Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 100

Contents inside this material

PAGE
S.NO TOPICS
NO.
1 Grammar Basics 4
Confusing words
2 12
in English
3 Noun Forms 17
4 Verb 25
Regular &
5 31
Irregular Verbs
6 Tenses 32
7 Adjectives 59
8 Adverbs 65
9 Prepositions 73
10 Conjunctions 97
Active & Passive
11 100
Voice

3
1. GRAMMAR BASICS

SENTENCE
A group of words that expresses a statement, question, command, or wish. Sentences usually contain a
subject and verb. In written English, the first word of a sentence is capitalized and the sentence ends
with a period, question mark, or exclamation point.
Examples:
She can sing melodiously.
The cat caught the mouse.

SUBJECT AND PREDICATE


A sentence can be divided into two halves: subject and predicate. The subject is the "doer" in a sentence,
or what the sentence is about. A simple predicate is simply the main verb.

Examples:
Carlo | wrote a letter to his uncle.
My neighbour's dog | barked all night.
Our electricity | went out during the storm.

CLAUSES and PHRASES:

A clause is defined as a group of related words that contains a subject and predicate (verb).
Examples:
he came.
since she laughs at diffident men
I despise individuals of low character
when the saints go marching in
because she smiled at him.

A phrase is defined as a group of related words that does not contain a subject and a verb.
Examples:
on the table.
leaving behind the dog
smashing into a fence
before the first test
after the devastation

4
NOUN:

Noun is a word which names a person, a place or a thing.

Examples: Chair, table, book, cup, computer, picture, (names of things)


New York, Paris, Canada, Toronto, school, hospital, cinema, garden, (names of places)
John, Newton, R.H Stephen, Einstein, man, boy, doctor (names of persons)

Countable Nouns
A noun which can be counted is called countable noun. They have a singular and a plural form. The
singular form can use the determiner "a" or "an".
Pen is countable noun because we can count it and can say one pen, two pens, three pens or more pens.
Pen, chair, cup, room, man, baby, bottle, dog, cat are examples countable nouns.

Examples:
She has three dogs.
I own a house.
I would like two books please.
How many friends do you have?

Uncountable Nouns
Uncountable noun refers to substances which cannot be counted.
For example, water is an uncountable noun because we cannot count it. We cannot say, one water or two
water. Such substances which cannot be counted in terms of numbers are called uncountable noun.

Examples: Water, milk, bread, honey, rain, furniture, news, information, pleasure, honesty, courage, weather,
music, preparation, warmth, wheat, advice,businessare examples of uncountable nouns.

Would you like some cheese?


Coffee keeps me awake at night.
We should always have hope.
She does not speak much Spanish.
Do you see any traffic on the road?

Changing Uncountable nouns into countable nouns


We can change uncountable noun into countable noun if we specify a unit or measuring standard for
it. For example water is an uncountable noun but we can make it countable by saying one glass of
water or two glass of water etc. In this example we selected a unit that is glass. We can also say one litre
of water or one cup of water etc. By selecting such units or measuring standards we can change
uncountable noun in to countable which can be counted in terms of numbers.

Examples
Uncountable countable

5
Bread a piece of bread.
Wheat a grain of wheat.
Milk a glass of milk
Information a piece of information

Four types of nouns

1. Common noun

A common noun is a noun that refers to people or things in general, e.g. boy, country, bridge, city, birth,
day, happiness.
2. Proper noun

A proper noun is a name that identifies a particular person, place, or thing, e.g. Steven, Africa, London,
Monday. In written English, proper nouns begin with capital letters.

3. Collective nouns

Collective nouns refer to groups of people or things, e.g. audience, family, government, team, jury. In
American English, most collective nouns are treated as singular, with a singular verb:

The whole family was at the table.

In British English, the preceding sentence would be correct, but it would also be correct to treat the
collective noun as a plural, with a plural verb:

The whole family were at the table.

4. Abstract Nouns

An abstract noun is a type of noun that refers to something with which a person cannot physically
interact.

Common Abstract Nouns

Emotions/Feelings

Love
Hate
Anger
Peace
Pride

6
Sympathy

States/Attributes

Bravery
Loyalty
Honesty
Integrity
Compassion
Charity
Success
Courage
Deceit
Skill
Beauty
Brilliance
Pain
Misery

Ideas/Concepts/Ideals

Belief
Dream
Justice
Truth
Faith
Liberty
Knowledge
Thought
Information
Culture
Trust

7
Dedication

Movements/Events

Progress
Education
Hospitality
Leisure
Trouble
Friendship
Relaxation

ARTICLES

The words a, an, and the are special adjectives called articles.

Articles are of two types: Indefinite and Definite.

Indefinite Articles: a, an
An- used before singular count nouns beginning with a vowel (a, e, i, o, u) or vowel sound:
an apple, an elephant, an issue, an orange

A - used before singular count nouns beginning with consonants (other than a, e, i, o, u) :
a stamp, a desk, a TV, a cup, a book

Used before singular nouns that are unspecified:


a pencil
an orange

Used before number collectives and some numbers:


a dozen
a gallon

Used before a singular noun followed by a restrictive modifier:


a girl who was wearing a yellow hat

8
Used with nouns to form adverbial phrases of quantity, amount, or degree:
I felt a bit depressed.

Definite Article- The


The word "the" is one of the most common words in English. It is our only definite article. Nouns in
English are preceded by the definite article when the speaker believes that the listener already knows
what he is referring to. The speaker may believe this for many different reasons, some of which are listed
below.

The definite article is used in the following cases:

To refer to something which has already been mentioned.


Examples:
A woman who fell 10 metres from High Peak was lifted to safety by a helicopter. The woman fell
while climbing.

The rescue is the latest in a series of incidents on High Peak. In January last year two men
walking on the peak were killed in a fall.

When you assume there is just one of something in that place, even if it has not been mentioned before.
Examples:
We went for a walk in the forest yesterday.
My father enjoyed the book you gave him.
We live in a small village next to the church.
When we stayed at my grandmothers house we went to the beach every day.

In sentences or clauses where you define or identify a particular person or object.


Examples:
The man who wrote this book is famous.
I scratched the red car parked outside.
I live in the small house with a blue door.
He is the doctor I came to see.
The Pope is visiting Russia.
The Shah of Iran was deposed in 1979.

To refer to people or objects that are unique.


Examples:
Praise the Lord!
The Columbia River is near here.
The sun rose at 6:17 this morning.

9
Clouds drifted across the sky.
The president will be speaking on TV tonight.
The CEO of Total is coming to our meeting.

Before superlatives and ordinal numbers.


Examples:
This is the highest building in New York.
You are the tallest person in our class.
It is the oldest building in the town.
This is the third time I have called you today.
She read the last chapter of her new book first.

With adjectives, to refer to a whole group of people.


Examples:
The French enjoy cheese.
The elderly require special attention.
She has given a lot of money to the poor.
I think the rich should pay more taxes.
She works for a group to help the disabled.

Used to refer to a time period.


Examples:
I was very naive in the past.
This song was very popular in the 1980s.
He was born in the seventies.
This is a painting from the 1820's.

With clauses introduced by only.


Examples:
This is the only day we've had sunshine all week.
You are the only person he will listen to.
The only tea I like is black tea.

WITH PROPER NOUNS

With names of geographical areas, rivers, mountain ranges, groups of islands, canals, seas and oceans.
Examples:
They are travelling in the Arctic.
Our ship crossed the Atlantic in 7 days.
I will go on a cruise down the Nile.
Hiking across the Rocky Mountains would be difficult.

10
With countries that have plural names and those that include words like kingdom, states or republic.
Examples:
I have never been to the Netherlands.
Do you know anyone who lives in the Philippines?
She lives in the United States.
James is from the Republic of Ireland.

With newspaper names.


Examples:
She works for the New York Times.
I read the Times of India everyday.

With the names of famous buildings, works of art, museums, or monuments.


Examples:
Have you been to the Vietnam Memorial?
We went to the Louvre and saw the Mona Lisa.
I would like to visit the Eiffel Tower.
I saw King Lear at the Globe.

With the names of hotels & restaurants, unless these are named after a person.
Examples:
They are staying at the Hilton on 6th street.
We ate at the Golden Lion.

With the names of families, but not with the names of individuals.
Examples:
We're having dinner with the Smiths tonight.
The Browns are going to the play with us.

Used to designate a natural phenomenon:


Examples:
The nights get shorter in the summer.
The wind is blowing so hard.

To say something about all the things referred to by a noun:


Examples:
The wolf is not really a dangerous animal (= Wolves are not really dangerous animals)

11
The kangaroo is found only in Australia (= Kangaroos are found only in Australia)
The heart pumps blood around the body. (= Hearts pump blood around bodies)

We use the definite article in this way to talk about musical instruments.
Examples:
Joe plays the piano really well.(= Joe can play any piano)
She is learning the guitar.(= She is learning to play any guitar)

To refer to a system or service.


Examples:
How long does it take on the train?
I heard it on the radio.
You should tell the police

2. CONFUSING WORDS IN ENGLISH

Address

Address-noun (HOME DETAILS)


The number of the house, name of the road, and name of the town where a person lives or works, and
where letters can be sent:
her business/home address
a change of address

Examples
Any further correspondence should be sent to my new address.
Please send the articles to the address given above.
Her new address is 12 Warwickshire Mansions.
He hasn't written to me recently - perhaps he's lost my address.
Please print your name and address in block capitals.

Address noun (SPEECH)


A formal speech:
Example
She gave an address to the Royal Academy.

12
Address verb (SPEAK TO)
Formal to speak or write to someone:
Examples
He addressed a few introductory remarks to the audience.
He likes to be addressed as "Sir" or "Mr Partridge".

Address verb (DEAL WITH)


To give attention to or deal with a matter or problem:
Example
The issue of funding is yet to be addressed.

Address verb (WRITE DETAILS)


To write a name or address on an envelope or parcel:
Examples
The parcel was wrongly addressed.
So why did you open a letter that was addressed to me?

Beside/Besides:

Beside
The word beside is a preposition. It means close to or next to.
Examples
Stand here beside me.
Place the dishes beside the sink.

Besides
The preposition besides means in addition to or apart from. As an adverb, it means furthermore or and
another thing.
Examples
What other types of music do you like besides classical?
Besides being a great statesman, Sir Winston Churchill was a great writer.
He has two languages at his command besides English.
It's time for Tom to make a new friend besides Mary.

As a linking adverb, we usually put a comma before and after besides in writing:
Examples
I dont think going for a walk is a good idea. Its quite cold, and, besides, its getting late and we dont
want to be out in the dark.
I have no time for that, and besides, I don't have any money.

Enquiry/Inquiry (homophones) Nouns

13
Inquiry (Inquire-Verb)
The word inquiry is being used in relation to a formal inquest (i.e., an investigation):
Examples
The judge has suspended the inquiry into the police shooting of the escaped mental patient.
(Here, inquiry means inquest or investigation.)
Who will be leading the inquiry into the accident?
The inquiry found evidence of serious misapplication of funds.
There is to be an official inquiry into the incident.
A new team of detectives were called in to conduct a fresh inquiry.

Enquiry (Enquire-Verb)
Enquiry is used to denote the act of questioning.
Examples
I would like to enquire about the toilet facilities in the hotel.
(Here, to enquire means to ask.)
A commission of enquiry was set up to investigate the root causes of the social disturbance.
Further enquiry by the Department of Trade and Industry in 2004 cleared Morgan of any charges.

Figuratively/Literally

Figuratively-Adverb
Figuratively refers to metaphoric speech, not realistic or exact:
Examples
To say, "Horace died laughing," is to speak figuratively.
I could figuratively eat an entire cow right now.

Literally-Adverb (Literal-Adjective)
Literally refers to realistic or exact speech:
Examples
If Horace literally died laughing, he must be buried (but it was not such a bad way to go).
I made a literal translation of this essay.
I told him to go jump off a cliff; I hope he didnt take me literally.

Hard/Hardly

Hard
Hard is both an adjective and an adverb. When it is an adverb, it means needing or using a lot of
physical or mental effort. It goes after the main verb:
Examples
I studied hard for my exams but didnt do very well.
We have worked hard all day.

14
The comparative and superlative forms are harder and hardest:
Examples
He didnt get into the team this year. Hell just have to try harder next time.
Not: Hell just have to try more hard next time.
Right, children, who has worked hardest today?

Hardly is an adverb
Hardly has a negative meaning. It normally means almost not at all or only just. We can use it in mid
position, or before an adjective or a noun:
Examples
He wore a big hat that covered his head and you could hardly see his face. (you could only see a small
part of his face)
Kyle could hardly keep his eyes open at the lecture by Rhoda James.

Its/Its
Its (possessive pronoun) - of, belonging to, made by, or done by it
The dog will only eat its food when I am also eating.

Its (contraction) of it + is
Its a very strange dog.

Let/Lets
Let: permission
We use let to talk about permission. Let is followed by an object and an infinitive without to:
Examples
She let me look at the photos.
Not: She let me to look
Shed live on pizzas if we let her.

Warning:
We dont use let in the passive with this meaning:
Examples
They didnt let us take photographs inside the theatre. (or We werent allowed to take photographs )
Not: We werent let (to) take photographs

Lets
Let us is the first person plural imperative, which we only use in very formal situations.
Lets is the short form, which we often use to make suggestions which include ourselves:
Examples
Its midday. Lets stop now and have some lunch, shall we?
Not: Lets stop now
Okay. Were all ready. Lets go.

15
We also use let me (the first person singular imperative) to give a direct, more formal suggestion or offer:
Examples
Let me move these books out of your way.
Let me take a look at the photo frame.

We use let for third person imperatives and for impersonal imperatives:
Examples
Let them walk home on their own. (third person)
Let there be no doubt about it. (impersonal)

Negative form of lets: lets


Examples
Lets not argue about money. We can share the costs.
Lets not go to shopping today. We shall go next week.

We can use the full forms let us and let us not in very formal situations such as political documents and
speeches, and religious and other ceremonies:
Examples
Let us remember all those who have died in this terrible conflict.
We must forgive, but let us not forget, what happened on that day ten years ago.

Let meaning rent (verb)


We use let with a direct object meaning rent something to someone:
Theyve let their house for the whole summer.

A rented property (as a noun):


This is a holiday let.
There are a few lets on this estate.

Resume

Resume-verb formal
If an activity resumes, or if you resume it, it starts again after a pause:
Examples
Normal services will be resumed in the spring.
He stopped to take a sip of water and then resumed speaking.
The talks are due to resume today.

If you resume a place or position that you have left for a period of time, you return to it:
Examples
To resume your post/job

16
Please resume your seats, as the performance will continue in two minutes.
The company expects to resume production of the vehicle again after a two-month hiatus.
Normal service resumes in ten minutes.
The meeting will resume after lunch.
After a short break for rain, the match resumed with both players seeking to attack.

Rsum-noun
A short statement of the important details of something:
Examples
She gave us a brief rsum of the project so far.

(CV) A short written description of your education, qualifications, previous jobs, and sometimes also
your personal interests, that you send to an employer when you are trying to get a job:
Example
She sent her rsum to 50 companies, but didn't even get an interview.

3. NOUN FORMS

privacy, legacy, fallacy, accuracy, adequacy, delicacy,diplomacy, conspiracy,


supremacy,
confederacy, illiteracy, immediacy,lunacy, piracy, pharmacy,fancy, idiocy, normalcy
(normality),
ACY (CY) prophecy, bankruptcy.
Note S+Y: fantasy, ecstasy, courtesy, heresy, jealousy, leprosy, controversy; hypocrisy,
idiosyncrasy.
brigade, grenade, parade, blockade, stockade, cascade, charade, crusade; comrade,
decade,
barricade, renegade, fusillade; cannonade, cavalcade, lemonade, masquerade,
promenade,
ADE (AD) serenade; accolade, escapade, marmalade; ballad, myriad, nomad, salad, triad.
Note: facade, charade.

adage, bandage, garbage, courage, package, savage, damage, image, visage, hostage,
sausage,
voyage; language, wreckage, average, leverage, heritage, hermitage, orphanage,
personage;
advantage, percentage;
AGE Note: camouflage, collage, espionage, fuselage, garage, massage, mirage, montage,
sabotage.
Note: cartridge, partridge; vestige; college, privilege, sacrilege; prestige.

17
animal, cardinal, criminal, general, marshal, vandal; professional, intellectual; tribunal,
credentials, collateral; approval, removal, referral, rehearsal, dismissal, disposal,
proposal,
refusal, appraisal, arrival, revival, survival, denial; trial; manual, ritual, serial, burial;
AL, IAL material,
memorial, editorial, centennial, initial, official; court-martial.

human, pelican, charlatan, puritan, captain, chaplain, villain; republican; partisan,


artisan,
AN, IAN courtesan; German, African, Anglican; Alaskan, Tibetan, American, Korean, European,
Venezuelan; magician, musician, optician, physician, patrician, technician; dietitian
(also,
dietician).
pirate, magnate, advocate, candidate, delegate, graduate, magistrate, surrogate,
chocolate,
doctorate, estimate, consulate, postulate, syndicate, duplicate, concentrate; associate,
ATE
subordinate, coordinate, certificate, electorate, directorate, conglomerate, protectorate.

freedom, kingdom, wisdom, stardom, boredom, earldom, serfdom, martyrdom;


DOM officialdom.

children, brethren, oxen, maiden, warden, citizen, chicken, kitten, marten, raven, vixen;
EN garden, burden, kitchen, oven, heaven, token, omen, batten, pollen, regimen, specimen,
acumen.
basket, blanket, bullet, pellet, comet, cabinet, hatchet, mallet, nugget, midget, owlet,
packet,
picket, pocket; planet, plummet, puppet, rocket, skillet, socket, market, target, tenet,
ET, ETTE, LET trumpet,
valet, wallet, amulet, violet; clarinet, cornet.
childhood, babyhood, boyhood, girlhood, brotherhood, sisterhood, motherhood,
womanhood,
manhood; knighthood, priesthood, neighborhood, falsehood, likelihood, livelihood,
HOOD hardihood;
adulthood.
justice, notice, office, practice, service, chalice, malice, cornice, crevice, hospice, solstice,
bodice, jaundice; police, caprice; avarice, edifice, cowardice, licorice (also, liquorice),
ICE orifice,

18
precipice, prejudice; accomplice, apprentice.
Note: premise, promise, treatise.
Arctic, classic, ethic, magic, music, rhetoric, public; republic, Antarctic, arithmetic;
IC, TIC characteristic; critic, mystic, skeptic (BrE sceptic), lunatic; fanatic, mechanic, neurotic,
agnostic;
paramedic, antibiotic.
ethics, physics, politics; acoustics, athletics, gymnastics, hysterics, italics, linguistics,
mechanics,
phonetics, statistics; acrobatics, analytics, calisthenics, economics, mathematics,
ICS pediatrics.

engine, sardine, famine, doctrine, urine, medicine, heroine, wolverine; canine; aborigine;
magazine, tangerine; cuisine, machine, ravine, routine; basin, bulletin, cabin, coffin,
INE, IN margin,
origin, insulin, protein, resin; adrenalin (also, adrenaline); hemoglobin.

ceiling, building, dressing, dwelling, feeling, filling, longing, meaning, morning,


evening,
pudding, shilling, wedding; greeting, meeting, landing, opening, clearing, painting,
saying,
ING singing, swimming, suffering, warning, writing, hardening; surrounding; engineering.

journalism, symbolism, vandalism, alcoholism; feminism, mechanism, pessimism,


optimism,
organism; racism, fascism, criticism, classicism, cynicism; autism, sadism, baptism,
despotism,
ISM dogmatism, magnetism, pragmatism, rheumatism, nepotism; tourism, aphorism,
barbarism,
terrorism, vulgarism, voluntarism, plagiarism.
dentist, typist, stylist, chemist, scientist, tourist; artist, linguist, lyricist, humorist,
essayist;
pharmacist, physicist, specialist, hypnotist; sadist, fascist, communist, dogmatist,
humanist,
IST
terrorist; atheist, egoist, realist, feminist, nihilist, optimist, pessimist.

captive, additive, narrative; detective, adhesive, abrasive, explosive, executive;


representative;
defensive, offensive, incentive, collective, directive, perspective, prerogative;
contraceptive.
IVE

19
treatment; apartment, department, appointment, adjustment, commitment, enlistment,
investment; government; environment, assignment, alignment; pavement, movement;
MENT improvement, involvement, achievement, agreement, excitement;rudiment, sentiment;

blindness, brightness, coldness, darkness, toughness, harshness, stiffness, highness,


illness,
sickness, thickness, quickness; happiness, business, laziness, coziness, dizziness,
giddiness,
readiness, hardiness, heaviness, emptiness, friendliness, liveliness, loneliness,
cleanliness,
weariness, worthiness; carelessness, helplessness, homelessness, hopelessness,
NESS restlessness,
uselessness, weightlessness; faithfulness, hopefulness, meaningfulness, skillfulness,
thankfulness; consciousness, obviousness, seriousness.

friendship, hardship, worship, courtship, leadership, dealership, membership,


scholarship;
relationship; ownership, partnership, citizenship, statesmanship, championship;
SHIP
companionship, dictatorship; kinship, township, authorship, censorship, chairmanship,
fellowship, penmanship, partisanship.
breadth, depth, filth, growth, health, length, month, stealth, strength, truth, warmth,
wealth,
TH width.
altitude, amplitude, aptitude, attitude, gratitude, platitude, latitude, longitude,
magnitude,
multitude; certitude, fortitude, lassitude, servitude, solitude; solicitude, ineptitude,
TUDE infinitude.

failure, figure, tenure; procedure; measure, pleasure, treasure, leisure, seizure,


closure; disclosure, enclosure; culture, creature, feature, future, gesture, lecture;
URE adventure,
departure, conjecture, expenditure, imposture; manufacture.

Nouns with the suffixes ANCE, ENCE, ANCY, ENCY


acceptance, assistance, resistance, admittance, remittance, reluctance, importance,
inheritance; grievance, relevance, arrogance, elegance; extravagance, connivance,
significance;
ANCE advance; entrance, fragrance, hindrance, nuisance; remembrance, Renaissance,

20
reconnaissance; ordinance, ordnance, countenance, maintenance; parlance, semblance,
ambulance, nonchalance, petulance, vigilance.

sentence, competence; existence, insistence, persistence, subsistence, incompetence;


coexistence; silence, valence, violence, virulence, insolence, prevalence, excellence,
pestilence,
ENCE opulence, turbulence; condolence, equivalence, benevolence; presence, prominence,
eminence, imminence, continence, abstinence, vehemence; impertinence.

vacancy, constancy, pregnancy, poignancy, occupancy, militancy; discrepancy,


expectancy,
ANCY redundancy.

agency, urgency, tendency, clemency, currency, decency, regency, frequency, fluency,


presidency, residency; emergency, consistency, contingency, delinquency, complacency,
ENCY transparency; leniency (also lenience); efficiency, deficiency, proficiency, sufficiency,
expediency, constituency.

Nouns with the suffixes ANT, ENT


sergeant, servant; assistant, attendant, lieutenant, consultant, accountant, contestant;
tenant,
tyrant, migrant, vagrant, emigrant, immigrant, applicant, occupant; defendant,
descendant,
ANT inhabitant, participant; instant, pendant, remnant, warrant, hydrant, radiant, variant,
colorant,
covenant, restaurant, stimulant.

parent, president, resident, student; adherent, opponent, respondent, correspondent,


superintendent; present, moment, patent, talent, tangent, torrent, current, solvent,
accent,
crescent, content, continent; event, extent, assent, consent, dissent, ascent, descent,
ENT percent;
antecedent; accident, incident, precedent; component.

Nouns with the suffixes ARY, ERY (RY), ORY


secretary, dignitary, military, notary, votary, lapidary, dromedary, emissary, adversary,
antiquary, functionary, mercenary, missionary, visionary; canary, apothecary,

21
contemporary;
revolutionary; diary, primary, summary, salary, burglary, glossary, rosary, vagary,
ARY boundary,
dictionary, centenary, commentary, tributary, estuary, statuary; obituary, vocabulary,
itinerary;
anniversary, documentary.
archery, fishery, bravery, slavery, flattery, lottery, robbery, snobbery, forgery, trickery,
witchery, quackery, gunnery, millinery; artillery, adultery, effrontery; dairy, fairy;
ERY (RY) bakery,
battery, pottery, cutlery, eatery, greenery, grocery, nursery, nunnery, finery, vinery,
winery,
scenery, stationery, monastery, cemetery; machinery, refinery, confectionery.

memory, allegory, oratory, dormitory, lavatory, purgatory, repertory, signatory,


territory;
laboratory; directory, trajectory, inventory, accessory, reformatory, repository,
ORY conservatory;
Nouns with the suffixes ER, OR, AR, EER (IER), EE, ESS
worker, lawyer, founder, officer, barrister, manager, minister, programmer, jeweler,
advertiser; adviser, reviser, commander, employer, astronomer, commissioner;
ER manufacturer;dancer, drummer, painter, reader, singer, speaker, teacher, trainer,
viewer,
writer, publisher; center, theater, heater, quarter, sweater.
sailor, tailor, janitor, operator, aviator, navigator; contractor, director, inspector,
inventor,
investor, investigator, distributor; actor, doctor, donor, mentor, tutor, tenor, sculptor,
editor,
prosecutor, commentator; dictator, translator, conductor, instructor; ancestor, bachelor,
OR neighbor, orator, traitor, visitor, warrior, alligator; color, favor, glamour, honor, humor,
labor,
odor, rumor, tumor, valor, vigor; endeavor, behavior (BrE colour, favour, honour,
humour,
behaviour, etc.).

beggar, burglar, liar, scholar, vicar, cougar, dollar, calendar, circular, seminar, vinegar,
caterpillar; registrar; altar, cellar, collar, cedar, sugar, hangar, mortar, nectar, molar,
AR pillar,
grammar, caviar; cigar, guitar.
career, veneer, auctioneer, engineer, gazetteer, mountaineer, mutineer, overseer,
EER (IER) pamphleteer, pioneer, profiteer, puppeteer, racketeer, volunteer; soldier, terrier, barrier,

22
glacier, rapier; cashier, premier, frontier, bombardier, brigadier, cavalier, grenadier,
chandelier;
financier.

absentee, addressee, devotee, divorcee, employee, endorsee, lessee, licensee, payee,


refugee,
EE trainee, trustee; apogee, coffee, levee; committee; jubilee, decree, degree,
guarantee, repartee.

ESS actress, goddess, governess, hostess, mistress, poetess, sculptress, seamstress,


sorceress, waitress, baroness, countess, duchess, princess, empress, heiress,
lioness, tigress, fortress, enchantress.

Nouns with the suffix ION (TION, ITION, ATION, SION)

million, billion, trillion, union; cushion, fashion, champion, scorpion, carrion, legion,
region; religion, criterion, oblivion, accordion; caution, lotion, motion, notion, potion,
nation, ration,
ION, TION station, portion; diction, fiction, friction; prediction, addiction, conviction,
eviction; caption, option; adoption, absorption, deception, exception, perception,
reception, conception.
ignition; recognition, precognition, definition,
ITION
admonition, premonition, ammunition, exhibition,
prohibition; petition, partition, contrition,
nutrition; malnutrition, apparition,
competition, repetition, superstition; volition,
suspicion, tuition; intuition, demolition, abolition,
coalition.

ATION sensation, cessation, pulsation, causation;


conversation, condensation, compensation,
indexation, annexation, accusation,
improvisation; indication, dedication,
medication,
syndication, abdication, fabrication; eradication,
sophistication, prognostication; purification, falsification,
fortification, nullification; identification, intensification,
personification.

23
SION vision, lesion; revision, division, provision,
collision, derision, decision, incision, precision,
excision, adhesion, cohesion; fusion; confusion,
conclusion, delusion, illusion, allusion,
inclusion, intrusion, preclusion, explosion, erosion,
corrosion, occasion, invasion, evasion; passion;

SSION
compassion, concussion, discussion, percussion,
confession, profession.

Nouns with the suffix TY (ITY)


plenty, bounty, safety, nicety, deity, surety, liberty,
poverty, property, puberty, honesty,
TY majesty, certainty; faculty, cruelty, loyalty, royalty,
novelty, penalty, specialty (BrE speciality), admiralty,
difficulty, casualty.

ITY cavity, gravity, brevity, levity; activity, captivity,


declivity, festivity, passivity, proclivity, depravity,
longevity; productivity, conductivity, creativity,
receptivity, sensitivity; scarcity; capacity, audacity,
opacity, sagacity, vivacity, ferocity, atrocity, velocity;
complexity, perplexity; agility, civility, debility, docility,
facility, humility, nobility, senility, fragility, sterility,
fertility, futility, hostility, utility, virility; volatility,
imbecility.

history, botany, carpentry, industry, anarchy,


monarchy, tyranny; economy, astronomy, autonomy;
apology, analogy, anatomy, anomaly, antipathy,
miscellany, assembly, monotony, monogamy,
polygamy; ivy, envy, levy, fury, jury, entry, country,
ministry, symmetry, ivory;
Y delivery, discovery, inquiry, upholstery; artery,
gallery, celery, century, factory, category, surgery,
sorcery, theory, victory, injury, luxury, misery,
mystery.

24
4. VERB

Definition
Verb is a word which shows action or state of something. Most
verbs describe action, for example write, eat, run, and speak. Some
verbs describe state of something, and are not usually used in
continuous tense for example be, impress, please, surprise, belong to,
consist of, resemble, seem

Examples:
He works in a factory(action)
I bought a computer. (action)
John seems happy. (state)
He resembles his brother (state)

VERBS TYPES- Transitive and Intransitive


Transitive Verbs
Transitive verbs require an object.
Example:
She filled the cup.
In this sentence, filled is a transitive verb and the cup is the object
in the sentence. It doesn't make much sense to have filled without
an object. She filled is incomplete.
Tip: Think of transitive verbs as transferring their action to the
object.
Direct objects and Indirect objects
There are two different types of object: direct objects and indirect
objects. A direct object is, as its name suggests, directly affected
by the action of the main verb. In the following two sentences, a
drink and a story are direct objects: a drink was bought and a
story was being read.
Examples
Jonathan bought a drink.
[subject] [direct object]
25
He was reading a story.
[subject] [direct object]

Indirect object is usually a person or thing that benefits in some


way from the action of the main verb.

Examples
Jonathan bought Catherine| a Catherine has received a drink, but
drink. it is the drink that has been bought.
[subject] [ind obj] [Dir
obj]

He was reading his daughter| a His daughter is hearing the story,


story. but its the story that is being read.
[subject] [ind obj] [dir
obj]
Examples of Transitive Verbs
They climbed the mountain.
The clock struck one.
I want candy.
He carried the bag.
Jose thanked Wayne.
I couldnt face him today.

Intransitive verbs
Intransitive verbs don't take an object.
Examples of Intransitive Verbs
He ran.
The baby cried.
They napped.
They laughed uncontrollably.
The dog barked.
She slept.
Verbs that are both transitive and intransitive
Some verbs can be transitive or intransitive, depending on how
they are used in a sentence.
Examples of Verbs That Can Be Transitive and Intransitive
To cheer is one example.
They cheered. |They cheered the band.

26
She sang. |She sang a song.
Larry tripped. |Larry tripped Alex.
We visited. |We visited Aunt Ruth.

The forms of the verb "to be"


Tense Used for Form Example
Base form Be It can be simple.
I Am I am here.
You are You are here.
Simple Present He/She/It Is She is here.
We are We are here.
They are They are here.
I was I was here.
You were You were here.
Simple Past He/She/It was She was here.
We were We were here.
They were They were here.
I will be I will be here.
You will be You will be here.
Simple Future He/She/It will be She will be here.
We will be We will be here.
They will be They will be here.
Progressive form being He is being unusual.
Perfect from been It has been fun.

Uses of being
The word being is used in several different grammatical
structures.
Being + adjective
The structure being + adjective is used to talk about actions and
behavior.
Why are you being so silly?
You are being cruel when you hurt others with your words or actions.

27
Note that when the adjective refers to feelings, the continuous
form is not possible.
I was upset when I heard that I had failed the test. (NOT I was being
upset when I Here we are talking about the speakers feelings
and hence a continuous form is not possible.)
I am delighted to hear that you have won the first prize. (NOT I am
being delighted )

Being + past participle


Being can be followed by a past participle. This structure is used
in the passive forms of present and past continuous tenses.

Compare:
Mother is cooking dinner. (Active)
Dinner is being cooked by mother. (Passive)
They are repairing the roof.
The roof is being repaired.
I am quite sure that somebody is following me. (Active)
I am quite sure that I am being followed. (Passive)

Being in participle clauses


Instead of a because /as / since clause, we sometimes use an
adverbial participle clause with being. This structure is mainly
used in a formal or literary style.

Compare:
Being late, he couldnt watch the show. (= Because he is late, he
couldnt watch the show.)

Being a friend of the Minister, I am often invited to official parties. (=


As I am a friend of the Minister, I am often invited to official parties.)

Being quite slim, I managed to squeeze through the small opening in


the wall. (= Since I was quite slim, I managed to squeeze through the
small opening in the wall.)

The Participle
The participle is a verb that acts as an adjective. There are two
types of participles:
1 Present Participle 2 Past Participle

28
Present Participle
Present participles end in -ing.
Examples:
boiling water
caring nature
deserving recipient

Some more examples of present participles:


A laughing man is stronger than a suffering man.
If you pick up a starving dog and make him prosperous, he will not
bite you. This is the principal difference between a dog and a man.
The only thing that comes to a sleeping man is dreams.

The [verb] + "ing" part is known as a present participle. It is


formed like this:

Add "ing" to most verbs:


play > playing
shout > shouting

For verbs that end "e", remove the "e" and add "ing":
prepare > preparing
ride > riding

For verbs that end "ie", change the "ie" to "y" and add "ing":
lie > lying
untie > untying

For verbs whose last syllable is written [consonant-vowel-


consonant] and is stressed, double the final consonant and add
"ing":
run > running
forget > forgetting

Past Participles
Past participles have various endings, usually -ed, -d, -t, -en, or -n.
Examples:
broken window
painted frame
destroyed bridge

Some more examples of past participles:

29
A swollen eye is God's way of telling you to improve your
interpersonal skills.
Do not waste time staring at a closed door.
I like children...if they're properly cooked.

Forming the Past Participle (Regular Verbs)


If it's a regular verb, the past participle is the same as
the simple past tense. In other words, it is formed like this:

Add "ed" to most verbs:


jump > jumped
paint > painted

If a verb of one syllable ends [consonant-vowel-consonant],


double the final consonant and add "ed":
chat > chatted
stop > stopped

If the final consonant is w, x or y, don't double it:


sew > sewed
play > played
fix > fixed

If last syllable of a longer verb is stressed and ends [consonant-


vowel-consonant], double the last consonant and add "ed":
incur > incurred
prefer > preferred

If the first syllable of a longer verb is stressed and the verb ends
[consonant-vowel-consonant], just add "ed":
open > opened
enter > entered
swallow > swallowed

If the verb ends "e", just add "d":


thrive > thrived
guzzle > guzzled

If the verb ends [consonant + "y"], change the "y" to an "i" and
add "ed":
cry > cried
fry > fried

30
5. REGULAR AND IRREGULAR
VERBS

An English verb can be regular or irregular.

Regular verbs
Regular verbs form their past and past participle forms by adding
ed or d.

Examples:
Walk walked walked
Dance danced danced
Paint painted painted
Work worked worked

Irregular verbs
Irregular verbs form their past and past participle forms in
different ways.
There are mainly three types of irregular verbs.
Verbs in which all the three forms are the same (e.g. put put
put)
Verbs in which two of the three forms are the same (e.g. sit sat
sat)
Verbs in which all three forms are different (e.g. drink drank
drunk)

31
6. TENSES

The tense of a verb shows the time of an action or event.


Read the following sentences:
1. I write the letter.
2. I wrote the letter yesterday.
3. I will write another letter tomorrow.
In sentence 1, the verb write refers to present time and is said to
be in the present tense. Examples are: write, build, love, like etc.

In sentence 2, the verb wrote refers to past time and is said to be


in the past tense. Examples are: wrote, built, loved, liked etc.

In sentence 3, the verb will write refers to future time is said to be


in the future tense. Examples are: will/shall write, will/shall
build, will/shall love, will/shall like etc.

Thus we have three main tenses which are further classified as


below:

Present Tense Past Tense Future Tense


Simple Present Simple Past Simple future
Present Continuous Past Continuous Future Continuous
Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect
Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Future Perfect Continuous

Present Tense
SIMPLE PRESENT
The simple present tense is formed:
subject + first form of the verb

Examples:
I write.
32
He writes.
She writes.
You write.
They write.

In other words, it only changes in the third person singular (he /


she / it). It adds either s, es or ies.

The Spelling Rules


For regular verbs, just add s:
talk> talks
improve> improves

For verbs that end in s, ss, sh, ch, x and o, add es:
guess> guesses
mash> mashes
fix> fixes
go> goes

For verbs ending with y, change the y to i and add es:


fly> flies
study> studies

The simple present tense is used to talk about-


A habitual action.
He gets up at 8 am.
He drinks tea in the morning.
She keeps her home neat and tidy.

General truths
Honey is sweet.
The sun rises in the east.
Fortune favors the brave.

In exclamatory sentences beginning with here and there (to


express what is actually happening in the present.)
There goes your husband!
Here comes the bus!

Future events that are part of a time table


The train leaves at 6 pm.
The match starts at 9 oclock.
The next flight is at 6:30 tomorrow morning.

33
To tell stories (particularly jokes) to make your listener or
reader feel more engaged with the story.
A horse walks into a bar, and the barman says, "why the long
face?"
(Compare to: A horse walked into a bar, and the barman said, "why
the long face?")
We heard the helicopter overhead. Suddenly, the radio bursts into life.

Note also the other uses of the simple present tense.


1) To introduce quotations
Keats says, A thing of beauty is a joy for ever.

2) In clauses of time and condition


I will call you when dinner is ready. (NOT I will call you when
dinner will be ready.)
I will go abroad after I finish my studies. (NOT I will go abroad
after I will finish my
studies.)

3) In broadcast commentaries
In broadcast commentaries on sporting events, the simple present tense
is used instead of
the present continuous tense to talk about activities in progress.

PRESENT CONTINUOUS
The present progressive tense is formed like this:
[am, is, or are] + [verb] + ing

Choose am, is, or are based on the following table:

Subject Verb "to Be" Present Participle


I Am
You Are
He / She / It (or singular noun) Is [verb] + "ing"
We Are
You Are
They (or plural noun) Are

Example:
She is running.
I am talking.

34
The present continuous tense is used to talk about an action going
on at the time of
speaking.
The baby is sleeping.
The children are playing.
It is raining.
The students are reading.

To talk about a temporary action which may not be actually


happening at the time of speaking.
I am reading David Copperfield. (But I am not reading at this
moment.)

Planned future events (arranged to take place in the near future)


My father is arriving tomorrow.
We are going to the cinema tonight.

We have already seen that the simple present tense is used to


talk about habitual actions.
But to refer to a particularly obstinate habit we often use the
present continuous tense with
an adverb like always, continually, constantly etc.
My dog is very silly; he is always running after cars.

Verbs not used in the present continuous tense


The following verbs are not normally used in the present
continuous form: see, hear, smell,
notice, recognize, appear, look, seem, want, wish, desire, feel, like, love,
hate, think,
suppose, believe, consider, remember, forget etc.

When have means possess, it is not normally used in the


continuous form.
Incorrect: These grapes are tasting sour.
Correct: These grapes taste sour.
Incorrect: I am thinking you are wrong.
Correct: I think you are wrong.
Incorrect: She is seeming upset.
Correct: She seems upset.
Incorrect: She is having a dog.
Correct: She has a dog.
Incorrect: I am liking it.
35
Correct: I like it.

Note that many of these verbs can be used in the continuous form
with a change of
meaning.
I am thinking of writing a novel.
She is tasting the soup to see if it needs more salt.
They are having lunch.

PRESENT PERFECT
The present perfect tense is formed:
has/have + [the past participle]

Example:
I have worked
She has painted

Forming the Past Participle (Regular Verbs)/


If it's a regular verb, the past participle is the same as the simple
past tense. In other words, it is formed like this:

Add "ed" to most verbs:


jump> jumped
paint> painted

If a verb of one syllable ends [consonant-vowel-consonant],


double the final consonant and add "ed":
chat> chatted
stop> stopped

If the final consonant is w, x or y, don't double it:


sew> sewed
play> played
fix> fixed

If last syllable of a longer verb is stressed and ends [consonant-


vowel-consonant], double the last consonant and add "ed":
incur> incurred
prefer> preferred

If the first syllable of a longer verb is stressed and the verb ends
[consonant-vowel-consonant], just add "ed":
open> opened
enter> entered
36
swallow> swallowed

If the verb ends "e", just add "d":


thrive> thrived
guzzle> guzzled

If the verb ends [consonant + "y"], change the "y" to an "i" and add
"ed":
cry> cried
fry> fried

The present perfect tense is used to talk about completed


activities in the immediate past. It is often used with the adverb
of time just.
I have (just) finished my work.
He has (just) gone out.
They have (just) arrived.

The present perfect tense can also be used to talk about past
actions whose time is not given or definite.
I have read all plays of Shakespeare. (This statement doesnt say
exactly when I read
the plays. All that we know is that it happened sometime in the
past.)
I have visited Africa.
She has acted in several films.

Past events whose effect is felt in the present


He has broken his leg. (So he cant walk now.)
I have finished my work. (= Now I am free.)

Past events that have began in the past continued up to the


present:
I have known him for a long time. (I still know him.)
We have lived in this city for ten years. (We still live in this city.)
He has been ill since last week. (He is still ill.)
I have been to London. (I visited London before, but I don't have to
be physically in London at the time when I say the sentence.)
I have been in London for three days. (I mean I am still in London.)

Note that the present perfect tense cannot be used with adverbs of
past time. However, the following adverbs or adverb phrases can
be used with the present perfect tense: never, ever, so far, till now,
yet, already, today, this week, this month etc.

37
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
The present perfect progressive tense is formed:
"has/have been" + [present participle]

Example:
I have been working since yesterday evening.
She has been chewing for two minutes.

In the examples above, the words "working" and "chewing" (i.e.,


the [verb] + "ing" part of the construction) are known as present
participles. A present participle is formed like this:

The present perfect progressive tense has two uses. It is used


for:
(1) a continuous activity that began in the past and continues into
the present, or
(2) a continuous activity that began in past but has now finished
(usually very recently).

I have been gardening since morning.


It has been raining since yesterday.
Rani has been studying since morning.
Rahul has been playing for hours.
They have been waiting for long.

Difference between present perfect and present perfect


continuous tense
Both present perfect and present perfect continuous tenses can be
used to talk about situations that started in the past and are still
going on. The present perfect continuous tense is preferred in
cases where we want to say how long a situation has lasted.
To simply show the continuity of an action, we use the present
continuous tense. The present perfect tense is used in cases where
the focus is on the idea of completion.

I have written six letters since morning. (Focus on the idea of


completion)
He has eaten a whole loaf of bread.
I am writing a letter. (Focus on the idea of continuity with no
reference to duration)
I have been writing since morning. (Focus on the continuity and
duration of the idea)
38
Use of 'For' and 'Since'
"For" is applied before uncertain time:- "Since" is applied before certain time:-
Five hours, two hours, an hour 3 O'clock, 10 O'clock, 5 PM, 4 AM.
few days, four days, seven days Monday, Saturday, Sunday
two months, eight months March, June, December
One year, ten years 2011, 2012, 2013
for a long time Since long.
Yesterday, tomorrow, day after tomorrow
Morning, Evening, Night, Noon, Afternoon.
Birth, beginning, then, when

Past Tense
SIMPLE PAST
We use the simple past tense for events
that happened or started and completed in the past and that have
no relation with the present.

The simple past tense is formed:


If it's a regular verb, the simple past tense is formed like this:

Add "ed" to most verbs:


jump> jumped
paint> painted

If a verb of one syllable ends [consonant-vowel-consonant],


double the final consonant and add "ed":
chat> chatted
stop> stopped

If the final consonant is w, x or y, don't double it:


sew> sewed
play> played
fix> fixed

If last syllable of a longer verb is stressed and ends [consonant-


vowel-consonant], double the last consonant and add "ed":
incur> incurred
prefer> preferred

39
If the first syllable of a longer verb is stressed and the verb ends
[consonant-vowel-consonant], just add "ed":
open> opened
enter> entered
swallow> swallowed

If the verb ends "e", just add "d":


thrive> thrived
guzzle> guzzled

If the verb ends [consonant + "y"], change the "y" to an "i" and add
"ed":
cry> cried
fry> fried

The simple past tense is sometimes used without an adverb of


time. In such cases, the time of the action may be either implied
or indicated by the context.
His father worked for Google.
I ate a big spicy piece of pizza for my breakfast.

To refer to an action completed regardless of how recent or


distant in the past.
Alexander Bell invented the telephone in 1876.
My brother joined the circus as a clown last week.

To talk about an action completed in the past. It is often used


with adverbs or adverb phrases of past time.
I met him yesterday.
His father died last year.
I received the letter a week ago.

For an action done repeatedly, habitually or at regular times in


the past.
When I was in college, I studied eight hours a day. (= When I was
in college, I used to study eight hours a day.)
Edison sold newspapers before he became a famous scientist. (=
Edison used to sell newspapers before he became a famous scientist.)
We saw the movie 'Titanic' several times at the cinema.
He phoned his mother every Sunday until her death.

For a state in the past.


I felt very tired after a couple of games of tennis.

To talk about someone who has died.


Arthur was a highly respected science-fiction writer.

40
He left all his money to charity.

In providing details or information about events that happened


subsequent to news reports which, when first reported, are
usually expressed in present perfect tense.
Negotiations with the insurgent forces have broken down. The
leader of the insurgent forces blamed the government for the break
down. A government spokesman said the insurgent
forces made unreasonable demands.
Used to
We use the expression used to to refer to a past habit or situation
that no longer exists. We use the infinitive without to after 'used
to.'
I used to chase butterflies, but now I don't see any butterfly around.
(NOT: I used to chase butterflies, .....)
She used to be scared of spiders, but now she keeps a pet spider.
Did you used/use to live in a houseboat?
Professor Crabby is never used to people arguing with him.

PAST CONTINUOUS
The past progressive tense is formed like this:
For singular:
was + [verb] + ing

For plural:
were + [verb] + ing

The past continuous tense is used for an action that was taking
place in the past when a shorter action (expressed in the simple
past tense) happened.
I was camping when I got stung by a bee.
When I visited him in the hospital, he was snoring loudly.
While he was reading the newspaper, he fell asleep.
While I was talking to him, his eyes looked somewhere else.
Note: The past continuous tense and the simple past tense are
used together
With while to describe two actions that were going on at the
same time in the past.
While my brother was laughing, my sister was crying.
My father was drinking while my mother was eating.

41
For an action that was happening and not yet finished at a
particular time or throughout a period of time in the past. We
do not state when the action started or ended.
Grandma was knitting a sock at 11 o'clock last night.
They were hunting wild boars all evening.
To show that we were in the middle of an action.
I was collecting old newspapers. (I was in the middle of doing the
collecting.)
The police sirens were wailing.

We use when with the past continuous and simple past tenses:
To show that an action or event described in the past
continuous tense started before the event expressed in the
simple past tense.

Two women were fighting in the street when the


police arrived. (The fighting started before the police
arrived.)

To show that an action or event described in the past


continuous tense was going on when the event expressed in
the simple past tense took place.

They were having a barbecue when the


rain started falling. (The rain fell when the barbecue was in
progress.)

To show time order of events.


When I woke up, my brother was brushing his teeth. (I woke
up during his brushing his teeth.)
When I woke up, my brother brushed his teeth. (I woke up, and
then my brother brushed his teeth.)
He was bathing his pet puppy when I visited him. (He started
the bathing before my visit and the bathing was in progress at
the time of my visit.)
He bathed his pet puppy when I visited him. (Two complete
events: I visited him and then he bathed his pet.)

PAST PERFECT
The past perfect tense is used to express two types of actions
which occurred or completed in the past. It is used to make it
clear that one event happened before another in the past. It does

42
not matter which event is mentioned first - the tense makes it
clear which one happened first.

The past perfect tense is formed:


had + [the past participle]
Example:
You had studied English before you moved to New York.
Tony knew Istanbul so well because he had visited the city several
times.

Note: The past perfect tense and the simple past tense are used
together.
The Past Perfect Tense is usedto show an action happened in
the past before another event took place:
Words usually used with the Past Perfect tense
are when and after.
They had already finished their dinner when I arrived to
join them.
When he had done his homework, he went for a smoke in
the park.
After I had eaten five apples, I felt ill.
I arrived at the cinema after the film had started.

Note: The event in the past perfect tense occurred before the
event in the simple past tense.

Words such as already, just and as soon as are also used with
the Past Perfect tense.
It had already stopped raining when I bought an
umbrella.
The whole house had just burnt down when the firemen
got there.
As soon as she had got married, she regretted it.

For an action which happened before a definite time in the past.


They had finished their prayers by ten o'clock.

For an action which took place and completed in the past.


He had hurt his back in an accident at work and he had to stay at
home for three months.
(The action happened and he suffered the consequences all in
the past)

For states.
43
They had become good friends for many years after meeting on
holiday.

When two actions were completed in the past, use a past perfect
tense to clarify which event happened earlier.

a) INCORRECT: The museum occupied the building where the art


gallery was.
b) CORRECT: The museum occupied the building where the art
gallery had been.

c) INCORRECT: The list of movies you showed me, I saw before.


d) CORRECT: The list of movies you showed me, I had seen before.

In (a), the use of two simple past tenses (occupied; was) imply the
museum and the art gallery occupied the same building at the
same time, which was not the case.
In (b), the use of the perfect tense (had been) sorts out the order of
occupation of the building.

In (c), 'I saw before' clearly indicates it happened before the list
was showed to me, and so should be in the past perfect tense as in
(d).

Sometimes the past perfect tense and the past simple tense are
used separately in different sentences.
This morning we visited John in the hospital. He had just been
admitted with stomach pains.
The past simple tense precedes the past perfect tense. Notice the
action in the past perfect tense happened first.

Before and after:


As mentioned above, the event expressed in the past perfect tense
occurred earlier than the event in the past simple tense. However,
when before or after is used in a sentence, the past perfect tense
becomes unnecessary as the two words - before or after already
clarify which action takes place first. We can use the simple past
tense instead. Look at these examples.

a) After she had read the letter, she tore it into pieces.
b) After she read the letter, she tore it into pieces.
c) We had left the stadium before the match ended.
d) We left the stadium before the match ended.

Changing the past perfect tense to past simple tense does not

44
affect the meaning of the sentences as (a) and (b) have the same
meaning, and (c) and (d) have the same meaning.

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS


The past perfect progressive tense is used to show that an on-
going action in the past has ended. The sentence includes a time-
reference to show when the action started in the past or for how
long the action was continued in the past.

The past perfect continuous tense is formed:


had been + [present participle]
Example:
I had been jumping.
They had been meeting.
The past perfect continuous is used:

For an action that occurred over a period of time in the past.


He had been playing saxophone in a jazz band.
She had been watching the movie for 2 hours.
They had been running their business since 1987.
She had been waiting for you since Wednesday.

Note: The first action uses the past perfect continuous and the
second action uses the simple past tense. Here are some more
examples:

For an action which started and finished in the past before


another past action. Here, since or for is usually used.
1. Jack got a job at last. He had been looking for a job since last year.
2. He and his brother had been playing badminton together for ten
years before one of them got married.
3. They had been talking for over an hour before Tony arrived.
4. She had been working at that company for three years when it went
out of business.
5. James had been teaching at the university for more than a year before
he left for Asia.

Before another action in the past is a good way to show cause


and effect.
My clothes were wet because it had been raining.
Mike wanted to sit down because he had been standing all day at
work.
Betty failed the final test because she had not been attending class.

45
Past Continuous vs. Past Perfect Continuous
If you do not include a duration such as "for five minutes," "for
two weeks" or "since Friday," many English speakers choose to
use the Past Continuous rather than the Past Perfect Continuous.
Be careful because this can change the meaning of the sentence.
Past Continuous emphasizes interrupted actions, whereas Past
Perfect Continuous emphasizes a duration of time before
something in the past. Study the examples below to understand
the difference.

Examples:
He was tired because he was exercising so hard.
This sentence emphasizes that he was tired because he was
exercising at that exact moment.

He was tired because he had been exercising so hard.


This sentence emphasizes that he was tired because he had been
exercising over a period of time. It is possible that he was still
exercising at that moment OR that he had just finished.

SIMPLE FUTURE
We use the simple future tense for actions that will happen in the
future. How we use it depends on how we view the events are
going to happen.

The simple future tense has 2 forms:


1. Will
2. Be going to

Will
will + [base form of verb]

Example:
You will meet Jane tonight.
She will play.
Martin will paint.

Be Going To
[am/is/are + going to + verb]

Examples:
You are going to meet Jane tonight.
She is going to play.

46
Martin is going to paint.

The table below shows the contraction forms using personal


pronouns:

Positive Negative
Contraction For emphasis Contraction
I will Ill I will not I won't
You will youll You will not You won't
We will well We will not We won't
He will hell He will not He won't
She will shell She will not She won't
It will it'll It will not It won't
They will theyll They will not They won't

1. Will
We use will to:
Say something that we are certain will occur in the future.
A meeting will be held next Monday at 2 p.m.
I will come along with you.

Say something that we are not so certain will happen.


I think he will phone me later.
They think you are the right choice.

Make a prediction.
The rain will stop soon.
The movie will end in around 20 mins.

Make a sudden decision at the moment of speaking.


There's a noise outside. I will just go and check.
I will go check if the charge on the phone is down yet.

Give a command.
You will report to me at eight o'clock tomorrow.
She will pay the fine for breaking the rules of the traffic.

Give an invitation; make an order or a threat.


They will invite Professor Dunce to speak at the scientific
conference.
I will have a double brandy.
Give me your wallet or I will slit your throat with this.

47
Ask questions or make a suggestion or promise.
Will you phone your mother-in-law to apologize, please?
Shall we sneak a couple of bottles of brandy through Customs?
I will try not to be late again.

2. Be going to
Be going to is used to refer to future actions as follow:

Intention or decision already made to do or not to do


something.
We are going to move to a new neighbourhood next month.
She is not going to be friends with those girls anymore.

Plans or arrangements for the near future that are made prior to
the time of speaking
We are going to visit the zoo on Sunday.
They are going to meet their old family friends.

Prediction of an outcome based on current situation.


Look at the overcast sky. It is going to rain hard.

When a decision or plan is made for the distant future, will is


usually used.
She will get married in two years.
Going to is usually used when a plan is made for the near
future.
We are going to visit them again early next month.
3. Be to
Be to (is/are + infinitive) refers to an action that is to take place in
the future. It is used for instructions, obligation and something
that is arranged. However, other forms of usage are possible.
You are not to answer any question from any one of the reporters.
(instruction)
You are to hand this packet over to him before noon. (obligation)
The Prime Minister is to meet his successor tomorrow.
(arrangement)
The museum is to be closed while it is being renovated.
(information)
The General Manager is to present the report to the board on
Monday. (duty)

48
4. Be about to (+ infinitive)
We use be about to for an action or event that will happen very
soon.
Everyone sits down when the film is about to start.
I have never drunk alcohol in my life and I am not about to start
now.
We walked quickly home when it was about to rain.
The audience fell silent when the President was about to appear.
When a plane is moved to the end of a runway, it usually means it is
about to take off.

When be about to is used with just, it emphasizes that


something is about to happen when it is interrupted by
something else.
I was just about to eat my dinner when the phone rang.

Will / Shall
Will and shall are auxiliary verbs used mainly in the future tense.
I shall arrive before noon. / They will arrive before noon.
Shall has always been used in the first-person singular (I) and
plural (we) but will is becoming more common.
I shall be away tomorrow. / We shall be away tomorrow.
We use will to ask a favour of somebody.
Will you look after my things for a while, please?
We use won't (will not) to show unwillingness or refusal to do
something.
I have asked the noisy children to keep quiet, but they won't listen.
We use shall when we:
Ask a first-person question.
Shall I open the window?
Make a suggestion.
Shall we go together in one car?
Make an offer.
Shall I give you a lift to the airport?
Ask for instructions.
Shall I make all these payments by the end of the month?

49
Will and shall are also used to make predictions in the simple
future tense.
I think the weather will get colder around the middle of this month.
I shall be judged only by God.

FUTURE CONTINUOUS
The future continuous tense is used to express an ongoing or
continued action which will occur sometime in the future.

Future Continuous has two different forms which are


interchangeable.
1. will be doing
2. be going to be doing

Will be doing

[will be + present participle]

Examples:
I will be writing a report.
He will be planning about his studies.
You will be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight.

Be going to be doing

[am/is/are + going to be + present participle]

Examples:
I am going to be writing a report.
He is going to be planning about his studies.
You are going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight.

We use the future continuous tense for an action that lasts a


period of time in the future.
His father will be working the whole day tomorrow.
They'll be shopping all afternoon.
We'll be flying over the Atlantic Ocean for three hours.

For an action that has been planned.


They will be going on vacation this summer.
Just think, next Monday you will be working in your new job.
This time next week I will be sun-bathing in Bali.

50
To express an action that will be in progress at a certain or
specified time in the future.
We will/shall be sleeping by the time you return.
At this time next week, I shall/will be playing poker.
Will they be coming at 6 p.m. tomorrow?

For an action which will happen as a matter of routine or as


scheduled (without intention)
You will be working with Miss Murphy again when you turn up for
work tomorrow.
The first train will be departing at 5.30 a.m.

To make a prediction about something in the future.


She will be feeling very sad after learning the truth.
(When in doubt, we can use may instead of shall/will.
Example: She may be feeling very sad after learning the
truth.)
He'll be coming to the meeting, I expect.
I guess you'll be feeling thirsty after working in the Sun.
You'll be missing the sunshine once you're back in England.
I don't want to disturb them. I am sure they will be cleaning their
house at the moment.
Please, don't come at 9 o'clock. She'll be sleeping at that time.

When combined with still, the future continuous refers to


events that are already happening now and that we expect to
continue some time into the future.

Examples:
In an hour I'll still be ironing my clothes.
Tomorrow he'll still be suffering from his cold.
Unfortunately, sea levels will still be rising in 20 years.

To indicate that a longer action in the future will be interrupted


by a shorter action in the future (in this case the shorter action in
the future is expressed with Simple Present):
I will be making dinner when he arrives tonight.
She will be playing the piano when her parents come home.

Note: Time clauses cannot be in the future tense as in the above


examples.
When you use the Future Continuous with two actions in the
same sentence, it expresses the idea that both actions will be
happening at the same time. The actions are parallel.
51
I am going to be studying and he is going to be making dinner.
Tonight, they will be eating dinner, discussing their plans,
and having a good time.
While Ellen is reading, Tim will be watching television.

Asking questions
To seek a favour of someone by asking about their plans
Will you be passing the post office on your way home?
Will you be going to the grocers this afternoon?

To ask for information


Will Jim be coming with us?
Will she be going to the party tonight?

FUTURE PERFECT
We use the future perfect to say that something will be finished
within a particular time in the future.

Future Perfect is formed as:

[will have + past participle]

Examples:
I think astronauts will have landed on Mars by the year 2020.
Ill have finished in an hour and then you can use the computer.
By the time you arrive, my foreign guests will have left.

We often use the future perfect with by or in


I will have finished the writing by midnight.
By next January I will have lived here for 10 years.
We will have finished the course in a month.
He will have trained the dog to be at his home, in a weeks time

Note: By means not later than a particular time and in means


'within a period of time. We dont know exactly when something
will finish.

The future perfect tense is used to show that an activity will be


completed by a specified time in the future (With time
expressions such as by seven o'clock, by this evening, by next
Thursday, by then, until noon tomorrow, before closing date).
I will have saved about one million dollars by the year 2040.
I will have finished this test by 3 o'clock.
He will have prepared the documents by next Friday.
52
By Monday, Susan is going to have had my book for a week.

To show that an action will be completed before another takes


place in the future.
The fire will have burnt the building to the ground by the time the
firemen arrive.
Sam will probably have completed the proposal by the time he leaves this
afternoon.

To show a situation will be over in the future.


The special offer buy two, get one free will have finished by midday
tomorrow.

With conditional 'if'


If you don't hurry up, we will have eaten all the food when you get to
the table.

With time clause:


The future perfect tense may come either before or after the
time clause.
a) On April 1st, she will have been here for six months.
b) She will have been here for six months on April 1st.
c) We will have waited for more than thirty minutes by the time the bus
arrives,
Time clauses: On April 1st/by the time the bus arrives
Main clauses: She will have been here for six months/We will
have waited for more than thirty minutes
A comma is placed at the end of a time clause when the time
clause comes before the main clause as in (a).

REMEMBER, No Future in Time Clauses

Like all future forms, the Future Perfect cannot be used in clauses
beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before,
after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Future
Perfect, Present Perfect is used.

Examples:
I am going to see a movie when I will have finished my
homework. Not Correct
I am going to see a movie when I have finished my
homework. Correct

FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS

53
The future perfect continuous tense is used for actions that will be
in progress over a period of time that will end in the future. A
time-reference is used in the sentences to show starting time of
the action of how long the action continues. This tense is very
uncommon.

The future perfect progressive tense is formed:

will have been + [present participle]

Example:
At 10 pm, I will have been swimming for a six hours.
They will have been talking for two hours by then.

We use the future perfect continuous tense:


To show the duration before something in the future
They will have been talking for over an hour by the time
Thomas arrives.
James will have been teaching at the university for more than a year
by the time he leaves for Asia.
How long will you have been studying when you graduate?

Note: In the examples above that the reference points (marked in


italics) are in Simple Present rather than Simple Future. This is
because these future events are in time clauses, and you cannot
use future tenses in time clauses.
To tell about the Cause of Something in the Future
Jason will be tired when he gets home because he will have been
jogging for over an hour.
Claudia's English will be perfect when she returns to Germany
because she will have been studying English in the United States for
over two years.

Note: Future perfect continuous tense can be used with simple


past tense and simple future tense as in the above examples.

REMEMBER No Future in Time Clauses

Examples:
You won't get a promotion until you will have been
working here as long as Tim. Not Correct
You won't get a promotion until you have been working here as
long as Tim. Correct

54
VERBS USED ONLY IN THEIR NON-CONTINUOUS FORMS

The following verbs, on account of their meaning, are not normally used in the continuous form

Verbs of perception hear, notice, recognize, see, smell, sense, sound, taste, weigh

Verbs of appearance appear, look, resemble, seem

care, desire, dislike, envy, fear, feel, hate, hope, like, love, prefer, refuse,
Verbs of emotion
surprise, want, wish
agree, appreciate, believe, consider, doubt, equal, forget, imagine, know,
Verbs of thinking mean, mind, need, owe, realize, remember, suppose, think, trust,
understand
have (=possess) be, belong, consist, contain, have, own, possess,

IRREGULAR VERBS
Type 1: All three forms are the same:

Present Past Past Participle


1 bet bet bet
2 burst burst burst
3 cost cost cost
4 cut cut cut
5 hit hit Hit
6 hurt hurt Hurt
7 let let Let
8 put put Put
9 quit quit Quit
10 read read Read
11 set set Set
12 shut shut Shut
13 split split Split
14 spread spread Spread

Type 2: Two of the forms are the same:


Present Past Past Participle
1 beat beat Beaten
2 become became Become
3 bend bent Bent

55
4 bleed bled Bled
5 breed bred Bred
6 bring brought Brought
7 build built Built
8 burn burnt/burned burnt/burned
9 buy bought Bought
10 catch caught Caught
11 come came Come
12 creep crept Crept
13 deal dealt Dealt
14 dig dug Dug
15 dream dreamt/dreamed dreamt/dreamed
16 feed fed Fed
17 feel felt Felt
18 fight fought Fought
19 find found Found
20 get got got/gotten
21 hang hung Hung
22 have had Had
23 hear heard Heard
24 hold held held
25 keep kept kept
26 lay laid laid
27 lead led led
28 learn learnt/learned learnt/learned
29 leap leapt/leaped leapt/leaped
30 leave left left
31 lend lent lent
32 light lit lit
33 lose lost lost
34 make made made
35 mean meant meant
36 meet met met
37 pay paid paid
38 run ran run
39 say said said
40 sell sold sold
41 send sent sent
42 Shine Shone Shone
43 shoot shot shot
44 sit sat sat
45 sleep slept slept
56
46 slide slid slid
47 smell smelt/smelled smelt/smelled
48 speed sped sped
49 spell spelt spelt
50 spend spent spent
51 spill spilt/spilled spilt/spilled
52 spit spat spat
53 spoil spoilt/spolied spoilt/spolied
54 stand stood stood
55 stick stuck stuck
56 sting stung stung
57 strike struck struck
58 sweep swept swept
59 swing swung Swung
60 teach taught taught
61 tell told told
62 think thought thought
63 understand understood understood
64 win won won
65 wind wound wound

Type 3:All three forms are different as:

Present Past Past Participle


1 awake awoke awoken
2 be was/were been
3 begin began begun
4 bite bit bitten
5 blow blew blown
6 break broke broken
7 choose chose chosen
8 do did done
9 draw drew drawn
10 drink drank drunk
11 drive drove driven
12 eat ate eaten

57
13 fall fell fallen
14 fly flew flown
15 forbid forbade forbidden
16 forget forgot forgotten
17 forgive forgave forgiven
18 freeze froze frozen
19 give gave given
20 go went gone
21 grow grew grown
22 hide hid hidden
23 know knew known
24 lie lay lain
25 mistake mistook mistaken
26 ride rode ridden
27 ring rang rung
28 rise rose risen
29 see saw seen
30 sew sewed sewn/sewed
31 shake shook shaken
32 show showed shown
33 shrink shrank shrunk
34 sing sang sung
35 sink sank sunk
36 speak spoke spoken
37 spring sprang sprung
38 steal stole stolen
39 stink stank stunk
40 swear swore sworn
41 swim swam swum
42 take took taken
43 tear tore torn
44 throw threw thrown
45 wake woke woken
46 wear wore worn
47 write wrote written

58
7. ADJECTIVES

Adjective is a word that modifies (gives more information about) a noun or pronoun.
For example, tall man, old house, red car. The words tall, old, red are adjectives which
give more information about nouns man, house, and car in these examples.
Questions adjectives answer:
1. What Kind?
2. Which one?
3. How many?
4. How much?
More than one adjective can also be used for a single noun in sentence.
e.g., The tall, thin, beautiful and intelligent girl entered into the room.

Examples:
He ate a delicious mango.
She bought a red car.
A fat man was running in the street.
I saw a cute baby.
I dont like hot tea.
They live in a small home.
The Poor cant afford expensive clothes.
Severe headache and fever are symptoms of malaria.
He is facing a difficult problem.

Adjectives of Quality
The adjectives that are used to describe the nature of a subject or a noun or showing the kind or
quality of nouns or pronouns are called Adjective of Quality.

They answer the question of what kind of?


Examples:
Its a beautiful day.
I love French fries.
Honesty is the best policy.

59
Let us have a rocking weekend.

Adjectives of Quantity
Adjective of quantity indicates the amount or estimated amount of the noun or pronoun in the
sentence. It does not provide information about exact numbers, it tells only the amount of noun
in relative or whole terms.
Some of them are: whole, some, little, all, no, enough, sufficient, any, few, most, half, great, less,
empty.
Examples:
She ate the whole apple but I ate some rice today.
He gave me some chocolates.
I know little about country music.
He cannot spend all his money over you.
There is no milk in the glass.
There is enough water in the canal.
We have sufficient study-materials to pass the examinations.
Is there any mango in the tub?
He can spend only few dollars in this project.
Most of the boys like to eat burger.
He has taken half cup of milk.
Great leaders ruled the country.
She is a less paid worker.
The bucket was empty when I saw.

Demonstrative Adjectives
Like the article the, demonstrative adjectives are used to indicate or demonstrate specific
people, animals, or things. These, those, this and that are demonstrative adjectives.
Examples:
These books belong on that
This movie is my favourite.
Please put those cookies on the blue plate.

Numbers Adjectives
When theyre used in sentences, numbers are almost always adjectives. Also, there are
indefinite adjectives that show how many persons or things are meant or in what order a person
or thing stands. The most common indefinite pronouns are: all, no, any, each, everybody,
everyone, few, many, nobody, none, one, several, some, and certain.
Examples:
The stagecoach was pulled by a team of six
He ate 23 hotdogs during the contest, and was sick afterwards.

60
Please bring home some dinner.
Do you have any information?
Teresa did not each much lunch.
There were a few pieces remaining.
My friends are not like most people.
Each boy must have his turn.
Every man must do his duty.
Either pen will do.
Neither accusation is true.

Interrogative Adjectives
There are three interrogative adjectives: which, what, and whose. Like all other types of
adjectives, interrogative adjectives modify nouns. As you probably know, all three of these
words are used to ask questions.
Examples:
Which option sounds best to you?
What time should we go?
Whose socks are those?

Adjectives for comparison


There are three forms of comparison:
positive
comparative
superlative

1. Comparison with -er/-est


clean cleaner (the) cleanest
We use -er/-est with the following adjectives:
1.1. Adjectives with one syllable

positive comparative superlative


clean cleaner cleanest
new newer newest
cheap cheaper cheapest

1.2. Adjectives with two syllables and the following endings:

1.2.1. Adjectives with two syllables, ending in y


Positive comparative superlative
Dirty dirtier dirtiest

61
Easy easier easiest
Happy happier happiest
Pretty prettier prettiest

1.2.2. Adjectives with two syllables, ending in er and ar


Positive comparative superlative
Clever cleverer cleverest
Near nearer nearest
Dear dearer dearest

1.2.3. Adjectives with two syllables, ending in -le


Positive comparative superlative
Simple simpler Simplest

1.2.4. Adjectives with two syllables, ending in -ow


Positive comparative superlative
Narrow narrower narrowest

1.3. Spelling of the adjectives using the endings -er/-est


Positive comparative superlative comment
Large Larger largest leave out the silent -e
Big Bigger biggest
Double the consonant after short vowel
Sad Sadder saddest
Dirty Dirtier dirtiest Change -y to -i (consonant before -y)
Here -y is not changed to -i.
Shy Shyer shyest
(although consonant before -y)

2. Comparison with more most


All adjectives with more than one syllable (except some adjectives with two syllables see 2.1.
to 2.4.)
positive comparative superlative
difficult more difficult (the) most difficult

3. Irregular adjectives
Positive comparative superlative Comment
Good better best

62
Bad worse worst
Much more most uncountable nouns
Many more most countable nouns
Little less least
Little smaller Smallest

4. Special adjectives
Some adjectives have two possible forms of comparison (-er/est and more/most).

Positive Comparative superlative


Clever cleverer / more clever cleverest / most clever
Common commoner / more common commonest / most common
Likely likelier / more likely likeliest / most likely
Pleasant pleasanter / more pleasant pleasantest / most pleasant
Polite politer / more polite politest / most polite
Quiet quieter / more quiet quietest / most quiet
Simple simpler / more simple simplest / most simple
Stupid stupider / more stupid stupidest / most stupid
Subtle subtler / more subtle subtlest / most subtle
Sure surer / more sure surest / most sure

5. Difference in meaning with adjectives


Positive comparative superlative Comment
Farther farthest Distance
Far distance or
Further furthest
Time
later latest
Late latter x
x last
Older Oldest people and things
Old
Elder Eldest people (family)
Nearer Nearest distance
Near
X Next Order

THE COMPARATIVE AND THE SUPERLATIVE

COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES

63
Comparative adjectives are used to compare differences between the two objects they modify
(larger, smaller, faster, higher). They are used in sentences where two nouns are compared, in this
pattern:

Noun (subject) + verb + comparativeadjective + than + noun (object)

The second item of comparison can be omitted if it is clear from the context (final example
below).
Examples:
My house is larger than hers.
This box is smaller than the one I lost.
Your dog runs faster than Jim's dog.
The rock flew higher than the roof.
Jim and Jack are both my friends, but I like Jack better. ("than Jim" is understood)
You play tennis better than I do.
This sweater is less expensive than that one.
I ran pretty far yesterday, but I ran even farther today.

SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES
Superlative adjectives are used to describe an object which is at the upper or lower limit of a
quality (the tallest, the smallest, the fastest, the highest). They are used in sentences where a subject
is compared to a group of objects.

Noun (subject) + verb + the + superlative adjective + noun (object)

The group that is being compared with can be omitted if it is clear from the context (final
example below).
Examples:
My house is the largest one in our neighbourhood.
This is the smallest box I've ever seen.
Your dog ran the fastest of any dog in the race.
Today is the worst day I've had in a long time.
This is the least expensive sweater in the store.
We all threw our rocks at the same time. My rock flew the highest. ("of all the rocks" is understood)

64
8. ADVERBS

An adverb is a word thats used to give information about a verb, adjective, or other adverb:
they sang loudly
shes very pretty
he writes really well

Adverbs normally carry out these functions by answering questions such as:
When? She always arrives early.
How? He drives carefully.
Where? They go everywhere together.
In what way? She eats slowly.
To what extent? It is terribly hot.

An adverb can be used to modify an adjective and intensify the meaning it conveys.
He plays tennis well. (He knows how to play tennis and sometimes he wins.
He plays tennis extremely well. (He knows how to play tennis so well that he wins often.)
The students showed a really wonderful attitude.
The students showed a wonderfully casual attitude.
My professor is really tall.
Note: an adjective cannot modify an adverb
He ran real fast. Wrong
He ran really fast. Right
He behaved very bad on the trip. Wrong (bad is modifying or describing behaved, which is a
verb)
He behaved very badly. Right
His behavior is bad. Right(bad is an adjective describing the noun behavior)

Adverbial
An adverbial is a word (an adverb), phrase, or clause which modifies (changes, restricts or adds to
the meaning of) a verb.

65
An adverbial can be a noun phrase:
We met that afternoon.

If a group of words containing a subject and verb acts as an adverb (modifying the verb of a
sentence), it is called an Adverb Clause:
When this class is over, we're going to the movies.
We met because we needed to talk.

When a group of words not containing a subject and verb acts as an adverb, it is called an
adverbial phrase.
He went to the movies.
She works on holidays.
They lived in Canada during the war.

Note: Prepositional phrases frequently have adverbial functions (telling place and time,
modifying the verb):-E.g., We met in the caf.

Infinitive phrases can act as adverbs (usually telling why):


She hurried to the restaurant to see her friend.
He ran to catch the bus.

Adverbs Are Intensifiers


One function of adverbs is to intensify the meaning of the word it is modifying. It does this by
putting more or less emphasis on the word, amplifying the meaning of the word, or toning
down the feeling of the word.
Here are some sentences with emphasizers underlined:
I really dont care.
I am certain of the facts, for sure.
You simply dont understand.
I so want to go to the concert.
He literally wrecked his mother's car.
They're going to be late, for sure.

Sentences with amplifiers would be like:


I heartily endorsed the new restaurant.
He completely understands me.
I absolutely refuse to stay here any longer.
The teacher completely rejected her proposal.
They heartily endorsed the new restaurant.
We know this city well.

Adverbs and adverb phrases that down tone the feeling or mood would include:

66
You can improve on this to some extent.
She kind of likes the movie.
The boss almost quit his job after that.
I somewhat understand what you are saying.
Joe sort of felt betrayed by his sister.
His mother mildly disapproved his actions.

We often use more and most, less and least to show degree with adverbs:
With sneakers on, he could move more quickly among the patients.
The flowers were the most beautifully arranged creations I've ever seen.
She worked less confidently after her accident.
That was the least skillfully done performance I've seen in years.

Adverbs ending with -ly


Adverbs frequently end in -ly; however, many words and phrases not ending in -ly serve an
adverbial function and an -ly ending is not a guarantee that a word is an adverb.

A handful of adverbs have two forms, one that ends in -ly and one that doesn't. In certain cases,
the two forms have different meanings:
He arrived late.
Lately, he couldn't seem to be on time for anything.
He listened hard. He really did listen)
Hardly, he listened.
Inappropriate Adverb Order
Misplacement can also occur with very simple modifiers, such as only and barely:
She only grew to be four feet tall.
It would be better if "She grew to be only four feet tall."
She only sits there.(She doesnt do anything other than sitting)
She sits only there.(That is the only place where she sits)
But the below 2 sentences mean the same.
She barely likes vegetables.
She likes vegetables barely.

Relative Adverbs
Where
When
Why
Adjectival clauses are sometimes introduced by the relative adverbs.
The relative word itself fulfills an adverbial function (modifying a verb within its own clause).
The relative adverb where begins a clause that modifies a noun of place:
My entire family now worships in the church where my great grandfather used to be minister.

67
The relative pronoun "where" modifies the verb "used to be" (which makes it adverbial), but the
entire clause ("where my great grandfather used to be minister") modifies the word "church."
A when clause modifies nouns of time:
My favorite month is always February, when we celebrate Valentine's Day and Presidents' Day.
And a why clause will modify the noun reason:
Do you know the reason why Isabel isn't in class today?

Some Special Cases


The adverbs enough and not enough usually take a post-modifier position:
Is that music loud enough?
These shoes are not big enough.
In a roomful of elderly people, you must remember to speak loudly enough.
Incorrect: He was enough foolish to trust her.
Correct: He was foolish enough to trust her.
The adverb enough comes after the adjective which it qualifies.
(Notice, though, that when enough functions as an adjective, it can come before the noun, when
the noun is placed at the end of the sentence.
Did she give us enough time?

The adverb enough is often followed by an infinitive:


She didn't run fast enough to win.

Too and very


Incorrect: The story is too interesting.
Correct: The story is very interesting.
Too means 'more than it ought to be'. It has a negative meaning. It is usually
followed by to or for. Too should not be used in the general sense of very which
has a positive meaning.
He is too fat.
It is too hot to go out.
She is too smart for the job.

The adverb too comes before adjectives and other adverbs:


She ran too fast.
She works too quickly.
If too comes after the adverb it is probably a disjunct (meaning also) and is usually set off with a
comma:
Jasmine works hard. She works quickly, too.
The adverb too is often followed by an infinitive:
She runs too slowly to enter this race.

68
Another common construction with the adverb too is too followed by a prepositional phrase
for + the object of the preposition followed by an infinitive:
This milk is too hot for a baby to drink.

Adjuncts, Disjuncts, and Conjuncts


An adjunct is part of a Sentence and modifies the Verb to show time, manner, place, frequency
and degree. Certain parts of a sentence may convey information about how, when, or where
something happened, but then note that the sentence still makes sense without them.
He ate his meal quickly (how)
David gave blood last week (when)
Susan went to school in New York (where)

A disjunct is a type of adverbial that expresses information that is not considered essential to
the sentence it appears in, but which is considered to be the speaker's or writer's attitude
towards, or descriptive statement of, the propositional content of the sentence.
Frankly, Martha, I don't give a hoot.
Fortunately, no one was hurt.
Honestly, I couldn't believe it.
Wisely, she spent the money

Conjuncts, on the other hand, serve a connector function within the flow of the text, signaling a
transition between ideas.
If they start smoking those awful cigars, then I'm not staying.
We've told the landlord about this ceiling again and again, yet he's done nothing to fix it.
Jose has spent years preparing for this event; nevertheless, he's the most nervous person here.
I love this school; however, I don't think I can afford the tuition.

More Notes on Adverb Order


As a general principle, shorter adverbial phrases precede longer adverbial phrases, regardless
of content. In the following sentence, an adverb of time precedes an adverb of frequency
because it is shorter (and simpler):
Dad takes a brisk walk|before breakfast |every day of his life.
Adverb of time adverb of frequency
A second principle: among similar adverbial phrases of kind (manner, place, frequency, etc.),
the more specific adverbial phrase comes first:
My grandmother told me stories everyday when I was a kid.
She promised to meet him for lunch next Tuesday.
Bringing an adverbial modifier to the beginning of the sentence can place special emphasis on
that modifier. This is particularly useful with adverbs of manner:
Slowly, ever so carefully, Jesse filled the coffee cup up to the brim, even above the brim.
Occasionally, but only occasionally, she goes to the library to read books on science.

69
THE ROYAL ORDER OF ADVERBS

Verb Manner Place(Adjunct) Frequency Time Purpose


Beth swims Enthusiastically in the pool every morning before dawn to keep in shape.
every before
Dad walks Impatiently into town to get a newspaper.
afternoon supper
Suzy naps in her room every morning before lunch.

Positions of Adverbs
One of the hallmarks of adverbs is their ability to move around in a sentence. Adverbs of
manner are particularly flexible in this regard.
Solemnly the minister addressed his congregation.
The minister solemnly addressed his congregation.
The minister addressed his congregation solemnly.
The following adverbs of frequency appear in various points in these sentences:
Before the main verb:
I never get up before 9o'clock.
Between the auxiliary verb and the main verb:
I have rarely written to my brother without a good reason.
Before the verb used to:
I always used to see him at his summer home.
Indefinite adverbs of time can appear either before the verb or between the auxiliary and the
main verb:
He finally showed up for batting practice.
She has recently retired.

Adverbs can be used to modify quantities:


There are quite a lot of people here.
Adverbs can also be used to modify sentences:
Unfortunately, the flight to Dallas had been cancelled.

Good and Well


Confusing adverbs and adjectives is a common error with the words good and well.
Good is an adjective that should modify nouns (the good boy):
Linda looks good. (What type of person is she?)
Well is an adverb that modifies a verb (he listens well), or even an adjective (the well educated
boy).

70
Linda looks well. (How is Linda? She may have been ill, but now she is fit again.)
How are you? I'm well, thank you.
In the second and third sentences, well can be an adjective (meaning fit/healthy), or
an adverb of the adjective good.
Even
It is used to show that something is surprising, unusual, unexpected, or extreme:
I don't even know where it is.
It's a very difficult job - it might even take a year to finish it.
He didn't even buy me a card for my birthday.
The new varieties of wheat grow well even in poor soil.
To say two things happened at the same time:
I tried to explain him my situation, but even as I started to explain what
had happened he stood up to leave.
It is used to say that if something is the caseor not, the result is the same:
Even if you take a taxi, you'll still miss your train.
Even now/then meaning despite something:
I gave Jim very clear instructions, but even then he managed to make a mess of it.
Even so, meaning despite what has just been said:
I had a terrible headache, but even so I went to the concert.
Even though meaning although:
Even though he left school at 16, he still managed to become prime minister.

ADVERB TYPES

Manner Place Time Frequency Degree


abruptly Above afterwards After absolutely
angrily Abroad already Again almost
badly Ahead early again and again also
boldly Below first Almost certainly
carefully Beneath immediately Always completely
carelessly Bottom last Before enough
decently Downstairs late Daily least
deliberately Everywhere later Ever less
excitedly Here never Everyday more
fast In now Frequently much
financially Inside regularly Generally nearly
happily Near soon hardly ever only
hard Out still Monthly probably

71
harshly Outside then most of the times quite
horribly over there today Nearly rather
luckily Somewhere tomorrow nearly always really
mildly There tonight Occationally so
nicely Top yesterday Often too
obviously Under Once very
poorly Underground Rarely
quickly Upstairs Seldom
rudely Sometimes
sadly Twice
sympathetically Usually
terribly Weekly
well
willingly

72
9. PREPOSITIONS
ABOUT (preposition, adverb, and adjective)
She's about 12 years old. (She is almost 12)
When he woke up, there were about ten people waiting for his garage sale to begin.
He's been on the phone for about ten minutes.
He weighs about 240 pounds.
He's just about to sneeze.
They are about to leave.
She's reading a very interesting book about European history.
The movie is about aliens.
Tell me about your experience.
There are some words we use with about:complain, concern, excited, happy and worry:
He never complains about the pain.
Everybody was very concerned about the accident.
Im very excited about coming to France and I cant wait to see you.
Im very happy about my trip.
Please dont worry about me.

ABOVE- means higher than (adverb, preposition)


The clouds above the trees are moving very slowly today.
He lifted his bike above his head.
The kite was flying above.
Water was leaking from above.
Her grades are above average.
The temperature has been above normal for the past couple of weeks.
We live above a bakery
Note: The opposites of above are under, below and beneath.

ACROSS (preposition, adverb)

73
Across means on the other side of something, or from one side to the other of something which has sides
or limits such as a city, road or river:
She lives across the street
They walked across as quickly as they could.
The road was so busy that we found it difficult to get across.
Across the street there's a small shop and some apartments.
We also use across when something touches or stretches from one side to another:
You have to be careful when you walk across the street in a big city.
They're traveling across the field on horseback.

AFTER(preposition, conjunction, adjective, adverb)


After means later than and next in time or place.
After can be used before a noun phrase (as a preposition):
It gets dark very quickly after sunset.
After can introduce a clause (as a conjunction):
After 5:00 a lot of people headed home from work.
After much thought, I have decided to retire.
He took a shower after the game finished.
I think I will order dessert after dinner
I have soccer practice after school.
We can use after as an adverb, but afterwards is more common. When after is used, it is usually as
part of an adverb phrase:
They lived happily ever after. (means forever)
She had an operation on her leg and afterwards was unable to walk for at least a month.
Note: When after refers to future time, we use the present simple, not the future with shall or will:
Ill do another course after I finish this one.
Not: after I will finish

AGAINST (preposition)
We use against to refer to negative, hostile or opposing reactions to situations, beliefs, people, events,
etc.
Millions of people campaigned against the war.
Its not easy to go against your parents advice.
That referee has something against our team. (he doesnt like our team)
I am against animal experimentation
They are against the new office policy.
She gets angry when something goes against her beliefs.
Here are some common verbs often followed by against:

act decide guard speak out


advise demonstrate have something struggle

74
argue discriminate protest testify
Be fight react vote
campaign go rebel
Against with nouns
Discrimination against people on the basis of race, age or gender is illegal.
Everyone can be part of the fight against litter.
The best protection against illness is a good diet and lots of exercise.
Here are some common nouns often followed by against:
accusation campaign discrimination protest
action case evidence reaction
aggression charge Fight rebellion
appeal complaint Law
argument defence prejudice
battle demonstration protection

We often use against to talk about physical contact between two or more things:
He was leaning against the wall.
The bed was against the wardrobe.
A building developer wants to cut down this tree and build a new restaurant, but this
protester is against it.
We often use against with verbs and nouns connected with sport and competitions, such
as compete/competition, final, game, match, play, semi-final:
Japan competed against Germany in the semi-final.
Englands match against Jamaica was cancelled.

ALONG/ALONGSIDE (preposition, adverb)


As a preposition, along means in a line next to something long and thin, e.g. a road, a path:
There's a beautiful building along the river.
These trees are lined up along the road.
We walked along the beach as the sun was setting.
We use along as an adverb with verbs of motion meaning together with:
He went for a walk in the woods and did some bird watching along the way.
You're more than welcome to come along.
Other examples
The carolers asked the crowd the sing along.
They get along with each other very well.
As a preposition, alongside means close beside, next to or together with:
The trees alongside the fence have all been damaged by the wind. (near)
Put your bike alongside mine. (next to)
I find it difficult to cope with this illness alongside all my other problems. (together with)

75
We also use alongside as an adverb, meaning along the side of or next to something:
I parked my car in the drive and William parked his alongside.
AMONG (prepositions)
We use among to talk about things which are not clearly separated because they are part of a group or
crowd or mass of objects:
She is comfortable being among friends.
They found the lost dog among the wreckage.
The child star grew up among famous people.
We use among to suggest a sense of being a part of or surrounded by or included in something else. It
is typically followed by a plural noun phrase:
She's very popular among her friends.
Among their three children, one has blond hair and the other two have red hair.
They enjoy walking among the trees in the forest.
In the phrases among others and among other things, among means as well as:
Her parents, among others, were worried about her travelling alone.
Among other things, I still have to pack.
AROUND (adverb, preposition)
We use around and round when we refer to movements in circles or from one place to
another. Around and round can both be used.
She tied a ribbon around the box.
We spent a very pleasant day walking round the town. (movement from one place to
another)
Now that they are retired, they are planning a trip around the world.
Around and round also mean in different places and here and there:
He doesn't know his way around.
How are you getting around?
Let's take a look around.
We live around the area.
They planted a lot of trees around their house.
The place I need to go to is just around the corner. (not far away, or going to happen soon)
Around can also mean approximately:
I think it's around 1:00.

AT (preposition)
Used to show an exact position or particular place:
Let's meet at the library.
I found this at the store.
She's sitting at the table in the corner.
Used to show an exact or a particular time:
I'll meet you at noon.

76
I have to wake up tomorrow at 6:00.
In the direction of:
Take a look at all of these items.
I glanced at the clock.
She was waving at the crowd.
Used to show the cause of something, especially a feeling:
We were surprised at the news.
I was quite excited at the prospect.
Why does no one ever laugh at my jokes?
Used to show the activity in which someone's ability is beingjudged:
I was never very good at sports.
He's very good at getting on with people.
She's hopeless at organizing things.
Used to show a price, temperature, rate, speed, etc.:
I'm not going to buy those shoes at $150!
Inflation is running at 5 percent.
He was driving at 120 mph when the police spotted him.
My favorite radio station is at 91.1 FM on the radio dial.
Other examples:
Andrea lives at number 21 Oak Street.
While Liz was at the dentists, I went shopping.(We use at the to refer to public places where
we get treatments, such as a dentists or doctors surgery, hairdressers or spa)
BEFORE (preposition, adverb, and conjunction)
Before means earlier than the time or event mentioned:
Can you call me back before 5 pm, please?
I met her just before she left.
We use before meaning in front of in more formal contexts:
Moses went before King Pharaoh and asked him to let his people go.
These musicians enjoy performing before an audience.
We have a long journey before us.
We use before most commonly with noun phrases to refer to timed events:
It feels good to wake up before sunrise.
They left before dinner.
I came here before.
I didn't think about it before.
Especially in writing, we use before long to mean after a short time:
Theyll marry before long, and then youll have more grandsons than you can count.
We can use beforehand as an alternative to before as an adverb, especially when the reference to time is
less specific.
Beforehand is more common in informal speaking than in writing:

77
I love singing but I always get so nervous beforehand.
With before + ing-form is more formal:
Before bringing the milk to the boil, add the egg. (more formal than Before you bring )
We can use adverbs such as just, immediately, shortly and long, and expressions involving words such
as days, weeks, months, years in front of before:
We got home just before it rained.
The deadline for the essay was 5 pm. I got mine in shortly before five oclock but Lily had
hers in days before the deadline.

BEHIND (preposition, adverb)


Slower or later than someone else, or than you should be:
She is behind in her schoolwork.
I'm behind in my payments.
She's falling behind at work, so now she takes her work home and finishes it on the
weekend.
In the place where someone or something was before:
She was accidentally left behind.
I was annoyed to discover that I'd left my bag behind.
After the party a few people stayed behind to help clean up.
At the back (of):
She sits behind me in class.
My keys fell behind the couch.
The dog is behind the fence.
Responsible for or the cause of:
He wondered what was behind his neighbour's sudden friendliness.
Marie Curie was the woman behind enormous changes in the science of chemistry.

BELOW (preposition, adverb)


We use below most commonly as a preposition meaning lower than. We use it when there is no
contact between people or things:
There was a big clock below the painting.
These fish are far below the surface of the water.
When the adverb below is used to modify a noun, it follows the noun:
The apartment below is owned by a French couple.
In the figure below, the results show that 54% of the rats tested were carrying the antibody

When we talk about numbers, amounts or statistics being at a lower level, we use below more
than under:
When the temperature is below 32 degrees Fahrenheit and there's snow on the ground, you
can make a snowman.

78
Inflation has fallen below 5% for the first time in six years.
To talk about the position one hold in comparison to someone higher:
She works below the assistant manager. He's not her supervisor, but he tells her what to do.

BENEATH (preposition and adverb)


Beneath means at a lower level than .Beneath is most common in formal writing.
Archaeologists discovered a gold cup just beneath the surface at the site of a Roman villa.
The metro station is right beneath the airport.
In the kitchen there was a modern sink with cupboards and drawers beneath.
Beneath is particularly common when talking about the ground or surface directly under ones feet:
She could feel the train coming because the ground beneath her feet was moving.
Beneath as an adverb isnt very common and we mostly use it in formal writing:
She looked down from the balcony at the two men talking beneath.
In the kitchen there was a modern sink with cupboards and drawers beneath.
Beneath has a meaning similar to under and below but we do not use it with numbers:
We bought it for just under200 pounds.
Not: for just beneath 200 pounds.

BESIDE- next to (preposition)


He sat beside the window and waited for the truck to come.
They're standing beside each other.
The opera house in Sydney is beside the ocean.

BETWEEN- being in the middle of two things


There is a door between the two rooms.
They are arriving sometime between lunch and dinner.
The relationship between a doctor and a patient is confidential.
I had to choose between the two shirts.
The voters had to decide between the two candidates.
The man sitting between the other two men feels uncomfortable because there's not much
room on the bench for all three of them.
We can also use between + pronoun when referring to two people or things:
I gave Maria and Joseph some money and told them to share it between them.
We can also use between, but not among, to connect times or numbers:
They lived in New York between 1998 and 2004.
What were you doing between 5.30 pm and 7.00 pm?

BEYOND (preposition, adverb)


Beyond as a preposition means further away in the distance (than something):
Beyond the door was a narrow corridor that led off to the right.
He could see the horse in the field, just beyond thehedge.

79
Beyond meaning outside the limits. Weuse beyond with expressions of time to mean after that time
or further than that time:
Its impossible to predict beyond the next five years as regards world economic trends. (we
cannot predict further in time than the next five years)
Beyond very often has a meaning of outside the limits of something. We often use it in the
expressions beyond belief and beyond doubt:
That the government should want to tax the poor even more heavily is beyond belief. (no
one can believe it)
Her commitment to her profession is beyond doubt. (no one can doubt it)
The mechanic announced that the engine was beyond repair. (it could not be repaired)

BY (preposition and adverb)


We use by meaning not later than to refer to arrangements and deadlines:
They said that the plumber would be here by Monday.
The postman is always here by 11 am.
We use by the time, meaning when,
By the time you wake up, Ill have finished work! (When you wake up, I will have finished
work)
Not: By the time you will wake up
Unfortunately the man had died by the time the ambulance arrived. (When the ambulance
arrived, the man had already died.)
We use by + -ing form to describe how to do something:
By pressing this button, you turn on the alarm system. Then by entering the code 0089, you
can turn it off again.
We use by + noun to describe how someone travels or communicates, or how things are processed:
Ill send it by email; I can send it by post as well if you wish.
Can I pay by credit card?
We say by car, by bus, by plane, etc. but if there is a determiner (e.g. a/an, the, some, my, his) before the
noun, we say in or on.

We went by train to Pisa.


Its easier to get there by car. by + mode of transport
Did you travel by plane?
Ill have to go on the 5 am train.
on/in + determiner + mode of
Barbara is travelling in Anns car.
transport
Have you ever travelled in a small plane?
They painted the whole house by themselves! (They did it alone.)
I was all by myself in the house last night but I didnt mind. (I was alone.)
Did you build that castle all by yourself? (Did you do it alone?)
We use by to mean beside or at the side of:

80
By and near have a similar meaning but by refers to a shorter distance:
Theres a lovely caf by the river. We could go there. (The caf is beside the river.)
Three people walked by the house as Henry opened the door. (They walked past the house.)
Lisa waved as she went by. (She passed the house without stopping.)
We use by to talk about measurements, and increases and decreases in amounts:
When you work part-time, you are usually paid by the hour.
The price of fuel has increased by 12% this year.
We use by, not with, to talk about the action of something:
He got into the house by breaking the window. (action)

DURING
We use during before nouns and noun phrases to refer to when something happens over a period of
time. During can refer to the whole time of the event:
You are not allowed to use your mobile phone during class. (the whole of the class)
I have to have my window open during the night. (the whole of the night)
In this meaning, during can often mean the same as in:
His grandfather fought in the army during the First World War. (or in the First World
War.)
When I was a kid, our cousins often came to stay with us during the summer. (or in the
summer.)
I havent done any exercise during the last week.
During can refer to something that happened while the main event was taking place.
What was that noise I heard during the night, I wonder? or in the night. (I heard a noise
at an unspecified point in the night.)

DOWN- the opposite of up (preposition, adjective and adverb)


She's walking down the steps.
Water is flowing down the side of a cliff.
Don't let your money go down the drain. (dont waste your money)
Hit the down arrow.
Please come down.
She feels down about her failure.
EXCEPT- not including someone or something (preposition)
I got everything correct except for one problem.
Everyone except Nancy passed the test.
Everyone was invited except Sam.
He gets along with everyone except his brother.
Used As A Conjunction To Explain Why Something Is/Was Not Possible.
The brothers are very alike, except (that) Mark is slightly taller than Kevin.
I would go with you except I wasn't invited.
She wanted to attend the party except she had an emergency at the hospital.

81
This soup tastes good except it needs salt.
Except for his keyboarding skills, he'spretty good at using a computer.

FOR (preposition and conjunction)


We use for to talk about a purpose or a reason for something:
Im going for some breakfast. Im really hungry.
I made potato salad for the potluck.
He works for a bank.
We often use for to introduce the person or people receiving something:
She bought a teapot for her sister.
Were going to Cape Town for two months. (We will spend two months in Cape Town.)
Were going to Cape Town in two months. (Were leaving to go to Cape Town two months
from now.)
After a negative we can use for and in with the same meaning.
I havent seen him in five years. (or for five years.)
In questions we often use what for instead of why to ask about the reason
What are you here for?
What are they doing it for?
Other examples:
Shes been caring for her mother for years.
Its not a good time to look for it now. We have to go.
I need something for storing CDs.
You should talk to Jane about it. You know, shes famous for being a good listener. (A lot of
people know shes such a good listener.)

FROM (preposition)
We use from to show the time or point in time when something starts:
Tickets for the concert are on sale from Monday.
The finals take place from 1.30 pm on Sunday.
We use from to show the level that things begin at, such as numbers or prices:
Prices start from 300 rupees for a ticket to the theme park.
We use from to talk about distance in relation to somewhere else:
The Metro station is nearby and we are only five minutes from the toll gate.
We use from to refer to the place where someone or something starts or originates:
She is from Italy.
Do you live far from here?
We get our vegetables from the farm shop. Theyre really fresh.
We use from to talk about the way we use materials or ingredients to make things:
Ivory is made from elephant tusk..
We use from to to talk about ranges of different things such as prices, geographical distance, time

82
There were six Miller children, ranging in age from nineteen to seven.
Other examples
Sweat is dripping from his forehead.
He's a mean dude. He comes from a bad family.
This picture is from a trip I took to Paris.

IN, INTO (prepositions)


We use in to talk about where something is in relation to a larger area around it:
Shes in the garden.
Ive left my keys in the car.
We use into to talk about the movement of something, usually with a verb that expresses movement
(e.g. go, come). It shows where something is or was going:
Shes gone into the house.
Helen came into the room.
She is in the garden
Shes gone for a walk in the garden.
walking.
She walked into the garden. She entered the garden.
With some verbs (e.g. put, fall, jump, dive) we can use either in or into with no difference in
meaning:
Can you put the milk in/into the fridge?
Her keys fell in/into the canal.
We use beverb +into to express enthusiasm or strong interest for something:
Hes really into his work.
Im into classical music and Thai food.
We use into after verbs describing change:
Weve translated the course into six different languages.
She changed into her swimming costume and went for a swim.
They divided the cake into four pieces.
Other examples
This candy comes in many different flavors.
His company has been in business for more than 20 years.

NEAR/NEARTO/NEARBY (prepositions) Near is also an adjective.


The preposition near (to) means not far away in distance. Near and near to mean the same, but near is
more common:
My mother loves to sit near the fire at night.
She reached out her hand and drew him near to her.
We can use near (to) to talk about time:
My boss is near retirement. (He will retire soon.)

83
Call me back near the end of September.
We can use near (to) to talk about being almost in a particular state or condition:
It was full of soldiers and of military police, and I was near despair.
In formal contexts, we can use near as an adjective to refer to time with the phrase in the near
future meaning soon. It is usually in end position:
Bank interest rates are expected to rise in the near future.
We dont use near as an adjective modifying a noun when it refers to distance:
We went to a nearby restaurant in the evening.
Not: a near restaurant
Nearby is an adverb or an adjective meaning not far away:
Does Paul live nearby? (adverb)
Luckily, the nearby buildings werent damaged by the fire. (adjective)
We dont use nearby as a preposition. We use near:
He worked in a restaurant near the station.
Not: He worked in a restaurant nearby the station.

NEXT TO (preposition)
They're sitting next to each other in the movie theater.
There's a church next to this house.
He's sitting next to the window.
OF (preposition)
Of commonly introduces prepositional phrases which are complements of nouns, creating the pattern:
noun + of + noun.
Delhi is the capital of India.
Twenty-four-hour TV news makes sure we all know the main events of the day.
Would you like some more pieces of toast?
We also commonly use of as a preposition after different adjectives (afraid of, generous of, proud of)
and verbs (approve of, dream of, think of):
I never thought she could take a flight on her own at her age. I feel very proud of her.
Best of luck with the interview tomorrow. Well be thinking of you.
We use the structure determiner + of + noun in expressions of quantity:
Most of the new workers in the country are from Turkey.
Some of my best friends are computer scientists.
Of is optional with all, both, half except before the object pronouns me, you, it, him, her, us, them:
Both (of) the finance ministers have decided to resign.
All of them will be able to travel on the bus.
The pronoun other has the same forms as nouns. We add s to the singular form, and we add an
apostrophe after the plural -s ending in the plural form:
They took each others hand and started walking.
All of our luggage arrived but the others cases didnt.

84
We can talk about possession using the pattern: noun phrase + of + possessive pronoun:
A friend of mine told me that all of the tickets have already sold out.
Hes gone to pick up a cousin of his at the station.
Is Linda McGrath a close friend of yours?
A neighbour of mine called late last night.
Hes a brother of Marias. (Marias brother)
A friend of my sisters has opened a caf on Dawson Street. (sisters friend)
She was a daughter of the Presidents. (Presidents daughter)
We dont use s when the noun is not a person, animal, country, organisation, etc., or when the noun
phrase is very long:
The name of the ship was Wonder Queen. (Not: The ships name was Wonder Queen.)
The house of the oldest woman in the village. (Not: The oldest woman in the villages
house.)
Other examples:
Hundreds of people on bikes appeared at the event.
He's sick of his computer.
He's tired of doing paperwork.
OFF (adverb, adjective and preposition)
Away from a place or position, especially the present place, position, or time:
He drove off at the most incredible speed.
She's off to Canada next week.
He thief saw the police and took off.
Please take your shoes off.
All the berries had dropped off the tree.
He fell off his bike.
Take your feet off that seat, young man!
Used with actions in which something is removed or removes itself from another thing:
One of my buttons has come off.
She had all her hair cut off.
Not operating
Make sure the computers are all off before you go home.
(Of money) taken away from the original price:
The card entitles you to 30% off all rail fares.
Not at work; at home or on holiday:
I'm going to take/have some time off to work on my house.
She was off sick last week.
In such a way as to be separated:
The police have shut/closed off all streets leading to the city.
She marked off the amount of fabric she needed.
(Of an arranged event) stopped or given up:

85
The partys off - she's decided to cancel it.
Andrew must be so well-off (= rich) by now.
In such a way as to be completely absent, especially because of having been used or killed:
It says on the bottle that it kills off all known germs.
It'll take some time before she manages to pay off all her debts.
The good thing about exercise is that it burns off calories.
Having a particular amount or number, especially of money:
Andrew must be so well-off (= rich) by now.
I think they're fairly badly-off (= poor) now that David has lost his job.

ON/ONTO (prepositions)
We use on when we refer to a position on a surface (on the table, on the ocean, on the moon, on the
roof, on the bus):
Your keys are on the table.
The men were standing on the roof.
We use onto to talk about direction or movement to a position on a surface, usually with a verb that
expresses movement:
The cat climbed onto the roof.
She emptied the suitcase full of clothes onto the floor.
We use on to describe a position along a road or river or by the sea or by a lake:
The hotel is on the road opposite the beach.
They have a fabulous house on a lake in Ireland.
We use onto to describe movement towards an end position along a road or river:
The path leads onto the main road.
We use on or onto with very little difference in meaning to refer to attachment or movement of
something to something else. onto gives a stronger feeling of movement:
Theres a battery pack with the camera that you can clip onto a belt.
You can save the data onto your hard disk.
Have you put the pictures on your memory stick?

INSIDE (adjective, noun, adverb and preposition)


There's a lot of junk inside my desk.(preposition)
Those shoes look a bit uncomfortable. Can you really move your toes inside them?
The inside of their house is really beautiful. (as a noun)
Are you looking for Anna? Shes inside. Do come in. (adverb)
It was a Buddhist temple and we took our shoes off before going inside.
I think Ive left my phone in the inside pocket of my brown jacket. Could you have a look
for me? (as an adjective)
OUT /OUT OF
Note: Out is the opposite of in. Out of is the opposite of into:

86
We use out as an adverb to mean not in a building or an enclosed space:
He went out last night.
The dog ran out the door.
He walked out the back door.
He is out at the moment.
They are always out.
Tell them I'm out.
She threw the spoiled food out.
We use out as a verb particle in phrasal verbs:
Look out theres a car coming.
I thought Id phone and find out how you are.
She called out for help.
Has the new book come out yet?
We use out of to say that something is all gone:
The printer is out of ink. We need to get some soon.
Im afraid, were out of soup.
We use out of as a preposition to talk about movement from within somewhere or something,
usually with a verb that expresses movement (e.g. go, come). It shows where something is or was
going:
You go out of the building and turn right.
He pulled a letter out of his shirt pocket, opened it and handed it to her to read.

OUTSIDE/OUTSIDE OF (adjective, noun, adverb and preposition)


We use outside as an adverb or an adjective to mean not in a building:
It was sunny outside, but not very warm. (adverb)
Its a bit dark at night. We could put an outside light there. (adjective)
Outside can also mean external, not part of an existing plan or situation:
They are interested in outside staff for the new teacher position.
We use outside or outside of as a preposition to mean not in a particular place, but near it:
Theres a chair just outside the room opposite.
She works in a software development company just outside of Dublin.
Outside of can also be used with time expressions to mean excluding or apart from:
Outside of the summer months, the hotel rates are lower.
Outside as a noun is used to refer to the exterior of something. It is more informal than exterior:
The outside of the house is not very attractive, but inside it is beautiful. (or, more
formal, The exterior of the house )

OVER (adjective, adverb and preposition)


Over as a preposition (it is equivalent to above; across)
We hung a new chandelier over the dining table.

87
A plane flew really low over our heads.
He had mud all over his face.
You can buy a plastic cover to put over your computer if youre worried about dust.
Over as an adjective means finished; done
The game was over quickly.
The meeting is finally over.
We can use over to refer to extended periods of time:
Over a period of three centuries, very little changed in the pattern of life for the poorest
people.
What are you doing over the summer holidays? Are you going away?
Over means more than a particular number, or limit:
There were over 100 people at the lecture.
If your hand baggage weighs over 10 kilos, you must check it in.
Over as an adverb can mean to someones house:
Would you like to come over and have dinner one evening? (to the speakers house)
Over and over means repeatedly, many times.
Stop it! Ive told you over and over not to play with the radio!

PAST (adjective, adverb and preposition)


He drove his car past the mountains on his way to the ocean. (preposition)
It's five minutes past 11:00.
It's not a good idea to drink or use milk that is past the expiration date.
She found it hard to make ends meet in the past. (noun)
As an adjective it means, over and done with:
The danger is now past.
As an adverb it means to pass from one side of something to the other:
A week went past and nothing changed.

SINCE (preposition, conjunction and adverb)


From a certain point in time to now
I haven't seen him since college.
It was the bands first live performance since May 1990.
I haven't heard this song since my childhood.
I haven't talked to her since last week.
Since (conj): because; from a certain time :
Its so long since I saw them.
Hes been back to the office a few times since he retired.
We can use since + -ing form to refer to time when the subject of the verb is the same in the main
clause and the subordinate clause:

88
Since leaving school, he has had three or four temporary jobs. (Since he left school, he has
)
We can use since or since then as an adverb of time when the time reference is understood from
the context:
His father doesnt talk to him. They had an argument a couple of years ago and they havent
spoken since. (since they had the argument)
They bought the house in 2006 and theyve done a lot of work on it since then. (since 2006)
We use ever since as a stronger form of since or since then:
When I was young, I had a little collie dog, but one day he bit me really badly. Ive hated
dogs ever since.
We use since as a subordinating conjunction to introduce a subordinate clause. We use it to give
a reason for something:
Since it's hot today, let's turn on the air conditioner.
Since her husband hated holidays so much, she decided to go on her own.

THROUGH (adjective, adverb and preposition)


Through as a preposition means in one side and out the other; between; around; from the beginning to
the end; by the way of:
The bullet went through the wall.
We walked through the corn field.
We passed through my hometown.
I heard about the program through a friend.
Through as an adverb means from one side to another; completely; from the beginning to the end:
Did you read the article through?
The ink went completely through.
How are we going to get through?
Through as an adjective means finished:
We are finally through with this project.
He's not through with his lecture yet.

THROUGHOUT (preposition, adverb)


Throughout as a preposition means in every part of something
They were arguing throughout the meeting.
Throughout her life, she always took care of others.
He is known throughout the world.

TO
To is a preposition. It is also used as part of the infinitive (the to-infinitive):
Does this train go to Cambridge? (preposition)
Id like to see that film. (to-infinitive)

89
We can use to as a preposition to indicate a destination or direction:
Were going to Liverpool next week.
The dog ran to us as soon as we arrived.
We use to with verbs such as give, hand, send, write, to indicate the person or thing that
receives or experiences the object of the verb:
I [V]gave [O]the keys to [receiver]Jane.
Shes always writing letters to the local newspaper.
We use to in telling the time, when we refer to the number of minutes before the hour:
Her train arrives at quarter to five.
Its ten to six. Wed better leave now or well be late.
We can use to with the meaning of until when we are talking about time. We often use it in
the expression from to :
Its just three days to New Years Day.
To as a preposition: time
We use to in telling the time, when we refer to the number of minutes before the hour:
Her train arrives at quarter to five.
Its ten to six. Wed better leave now or well be late.
We can use to with the meaning of until when we are talking about time. We often use it in
the expression from to :
Its just three days to New Years Day.
Theyre only open from Monday to Friday. Theyre closed at the weekend.
To as a preposition: approximate numbers
We can use to when we refer to an approximate number somewhere between a lower number
and a higher number:
There were forty to fifty people at the meeting.
Itll probably cost you thirty to thirty-five pounds.
To as a preposition: after nouns
A number of nouns are followed by to. These include nouns expressing direction or destination
such as door, entrance, road, route, and way:
The door to the main office was open.
Is this the way to the airport?
They also include nouns referring to transport, such as bus, coach, ferry, flight, train:
The ferry to Santander takes 12 hours.
Is this the bus to the stadium?
Nouns expressing reactions and responses are also followed by to. These include answer, key,
reaction, reply, response, solution:
His reaction to her comments was very aggressive.
They dont seem to be able to find a solution to the problem of global warming yet.

90
To as a preposition: after verbs
Some verbs are followed by the preposition to, including be used, get used, listen, look forward,
object, reply, and respond:
We listened to that CD you lent us. Its great.
I object to your remarks.
The bank hasnt replied to my letter yet.
To as a preposition: after adjectives
Some adjectives connected with peoples behaviour and feelings are followed by to,
including cruel, faithful, generous, kind, loyal, nasty:
I cannot bear people being cruel to animals.
Be kind to her. Youre so nasty to her!
Many individuals have been loyal to the Conservative Party all their lives.
To: the to-infinitive
We use to before a verb to make the to-infinitive form:
She loves to wear really colourful dresses.
I need to leave early today.
To get an outside line, you have to dial 9 first.

TOWARD/TOWARDS
Towards and toward are prepositions. We can use both forms, but towards is much more
common than toward.
Toward(s) most often means in the direction of something:
The oil pollution is now moving towards the shore, and could threaten beaches and wild
life.
He stood up and moved toward the door.
We use toward(s) to mean in relation to someone or something.
Shes always been very friendly towards me.
He felt very angry towards her when she refused him.
We use toward(s) to mean near to or just before a time or place:
Toward the late afternoon I always get sleepy and cant work so well.
We sat towards the back of the room but we could still hear the speakers very clearly
Toward(s) can mean for the purpose of buying or achieving something:
Would you like to make a contribution towards our new childrens playground? (Would
you like to give some money to help pay for it?)
The essays you do during term count towards your final grade.

UNDER
Under is a preposition. We use under to talk about something that is below or lower than
something else:

91
The cat is under the table.
His shoes were under his bed.
When we use under, we can also mean that one thing is touching or covering something else. We
do not use below in this way:
The wreck of the Titanic still remains under the sea.
Not: below the sea.
He had hidden the money under the floorboards.
Not: below the floorboards.
We dont use under to refer to something in a lower position than something else. We use below:
Venus is just below the moon right now.
Not: Venus is just under the moon
We use under, not below, to refer to age:
You have to be under 18 to get an allowance.
They have three children under the age of five.
We use under, not below, to talk about measurements of time and weight:
We finished the project in under a year and a half.
The bag was just under 10 kilos, so I was able to bring it on the plane.
When we talk about height and temperature, we use below not under:
The roof of the new building is just below the height of the church and I think it distracts
from the church.
Not: under the height of the church
The liquid must be kept below five degrees. (preferred to under five degrees.)
Underneath is similar to under, but it usually only refers to position:
Underneath the stairs is where we keep our vacuum cleaner and brushes.
The child weighed under five kilos.
Not: underneath five kilos.
Other examples:
This bridge is under construction.
I'm under the care of a very good doctor.

UNDERNEATH (preposition, adverb)


Under or below:
The tunnel goes right underneath the city.
They found a bomb underneath the car.
The lower part or the bottom surface of something:
Bake for half an hour - the top should be crisp, and the underneath moist and succulent.
She found the key taped to the underneath of the table, as always.

UNTIL

92
Until is a preposition and a conjunction. Until is often shortened to till or til.
Until as a preposition means up to (the time that):
We played chess until midnight. (up to midnight)
The film didnt end till eleven oclock.
We use from with until or till to talk about when something begins and when it ends:
I worked out at the gym from 6 pm till 7.30 pm.
The road outside our house will be closed from 6 am until 6 pm tomorrow.
We dont use until or till to talk about quantity or numbers. We use up to:
The taxi can take up to five people.
We use until as a subordinating conjunction to connect an action or an event to a point in time:
Lets wait here till the rain stops. (till + subordinate clause)
Warning:
We dont normally put the until-clause before the main clause:
No one left the room until the talk ended.
Not: Until the talk ended no one left the
We use present verb forms to refer to the future after until:
I cant wait until the summer holidays begin.
We also use the present perfect after until to refer to actions or events that will continue up to a
point in the future:
Well sit here till Donna has finished.
We use the past simple and past perfect to talk about events in the past:
He was the headteacher until he retired in 1968.
We couldnt put down the new floor till the plumber had finished.

UP
Up is an adverb, a preposition and an adjective.
Up is the opposite of down. It refers to movement to a higher level.
We use up as an adverb to talk about movement towards a higher position, value, number or
level:
She put the books up on the highest shelf.
The good weather has pushed sales of summer clothes up.
We light the fire every night and that heats the room up.
We use up to talk about a higher position or movement to a higher position:
He was up a ladder painting.
My grandparents live just up the road.
I followed Vivian up the stairs, where there was a small dining room.
As we were climbing up the narrow mountain road, we could see the sea below.
We use up as an adjective usually to talk about increases in prices, levels or amounts:

93
The price of fuel is up again.
It was cold yesterday but the temperature is up today.
Up is commonly used as a particle in phrasal verbs:
He was brought up by his grandmother.
Dont give up. You will find a job.
What time did you wake up this morning?
Up is also commonly used as an adverb particle followed by a preposition in phrasal
prepositional verbs:
I had to run to catch up with Elaine. She walks so fast.
Ive always looked up to my older brother.

UP TO
Up to: as much as; almost
An elephant can eat up to 400 pounds of food in one day!
He spends up to two or three hours on the phone every day at work.
Up to: as high as
A sudden thunderstorm flooded the streets. The water was up to the top of his tires.
She worked her way up to a management position very quickly.
Other examples
What are you up to? = What are you doing?
Most of the big decisions in the company are left up to him.
He walked up to a police officer and asked for help in finding his mother.

UPON
Upon (prep): on top; on; indicating someone or something is close by
The king put his crown upon the prince's head.
Once upon a time, there lived a prince and princess.
The movie star was escorted into a room upon arrival.
Upon her head she wore a black velvet hat.
A country's future prosperity depends, to an extent, upon
the quality of education of itspeople.

WITH
With (prep): used when saying people or things are together; in addition to
I am going to the mall with my friends.
I need to do math with a calculator.
I decorated the room with posters.
She arrived with her grandpa.
I dont like tea with milk.
With often follows adjectives which refer to reactions and feelings:

94
Are you happy with your music lessons?
The teacher got angry with them because they were behaving badly.
Im delighted with this new jacket.
We use with to refer to what we use to do something:
They opened the package with a knife.
Ill tie it with some tape to keep it closed.
He cleaned the table with a cloth he found in the kitchen.
We use with to mean having or possessing:
Its the house with the really big gates.
She woke with terrible toothache.
The Commonwealth Institute used to be a building with a very unusual roof in Kensington.
We use with to mean because of or as a result of. This is especially common in speaking:
With all this work, Id better stay in tonight.
I couldnt sleep with the noise of the traffic.

WITHIN
Within means inside or not further than a particular area or space:
People who live within the city pay higher local taxes than people who live just outside the
city. (= the people who live no further than the city boundary or limits)
Weve always lived within ten miles of the coast. We love the sea. (Weve always lived no
further than ten miles from the coast.)
We can use within to refer to time:
Ive booked train tickets on the Internet. They should arrive within three days. (no later than
three days from now)
Ive noticed her change within a very short time.

WITHOUT
The preposition without means not having something or lacking something:
I cant drink tea without milk.
I found myself in a strange country, without money and with no one to turn to.
He left without his umbrella and it's raining now.
I can't see anything without my glasses.
Without + -ing form can also mean if someone does not do something:
I couldnt get the picture out of the frame without breaking the glass. (if I did not break the
glass)

LIKE-similar to (preposition, conjunction)


We use like to talk about things or people which we enjoy or feel positive about:
like + noun phrase

95
I like Sarah but I dont like her brother much.
Do you like pasta?
ike + -ing
I like swimming before breakfast.
He likes telling jokes.
like + to-infinitive
She likes to go and see her parents at the weekend.
I dont like to cycle in the dark.
ike + wh-clause
I dont like what he did.
We liked how they cooked the fish.
We use would like or d like to offer something to someone in a polite way or to ask them to do
something politely (requests), or politely to say what we want. We use the to-infinitive form of
verbs that follow:
Would you like another coffee?
Would you like to watch a DVD?
Id like to enquire about the Sales Manager position which you have advertised
Like means similar to. We often use it with verbs of the senses such as look, sound, feel, taste,
seem:
She looked like she was going to cry.
It looks like it may rain.
I want a haircut like yours.
My brother looks like my dad.
When we use like to mean similar to, we can put words and phrase such as a bit, just, very,
so and more before it to talk about the degree of similarity:
Its a bit like skiing but theres no snow.
Isnt that just like the bike we bought you for your birthday?
That smells very like garlic.
We can use like as a suffix at the end of a noun to mean similar to:
There is something child-like about Marianne. She always seems so innocent.
What is Martinas new colleague like? What is his personality like? Is he nice?
Hes really nice.
What does Martinas new colleague look like? What is his appearance like? Is he
Hes tall, with blond hair. handsome?

96
10. CONJUNCTIONS

What are conjunctions


The main job of a conjunction is to link together different parts of a sentence to help you connect
or emphasize ideas, and form more complex and interesting sentences.

The three main types of conjunctions are:


Coordinating conjunctions
Subordinating conjunctions
Correlative conjunctions

Coordinating Conjunctions
Coordinating conjunctions are what come to most peoples minds when they hear the word
conjunction, and they do exactly what their name implies they make things go together.
They can join together words, phrases and independent clauses. If youve ever heard the classic
Schoolhouse Rock song, Conjunction Junction, then you are already somewhat familiar with
coordinating conjunctions.

The English language has seven coordinating conjunctions, and theyre easy to remember if you
can just remember FANBOYS:

Examples:
I will be late to the party, for I am working until seven.
Tom likes to read and write.
Sally does not like the mountains, nor does she like the ocean.
I wanted to ride my bike, but the tire was flat.
Fred wants peas or carrots for supper.
I love chocolate, yet I do not eat chocolate ice cream.
She was late to work, so her boss made her stay after five.

97
Subordinating Conjunction
A subordinating conjunction is a word that connects a main clause to a subordinate clause. A
main clause is an independent clause that can stand alone by itself as a sentence. In other words,
a main clause does not need any additional information to operate as a sentence. For example,
the sentence "The student failed the test" is an example of a main clause.

A subordinate clause is a dependent clause that adds some extra information to the main clause.
These phrases cannot stand by themselves, and their meaning is dependent upon that of the
independent clause. They are not sentences! For example, "because she didn't study" is not a
complete idea worthy of being defined as a sentence. However, combine the two clauses, and
we have "The student failed the test because she didn't study." A complete idea has been
expressed, and enough information has been presented in order to fully explain the thought.

Subordinating
Category Example
Conjunction
as Reason As it's raining, I'm staying in.
because Reason I'm staying in because it's raining.
Since Reason Since you're going out, I'm staying in.
I'm staying in so that I don't miss the
so that Reason
postman.
Although/though/even concession and I'm staying in although/though/even
though comparison though the sun is out.
concession and
As I'm staying in as you should.
comparison
concession and
Though I'm staying in though I wish I weren't.
comparison
concession and
Whereas I'm staying in whereas you are going out.
comparison
concession and
While I'm staying in while you are going out.
comparison
even if Condition Even if it rains, I'm going out.
If Condition If it rains, I'm staying in.
in case Condition I'm staying in in case it rains.
Where Place I fish where the waves start to form.
Wherever Place I will live wherever the weather is good.
After Time I'm going out after the football.

98
Before Time I'm going out before the football.
Once Time I'm going out once the football has finished.
I'm staying out till/until the weather turns
Till/Until Time
bad.
When Time I'm going out when the weather improves.
Whenever Time I go out whenever the weather is good.
While Time I'll stay out while the weather is good.

Subordinating Conjunctions vs. Relative Pronouns


There is another group of words that sometimes introduce dependent clauses. These are called
relative pronouns, and although they look and act very similar to coordinating conjunctions,
they are different. True relative pronouns are that, who and which, and they differ from
subordinating conjunctions in that they act as the subject of a dependent clause whereas
subordinating conjunctions do not. Subordinating conjunctions are followed by the subject of
their clause. Consider a few examples:
John is the guy who came over for dinner last week. - Here, we have two clauses. John is the
guy is the main clause, and who came over for dinner last week gives us more information
about John. The word who acts as the subject of the dependent clause.
We talked about music and movies while we ate. - Again, we have two clauses. We talked
about music and movies is the main clause, and while we ate gives us more information.
However, in this example, both clauses have the subject we. The word while does not act as
the subject of the dependent clause.

Correlative Conjunctions
Correlative conjunctions are sort of like tag-team conjunctions. They come in pairs, and you
have to use both of them in different places in a sentence to make them work. They get their
name from the fact that they work together (co-) and relate one sentence element to another.
Correlative conjunctions include pairs like both/and, whether/or, either/or,
neither/nor, not/but and not only/but also.

Examples:
I want either the cheesecake or the frozen hot chocolate.
Ill have both the cheesecake and the frozen hot chocolate.
I didnt know whether youd want the cheesecake or the frozen hot chocolate, so I got you both.
Oh, you want neither the cheesecake nor the frozen hot chocolate? No problem.
Ill eat them both - not only the cheesecake but also the frozen hot chocolate.

99
11. ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE

Transitive verbs have both active and passive forms:


Active voice describes a sentence where the subject performs the action stated by the verb.
Example:
The hunter killed the lion.
Someone has cleaned the windows
In passive voice sentences, the subject is acted upon by the verb.
Example:
The lion was killed by the hunter.
The windows have been cleaned
The passive forms are made up of the verb be with a past participle:
The door was opened by Sally.
At dinner, six shrimp were eaten by Harry
A movie is going to be watched by us tonight
A safety video will be watched by the staff every year

We sometimes use the verb get to form the passive:


Be careful with the glass. It might get broken.
Peter got hurt in a crash.

If we want to show the person or thing doing the action we use by:
She was attacked by a dangerous dog.
The money was stolen by her husband.

Depending on the tense, the way we use the active and passive forms varies.

SIMPLE PRESENT
am/are/is + past participle
Examples:

100
Once a week, Tom cleans the car. Active
Once a week, the car is cleaned by Tom. Passive

PRESENT CONTINUOUS
am/are/is being + past participle
Examples:
Right now, Tom is writing the letter. Active
Right now, the letter is being written by Tom. Passive

PRESENT PERFECT
have/has been + past participle
Examples:
Many tourists have visited that castle. Active
That castle has been visited by many tourists. Passive

NOTE: Present Perfect Continuous is less commonly used in its passive form.
SIMPLE PAST
was/were + past participle
Examples:
Tom repaired the car. Active
The car was repaired by Tom. Passive

PAST CONTINUOUS
was/were being + past participle
Examples:
The salesman was helping the customer when the thief came into the store. Active
The customer was being helped by the salesman when the thief came into the store. Passive

PAST PERFECT
had been + past participle
Examples:
George had repaired many cars before he received his mechanic's license. Active
Many cars had been repaired by George before he received his mechanic's license. Passive

NOTE: Passive forms of the Past Perfect Continuous are not common.

SIMPLE FUTURE
will be + past participle
Examples:

101
John will finish the work by 5:00 PM. Active
The work will be finished by 5:00 PM. Passive
Sally is going to make a beautiful dinner tonight. Active
A beautiful dinner is going to be made by Sally tonight. Passive

NOTE: Passive forms of the Future Continuous are not common.

FUTURE PERFECT
will have been + past participle
Examples:
They will have completed the project before the deadline. Active
The project will have been completed before the deadline. Passive

They are going to have completed the project before the deadline. Active
The project is going to have been completed before the deadline. Passive

This language for sure, will change your life course whether you like
it or not!!!

102