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Energy 30 (2005) 1793–1801 www.elsevier.com/locate/energy Performance effects of combined cycle power plant with
Energy 30 (2005) 1793–1801 www.elsevier.com/locate/energy Performance effects of combined cycle power plant with

Energy 30 (2005) 1793–1801

Energy 30 (2005) 1793–1801 www.elsevier.com/locate/energy Performance effects of combined cycle power plant with

Performance effects of combined cycle power plant with variable condenser pressure and loading

Chia-Chin Chuang, Deng-Chern Sue *

Institute of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC

Received 3 January 2004

Abstract

Utility power producers are being driven by the inherently high efficiency and attractive installed cost of Combined Cycle Power Plants (CCPP) to consider them as the dominant choice for least-cost power. However, in a CCPP the power capability is significantly affected by the ambient temperature [Sue DC, Chuang CC, Lin PH. Performance improvement for gas turbine combined cycle power plants (GTCCPP) in Taiwan. In: Johnson D, editor. Electric power. Fourth annual conference and exhibition, vol. 4A; 2004. St Louis, MI, USA: American Center. p. 1–15. [1]], condenser pressure and power demand. In the Power Purchase Agreements (PPA) written in Taiwan, the capacity payment is based on the guaranteed power output during the operating period. Therefore, operating the CCPP at the highest performance and maintaining the guaranteed or contractual power output are important factors to get the full capacity and energy payments from the power purchaser and reduce the fuel and operating costs for the power producer. q 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

The power generation industry in Taiwan, at the end of 2003, had the total installed capacity of about 33,289.6 MW. Statistical data [2] reveals CCPPs provide 26.7% (8872.5 MW) of this capacity. Also, the CCPP projects will be continuously expanded, reaching an estimated 26.9% (14,731 MW), raising Taiwan’s total installed capacity to an estimated 54,761 MW by

* Corresponding author. Present address: Pacific Engineers & Constructors, Ltd, 6th Floor, 325 Tun Hua S. Road, Section 1, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC. Tel.: C886 227 558 093; fax: C886 227 541 594. E-mail address: dcsue@pecl.com.tw (D.-C. Sue).

0360-5442/$ - see front matter q 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.energy.2004.10.003

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Nomenclature

p pressure absolute (MPa)

T

T H

T L

W E

h ST

Abbreviation

temperature (8C) steam inlet temperature (K) condenser outlet temperature (K) electrical gross power output of plant (kW) thermal efficiency for steam cycle

ACC

air cooled condenser

CCPP

combined cycle power plant

CP

condensate pump

FP

feed water pump

GTG

gas turbine generator

HP

high pressure

HR

reheat steam

HRSG heat recovery steam generator

IP

intermediate pressure

ISO

International Standards Organization

LP

low pressure

LHV

lower heating value

MSL

mean sea level

PP

power producers

PPA

power purchase agreements

RH

relative humidity

STG

steam turbine generator

the year 2015. In addition, the data indicates over 50% of new power plants in America are CCPP installations [3]. Studies of the CCPP operating modes for power generating systems are of interest to Power Producers (PP) and also essential for reducing energy consumption. For this reason, selecting an optimum- operating mode to meet the guaranteed power output at maximum plant efficiency is the major purpose for this study. Gas turbines are the main power producers in the CCPP, and great progress has been made in recent decades to enhance the efficiency of gas turbines. Steam turbines are added to improve performance. On the other hand, plant operators are concentrating on the CCPP operating modes to obtain maximum performance while meeting the contractual power capability and ambient site conditions. Variations in loading, condenser pressure, and ambient temperature affect the performance of the overall CCPP installation. This study evaluates the net power output and net heat rate of an integrated CCPP installation. The data is from an operating CCPP performance test conducted on November 21, 2003. The goal of the Power Producer is to maintain the contractual power capability and select the optimum-operating mode to meet the power purchaser’s requirement.

C.-C. Chuang, D.-C. Sue / Energy 30 (2005) 1793–1801

2. Power plant description

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To analyze the CCPP performance, one operating plant was selected to evaluate the experiments in this study. Fig. 1 illustrates the schematic flow diagram for the plant. The plant consists of one Combined Cycle Unit with a designed total net power output of 457.6 MW and net heat rate of 6695 kJ/kW h (efficiencyZ53.8%). The plant has two Gas Turbine Generators (GTGs), two Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSGs) and one Steam Turbine Generator (STG) along with associated auxiliary equipment. The site elevation is 253 m above mean sea level; relative humidity range is 70–95% and the design is at 90%. The ambient outdoor temperature range is 2.7–36.7 8C and the design ambient temperature is 32 8C. Taiwan is located in a subtropical zone; the temperature difference between summer and winter is moderate. However, the CCPP power output decreases and its heat rate increases as the ambient

temperature rises. These adverse effects are due to the lower mass air flow rate of the GTG and the higher pressure in the air-cooled condenser caused by the warmer ambient air.

(a) Gas turbine design information. Each of the two gas turbines is a single shaft, single casing gas

turbine of heavy-duty design with a nominal rating of approximately 180 MW. The key information for each of the gas turbines in the CCPP is presented in Table 1.

(b) Fuel analysis. ASTM D3588 is the method used to determine the lower heating value (LHV) of

the natural gas fuel supplied to the GTGs. The properties and ultimate analysis of natural gas used to fuel

the GTGs are listed in Table 2.

(c) Air cooled condenser. The air-cooled condenser condenses the steam exhausted from the low-

pressure steam turbine in finned tube bundles by using ambient air as the cooling medium. The exhaust steam duct feeds the steam distribution manifolds leading to the steam headers at the top of the air- cooled condenser. The exhaust steam being condensed inside the finned tubes, transfers its heat of

condensation to the external cooling air flow supplied by the fans. The tubes of the air-cooled condensers are arranged in rows in a mixed uniflow/counter flow configuration. As the steam from the steam distribution manifold and steam headers passes downward through the uniflow portion of the condenser tubes approximately 70–90% of the flow is condensed without sub-cooling as the condensate and exhaust steam are flowing together. This offers superior heat transfer performance. The remaining uncondensed steam reverses direction in the collection headers and flows upward in the counter flow section where it is condensed by external cooling air, which is at near ambient temperature. The condensate formed flows downward, being reheated by the upward flowing steam, thereby avoiding any sub-cooling. A downstream air removal device is needed because the steam will always contain a certain quantity of noncondensable gases. The noncondensables are removed at the upper end of the counterflow tubes by a separate header leading to the air removal device. The air-cooled condenser consists of 24 modules; each module has one constant speed forced draft fan to force ambient air first across the finned counterflow tubes then across the uniflow tubes.

(d) Test protocols. The performance tests for the CCPP were executed on November 21, 2003. The

measured data (power output and heat rate) was then corrected to the plant design conditions of 32 8C and 90% relative humidity. The performance test was conducted in accordance with the ASME PTC 46 Standard. The plant was also tested at the different condenser pressures of 156 mbar (saturated temperatureZ 54.8 8C), 215 mbar (saturated temperatureZ61.6 8C) and 269 mbar (saturated temperatureZ66.6 8C) on November 22, 2003. Different power outputs were also measured to verify the operating conditions with two GTGs and one STG or one GTG and one STG in operation to meet the pre-arranged reduced power demand.

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C.-C. Chuang, D.-C. Sue / Energy 30 (2005) 1793–1801

1796 C.-C. Chuang, D.-C. Sue / Energy 30 (2005) 1793–1801 Fig. 1. Flow diagram of CCPP.

Fig. 1. Flow diagram of CCPP.

3. Results

Table 3 shows the comparison of design values given by manufacturer and the measured data during the performance test.

C.-C. Chuang, D.-C. Sue / Energy 30 (2005) 1793–1801

Table 1 Gas turbine design information

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Component

Design data

No. of compressor stages per GTG Compressor pressure ratio approx. No. of turbine stages per GTG Type of combustion chamber No. of burners Shaft speed

15

17

4

Ring combustor

24

3600 rpm

The performance tests on the CCPP were conducted by an experienced performance testing team on November 21, 2003. The ambient conditions at the time of the test were 0.99 bar ambient pressure, 20 8C temperature and 84% RH. The measured data is 505,484 kW for the net power output and 6484 kJ/kW h for the net heat rate. Correcting the measured data to design conditions yields 469,383 kW for net power output and 6595 kJ/kW h for net heat rate (LHV). Design conditions are 32 8C, 90% RH and 118 mbar (saturated temperature Z49.1 8C) of condenser pressure. The plant operating efficiency is equal to 54.6%. The plant has 11,783 kW (2.6%) more power output and 100 kJ/kW h lower heat rate (0.8% better efficiency) than the original design. The CCPP is conservatively designed and the performance is better than the guarantee.

4. Discussions

Because condenser pressure directly affects the plant net power output; the corrected data is graphically shown in Fig. 2. The tests were done on November 22, 2003 with the ambient temperature at 16 8C (4 8C lower than on the previous day). When the air-cooled condenser operates at 156 mbar as a base pressure, the power output will increase by 15,101 kW (3.0%) over the power output when operating at 269 mbar condenser pressure. If the air-cooled condenser pressure operates at 118 mbar,

Table 2 Natural gas properties

Type Density (kg/N m 3 ) LHV (kg/N m 3 )

Natural gas

0.8044

39,720

Chemical composition

Moles (%)

N 2 CH 4 C 2 H 6 C 3 H 8 i-C 4 H 10 n-C 4 H 10 i-C 5 H 12 n-C 5 H 12 Hexane Sum

0.06

90.76

5.59

2.66

0.5

0.42

0.0

0.01

0.0

100.00

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Table 3 Comparison of design and testing values for KKPC

Description

Data

Design value given by manufacturer

Test measurement

Difference between design and testing

Net power combined cycle (MW) Fuel flow (kg/s)

457.6

469.37

C11.77

(corrected to reference conditions)

(C2.6%)

17.237

18.400

C1.163

TIT GT (8C) Steam flow LP and temperature and pressure at steam turbine inlet Steam flow HR and temperature and pressure at steam turbine inlet Steam flow HP and temperature and pressure at steam turbine inlet Net cycle efficiency (%)

Not specified

(not corrected to reference conditions) Not specified

(not corrected to reference conditions)

14.558

kg/s at 234.2 8C

15.306

kg/s at 231.3 8C and 5.

and 4.0 bar

03

bar (not corrected to reference

conditions)

 

114.657 kg/s at 565 8C and 29.9 bar

118.987 kg/s at 542.2 8C and 30.

86

bar (not corrected to reference

 

conditions)

 

97.187

kg/s at 560 8C and

98.767

kg/s at 554.1 8C and 125.

125.0 bar

25

bar (not corrected to reference

conditions)

 

53.8

54.7

C0.9

the power output is increased by 4140 kW (0.8%) than when operating at 156 mbar of condenser pressure. When the condenser pressure is increased by 1 mbar, the total power output of CCPP will decrease by 121 kW. For each increase of 1 8C in condenser temperature, the power output will be decreased by 1280 kW. This effect on output is valid over the entire operating range of 6 and 38 8C. The condensing pressure has a direct affect on the output of the steam turbine. The GTGs are operated at fixed conditions and supply the exhaust gas to the HRSGs at a constant flow rate, pressure and temperature while the condenser is operated at different pressures. Fig. 3 shows the condenser pressure

at different pressures. Fig. 3 shows the condenser pressure Fig. 2. Condenser pressure vs net power

Fig. 2. Condenser pressure vs net power output at 100% load.

C.-C. Chuang, D.-C. Sue / Energy 30 (2005) 1793–1801

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C.-C. Chuang, D.-C. Sue / Energy 30 (2005) 1793–1801 1799 Fig. 3. Condenser pressure vs plant

Fig. 3. Condenser pressure vs plant efficiency at 100% load.

vs. plant efficiency relationship. The plant efficiency will be increased 1.3% when the condenser pressure is reduced from 269 to 156 mbar. The plant efficiency improves with better vacuum. The measured steam temperature at the high pressure turbine inlet is 554 8C. This change in efficiency is consistent with the theoretical Carnot cycle change

h Z 1 K T L

T H

(1)

where T H is 827 K, the STG high pressure steam inlet temperature and T L is one of several condenser temperatures. The increased efficiency by changing the condenser pressure from 269 to 156 mbar is 1.4%, resulting on only a 0.1% deviation between the experimental and theoretical results. If the air-cooled condenser pressure operated at 118 mbar instead of 156 mbar, the efficiency will be increased by 0.7% more. The CCPP overall efficiency is decreased 1.4% for each increase of 100 mbar in the condenser pressure. The ambient air temperature and heat transfer design of the air-cooled condenser will affect the condenser pressure. When the ambient air temperature is constant for a given level of STG operation, the number of operating fans controls the condenser pressure. The air-cooled condenser has 24 fans installed. Each fan has a power consumption of 105 kW, for a total consumption of 2520 kW. Fig. 4 depicts the relationship between condenser pressure and number of operating fans. If the CCPP operates 24 fans, the condenser pressure can be as low as 118 mbar at 32 8C ambient air temperature. Changing the number of operating fans varies the condenser pressure. The condenser pressure is increased to 269 mbar when operating 14 fans (10 fans off) at 32 8C ambient air temperature. Placing one additional fan in operation will decrease the condenser pressure by 15 mbar. The inverse relationship condenser pressure and the power output of CCPP are shown in Fig. 4. It also reflected in Fig. 2. The difference in STG power output is 3.7% between 118 and 269 mbar of condenser pressure. It is also noted that the ambient air temperature and output of the GTGs are held constant. When the CCPP operates at less than full load, the GTG–STG combination in operation will affect the power output and efficiency. If, when initially designing the CCPP, the anticipated power demand varies from 50 to 100%, two gas turbines combined with one steam turbine is the optimum selection. If the power demand has a variable range from below say 30% and up to 100% with significant operating time at the low end, three gas turbines combined with one steam turbine would be a more efficient selection.

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1800 C.-C. Chuang, D.-C. Sue / Energy 30 (2005) 1793–1801 Fig. 4. Condenser pressure vs no.

Fig. 4. Condenser pressure vs no. of fans running and power output ratio at 100% load.

However, the initial design configuration is based on the PPA contract. The gas turbines must operate at near 100% power output to maintain the inherent high efficiency of the CCPP. Fig. 5 shows the various turbine combinations at different power output. One GTG and one STG can be operated at 35–50% of rated load. Two GTGs and one STG can be operated at 70–100% of rated load. If the power demand range is 50–70%, two GTGs and one STG are operated at lower power output and efficiency. The two gas turbines are operated at around 55% power output with a lower efficiency to meet the 50% power demand. From Fig. 5, when the GTGs operate at lower power output, the efficiency is decreased significantly. The maximum efficiency difference between operating one or two GTGs plus the STG to produce at variable power level for the two ranges shown in Fig. 5 is 5%. Tests were not conducted outside the ranges shown in Fig. 5. Such partial load operation has a negative impact on operating costs for the power producers.

negative impact on operating costs for the power producers. Fig. 5. Load efficiency variation for CCPP

Fig. 5. Load efficiency variation for CCPP at design condition.

C.-C. Chuang, D.-C. Sue / Energy 30 (2005) 1793–1801

5. Conclusions

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1. The CCPP can produce more power output when operating at a lower ambient temperature (or lower condenser pressure). Normally, for each 1 8C lower ambient temperature, the power output of this CCPP increases by 0.6% and efficiency improves by 0.1%. It is consistent with Sue and Chuang [4] study results.

2. Decreasing the condenser pressure by 100 mbar will increase power output by 2.5%.

3. When the CCPP operates at ISO condition (15 8C, 60% RH), the plant net power output would be 528,210 kW with the condenser pressure at 118 mbar. If two GTGs and one STG are operated at 100% of rated load, the CCPP will operate at maximum efficiency. To meet PPA Contract of 480 MW power output, two GTGs and the STG can be operated at 90% load with 156 mbar condenser pressure (19 sets of fans operating). The net power output and heat rate are related to the ambient temperature and condenser pressure, which is controlled, by the number of fans operating.

4. It is a higher cost to operate this plant between 50 and 70% load. Plant efficiency is decreased significantly when load is operated below 35% load.

References

[1] Sue DC, Chuang CC, Lin PH. Performance improvement for gas turbine combined cycle power plants (GTCCPP) in Taiwan. In: Johnson D, editor. Electric Power. Fourth annual conference and exhibition, 4A. St Louis, MI, USA: American Center; 2002. p. 1–15. [2] Taiwan Power Company. Taiwan Power Company 2003 Annual Report; 2004. Address: 242 Roosevelt Road, Section 3, Taipei 100, Taiwan, ROC. See also http://www.taipower.com.tw/home_1.htm [3] Tawney PK, Ugolini DJ, Wengert TJ, Narula RG., Steam cycle selection consideration for combined cycle plant. Presented at the Joint Power Generation Conference, Boston, MA; October 1990. [4] Sue DC, Chuang CC. Engineering design and exergy analyses for combustion gas turbine based power generation system. Energy 2004;29:1183–205.