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Title should modifying

PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION OF A SPARK-IGNITION


ENGINE FUELED WITH GASOLINE-ETHANOL BLENDS BY
USING CHASSIS DYNAMOMETER

A PROJECT REPORT

SUBMITTED BY

NAME REGISTER NUMBER


DHANUSH KODI.V 731113102303
MAHENDIRAN.K 731113102031
RAMANAN.S 731113102044
VENKATACHALAPATHY.R 731113102055

In partial fulfilment for the award of the degree

Of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING

In

AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

INSTITUTE OF ROAD AND TRANSPORT TECHNOLOGY

ANNA UNIVERSITY: CHENNAI-600 025


APRIL 2017
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ACKNOWLEGEMENT
We our sincere gratitude to our mentor and source of inspiration
DR.N.NEDUNCHEZHIAN M.Tech., Ph.D., selection grade lecturers,
Department of Automobile Engineering, for their meticulous guidance and
support in bringing out this project a successful one.

We are also invariably thankful to our paragon Dr.R.SUBRAMANIAN


M.E., Ph.D., Head, department of automobile engineering who was sagacious
in bringing out the efficacy in us.

We take our privilege in expressing our gratitude to our reversed principal,


Dr.K.MAYILSAMY M.E.,Ph.D., for his constant encouragement in making
our desires to be perfect engineers come true in every aspect.

We are very much thankful to our staff members and the lab technicians
Mr.V.RAVICHANDIRAN and Mr.G.BALACHANDHAR for their
valuable support and also our student friends who gave their valuable ideas
and motivations towards this project.

We are also thankful to all the great hearts for the support they provided us
during our project. We take this opportunity to thank everyone for their
cooperation and provision of facility in gathering ideas for this project that
guided us in succeeding with the project work.

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ABSTRACT

The required the use of bio fuels by at least 10% as energy source in transport to
reduce the pollutant emissions. The combination between ethanol and gasoline provides a
promising and in a same time a challenging approach. Ethanol has attractive properties
based on the fact that this fuel can be produced from renewable energy sources without
any modification on the engine. This bio fuel was used as an alternative fuel due his higher
evaporation heat, octane number and flammability temperature. In this study the pollutant
emission (CO, CO2, HC, NOX) of a gasoline single cylinder engine was investigated with
an chassis dynamometer together with the gas analyzer. Different studies for traffic
operations were analyzed by using the stand maintaining a constant traction.

Gasoline - ethanol (GE) blends on performance and exhaust emission of a four stroke
150 cc single cylinder spark ignition (SI) engine, without any modifications. Experiments
were conducted at part load and different engine speeds ranging from 3000 to 5000rpm,
without catalytic converter. Ethanol content was varied from 5 percentage to 20
percentage by volume and four different blends (E5, E10, E15 and E20) were tested. Fuel
consumption, engine speed, air fuel ratio, exhaust gas temperature and exhaust emissions
were measured during each experiment.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER TITLE PAGE


No. No.
I ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 2

II ABSTRACT 3

III TABLE OF CONTENT 4

IV LIST OF FIGURES

01 INTRODUCTION

02 OBJECTIVE

03 LITERATURE SURVEY

04 ALCOHOL FUELS

4.1 WHY ALCOHOL USED AS A FUEL

4.2 MERITS OF ALCOHOL

4.3 TYPES OF ALCOHOL

05 PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

5.1 FERMENTATION

5.2 DISTILLATION

5.3 DEHYDRATION

5.4 POST PRODUCTION WATER ISSUES

5.5 CONSUMER PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

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2. OBJECTIVE

To modify the SI engine fuel blended with ethanol

To evaluate the performance by using chassis dynamometer

To reduce the emission

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3. LITERATURE SURVEY

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON EMISSIONS AND PERFORMANCE OF


A SPARK-IGNITION ENGINE FUELED WITH GASOLINEETHANOL BLENDS

ANNALS OF THE ORADEA UNIVERSITY Fascicle of Management and


Technological Engineering ISSUE #1 MAY 2014

From the literature survey, ethanolgasoline blended fuels can be used effectively in
spark-ignition engine with little or no modifications. Ethanol has higher evaporation heat,
higher octane number and the low evaporation pressure compared with gasoline, and
contains 34.7% oxygen by weight. There are many points on engine performance when
ethanol is used as fuel. The heating values decrease if the amount of ethanol is increased in
the fuel blend. Currently the increase of bio ethanol in blended fuels enables to decrease of
airfuel ratio, so is needed more fuel in the period of intake processes. Other parameters
which influence the engine performance are compression ratio, ignition timing, and latent
heat of vaporization, excess air ratios and flame speed.

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LITERATURE REVIEW ON PROPERTIES OF ETHANOL AS FUELS
SUBSTITUTE FOR SI ENGINE

P. Iodice, Applied Energy (2016)

Ethanol (C2H5OH) is a low cost renewable ecological fuel, and it can be produced
biologically by using fermentation process from a variety of sucrose-containing biomass
sources (sugarcane, sugar beet, fruit etc.) and starchy biomass sources (milo, corn, potato,
rice etc.). Ethanol is classified into two group: first generation of ethanol that consists of
both ethanol produced from sucrose containing biomass and ethanol produced from
starchy biomass with commercial technologies, and second generation of ethanol
produced from lignocellulosic biomass (wood, straw and grasses) with technologies which
are under industrial demonstration Stoichiometric air/fuel ratio: The stoichiometric air
fuel-ratio of ethanol is 1.6 times lower than that of gasoline. When ethanol is added to
blended fuel for a SI engine, since the amount of air intake remains constant (at fixed
engine speed and at fixed throttle valve opening), in order to obtain the same air/fuel
equivalence ratio, the electronic mixture control increases the volume flow rate of
ethanolgasoline blend, so producing the leaning effect . In fuel-rich conditions, besides,
the leaner effect produced by oxygen content of ethanol shifts the air/fuel ratio to
stoichiometric value, then improving the combustion process.

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CORRELATIONS BETWEEN ETHANOLGASOLINE BLENDS AND
EXHAUST EMISSIONS

Adolfo Senatore, applied energy 2016

While the use of pure ethanol needs some modifications to SI engines, low percentages
of ethanol in ethanolgasoline blended fuels are regularly used without any change of the
engine design. For this reason, the use of ethanolgasoline blends containing 310 vol. %
ethanol has been promoted in the last decade in many industrialized countries, and many
researchers analysed the correlations between ethanolgasoline blended fuels and the
exhaust pollutant emissions. All these studies explained that using ethanolgasoline
blended fuels can reduce the exhaust emissions of CO and HC from motorcycle equipped
with SI engine. Faster flame speed of alcohol compared to gasoline can enhance complete
combustion of ethanolgasoline blends; this aspect results in lower HC exhaust emissions.
Burning 3% ethanol blended gasoline, he registered for and emission decrease of 20% for
CO and 5.27% for THC, while NOX and CO2 emission increased by 5.22% and 2.57%
respectively.

BLENDING OF ETHANOL IN GASOLINE FOR SPARK IGNITION ENGINES


PROBLEM

Study performed by Stockholm University, ATRAX AB, Auto emission KEE


Consultant AB, AVL MTC AB. Financed by Swedish EMFO 2004-2005

In India, like other countries around the world, there was a considerable shortage of oil
and sharp rises in crude oil prices in the 1970s, prompting interest in fuel ethanol. In India
too, plans have been developed to use ethanol-gasoline blends (Uppal, 2002; Bhanot and
Chaudhari, 2003), and even ethanol-diesel oil blends (Acharya et al., 2002). Based on
recommendations by a committee for the development of alternative fuels for motor
vehicles, trials were carried out in New Delhi in 1991. The test fleet included 93 vehicles
and comprised cars, vans and jeeps. The fuels used were blends of 5 % and 10 % ethanol
in gasoline.
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4. ALCOHOL FUELS

4.1 WHY ALCOHOL USED AS A FUEL?

Have to modified (Alcohols have been used as a fuel. The four aliphatic
alcohols are of interest as fuels because they can be synthesized chemically or
biologically, and they have characteristics which allow them to be used in internal
combustion engines.)

Write the merits of alcohol or change the title on index

4.2 ADVANTAGES OF ETHANOL FUEL

1. Ethanol fuel is cost effective compared to other biofuels


2. Ecologically effective
3. Minimizes global warming
4. Easily accessible
5. Exhaust gases of ethanol are much cleaner, it burns more cleanly (more complete
combustion)
6. Ethanol-blended fuel as E10 (10% ethanol and 90% gasoline) reduces greenhouse
gases by up to 3.9%.
7. It reduces greenhouse gases.
8. It reduces the amount of high-octane additives.
9. The net effect of ethanol use results in an overall decrease in ozone formation, an
important environmental issue. (The emissions produced by burning ethanol are less
reactive with sunlight than those produced by burning gasoline, which results in a
lower potential for forming the damaging ozone).

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4.3 TYPES OF ALCOHOL

1. Methanol

2. Ethanol

3. Propanol

4. Butanol.

5. PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

5.1 FERMENTATION

Ethanol is produced by microbial fermentation of the sugar. Microbial fermentation


currently only works directly with sugars. Two major components of plants, starch and
cellulose, are both made of sugarsand can, in principle, be converted to sugars for
fermentation. Currently, only the sugar (e.g., sugar cane) and starch (e.g., corn) portions
can be economically converted. There is much activity in the area of cellulosic ethanol,
where the cellulose part of a plant is broken down to sugars and subsequently converted to
ethanol.

5.2 DISTILLATION

For the ethanol to be usable as a fuel, the majority of the water must be removed.
Most of the water is removed by distillation, but the purity is limited to 9596% due to the
formation of a low-boiling water-ethanol azeotrope with maximum (95.6% m/m (96.5%
v/v) ethanol and 4.4% m/m (3.5% v/v) water). This mixture is called hydrous ethanol and
can be used as a fuel alone, but unlike anhydrous ethanol, hydrous ethanol is not miscible
in all ratios with gasoline, so the water fraction is typically removed in further treatment to
burn in combination with gasoline in gasoline engines.

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5.3 DEHYDRATION

There are basically three dehydration processes to remove the water from an
azeotropic ethanol/water mixture. The first process, used in many early fuel ethanol plants,
is called azeotropic distillation and consists of adding benzene or cyclohexane to the
mixture. When these components are added to the mixture, it forms a heterogeneous
azeotropic mixture in vapourliquid-liquid equilibrium, which when distilled produces
anhydrous ethanol in the column bottom, and a vapor mixture of water, ethanol, and
cyclohexane/benzene.

When condensed, this becomes a two-phase liquid mixture. The heavier phase, poor in the
entrainer (benzene or cyclohexane), is stripped of the entrainer and recycled to the feed
while the lighter phase, with condensate from the stripping, is recycled to the second
column. Another early method, called extractive distillation, consists of adding a ternary
component that increases ethanol's relative volatility. When the ternary mixture is distilled,
it produces anhydrous ethanol on the top stream of the column.

With increasing attention being paid to saving energy, many methods have been proposed
that avoid distillation altogether for dehydration. Of these methods, a third method has
emerged and has been adopted by the majority of modern ethanol plants. This new process
uses molecular sieves to remove water from fuel ethanol. In this process, ethanol vapour
under pressure passes through a bed of molecular sieve beads. The bead's pores are sized
to allow absorption of water while excluding ethanol. After a period of time, the bed is
regenerated under vacuum or in the flow of inert atmosphere (e.g. N2) to remove the
absorbed water. Two beds are often used so that one is available to absorb water while the
other is being regenerated. This dehydration technology can account for energy saving of
3,000 btus/gallon (840 kJ/L) compared to earlier azeotropic distillation.

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5.4 POST- PRODUCTION WATER ISSUES

Ethanol is hygroscopic, meaning it absorbs water vapour directly from the atmosphere.
Because absorbed water dilutes the fuel value of the ethanol and may cause phase
separation of ethanol-gasoline blends (which causes engine stall), containers of ethanol
fuels must be kept tightly sealed. This high miscibility with water means that ethanol
cannot be efficiently shipped through modern pipelines, like liquid hydrocarbons, over
long distances.

The fraction of water that an ethanol-gasoline fuel can contain without phase separation
increases with the percentage of ethanol. This shows, for example, that E30 can have up to
about 2% water. If there is more than about 71% ethanol, the remainder can be any
proportion of water or gasoline and phase separation does not occur. The fuel mileage
declines with increased water content. The increased solubility of water with higher
ethanol content permits E30 and hydrated ethanol to be put in the same tank since any
combination of them always results in a single phase. Somewhat less water is tolerated at
lower temperatures. For E10 it is about 0.5% v/v at 70 F and decreases to about 0.23% v/v
at 30 F.

5.5 COSUMER PRODUCTION SYSTEM

While biodiesel production systems have been marketed to home and business users
for many years, commercialized ethanol production systems designed for end-consumer
use have lagged in the marketplace. In 2008, two different companies announced home-
scale ethanol production systems. The AFS125 Advanced Fuel System from Allard
Research and Development is capable of producing both ethanol and biodiesel in one
machine, while the E-100 Micro Fuel from E-Fuel Corporation is dedicated to ethanol
only.

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