) 160

Precipitation (mm/day)
1 10 24
120
2 10 24
3 10 24 80

4 60 144 40
5 10 24 0
Total 100 240 1 2 3 4 5
Days

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1000

## Year A B C Sum A Sum B Sum C 900

0 0 0 800
1971 90 100 100 90 100 100 700
1972 60 100 80 150 200 180
600
1973 70 80 70 220 280 250 A-B
1974 80 120 100 300 400 350 500
B- C
1975 50 50 50 350 450 400 400 A-C

## 1976 50 50 50 400 500 450 300

1977 100 100 100 500 600 550
200
1978 50 100 80 550 700 630
100
1979 120 200 170 670 900 800
1980 60 100 100 730 1000 900 0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200

Station A is not reliable, because it does not give a linear relation with B, nor with C.

## 7 Total area: 10x12 = 120 units

weighted
Weight (-) Rainfall (mm) rainfall (mm)
A 8x8/2/120 = 0.27 75 20
B (8x8/2+8x2)/120 = 0.4 40 16
C 4x10/120 = 0.33 30 10
Thiessen mean areal rainfall = 46

## 8a There is no linear increase of the mass curve between

3 and 5 hours since the rainfall rate is not constant.

## 8b Lowering the raingauge results in a larger catch. The

mass curve will show higher values, e.g. an increase
of 10 %.

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9a

9b

## Duration n (d) R depth (mm) Intensity (mm/d)

1 50 50
3 90 30
5 110 22
10 130 13

10
Year Rank Depth (mm) p=m/(N+1) T=1/p LogT
1986 1 110 0.09 11.0 1.041
1991 2 99 0.18 5.5 0.740
1992 3 93 0.27 3.7 0.564
1987 4 89 0.36 2.8 0.439
1990 5 86 0.45 2.2 0.342
1984 6 82 0.55 1.8 0.263
1989 7 80 0.64 1.6 0.196
1985 8 78 0.73 1.4 0.138
1993 9 76 0.82 1.2 0.087
1988 10 74 0.91 1.1 0.041

120
Daily rainfall depth (mm)

110

100

90

80

70

60
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4
Log return period

4
LogT for T = 20 years equals 1.3. Interpolation in the above figure yields an extreme value for
the daily rainfall depth of about 119 mm/d.

## 11a For P(X < 100) = q = 0.90 It follows y = -ln(-ln q) = 2.25

For P(X < 130) = q = 0.98 It follows y = -ln(-ln q) = 3.90
Application of y = a(X-b) with the above data gives
a = 0.055 and b = 59.1,
hence the Gumbel equation reads: y = 0.055(X - 59.1)
For T = 100 years, p = 1/T = 0.01, hence q = 1-p = 0.99, which yields y = 4.6
4.6 = 0.055(X 59.1) gives X (T = 100) = 142.7 mm

## 11b Gumbel distribution should be based on annual extremes

At least 20 years of data
Time series should be stationary
Data should be independent
Data are from the same population

12a 80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Jan Feb Mrt Apr Mei Jun Jul Aug Sep Okt Nov Dec

Precipitation Evaporation

Only during April, May and June the rainfall is less than the potential evapotranspiration. This
is the dry period. Reduction occurs at the end of the dry period, hence in the month June.

12b Total potential evapotranspiration equals 630 mm, the actual evapotranspiration is given as 610,
hence there is a reduction of 20 mm, which occurs in June, so the actual evapotranspiration in
that month is 50 mm.

## 12c P Q E = S/t = 0 or Q = P E = 660 610 = 50 mm/a

13a Eo is generally (slightly) larger than Epot and Epot > Eact, moreover the actual evapotranspiration
Eact is in a natural catchment always less than the precipitation P, This results in the following
P = 100 mm/a
Eo = 3000 mm/a
Epot = 2500 mm/a
Eact = 40 mm/a

13b With an annual rainfall of less than 300 mm this is an arid climate.

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14a Curve A is the deep lake, it heats up slowly in spring, the shallow lake (curve B) heats up faster
and reaches peak evaporation earlier in the year. Curve C is pan evaporation, which is generally
higher that the evaporation of a nearby lake (see lecture notes for arguments).

14b Pan coefficients : fdeep = 18.7/23.4 = 0.8 and fshallow = 19.3/23.4 = 0.825

15a Dividing radiation given in J/d/m2 by the latent heat (L = 2.45x106 J/kg) yields the radiation in
terms of evaporation (mm/d) as follows:
Rs (august 15) = 20482000/(2.45x106) = 8.36 mm/d
Rs (august 16) = 16758000/(2.45x106) = 6.84 mm/d
The extraterrestrial radiation RA is read from table 3.3 for latitude 15oN as (440+429)/2 = 434.5
W/m2 or expressed in terms of mm/d the value for RA = (434.5 x 86400)/(2.45x106) = 15.3
mm/d
The equation Rs = RA(a + b n/N) could be written for both dates as:
8.36 = 15.3 (a + b 6.3/12.6) = 15.3 (a + 0.5b)
6.84 = 15.3 (a + b 4.2/12.6) = 15.3 (a + b/3)
The coefficients from these equations can now be solved as follows: a = 0.25 and b = 0.60

15b
Sunshine duration n 10.4 hr

## Air temperature T 31.0 oC

Relative Humidity RH 0.384

## Wind speed U 2.0 m/s

0.6108*exp((17.27*T)/ 4.49 kPa
Saturation vapour pressure es Eq. 3.11
(237.3+T))
Slope curve s Eq. 3.12 4098*4.49/(237.3+31)2 0.256

## Short wave radiation Rs Table 3.5 (0.25+0.6*10.4/13)*437.5 319.4 W/m2

5.6745*10-8*(273+31)4*
Net long wave radiation RnL Eq. 3.4 (0.34-0.139*SQRT(1.724)) 62.6 W/m2
*(0.1+0.9*10.4/13)
Net radiation RN Eq. 3.5 (1 - 0.06)*319.4-62.6 237.6 W/m2
Aerodynamic resistance ra Eq. 3.13 245/(0.54*2+0.5) 155.1 s/m
86400/(2.45*106)*
(0.256*237.6+1004.6* 9.0 mm/d
Penman Eo Eq. 3.10
1.2047*(4.49-1.724)/155.1)/
(0.256+0.067)
86400*0.8*0.256*319.4/ 7.14 mm/d
Radiation method ETMakkink Eq. 3.18
(0.256+0.067)/(2.45*106)

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16a,b Time Time step Vol added Vol per dt fp fp 7.00

## minutes hours cm3 cm3 cm3/hr cm/hr 6.00

0 0 0
5.00
1 0.017 60 60 3600 6.00

fp in cm/hr
3 0.033 162 102 3060 5.10 4.00

## 5 0.033 252 90 2700 4.50 3.00

10 0.083 427 175 2100 3.50
2.00
20 0.167 657 230 1380 2.30
40 0.333 837 180 540 0.90 1.00

## 60 0.333 957 120 360 0.60 0.00

90 0.500 1122 165 330 0.55 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

## 17a fo = 20 mm/hr, fc = 4 mm/hr

For t =1, fp = 12: Eq. 4.2: 12 = 4 + 16 exp(-60 k), so k = 0.01155 min-1

17b Rainfall intensity i = 20 mm/hr, which is larger than infiltration capacity, so infiltration equal to
fp from t = 0 to t = hr.
Hence for t = 0 fp = 20, for t = = hr fp = 16, so average fp = 18 mm/hr during hr, which
means * 18 = 6 mm
Rainfall intensity i = 12 mm/hr, which is smaller than infiltration capacity, so infiltration equal
to rainfall intensity, hence * 12 = 4 mm

18 First quarter of an hour: fp = 10 mm and rainfall = 10 mm, but only 8 mm reaches the ground,
because 2 mm is intercepted by the vegetation, hence 8 mm will infiltrate.
Second quarter: 10 mm of rain reaches the ground but infiltration capacity fp = 8 mm, hence 8
mm will infiltrate.
Total infiltration over 30 minutes = 8 + 8 = 16 mm

19a Surface runoff is 0.05 l/s = 0.05 * 10-3 m3/s = 3600*0.05 * 10-3 m3/s = 0.18 m3/hr
Runoff from plot of 25 m2 = 0.18/25 = 0.0072 m/hr = 7.2 mm/hr
Rainfall intensity is 20 mm/hr, hence fc = 20 - 7.2 = 12.8 mm/hr

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19b The initial infiltration capacity of a wet soil will be
18
smaller than a dry soil. 17
fp in cm/hr

16
Few hours later
15
14
13
12
0 2 4 6 8 10
time in hours

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20a Available Moisture AM, Moisture Content Field Capacity MCFC and
Moisture Content Wilting point MCWP, Depth root zone Dr
Equation: AM = Dr (MCFC - MCWP)

## MCFC MCWP AM (cm)

Sand 0.14 0.03 6.6
Loam 0.28 0.07 12.6
Clay 0.42 0.28 8.4

## 20b AM(Sand) = 66 mm, readily available 50% = 66/2 = 33 mm

Irrigation interval is 33/4 = 8 days.
Similar for loam: 63/4 = 15 days and Clay: 42/4 = 10 days

21 With infiltration F, percolation D and storage S, the water balance of the root zone reads:
F - D = S = 500*(0.28 - 0.12) = 80 mm
D = F - S = 110 - 80 = 30 mm

22a,b Apply Eq. 4.11: Q6 = Q0 exp(-6/K) = 1.8 = 10 exp(-6/K), hence K = 3.5 weeks. Use the equation
to compute Q at the end of each week (see table below).
Water released from the dam site Qout = 5 m3/s = 5*86400*7/20,000 = 151.2 mm/week
Water balance reservoir: Q + P - E - Qout = S/t

## Week Q Av Q Q P E Qout S/t Level

0 10.0 m3/s mm/w mm/w mm/w mm/w mm/w 20.00
1 7.51 8.75 264.6 0 40 151.2 73.4 20.07
2 5.64 6.58 199.0 0 40 151.2 7.8 20.08
3 4.24 4.94 149.0 0 45 151.2 -42.2 20.04
4 3.18 3.71 112.2 0 45 151.2 -74.0 19.96
5 2.39 2.78 84.1 0 45 151.2 -112.1 19.84
6 1.80 2.10 63.5 23 45 151.2 -109.7 19.73

23a The total runoff from the catchment is the area under curve A: (15+60+65+30+12.5+2.5)*3600
= 666,000 m3 or 666000/33300000*1000 = 20 mm
Hence the runoff coefficient is 20/100 = 0.2 or 20%

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23b Total losses are 100 - 20 = 80 mm. A first estimate of the loss
40
rate is 80/3 = 27 mm/hr.

P (mm/hour)

30
This is more than the rainfall in the last hour (20 mm). The 20
losses in the first two hours are therefore 80 - 20 = 60 mm, 10

## hence a constant loss rate of 60/2 = 30 mm/hr 0

1 2 3
Hour

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23c Volume of flood hydrograph in point B = (0+10+40+45+20+5)*3600 = 432000 m3.
Total infiltration between A and B = 666000-432000 = 234000 m3 over an area of 50*20000 =
1000000 m2, which means an average depth of 234 mm. It takes 5 to 6 hours for the flood wave
to pass, hence the average infiltration rate is 234/5.5 = 42.5 mm/hr

## 24a Day Q (mm/d) Log Q 1.20

1 1.72 0.24
2 1.5 0.18 1.00
3 1.31 0.12
4 1.14 0.06 0.80
5 1 0.00
0.60

Log Q
6 6 0.78
7 10 1.00
0.40
8 6 0.78
9 4 0.60
0.20
10 3 0.48
11 2.62 0.42 0.00
12 2.29 0.36 0 5 10 15
13 2 0.30
14 1.75 0.24
Day

12
From a plot of Log Q against
10
time it is shown that the depletion
curve starts on day number 10. 8
Q (mm/d)

Direct
4
Runoff
2
Base flow
0
0 5 10 15
Day

## 24b Area Q (mm)

12

10
1 2.5
2 7
rea Q (mm) 8
3 7
Q (mm/d)

1 2.5 2 3
6
2 7 4 4
3 7 Direct 4
4 4
4
1 Runoff
5 2.5
5
5 2.5 2
6 -5
6
6 -5 Base flow Direct runoff (mm)= 18
noff (mm)= 18 0
0 5 10 15
Day

## 24c Depletion curve is Eq. 4.11:

1.0 = 1.72 exp(4/K), hence K = 7.4 days
QB = 3.0 mm/d (given)
Eq. 4.11 : QA= 1.0 exp(-5/7.4) = 0.5 mm/d

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Total runoff under depletion curve
t t0

CT = Q0 e K
d t kQ0
t0

## Grey area is base flow produced by rainstorm

of 50 mm=
CT (B) CT(A) + triangle under base flow
separation line = 7.4*3-7.4*0.5+5*(3-0.5) =
18.5 + 6.25 = 24.75 mm

## 25 From graph: Rainfall depth for tc = 3 hr equals 33 mm,

so intensity i = 11 mm/hr = 0.011/3600 m/s
Eq. 6.3: Qp = 0.4 * 0.011/3600 * 6 * 106 = 7.3 m3/s

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