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G4 PROJECT PROPOSAL

GROUP : GROUP 2
LEADER : AHMAD ZAFIER BIN ABDUL RAZIEF
MEMBERS :

NAME CLASS

ADAM HAFIZI BIN HAMIDON 13.2

AHMAD FARHAN BIN MOHD AFENDI 13.2

AHNA AFNANI BINTI MOHAMED AZAM 13.2

AINA AFIQA BINTI MOHD AZMI 13.2

AINAA SOFIA BINTI RAMZANI 13.2

AININ SOFIYA BINTI ROSLY 13.2

AKMA NABILAH BINTI AZMAN 13.2

ARIF AFANDI BIN FIKRI 13.1

DETERMINING THE BEST FIREWOOD IN THE FOREST FOR SURVIVAL


KIT

1. Introduction

1.1 Aim

To determine the best firewood to be used in the forest by relating the


energy that is released in a combustion reaction for four different types
of wood.

1.2 Background

Firewood is one of the crucial requirements during camping, because


with firewood we will produce heat. Heat is essential for cooking and
also warming ourselves up during the night time. Choosing the right
type of firewood might be hard due to the lack of experience and
knowledge, we might burn the wrong type of wood and cause a big
mess. The wrong type of firewood would probably only burn for a short
amount of time, or does not give out the heat energy that we enough to
heat ourselves.

There are many factors that contribute when choosing the right type of
firewood in the forest. The first factor that should be taken into account
is the density of the wood itself. Woods with higher density will be
much better as it will burn slowly and give out a high radiant amount of
heat.

The second factor would be the texture of the wood itself. Softer woods
contain less fiber than in dense counterpart, therefore it will burn faster
and and produce less heat. Contradicts with the harder wood that
contain more fiber in their dense counterpart, thus making it burn
longer and produce more radiant of heat. Giving us the right amount of
heat to cook and warm ourselves.

This factors will give us the best firewood to be used in any camping
activities, thus giving us a more easier job in handling works in the
camping site. The thermal energy of the wood will be measured and
the highest energy can be distinguished as the best firewood, as it can
burn in a longer period of time and gives out a greater heat that other
firewoods.

This experiment will show us how to determine the right type of


firewood that will give the best possible use during camping. The
thermal energy of the wood will be gained by heating the distilled water
and calculating the heat energy of the water by using the formula :

Q = mct

1.3 Research Question

Which type of wood sample would be the best to be used in a campfire


site by determining its thermal energy ?

1.4 Hypothesis

The higher the density of the wood sample, the higher the thermal
energy.
2. Methodology

2.1 Variables

Variables How to control ;


The type of wood Distinguish four different
Independent samples. type of wood samples in
variable a certain area.

The thermal energy of Use the formula in


Dependent the wood samples. calculating the thermal
variable energy ( Q = mct )

The volume of water. Measure 20cm3


Controlled variable of water by using a
measuring cylinder.

2.2 Materials and Equipment

Materials and Equipment Quantity Uncertainty


Wood sample 8 -
Distilled water 1 -
Retort stand 1
Bunsen burner 1 -
Plasticine 1 -
Long pin 2 -
Wool 1 -
Boiling tube 8 -
Thermometer 1 0.5
Weighing balance 1 0.001 g
Measuring cylinder 1 0.05 cm3
Stopwatch 1 1s

2.3 Safety and Precaution

1. Be careful when during the combustion process, do not stand


too close to the fire.
2. Handle the burning wood carefully when placing it under the
boiling tube.
3. Do not directly touch the water during the heating process,
because it is hot and may cause burn.
4. Make sure the wood is fully burnt.
2.4 Procedure

1. Distinguish the four types of wood sample that you have


collected in a certain area.
2. Weigh each of the wood samples and record the data
measured.
3. Measure 20cm3 of distilled water by using the measuring
cylinder.
4. Fill the boiling tube with volume of water measured.
5. Clamp the boiling tube to a retort stand.
6. Record the initial temperature of the distilled water.
7. Enclose the mouth of the boiling tube with the wool to prevent
heat loss.
8. Poke the pointy end of the long pin with one of the wood sample
and poke the other end to a plasticine.
9. Put a shield around the area to prevent heat loss to the
surrounding.
10. Ignite the wood sample by using a matchstick and immediately
placed it under the boiling tube.
11. Record the time taken for the wood sample to completely be
burnt.
12. The flame from the wood sample is allowed to to heat up the
water. Observe the rise in the temperature of water until the
flame has completely fade.
13. Measure and record the final temperature of the water in a table.
14. Repeat the experiment with the other wood samples and record
the data in the table.
3.Result Analysis

3.1 Data Recorded

Wood Mass of First Experiment Second Experiment The Energy


Sample Wood average value
Sample rise in
( 0.001 g) temp. of
water

Initial Final Initial Final


temp. of temp. of temp. of temp. of
water water water water
( 0.5 ) )
( 0.5 ( 0.5 ) )
( 0.5

Wood
Sample
1

Wood
Sample
2

Wood
Sample
3

Wood
Sample
4