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Composites: Part B

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/compositesb

cylinder under non-axisymmetric thermo-mechanical loads and uniform

electro-magnetic elds

A. Ghorbanpour Arani a,b,, E. Haghparast a, Z. Khoddami Maraghi a, S. Amir a

a

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran

b

Institute of Nanoscience & Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Static stresses analysis of carbon nano-tube reinforced composite (CNTRC) cylinder made of poly-

Received 20 October 2013 vinylidene uoride (PVDF) is investigated in this study. Non-axisymmetric thermo-mechanical loads

Received in revised form 10 August 2014 are applied on cylinder in presence of uniform longitudinal magnetic eld and radial electric eld. The

Accepted 20 August 2014

surrounded elastic medium is modeled by Pasternak foundation because of its advantages to the Winkler

Available online 27 August 2014

type. Distribution of radial, circumferential and effective stresses, temperature eld and electric

displacements in CNTRC cylinder are determined based on MoriTanaka theory. The detailed parametric

Keywords:

study is conducted, focusing on the remarkable effects of magnetic eld intensity, elastic medium, angle

A. Polymermatrix composites (PMCs)

A. Smart materials

orientation and volume fraction of carbon nano-tubes (CNTs) on distribution of effective stress. Results

B. Thermomechanical demonstrated that fatigue life of CNTRC cylinder will be signicantly dependent on magnetic intensity,

C. Analytical modeling angle orientation and volume fraction of CNTs. Results of this research can be used for optimum design

of thick-walled cylinders under multi-physical elds.

2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

determined distributions of temperature and thermal stresses in

Recently, polymer/carbon nano-tube composites have become it. They used an inverse algorithm based on the conjugate gradient

one of the hot topics for researchers [1]. CNTs have demonstrated method and the discrepancy principle and also shown an excellent

exceptional mechanical, thermal and electrical properties and the estimation on the time-dependent heat uxes, temperature distri-

most important features of CNTs are their extremely high stiffness butions, and thermal stresses. A stressstrain model for concrete

combined with excellent resilience. It has been reported that CNTs conned by ber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites is devel-

possess very high elastic modulus and sustain large elastic strain oped by Youssef et al. [6] based on the results of a comprehensive

up to 5%. CNTs are considered as one of the most promising rein- experimental program including large-scale circular, square and

forcement materials for high performance structural and multi- rectangular short columns conned by carbon/epoxy and E-glass/

functional composites with extremely application potentials [2,3]. epoxy jackets. They found ultimate stress, rupture strain, jacket

In the present decades, analytical thermo-mechanical stress cal- parameters and cross-sectional geometry and compared with a

culations for thick-walled cylinder have been investigated. Tzeng semi-empirical model as well as other papers. Dai et al. [7] pre-

and Chien [4] investigated the mechanical and thermal response sented electro-magneto-thermo-elastic behavior of a hollow cylin-

of multilayered composite cylinders. They examined thermal and der composed of functionally graded piezoelectric material

mechanically induced stress elds for various cylinder ply lay-up (FGPM), placed in a uniform magnetic eld, subjected to electric,

congurations with axial-to-hoop layer thickness ratio using thermal and mechanical loads. They showed that applying suitable

numerical method and computer model. Lee et al. [5] estimated electric, thermal and mechanical loads could optimize the FGPM

the unknown time-dependent inner and outer boundary heat hollow cylindrical structures. Ghorbanpour Arani et al. [8] investi-

gated the nonlinear vibration and stability analysis of a polymeric

composite smart micro-tube reinforced by boron- nitride nano-

Corresponding author at: Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of

Kashan, Kashan, Iran. Tel.: +98 31 55912450; fax: +98 31 55912424.

tubes (BNNTs). They found that stability of the micro-tube is

E-mail addresses: aghorban@kashanu.ac.ir, a_ghorbanpour@yahoo.com strongly dependent on imposed electric potential, where increas-

(A. Ghorbanpour Arani). ing the imposed positive electric potential signicantly increases

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2014.08.036

1359-8368/ 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

A. Ghorbanpour Arani et al. / Composites: Part B 68 (2015) 136145 137

the stability of the system. Also, their results showed that using 2. Non-axisymmetric thermal stresses analysis

BNNTs as a piezoelectric bers and its orientation angle with

respect to micro-tube axis have signicant effects on the vibration Fig. 1a illustrates a thick-walled cylinder subject to temperature

response and stability of the system. In this regard, Poultangari distribution T(r, h) and uniform longitudinal magnetic eld which

et al. [9] studied an analytical method to obtain the solution for is reinforced by CNT ber in axial direction.

the two-dimensional steady state thermal and mechanical stresses Temperature distribution has been applied in a hollow

in a hollow thick sphere made of functionally graded material cylinder under a non-axisymmetric heat conduction caused by

(FGM). Their results indicated that the radial, tangential, and shear non-axisymmetric thermal boundary conditions. This is like to

stress distributions can be reduced in magnitude when the power having a cylinder exposed to a given heat ux on a part of its outer

law index assumes smaller values. Electro-thermo-elastic stress boundary while on the other part a specied temperature is

analysis of a piezoelectric polymeric thick-walled cylinder rein- applied. The general distribution of temperature (T(r, h)) in hollow

forced by BNNTs subjected to electro-thermo-mechanical elds is cylinder with inside and outside radii a and b, respectively, can be

presented by Ghorbanpour Arani et al. [10] who showed that written as [16]:

increasing DWBNNTs content reduces stresses associated with

mechanical, thermal and electrical elds, in descending order. Also, r X1 X1

Tr; h A0 B0 ln F n r cos nh Gn r sin nh; 1

Ghorbanpour Arani et al. [11] studied thermal stress analysis of a a n0 n0

thick-walled cylinder reinforced with FG single-walled carbon

nanotubes (SWCNTs). The higher order governing equations were where A0 and B0 are arbitrary constants and the functions Fn(r) and

solved in order to obtain the distribution of displacement and ther- Gn(r) can be determined for different boundary conditions. The rst

mal stresses in radial, circumferential and longitudinal directions. term at the right-hand side of Eq. (1), A0, produces a uniform axial

FG distributions of SWCNTs have signicant effect on displace- stress for the thick-walled cylinder in the plane strain condition.

ments and thermal stresses of composite cylinder, so that in incre- The second term, being a function of the radius and the terms under

mentally increasing layout, the radial and circumferential stresses

are lower than other FG structures. Axisymmetric mechanical and

thermal stresses in thick short length FGM cylinders was reported

by Jabbari et al. [12] who considered temperature as a function of

radial and longitudinal directions and governing equations solved

analytically using the generalized Bessel function. In their work a

standard method was developed to solve a non-homogeneous sys-

tem of partial differential Navier equations with non-constant

coefcients using Fourier series.

Recently, Jafari Fesharaki et al. [13] developed the general the-

oretical analysis of a FG piezoelectric hollow cylinder subjected to

two-dimensional electro-mechanical load. They used separation of

variables method and complex Fourier series, to derive and solve

the Navier equations in terms of displacements. Their study

revealed, using this method and considering the special boundary

conditions and material properties for a hollow cylinder, the

mechanical and electrical displacements and stresses can be con-

trolled and optimized. Jabbari et al. [14] investigated the general

theoretical analysis of two-dimensional steady-state thermal stres-

ses for a hollow thick cylinder made of FGM. Their results showed

that all components of stresses follow a harmonic pattern on the

outside surface.

The analytical solution of FG piezoelectric hollow cylinder

which is under radial electric potential and non-axisymmetric

(a)

thermo-mechanical loads are presented by Atrian et al. [15] who

used complex Fourier series to indicate distributions of stresses,

displacement and the effect of electric potential eld on the cylin-

der behavior.

Despite of done works that some of them mentioned above,

its felt the need to investigation about smart CNTRC cylinder

made of PVDF which is a piezoelectric material that utilized as

matrix of composite. In this regard, the effect of different

parameters on static stresses of CNTRC cylinder while placed

under non-axisymmetric thermo-mechanical and uniform elec-

tro-magnetic elds has been studied. Its worth to be noted that

non-axisymmetric thermo-mechanical loads applied on CNTRC

cylinder as T(r, h) and P(r, h). Since PVDF and CNT have electric

and magnetic properties respectively, effect of magnetic intensity

and variation of electric displacement take into account. Results

of this study show, considering the special boundary conditions

(b)

for CNTRC cylinder, the mechanical stresses and electrical dis- Fig. 1. The schematic of composite cylinder (a) under non-axisymmetric thermo-

placement can be controlled and optimized to design and used mechanical loads and uniform electro-magnetic elds (b) embedded in Pasternak

this kind of structures. foundation.

138 A. Ghorbanpour Arani et al. / Composites: Part B 68 (2015) 136145

the summation signs produce non-axisymmetric thermal stresses. where k, m, l, p and n are stiffness coefcients which are dened as

All terms automatically satisfy Michell condition and they do not follows [17]:

contribute the thermal stresses, except for the terms associated

Em fEm cm 2kr 1 tm 1 cr 1 2tm g

with n = 0 and n = 1. Therefore Eq. (1) can be simplied to k ; 7a

21 tm Em 1 cr 2tm 2cm kr 1 tm 2t2m

Tr; h F 0 r F 1 r cos h G1 r sin h; 2

Em Em cm 2mr 3 cr 4tm 1 tm

where the functions F0(r), F1(r) and G1(r) are determined by bound- m ; 7b

21 tm Em cm 4cr 1 tm 2cm mr 3 cr 4t2m

ary conditions. Using stress boundary condition in inner and outer

radii, non-axisymmetric temperature distribution can be expressed Em tm cm Em 2kr 1 tm 2cr lr 1 t2m

l ; 7c

as follows: 1 tm 2cm kr 1 tm 2t2m Em 1 cr 2tm

A0 B0 Em fEm C m 21 cr pr 1 tm g

Tr; h cos h sin h: 3 p ; 7d

r r 21 tm Em 1 cr 2C m pr 1 tm

In axisymmetric heat conduction, T(r) = Td ln(r/a) + Ta, (Td = Ta Tb)

2

introduces the symmetric temperature distribution in which Ta and

E2m cm 1 cr cm tm 2cm cr kr nr lr 1 tm 2 1 2tm

n

Tb are the inside and outside temperatures of cylinder respectively. 1 tm 2cm kr 1 tm 2t2m Em 1 cr 2tm

Therefore, the general solution for heat conduction can be

expressed as [16]: Em 2c2m kr 1 tm cr nr 1 2tm cr 4cm lr tm

; 7e

2cm kr 1 tm 2t2m Em 1 cr 2tm

Tr; h T nonaxisymmetric T axisymmetric

in which Cm and Cr are the volume fractions of matrix and bers,

A0 B0 r

cos h sin h T d ln T a : 4 respectively. tm is Poissons ratio of matrix, Em is Youngs modulus

r r a

of matrix. mr, kr, nr, pr, lr are Hills elastic modulus for the SWCNTs

with 10 and 20 radii are listed in Table 1 [17,18].

3. Mechanical stresses with non-axisymmetric boundary Assuming plane strain condition and unidirectional electric

conditions eld along the radius of cylinder Eq. (6) reduced to [8]:

8 9 8 9

>

>

rrr >

> >

>

err >

>

Composite cylinder reinforced by CNTs under non-axisymmet- >

< >

= >

< >

=

ric thermo-mechanical loads and uniform electro-magnetic elds rhh ehh

Q ; 8

embedded in an elastic medium has been demonstrate in Fig. 1a >

>

> srh >

>

>

>

>

> c >>

: ; : rh >

;

and b.The straindisplacement relations in cylindrical coordinate Dr Er

can be written as [14]:

where matrix [Q] is dened as [8]:

@u 2 3

err ; C rrrr C rrhh 0 errr

@r

6C C hhhh 0 erhh 7

1 @v u 6 rrhh

Q 6

7

9

ehh ; 5 7:

r @h r 4 0 0 C rhrh 0 5

1 1 @u @v v errr erhh 0 2r

erh ;

2 r @h @r r Electric eld in radial direction of cylindrical coordinate for pie-

where u and v are components of displacement in radial and zoelectric materials is [13]:

circumferential, respectively. Based on MoriTanaka method, @/

nano-composite characteristics are assumed to be transversely Er ; 10

@r

isotropic which can only be applied, where SWCNTs are uniformly

distributed [11]. According to the MoriTanaka method [17] the where / denotes the scalar function of electric potential. To

stressstrain relations can be expressed as: consider the effects of orientation angle of the CNTs with respect

8 9 2 38 9 to longitudinal axis, the following transformation matrix can be

>

> r1 > > km l km 0 0 0 0 0 e31 > > e1 > > employed as [8]:

>

> > 6 l 7 > >

>

>

> r2 > >

>

> 6 n l 0 0 0 0 0 e32 7>>

>

> e2 > >

>

> e TQTT :

>

> >

> 6 7>> >

> Q 11

>

> r >

> 6k m l km 0 0 0 0 0 7

e33 7>> e >

>

>

>

3 >

> 6 >

>

3 >

>

>

> >

> 6 7>> >

> The transformation matrix [T] is:

>

< s >

= 6 0 0 0 p 0 0 0 e24 0 7> c >

7< =

23 23

6 2 3

s31 66 0 0 0 0 m 0 e15 0 0 7 c

7> 31 >; cos2 a sin a

2

2 sin a cos a 0

>

> >

> 7>

>

> s >

>

6

6 0 0 0 0 0 p 0 0 0 7> >c > > 6 7

12 > 6 2

>

> 12 >

> 6 7>> >

> sin a cos 2

a 2 sin a cos a 07

>

> >

> 6 0 >

> E1 > > T 6 7; 12

>

> D > 0 0 0 e15 0 211 0 0 7 > > 6 2

4 sin a cos a sin a cos a cos2 a sin a

7

> 1>

> > 6

> 6

7>

7>>

>

>

>

05

>

> D >

> 4 0 0 0 e24 0 0 0 222 0 5> >

> E2 > >

>

> 2> > > > 0 0 0 1

: ; : > ;

D3 e31 e32 e33 0 0 0 0 0 233 E3

where a is the angle of CNTs with respect to longitudinal axis of

6

cylinder.

The equilibrium equations in the radial and circumferential

directions, regarding the body forces are [11]:

@ rrr 1 @ rrh rrr rhh

Table 1 F bodyforce 0; 13a

Hills elastic modulus for the CNTs [17,18]. @r r @h r

@ rrh 1 @ rhh 2rrh

CNT radius () kr (GPa) lr (GPa) mr (GPa) nr (GPa) pr (GPa) 0; 13b

@r r @h r

10 30 10 1 450 1 @Dr Dr

20 4 2 0.1 250 0.1 0: 13c

@r r

A. Ghorbanpour Arani et al. / Composites: Part B 68 (2015) 136145 139

In nal solution of the equilibrium equations, non-axisymmet- where un(r) and vn(r) are the coefcients of complex Fourier series

ric boundary conditions apply and thermo-mechanical stresses of u(r, h) and v(r, h), respectively, that can be expressed as:

investigate for different parameters. More explain present in

Z p

1

Section 5. un r ur; heinh dh;

2p p

Z p 19

1

3.1. Elastic medium v n r v r; heinh dh:

2p p

Thick-walled cylinder surrounded by elastic medium that is and electric potential just depend on radius of composite cylinder.

simulated with Pasternak foundation where the effect of elastic Therefore, Eq. (17c) is valid only for n = 0 and will be omitted from

medium has been considered as body force on the outer surface the system of Eqs. (17) for n 0 [15].

of cylinder as bellow [8]: (a) For n 0

! Substituting Eq. (18) into Eqs. (17) gives:

2 @ 2 u 1 @u 1 @ 2 u

F Pasternak K w u Gp r u K w u Gp : 14 d2 0 d3 d4 d5 d6

@r 2 r @r r 2 @h2 d1 u00n un 2 n2 2 un in v 0n in 2 v n 0; 20a

r r r r r

d 10 0 d d d d

3.2. Magnetic eld d9 v 00n v 112 n2 122 v n in 13 u0n in 142 un 0: 20b

r n r r r r

The uniform magnetic eld vector H ~ 0; 0; Hz generates The solution of the above equations is assumed as [14]:

Lorentz force in radial direction and like elastic medium it can be un r Ar g ;

consider as a body force in equilibrium equation. The governing 21

v n r Brg :

electro-dynamic Maxwell equations for a perfectly conducting

elastic body can be written as [19]: where A and B are constants and obtain from boundary conditions.

Substituting Eq. (21) into Eqs. (20), yields:

~ r ~ @~

h

~

J r h; e lr ; div~ h 0; bd1 gg 1 d2 g d3 n2 d4 cA ind5 g ind6 B 0; 22a

! @t

~ 15 2

@U ~ ; ~ ~ H:

~ bd9 gg 1 d10 g d11 n d12 cB ind13 g ind14 A 0: 22b

e lr

~ H h r U

@t

To obtain the nontrivial solution of Eq. (22), the determinant of

Applying a uniform longitudinal magnetic eld vector on the system should be equal to zero [13]. Therefore, four roots, gn1 to

thick-walled composite cylinder, yields the Lorentz force as [19]: gn4, are achieved and the general solutions are:

X

4

f z l~ ~ l H2 @ @u u ;

J H 16 un r Anj r gnj ;

0 z

@r @r r j1

23

where l0 is the magnetic permeability of composite. X

4

Substituting Eqs. (14) and (16) into Eq. (13) and by using Eqs. v n r Mnj Anj r gnj ;

j1

(5) and (7), the nal equilibrium equations in terms of displace-

ments and electrical potential can be written as follows: where

2 2 2

@ u d2 @u d3 d4 @ u d5 @ v d6 @ v d1 gg 1 d2 g d3 n2 d4

d1 u 2 Mnj ; 24

@r 2 r @r r2 r @h2 r @r@h r 2 @h ind5 g ind6

2

@ / d8 @/ (b) For n = 0

d7 2 0; 17a

@r r @r In this case, the equilibrium Eqs. (17) are reduced to:

2

@ v d10 @ v d11 d12 @ 2 v d13 @ 2 u d14 @u

d9 2 2 v 2 d2 0 d3 d8

@r r @r r r @h2 r @r@h r2 @h d1 u000 u u0 d7 /000 /00 0; 25a

d15 @ 2 / r 0 r2 r

2 0; 17b d10 0 d11

r @r@h d9 v 0

00

v 2 v 0 0; 25b

2 r 0 r

@ / d17 @/ @ 2 u d19 @u d20 @ 2 v

d16 2 d18 2 0; 17c 00 d17 0 d19 0

@r r @r @r r @r r @r@h d16 /0 / d18 u000 u 0; 25c

r 0 r 0

where the constants d1 to d20 are given in Appendix A.

where the subscript zero indicates the solution for n = 0. Two Eqs.

(25a) and (25c) are a coupled ordinary differential equations and

4. Analytical solution the solution of these are considered as [15]:

composite cylinder under electro-magneto-mechanical elds. In Substituting Eq. (26) into Eqs. (25a) and (25c) yields:

general solution of Eqs. (17), the radial, circumferential displace-

ments and electric potential are presumed according to complex d1 g0 g0 1 d2 g0 d3 A0 d7 g0 g0 1 d8 g0 C 0 0;

Fourier series form [14]: d16 g0 g0 1 d17 g0 C 0 d18 g0 g0 1 d19 g0 A0 0:

X

1 27

ur; h un reinh ;

n1 To obtain the nontrivial solution of Eq. (27), the determinant of

X1 system should be equal to zero. So the four roots, g01 to g04, are

v r; h v n reinh ; 18 achieved and the general solutions are:

n1

X1 X

4 X

4

n1 j1 j1

140 A. Ghorbanpour Arani et al. / Composites: Part B 68 (2015) 136145

d1 g0 g0 1 d2 g0 d3

N0j : 29 Consider a thick-walled cylinder with inner radius a = 1 m and

d7 g0 g0 1 d8 g0 outer radius b = 1.2 m [14]. The cylinder embedded in a Pasternak

For n = 0 Eq. (25b) is a decoupled ordinary differential equation foundation with Gp = 2.071273 N/m [20]. In this study, the PVDF

and the solution of this equation is considered as: and CNT have been taken into account for smart matrix and ber

of the composite cylinder, respectively. In the axisymmetric part

X

6 of temperature distribution, temperature at the inner and outer

v 0 r A0j r g0j ; 30 surfaces have been assumed Ta = 350 K and Tb = 300 K, respectively.

j5

The thermal expansion coefcients of composite cylinder in r, z and

where h directions can be written as [11]:

q ar 1 tCN z cr aCN m

r 1 tm c m a tn az ; 36a

2 CN m

d10 d10 4d9 d11 az cr az cm a ; 36b

g05;06 : 31

2d9 ar ah ; 36c

Finally substituting Eqs. 23, 28 and 30 into Eq. (18), general tn cr tCN

z c m tm ; 36d

solutions for u(r, h), v(r, h) and /(r) are expressed as: CN CN

where a and a are thermal expansion coefcients of SWCNTs in

z r

" #

X

4 X

1 X4 longitudinal and radial directions, respectively, and am is the ther-

ur; h A0j r g0j Anj r gnj inh

e ; 32a mal expansion coefcient of matrix [21]. However, aCN z and aCN

r

j1 n1;n0

"

j1

# are not expected to vary signicantly for the temperature range of

X

6 X

1 X4 200 K < T < 400 K considered in this work. Hence, their average

v r; h A0j rg0j M nj Anj r gnj einh ; 32b values are taken at 300 K. Therefore, they are assumed to be

j5 n1;n0 j1 6 6

aCN CN

z 3:4584 10 =K and ar 5:1682 10 =K [3]. tz

CN

and tm

X

4

are Poissons ratios of SWCNTs and matrix and are taken as

/r N0j A0j rg0j : 32c

j1

tCN

z 0:175 and the material properties of matrix have been

reported in Table 2.

Substituting Eqs. (32a)(32c) into Eq. (5), the strains are The magnetic permeability of composite in terms of magnetic

obtained as: permeability of matrix and reinforcement can be written as [3]:

" # " # l0 lCN cr lm cm : 37

X

4 X

1 X

4

M g0j 1 gnj 1

e

rr g0j A0j r gnj Anj r einh ; 33a

j1 n1;n0 j1

It is considered that magnetic permeability of matrix is equal to

the magnetic permeability of the surrounding medium (lm = 4p

" # " # 107 and lCN = 0.25) [11]. Following [19] the magnetic intensity is

X

4 X

1 X4

eMhh A0j r g0j 1 Anj r gnj 1 einh taken as Hz = 2.23 109A/m. The elastic modulus parallel and

j1 n1;n0 j1 normal to CNTs are related to Hills elastic modulus by following

" # equation [17]:

X

1 X4

gnj 1

in M nj Anj r einh ; 33b l

2

4mkn l

2

n1;n0 j1 Ek n ; E? 2

: 38

k kn l mn

( " # )

1 X1 X 4 X 6 Fig. 2a and b show the distribution of temperature in radial and

M gnj 1 inh g0j 1

erh in Anj r e g0j A0j r circumferential directions where temperature distribution is com-

2 n1;n0 j1 j5

( " # " # bination of axisymmetric and non- axisymmetric temperature

1 X1 X4 X 6

terms. Fig. 2b depicts temperature distribution in particular angle

gnj Mnj Anj rgnj 1 einh A0j rg0j 1 where the curves have logarithmic distribution based on Eq. (4).

2 n1;n0 j1 j5

" # ) As mentioned in the previous sections, in order to achieve the

X1 X4

total stresses, the thermal and mechanical stresses are calculated

Mnj Anj rgnj 1 einh : 33c

n1;n0 j1

separately and nally are superposed. The complete solution for

stresses due to the temperature distribution (Eq. (2)) is obtained

Substituting Eqs. (33a)(33c) into Eq. (7) and using Eqs. (9) and by the superposition of the axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric

(13c), yields the stress components and the electrical displacement stresses. Hence, these stresses are calculated as follows [16]:

in radial direction presented in Appendix B. " 2 #

It is recalled that stress components contain six unknown EaT d r b a2 b

rrr ln 2 1 2 ln

constants Anj(j = 1, . . . , 6) and therefore to evaluate these constants, 21 m a b a2 r a

six boundary conditions that may be either the given displace- !

2

Ear a2 b

ments or stresses, or combinations are required. Expanding the 1 2 1 2

2 r r

given boundary conditions in complex Fourier series gives: 21 ma b

2

X

1

g j h Gj neinh ; j 1; . . . ; 6; 34 " #

2

n1 EaT d r b a2 b

rhh 1 ln 2 1 2 ln

where 21 m a b a2 r a

!

2 2 2

Z p Ear 2

a b a b

1 3 4

Gj n g j heinh dh; j 1; . . . ; 6: 35 2

21 ma2 b r2 r

2p p

A0 cos h B0 sin h; 39b

Constants Anj are calculated using Eqs. (34) and (35).

A. Ghorbanpour Arani et al. / Composites: Part B 68 (2015) 136145 141

Table 2

Electro-mechanical properties of PVDF [22].

9

PVDF [22] 0.384 2.4 0.13 0.276 0.106 10 1.78

7

x 10

(a) 450 10

Temprature(K)

400

Thermal

5

350

0

r

300

250 -5

-pi -pi

1.2

-pi/2 -pi/2 1.2

1.15

0 1.15

1.1 0

pi/2 1.05 1.1

r/a pi/2

pi 1 1.05 r/a

pi 1

Fig. 3. Radial thermal stress in composite cylinder under non-axisymmetric

temperature distribution.

=/2

=2/3

410

Temprature (K)

8

x 10

405

2

Thermal

400 0

395 -2

1 1.02 1.04 1.06 1.08 1.1 1.12 1.14 1.16 1.18 1.2 -pi

r/a 1.2

-pi/2

1.15

0 1.1

Fig. 2. Non-axisymmetric temperature distribution.

pi/2 1.05

pi 1

r/a

2

!

Ear a2 b Fig. 4. Circumferential thermal stress in composite cylinder under non-axisym-

rrh 2

1 1 metric temperature distribution.

21 ma2 b r2 r2

A0 sin h B0 cos h: 39c

Therefore, the thermal stresses in radial and circumferential

directions show in Figs. 3 and 4 and thermal shear stress depicts 7

x 10

in Fig. 5 based on Eq. (35).These gures conrm the harmonic pat- 5

tern presented in above equations.

Thermal

effect of two-dimensional thermo-mechanical behavior of piezo- 0

electric composite cylinder. The inside and outside cylinder,

r

Srr r a 400 cos2 h Mpa; Srr r b 300 cos2 h Mpa; -5

-pi

Srh r a 0; Srh r b 0; 40 1.2

-pi/2

1.15

/r a 0; /r b 300 V: 0

1.1

pi/2 1.05

Figs. 68 demonstrate the distribution of radial, circumferential and pi

r/a

1

shear total stresses. It is evident that all components of stresses and

electric displacement follow from a harmonic pattern. Also, it can Fig. 5. Shear thermal stress in composite cylinder under non-axisymmetric

be seen from Fig. 8, the shear total stress is zero at the inner and temperature distribution.

Effective stress as Von-Mises stress has been illustrated in Fig. 9

where the maximum Von-Mises stress occurs in inner radius at According to general boundary conditions (Eq. (36)), the inside

h = p, 0, p. and outside boundary conditions have been simplied to study the

Fig. 10 shows electric displacement distribution along the effect of volume fraction, elastic medium and Lorentz force on

radius and circumferential directions. Von-Mises stress in composite cylinder, as follows:

142 A. Ghorbanpour Arani et al. / Composites: Part B 68 (2015) 136145

x 10 8 x 10

8

6 6

4

Effective

4

2

r

0 2

-2

-pi 0

1.2 -pi

-pi/2 1.2

1.15 -pi/2

0 1.15

1.1 0

pi/2 1.05 r/a

1.1

pi 1 pi/2 1.05 r/a

pi 1

Fig. 6. Radial total stress in composite cylinder under magneto-electro-thermo-

Fig. 9. The effective stress in composite cylinder under magneto-electro-thermo-

mechanical loads.

mechanical loads.

8

x 10

10 -4

x 10

0

5

0 -2

Dr

-5

-pi -4

1.2 -pi 1.2

-pi/2

1.15

0 -pi/2 1.15

1.1

pi/2 1.05

0 1.1

r/a pi/2 1.05 r/a

pi 1

pi 1

Fig. 7. Circumferential total stress in composite cylinder under magneto-electro-

thermo-mechanical loads. Fig. 10. Radial electric displacement in composite cylinder.

Srr r a 50 Mpa; Srr r b 100 Mpa; could meet their purposes by selecting the suitable percent of ber

Srh r a 0; Srh r b 0; 41 in composite cylinder.

/r a 0; /r b 300 V: The effect of elastic medium on effective stress in composite

cylinder is investigated in Fig. 12. Here the Pasternak foundation

Thermal stresses for h = p are added to mechanical stresses. has been selected due to considering shear force. As can be seen,

Fig. 11 shows the effect of volume fraction on Von-Mises stress presence of elastic medium is a signicant factor for decreasing

in composite cylinder made of PVDF. It can be seen from this gure effective stress and increasing stability of composite cylinder.

that increasing volume content of CNTs causes to decrease effec- Fig. 13 shows the effect of Lorentz force on Von-Mises stress

tive stress and leads to raise strength of composite cylinder. Also, where Lorentz force causes to decrease effective stress. As already

Von-Mises stress is diminished with increasing radius. Designers has been mentioned applying magnetic eld in axial direction

8

x 10

2.5

=20%

7

x 10 =10%

2

10 =5%

=0%

1.5

Effective

5

r

0 1

-5

-pi 0.5

1.2

-pi/2

1.15

0 1.1 0

pi/2 1.05 1 1.02 1.04 1.06 1.08 1.1 1.12 1.14 1.16 1.18 1.2

r/a

pi 1 r/a

Fig. 8. Shear total stress in composite cylinder under magneto-electro-thermo- Fig. 11. The effect of volume fraction of CNTs on effective stress in composite

mechanical loads. cylinder.

A. Ghorbanpour Arani et al. / Composites: Part B 68 (2015) 136145 143

7

x 10 x 107

12

14

with elastic medium 10 7

x 10

Effective

2

without elastic medium 8 1.995

12 1.99

1.985

6

10 4 Magnetic field

Effective

Electric field

2 Thermal load

Electro thermal load

8 Electro magneto thermal load

5 Electro magneto thermo mechanical load

x 10

6

6 4

2

0

4 1 1.02 1.04 1.06 1.08 1.1 1.12 1.14 1.16 1.18 1.2

1 1.02 1.04 1.06 1.08 1.1 1.12 1.14 1.16 1.18 1.2

r/a

r/a

Fig. 15. Effective stress distribution under different loads.

Fig. 12. The effect of elastic medium on effective stress in composite cylinder.

Decreasing orientation angle of CNTs causes to amplify magnetic

x 10

7

eld and subsequently leads to diminish effective stress. This g-

9

ure shows that increasing angle of CNTs with respect to longitudi-

14 Hz=3*10 A/m

nal axis decreases the effective stresses and leads to diminish

9

Hz=2*10 A/m

stability of composite cylinder.

12 9

Hz=1*10 A/m Therefore, by selecting piezoelectric polymeric as a matrix the

fatigue life of composite cylinder can be improved.

Effective

10

Fig. 15 demonstrates Von-Mises stress along the radius of com-

posite cylinder for different load conditions. Magnetic, electric and

8 thermal elds have been applied separately and they are also

employed as the combination of together. The effective stresses

6 associated with magnetic and electric elds have lower value than

the other load conditions. Although, the stresses in this range show

4 two lines but in fact they are curves with low slope. The maximum

1 1.02 1.04 1.06 1.08 1.1 1.12 1.14 1.16 1.18 1.2

value of Von-Mises stress is related to electro-magneto-thermo-

r/a

mechanical loading and it can be seen from this gure the corre-

Fig. 13. The effect of Lorentz force on effective stress in composite cylinder. sponding curve is upper each other loading conditions.

It can be seen that the electro-magneto-thermo-mechanical

loads change the effective stress along the radius of cylinder

generates the force in radial direction call Lorentz force. It is found extremely. So by considering the special boundary conditions for

that increasing magnetic intensity (Hz) decreases effective stress a composite cylinder, the mechanical stresses and electrical dis-

and has a signicant effect on stability of composite cylinder. placement can be controlled and optimized to design and use this

Fig. 14 illustrates the effect of orientation angle of CNTs on kind of structures.

Von-Mises stress in composite cylinder. The orientation angle of

ber in composite is very important because it can be affected on 6. Conclusion

mechanical behavior of composite cylinder. This composite has

General theoretical analysis of two-dimensional static stresses

for CNTRC cylinder is developed under non-axisymmetric

thermo-mechanical loads and uniform electro-magnetic elds,

7

x 10 where CNTs are arranged in a longitudinal direction inside of PVDF

14

matrix. The composite cylinder embedded in an elastic medium as

Pasternak foundation which is considering shear effect. Higher

12

order governing equations were solved analytically by Fourier ser-

ies and the results illustrate distribution of thermo-mechanical

10 stresses. 3D gures show harmonic pattern in stress distribution

Effective

8 the behavior of CNTRC cylinder in different r and h. It can be

observed that using CNTs as a ber and its orientation angle with

6

=0

o respect to composite cylinder axis have signicant effects on the

=30

o mechanical behavior of the CNTRC cylinder. Also, it has been found

4 =60

o that the magnitude of effective stress is strongly dependent on the

=90

o imposed magnetic eld so that increasing the magnetic intensity

2 signicantly decreases the Von-Mises stress. The overall, results

1 1.02 1.04 1.06 1.08 1.1 1.12 1.14 1.16 1.18 1.2

demonstrated that fatigue life of the CNTRC cylinder will be signif-

r/a

icantly improved by applying magnetic eld, increasing volume

Fig. 14. The effect of orientation angle of CNTs on effective stress in composite fraction of bers and decreasing orientation angle of CNTs with

cylinder. respect to composite cylinder axis.

144 A. Ghorbanpour Arani et al. / Composites: Part B 68 (2015) 136145

( " #

Acknowledgements X6 X

1 X

4

rrh e 31

Q A0j rg0j 1 Anj r gnj 1

einh

j1 n1;n0 j1

The author would like to thank the reviewers for their valuable " # ) (

comments and suggestions to improve the clarity of this study. The X

1 X4 X6

in e 32

M nj Anj r gnj 1 einh Q g0j A0j rg0j 1

authors are grateful to University of Kashan for supporting this n1;n0 j1 j1

work by Grant No. 363443/9. They would also like to thank the Ira- " # )

X

1 X

4

nian Nanotechnology Development Committee for their nancial gnj Anj rgnj 1 einh

support. n1;n0 j1

( " #

X

1 X4 X

6

Appendix A e

Q 33 in Anj r gnj 1

einh g0j N 0j A0j rg0j 1

n1;n0 j1 j1

" #

2 3 X

1 X

4 X

6

e 11

Q e 12

Q e 13

Q e 14

Q gnj Mnj Anj rgnj 1 einh N0j A0j r g0j 1

6e e 22 e 23 e 24 7

6 Q Q Q Q 7 n1;n0

"

j1

# ) (

j1

)

e TQ TT 6 21

Q 7:

6e e 32 e 33 e 34 7 X

1 X

4 X

6

4 Q 31 Q Q Q 5 Mnj Anj r gnj 1

e inh e 0

Q 34 N0j g0j A0j r g0j 1

;

e 41

Q e 42

Q e 43

Q e 44

Q n1;n0 j1 j1

e 11 lH2 Gp ; e 12 Q

e 11 Q

e 21 lH2 Gp ; ( " #

d1 Q z d2 Q z X6 X

1 X4

e 41

Dr Q A0j r g0j 1 Anj r gnj 1

einh

e 22 lH2 ; d4 Q

d3 d12 Q e 33 Gp ;

z j1 n1;n0 j1

e 12 Q e 33 ; e 33 Q

e 22 ; " # ) (

d5 Q d6 Q X

1 X4 X6

in e 42

M nj Anj rgnj 1 einh Q g0j A0j rg0j 1

e 14 ;

d7 Q e 14 Q

d8 Q e 24 ;

n1;n0 j1 j1

e 33 ; e 21 Q e 33 ; " # )

d9 d10 d11 Q d13 Q X

1 X4

d14 Q 22 Q 33 ; d15 Q 24 ; n1;n0 j1

e 44 ; e 41 ; ( " #

d16 d17 Q d18 Q X

1 X4 X

6

e

Q 43 in Anj r gnj 1

einh g0j N0j A0j rg0j 1

e 41 Q

d19 Q e 42 ; e 42 :

d20 Q n1;n0 j1 j1

" #

X

1 X4 X

6

gnj Mnj Anj rgnj 1 einh N 0j A0j r g0j 1

Appendix B n1;n0 j1 j1

" # ) ( )

X

1 X4 X

6

( " # M nj Anj r gnj 1

e inh e

Q 44 N0j g0j A0j r g0j 1

:

X

6 X

1 X

4

rrr Qe 11 A0j r g0j 1 Anj r gnj 1

einh n1;n0 j1 j1

j1 n1;n0 j1

" # )

X

1 X

4

in Mnj Anj rgnj 1 einh References

n1;n0 j1

( " # )

X

6 X

1 X

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