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LESSON 3

PART 1
SOCIALIZATION

1. Fill in the blanks with one appropriate term from the list below:

face work Socialization adults


Ivan Pavlov Resocialization schools
feral children preparatory Religion
role taking family id
significant others genes love
biological urges emotional ego
Agencies of socialization superego masculinity
looking-glass self male culture
peer group game resocialization
personal relationships interaction Behaviorism
gender socialization superego
Primary socialization conditioned
significant others attention
adult socialization isolated
mass media female
losing face id
Secondary socialization play
social situations femininity
core identity language
George Herbert Mead ego
generalized other social
occupational mobility face

_____________________ refers to the ways in which people learn to conform to their


societys norms, values and roles.
_____________________ consists of the ways in which the newborn individual is
molded into a person who can interact with others according to the expectations of
society. _____________________ occurs in childhood and adolescence; primarily
through schooling, and _____________________ refers to the ways in which a person
learns the norms associated with new statuses.
Among the most basic questions in the study of human socialization is that of nature
versus nurture. To what extent does the development of the person depend on genetic
factors, and to what extent does it depend on learning? The first social scientist to
develop a theory that addressed this issue was Sigmund Freud. Freud believed that the
personality develops out of the process of socialization through which the infant is
gradually forced to control its _____________________. He divided the personality into
three functional areas: the _____________________, from which unsocialized drives
arise; the _____________________, which incorporates the moral codes of elders; and
the _____________________, or ones conception of oneself in relation to others.
In the growth of the personality, the formation of the _____________________ or social
self is critical. According to Freud, this takes places in a series of stages in which conflict
between the demands of the _____________________ and those of the
_____________________ is always threatening to disrupt the functioning of the
_____________________.
_____________________ asserts that all behavior is learned. It originated in the work of
_____________________, who showed that behavior that was thought to be instinctual
could in fact be shaped or _____________________ by learning situations.
Studies of _____________________, who have experienced extreme isolation or have
been reared outside human society, show that such children are able to learn but that they
do so far more slowly than children who have not been _____________________ in
early childhood. Other studies have found that normal development requires not only the
presence of other humans but also the _____________________ and
_____________________ of adults. Children raised in orphanages and other nonfamily
settings are more likely to develop _____________________ problems and to be retarded
in their _____________________ development than comparable children who are reared
by their parents.
The role of _____________________ in shaping traits such as intelligence and sexual
orientation is a subject of continual research and controversy.
Interactionist models of socialization stress the development of the social self through
_____________________ with others. One of the earliest interactionist theories was
Charles Horton Cooleys concept of the _____________________, the reflection of our
self that we think we see in the behaviors of other people toward us. This concept was
carried further by _____________________, who emphasized the importance of culture
in the formation of the self. He believed that when children play, they practice
_____________________, or trying to look at social situations from the standpoint of
another person. This ability develops through three stages. During the
_____________________ stage, children mimic the behavior of the
_____________________ in their social environment. During the
_____________________ stage, they play at beings others who are significant in their
lives. During the third stage, the _____________________ stage, they develop the ability
to take the role of the _____________________ that is, to shape their participation
according to the roles of the other participants. In playing the roles for which they have
been socialized, people adhere to the rules of interaction known as
_____________________. They seek to present a positive image of themselves, their
_____________________ and to avoid being embarrassed or
_____________________.
Research has shown that by better understanding what goes into emotional intelligence
one can vastly improve ones _____________________ and ones understanding of why
others react as they do in different _____________________.
Studies of the environments in which socialization occurs have found that normal
development requires the involvement of one or more _____________________ in the
care of the child, as well as public policies that promote such involvement.
_____________________ are groups of people, along with the interactions that occur
within those groups, that influence a persons social development.
After the _____________________, the most important agencies of socialization are the
_____________________. Other socializing agencies in the community include day care
centers, churches, leagues and other associations. _____________________ may be
involved in socialization in different ways throughout an individuals lifetime. The
dominant agency of socialization outside the family is the _____________________, an
interacting group of people of about the same age. Such groups exert a significant
influence on the individual from adolescence on. The _____________________ are
another significant agency of socialization in the modern society. The roles a person plays
over a lifetime are influenced by _____________________ change and by changes in the
_____________________ of his or her society. Socialization after childhood often occurs
as a result of _____________________ and the influence of _____________________. A
persons _____________________ shapes that individuals responses to new situations
and challenges.
_____________________ may occur at any time during adulthood.
Sometimes people undergo _____________________ to correct patterns of social
learning that they and others find detrimental.
An important aspect of socialization is _____________________, or the ways in which
we learn our gender identity and develop according to cultural norms of
_____________________ and _____________________. Gender identity is an
individuals own feeling of whether he or she is a _____________________ or a
_____________________.

2. For each of the following terms, identify the correct definition and enter the
appropriate letter in the blank in front of the definition.

a. socialization j. generalized other


b. id k. agencies of socialization
c. superego l. agents of socialization
d. ego m. peer group
e. behaviorism n. resocialization
f. conditioning o. total institution
g. feral child p. gender socialization
h. role taking
i. significant other

___ 1. a child reared outside human society.


___ 2. the ways in which we learn our gender identity and develop according to cultural
norms of masculinity and femininity.
___ 3. according to Freud, the part of the human personality that is the individuals
conception of himself or herself in relation to others.
___ 4. a theory that states that all behavior is learned and that this learning occurs through
the process known as conditioning.
___ 5. a persons internalized conception of the expectations and attitudes held by
society.
___ 6. the processes whereby we learn to behave according to the norms of our culture.
___ 7. according to Freud, the part of the human personality from which all innate drive
arise.
___ 8. an interacting group of people of about the same age that has a significant
influence on the norms and values of its members.
___ 9. individuals who socialize others.
___ 10. any person who is important to an individual.
___ 11. the shaping of behavior through reward and punishment.
___ 12. according to Freud, the part of the human personality that internalizes the moral
codes of adults.
___ 13. intense, deliberate socialization designed to change major beliefs and behaviors.
___ 14. trying to look at social situations from the standpoint of another person from
whom one seeks a response.
___ 15. the groups of people, along with interactions that occur within those groups, that
influence a persons social development.
___ 16. a setting in which people undergoing resocialization are isolated from the larger
society under the control of a specialized staff.

3. Encircle the correct answer to each question, from the answers provided below.

1. Socialization that occurs when the child leaves the family for schooling and comes
under the influence of adults and peers outside the household is known as:
a. primary socialization
b. secondary socialization
c. adult socialization
d. resocialization

2. The theory that asserts that all behavior is learned is known as:
a. sociobiology
b. biological determinism
c. behaviorism
d. identity theory

3. In Freuds model of the personality, the functional area that incorporates the moral
codes of adults is called the:
a. id
b. ego
c. superego
d. identity

4. Cases of feral children, or children who have been abandoned or isolated in infancy,
show that:
a. isolation in childhood does not affect later socialization
b. socialization is unnecessary for a person to lead a normal life
c. socialization is a purely biological process
d. none of the above
5. The concept of the looking-glass self was developed by:
a. Lawrence Kohlberg
b. Jean Piaget
c. George Herbert Mead
d. Charles Horton Cooley

6. A person who is an important figure in another persons social environment is referred


to as a (an):
a. significant other
b. generalized other
c. agent of socialization
d. peer

7. The individuals conception of the expectations of society and its demands is called
the:
a. ego
b. superego
c. significant other
d. generalized other

8. An example of face work would be:


a. what a model does before appearing before the camera
b. the universal language of facial gestures
c. the grim looks of basketball players who are losing an important game
d. interaction in a small group designed to make a person feel better after spilling a
dish in her lap

9. The groups of people that influence a persons social development throughout his or
her lifetime are:
a. a peer group
b. agencies of socialization
c. the generalized other
d. resocializing agents

10. The primary agency of socialization is the:


a. family
b. school
c. peer group
d. mass media

11. The attitudes and values of adolescents tend to be most strongly influenced by their:
a. teachers
b. siblings
c. peers
d. parents
4. TRUE or FALSE:

T/F 1. Today it is generally recognized that biological factors have little effect on the
formation of the personality.
T/F 2. Sigmund Freuds theory of personality is based on the belief that the individual
acquires a self by observing and assimilating the identities of others.
T/F 3. Behaviorism traces its origins to the work of the Russian psychologist Ivan
Pavlov.

PART 2

INTERACTION IN GROUPS

1. Fill in the blanks with one appropriate term from the list below:

social category communities


Territorial communities rationality
voluntary association responsibility
Ethnomethodology bureaucracy
Stanley Milgram groups
primary group faster
reference group economic
social group statuses
civil society reciprocity
nonterritorial communities networks
Informal organizations increases
impression management social
Secondary group roles
in-group-out-group pleasure
formal organizations religion
dramaturgical approach fairness
what norms to conform to income
definition of the situation race
social network analysis neighborhoods
the support of the others
what groups to join

The social fabric of modern societies is composed of millions of


_____________________ of many types and sizes. Unlike a _____________________, a
collection of individuals who are grouped together because they share a particular trait, a
_____________________ is a set of two or more individuals who share a sense of
common identity and belonging and interact on a regular basis. Those interactions create
a social structure composed of specific _____________________ and
_____________________.
A _____________________ is characterized by intimate, often face-to-face, association
and cooperation. _____________________ are characterized by relationships that
involve few aspect of the personality; the members reasons for participation are usually
limited to a small number of goals. As the number of people in a group increases, the
number of possible relationships among the groups members _____________________
at a _____________________ rate.
At the level of social organization between the primary group and the institutions of the
nation-state are _____________________. _____________________ are contained
within geographic boundaries; _____________________ are networks of associations
formed around shared goals. Territorial communities are usually composed of one or
more _____________________ in which people form attachments on the basis of
proximity.
Groups formed at the neighborhood level are integrated into _____________________
that may extend beyond geographic boundaries. A key factor in the formation of networks
is _____________________ distinctions. Such distinctions can form around almost any
quality but are usually based on such qualities as _____________________,
_____________________ or _____________________. Another type of group is the
_____________________, a group the individual uses as a frame of reference for self-
evaluation and attitude formation. The study of whom people associate with, how those
choices are made, and the effects of those choices is known as _____________________.
Social scientists have identified certain principles of interaction that help explain both
stability and change in human groups. Among them are the _____________________
principle, the _____________________ principle, the _____________________
principle and the _____________________ principle. The balance among these
principles varies from one situation to another, with _____________________ motives
dominating in some instances and _____________________ needs winning out in others.
From an interactionist perspective, an important factor determining how people behave in
a given instance is their _____________________.
Studies of interaction in groups use a variety of techniques. _____________________ is
the study of the underlying rules of behavior that guide group interaction. The
_____________________ regards interaction as though it were taking place on a stage
and unfolding in scenes. The strategies that people use to set a stage for their own
purposes are known as _____________________.
_____________________ are groups with generally agreed-upon but unwritten norms
and statuses, whereas _____________________ have explicit, often written, sets of
norms, statuses and roles that specify each members relationships to the others and the
conditions under which those relationships hold. A _____________________ is a formal
organization whose members pursue shared interests and arrive at decisions through some
sort of democratic process. A _____________________ is a formal organization
characterized by positions with clearly defined responsibilities, the ordering of positions
in a hierarchy, governance by rules and precedence, impersonality and impartiality, a
career ladder and efficiency as a basic norm.
One effect of the increasing dominance of bureaucracies in modern societies is the
possibility that individuals will not take full ____________________ for their actions. A
study of obedience to authority conducted by _____________________ raised serious
questions about peoples ability to resist pressure to carry out orders for which they are
not personally responsible. The study also found, however, that rebellion is more likely
when individuals who rebel have _____________________. Durkheim pointed out that
members of complex societies have greater freedom to choose _____________________
and _____________________ but that they can be overwhelmed by the choices open to
them. Weber examined the effects of the rise of bureaucracies in modern societies,
finding that the individual often come to feel like a tiny cog in a huge set of interlocking
organizations.
Democratic theory states that when people are given freedom of association they will
form a complex _____________________.

2. For each of the following terms, identify the correct definition and enter the
appropriate letter in the blank in front of the definition.

a. social category j. reference group


b. social group k. ethnometodology
c. primary group l. dramaturgical approach
d. secondary group m. impression management
e. community n. informal organization
f. territorial community o. formal organization
g. nonterritorial community p. voluntary association
h. in-group q. bureaucracy
i. out-group

___ 1. the strategies one uses to set a stage for ones own purposes.
___ 2. a social group to which an individual has a feeling of allegiance; usually, but not
always, a primary group.
___ 3. a network of relationships formed around shared goals.
___ 4. a set of two or more individuals who share a sense of common identity and
belonging and interact on a regular basis.
___ 5. a set of primary and secondary groups in which the individual carries out
important life functions.
___ 6. a group that an individual uses as a frame of reference for self-evaluation and
attitude formation.
___ 7. a social group whose members have a shared goal or purpose but are not bound
together by strong emotional ties.
___ 8. a social group characterized by intimate, face-to-face associations.
___ 9. any social group to which an individual does not have a feeling of allegiance; may
be in competition or conflict with the in-group.
___ 10. a formal organization characterized by a clearly defined hierarchy with a
commitment to rules, efficiency and impersonality.
___ 11. a population that functions within a particular geographic area.
___ 12. a group that has an explicit, often written, set of norms, statuses and roles that
specify each members relationships to the others and the conditions under which those
relationships hold.
___ 13. a formal organization whose members pursue shared interests and arrive at
decisions through some sort of democratic process.
___ 14. a groups whose norms and statuses are generally agreed upon but are not set
down in writing.
___ 15. a collection of individuals who are grouped together because they share a trait
that is deemed by the observer to be socially relevant.
___ 16. an approach to research on interaction in groups that is based on the recognition
that much social interaction depends on the desire to impress those who may be
watching.
___ 17. the study of the underlying rules of behavior that guide group interaction.

3. Encircle the correct answer to each question, from the answers provided below.

1. Which of the following characteristics distinguishes true social groups from social
categories?
e. They are collections of people who are in the same place at the same time.
f. Their members have a sense of belonging to the group.
g. Their members share a particular trait.
h. all of the above

2. Which of the following are characterized by goal-oriented participation and


relationships that involve few aspects of members personalities?
a. primary groups
b. secondary groups
c. territorial groups
d. reference groups

3. A group that consists of people whom one considers to be outside the bounds of
intimacy is known as:
a. a primary group
b. a nonterritorial group
c. a social network
d. an out-group

4. A woman who a job in a bank and wears a tailored suit because she believes that this is
the proper attire for bankers is adhering to a standard set by her:
a. primary group
b. voluntary association
c. in-group
d. reference group

5. A study of interconnections among business leaders in major corporations would be an


example of:
a. social network analysis
b. reference group analysis
c. the dramaturgical approach
d. definition of the situation

6. People withdraw from participation in groups that they find unrewarding. This is an
example of the:
a. rationality principle
b. fairness principle
c. pleasure principle
d. reciprocity principle

7. According to the rationality principle, people usually:


a. seek pleasure and avoid pain
b. expect that others will behave toward them the way they behave toward others
c. tend to make rough calculations of the costs and benefits of interactions with
others
d. become angry when they do not receive certain kinds of treatment from others

8. Studies of interaction in small groups have found that the person who initiates the most
interactions often:
a. is the best-liked person in the group
b. gets no attention from the other members of the group
c. comes to be thought of as a leader
d. does not adhere to group norms

9. Positions with clearly defined responsibilities that are ordered in a hierarchy that
constituted a career ladder are characteristic of a:
a. bureaucracy
b. territorial community
c. reference group
d. voluntary association

10. In his experiments on obedience to authority, Stanley Milgram found that subjects
were most likely to obey the experimenter when the learner was:
a. in the same room as the subject
b. in direct proximity to the subject
c. in another room and could not be heard by the subject
d. in another room but could be heard by the subject

4. TRUE or FALSE:

T/F 1. A primary group is distinguished from a secondary group by the fact that its
members engage in face-to-face interaction.
T/F 2. The size of the group is a significant factor in the maintenance of primary-group
relations.
T/F 3. Informal organizations have generally agreed-upon norms and statuses that are not
set down in writing.