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Edexcel Physics Unit-5 MCQ (2010-1017)

Compiler: Dipta Sarker, NC Content Creator


Thermal energy

1. The relative masses of oxygen and hydrogen molecules are 32 and 2 respectively. For any
given temperature, the ratio

root mean square speed of oxygen molecules Is given by


root mean square speed of hydrogen molecules

A 1/16
B 1/4
C 4
D 16

GCE may 10

2. The average kinetic energy of the molecules in a gas is proportional to

A the number of molecules in the gas.


B the specific heat capacity of the gas.
C the temperature of the gas.
D the total mass of the gas.

GCE may 10

3. Samples of nitrogen gas and helium gas are at the same temperature. Compared
with the helium molecules, the nitrogen molecules have

A a lower mean square speed.


B the same mean square speed.

C a higher mean square speed.


D a mean square speed dependent upon the amount of each gas.

GCE may 11

1
4. A sealed gas jar contains a mixture of different gases. At a given temperature, the
mean kinetic energy of the molecules of each gas

A depends upon how much of each gas is present.

B is greater for the gas with less massive molecules.

C is greater for the gas with more massive molecules.


D is the same for each gas in the mixture.

GCE June 12

5. When energy is supplied to a substance, changes in the average


molecular kinetic energy (Ek) and the average molecular potential energy
(Ep) can occur.

When energy is supplied to an ideal gas

A both Ek and Ep increase.

B Ek may increase.

C Ep may increase.
D Ek increases but Ep decreases.

GCE may 13

6. Air is a mixture of mostly nitrogen and oxygen molecules. The mass of an oxygen
molecule is slightly greater than the mass of a nitrogen molecule.

On average, in a sample of air at a given temperature

A the nitrogen and oxygen molecules have the same speed.

B the nitrogen molecules are travelling more slowly than the oxygen molecules.

C the oxygen molecules are travelling more slowly than the nitrogen molecules.
D the molecules have relative speeds that depend upon the amount of each gas
present.

GCE may 13

2
7. The absolute temperature scale is a theoretical scale proposed by Lord Kelvin.
On this scale, zero is the temperature at which

A all gases become liquids.

B an ideal gas would exert no pressure.

C the Celsius temperature is 373 C.


D water freezes.

GCE-R may 13

8. The average kinetic energy of the molecules in an ideal gas is

A directly proportional to the square root of the absolute temperature.

B directly proportional to the absolute temperature.

C independent of the absolute temperature.

D inversely proportional to the absolute temperature.

GCE-R may 14

9. A sample of an ideal gas at 27 C is placed in a sealed container. The gas is


heated at constant volume to a temperature of 324 C.

The ratio of the final pressure to the initial pressure exerted by the gas is
approximately

A 1
B 2

C 4
D 12

GCE-R may 14

3
10. Water at 100 C turns into steam at 100 C.
Which of the following statements is true?

A The internal energy is unchanged, but the kinetic energy of the molecules
increases.
B The internal energy is unchanged, but the potential energy of
increases.
the molecules
C Both the internal energy and the kinetic energy of the
molecules increase
D Both the internal energy and the potential energy of the molecules
increasesincreases increase
GCE-R may 14

11. When the absolute temperature of an ideal gas is doubled, the


internal energy of the gas changes by a factor of

A 1

B 2
C 2
D 4

GCE may 15

12. When an ideal gas reaches the absolute zero of temperature, the gas

A becomes a superfluid.

B condenses to a liquid.

C has maximum molecular potential energy.

D exerts no pressure.

GCE may 15

13. Energy is supplied to a fixed mass of gas in a container and the absolute
temperature of the gas doubles.

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The mean square speed of the gas molecules

A remains constant.

B increases by a factor of 2.

C increases by a factor of 2.

D increases by a factor of 4.

GCE may 16

14. A cylinder contains a mixture of argon gas and neon gas. Argon molecules are
twice as massive as neon molecules.

The value of the ratio mean square speed of argon molecules is


mean square speed of neon molecules
A 4
B 2
C 1/2
D 1/4

GCE may 17

15. A mixture of helium He and hydrogen H2 gases is maintained at a temperature of


300K.
Which of the following is correct?

A The average kinetic energy of the He molecules is greater than the average kinetic
energy of the H2 molecules.

B The average kinetic energy of the He molecules is the same as the average kinetic
energy of the H2 molecules.

C The average speed of the He molecules is greater than the average speed of the
H2 molecules.

D The average speed of the He molecules is the same as the average speed of the
H2 molecules.

IAL jan 14

5
16. A sample of gas is made of a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen. At a
given temperature the average molecular kinetic energy is

A the same for molecules of both gases.

B greater for nitrogen molecules.


C greater for oxygen molecules.
greater for oxygen molecules.
D dependent upon the amount of each gas.

IAL may 14

17. Internal energy of a system is the

A sum of the molecular kinetic and potential energies.


B molecular kinetic energy alone.
C molecular potential energy alone.
D difference between the molecular kinetic and potential energies.

IAL may 14

18. A student carries out an experiment to measure the specific heat


capacity of a block of aluminum by heating the block with an electric
heater. The value obtained by the student is less than the textbook
value.

The most likely reason for this is that

A the heater was inefficient.

B the mass of the block was overestimated.

C the thermometer scale didnt start from zero.


D thermal energy was transferred to the surroundings.

IAL jan 15

6
Questions 24 and 25 refer to the graphs below.

y y y y

0 x 0 x 0 x 0 x
A B C D

19. Which graph shows how the pressure varies with volume for a fixed mass of an
ideal gas maintained at a constant temperature?

A
B
C
D

IAL may 15

7
20. Energy is supplied to a fixed mass of gas in a container and the mean squared speed of
the gas molecules doubles

The absolute temperature of the gas


A remains constant

B increases by a factor of 2
C increases by a factor of 2
D increases by a factor of 4

IAL jan 16
21. A piece of chocolate is heated at a constant rate.
The graph shows
how the temperature
50
of the chocolate
Te varies with time.
45
m
pe 40
rat X Y
ur 35
e/
C 30

25

20
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
Time / minutes

8
Select the correct statement for the time between X and Y.
A The internal energy of the chocolate increases.

B The internal energy of the chocolate stays constant.


C The kinetic energy of the molecules in the chocolate increases.

D The potential energy between the molecules in the chocolate stays constant.

IAL jan 16

22. A mixture of hydrogen and nitrogen is used to inflate a balloon.


On average, the nitrogen molecules in the mixture

A are travelling at the same speed as the hydrogen


molecules.
are travelling faster than the hydrogen molecules.
B
C have the same momentum as the hydrogen molecules.
D have a greater momentum than the hydrogen molecules.

IAL may 16

23. An ideal gas is maintained at a constant temperature in a sealed


container and the volume of the container is varied.

Which of the following is the correct statement about the pressure exerted by the gas?

A The pressure is directly proportional to the volume.

B The pressure is independent of the volume.

C The pressure is inversely proportional to the volume.


D The pressure is proportional to the square of the volume.

IAL jan 17

24. When a liquid is heated at its boiling point, the temperature remains
constant until all the liquid has turned to vapour.

Select the row in the table which correctly shows what happens to the
molecular kinetic energy and molecular potential energy.

9
Molecular kinetic energy Molecular potential energy

increases stays the same A


increases decreases B
stays the same increases C
stays the same decreases D

IAL jan 17

25. The average molecular kinetic energy of a sample of nitrogen gas is Ek.
The gas is heated and its temperature changes from 200 K to 400 K.

Which of the following is the new average molecular kinetic energy?

Ek
A
4
Ek
B
2

C 2Ek

D 4E k

IAL jan 17

26. If hot liquid wax is left to cool, it will start to solidify at 45C. The
temperature of the wax will remain constant until all the wax has
solidified.
Select the row in the table that correctly describes how molecular
energy will change as the wax solidifies.

Molecular kinetic energy Molecular potential energy

A decreases decreases

B decreases stays constant


C

10
stays constant decreases

D stays constant stays constant

IAL june 17

11