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The skimmed off asphalt can be in use with a variety of materials, be new, recyclings and inclusive
in those that have a high index of plasticity. The skimmed off asphalt can be applied by two means,
in site or in mobile central plant.

The process, which is realized in the mixing chamber of the machine of stabilization, includes the
expansion of the liquid warm asphalt and the subsequent one mixed with the material of the way
pulverized during the process of recovery. Is held that this process economizes on energy and
asphalt on other technologies of stabilization.

From the constructive point of view, the employment of new technologies and equipments of
construction specially developed for this type of application, he him awards additional advantages
in comparison to another type of constructive technologies; specifically it admits major tolerance
into the attachs' specification and the constructive processes can be of very high performance.
The skimmed off asphalt can be used as a stabilizing agent by a variety of materials that go from
gravels ground of good quality up to marginal soils with relatively high plasticity and also in
materials asphalt recycled. The mixtures with skimmed off asphalt can be made both in area and
in a central plant.

The technology of the skimmed off asphalt is achieved to giving birth of conventional asphalts that
on having been warmed and mixed by minimal percentages of water generate a such shock, which
provokes an explosion in million particles, turning temporarily the asphalt into foam of asphalt.
This process allows to obtain asphalt with temporarily very low viscosities, an increase in the
superficial area and a change in the tension inter easy this way to achieve a suitable mixture with
cold and humid attachs.

The asphalt is a natural component of most of the oils. The word asphalt, drift of the acadio,
language spoken in asiria, in the shores of the top tigris, between the years 1.400 and 600 a.c. in
this zone is in adopted as the Greek, I go on to the Latin and, hereinafter, to the Frenchman
(aspalte), to the Spanish (asphalt) and to the Englishman (asphalt).

The skimmed off asphalt takes place when a small proportion of cold water is added to the warm
asphalt. This foam possesses as principal characteristics his low viscosity and a great increase of
the volume. The warm asphalt exploits in million drops when it enters in touch with small
quantities of cold water, this phenomenon provokes that the asphalt disperses very over his initial
volume. To achieve the incorporation of the water to the asphalt is necessary to possess a
chamber of expansion, where there is realized the injection of the cold water to the warm asphalt.
In the process of expansion the viscosity of the asphalt diminishes enormously, allowing his
distribution on the attach.

There have developed two parameters that help to the characterization of the foam of asphalt:

Relation of expansion: it is the relation between the maximum volume of the asphalt in his
skimmed off condition and the volume of the asphalt once the foam has collapsed
Life happens: it is the time needed (measured in seconds) in order that the foam goes
down up to the half of his maximum reached volume.

The water content for the formation of an asphalt foam, expresses as the relation in percentage
between the mass of water and the mass of asphalt cement. The characteristics of skimmed off of
the asphalt cement, relation of expansion and life happens, depends of greatly on the water
content that one is injectedly.

In order that an asphalt is used in a mixture, it is necessary to determine the quantity of water, the
measure as a percentage of the weight of the asphalt and the temperature with which the foam is
obtained by the major relation of expansion and average possible life.

The skimmed off asphalt offers environmental and economic advantages on other types of
ligantes asphalt used as stabilizing agents, increases the resistance and reduces the susceptibility
to the dampness of the granular materials.

The mobil Ol Company in the year 1968, who recognized the potential of the foam of asphalt,
developing a system where the vaporized water was injected directly into the asphalt inside a
chamber of expansion. This method is the one that nowadays is used to produce the foam, and it
was patented for the mobil to protect his investment and development.

You dare dele study of H. bowering and L. Martin " foamed bitumen production and application of
mistures evaluatio and perfomance of pavement ", one determined that a foam of good quality is
that one that has an expansion from 10 to 15 times the volume of the warm initial asphalt; this
expansion is produced by a water injection of 1 or 2 %. The expansion of a foam is considered to
be good when one delays 2 or 3 minutes in reducing to the half his original volume. The study
mentions, that to level of construction is necessary to allow that the cap that has been stabilized
by skimmed off asphalt, should lose between 20 and 25 % of the dampness of compaction to be

The dynamic modules describe the elastic behavior of the material one establishing relations
between the applied loads and the provoked deformations. In case of a structure of pavement,
this one sees directly concerned by the step and dynamic loads of traffic variable speeds, doing
that the structure deforms before the application, and return to his initial condition to the step of
the rim.

For the stabilization of cap of damaged enough tread we might choose for the method of
rehabilitation in situ. In that one departs from the underlying materials there is pulverized and
mixes uniformly everything which results in a stabilized base coat that becomes stable
furthermore during the use of the available additives.

The additives are an entity ideal stabilizers to add to the new base. Between these stabilizers we
can find: skimmed off asphalt, asphalt emulsion, I cement portland, ash, chloride of calcium and
lime. The additive most used in the contracts of rehabilitation is the asphalt emulsion.

In the contract I dress in the video we have asphalt skimmed off as the stabilizing entity the
recycling cold in situ is one of The alternatives of rehabilitation and conservation of roads of more
rapid development with the recycling folder can take advantage of the sources of materials
deposited in routes using them for the second intention that in this case is to reinforce the
structure of the pavement in exchange for constructing warehouses of waste diminishing this way
the effects of the environmental impact.

his project that we could estimate in the video is the included project of Cali - Medellin sector
Cedritos - the Virginia is a rehabilitation with the procedure of skimmed off asphalt; where a
deterioration is notable in the cap of tread that presents longitudinal and transverse faults and
types named skin of crocodile. The above mentioned road was possessing the following
thicknesses in his structure of pavement:

Cap I make concrete asphalt hardened 0,15 to 0,20 meters.

Base to granulate BADLY GRADADA and with ON SIZES 0,20 to 0,25 meters.
Width of the banking 7,30 meters.

With which it decided in his new design of this pavement with the following parameters:

New cap of reinforcement of I make concrete asphalt 0,05 meters.

Base stabilized with skimmed off asphalt 0,25 meters.
Width of the band 7,30 meters.

Inside the parameters for a design of stabilization with asphalt it has to be verified:

50 blows for face.

minimal Stability 500lbs
Loss of the stability after the saturation and dip to the maximum emptiness 50 %
Flow in inches/100entre 8 and 18.
Percentage of cubertura minimum 50 %
Empty with air between 3 and 18 %

The most important equipments that are needed for the stability by this method

Machine of self-propelled recovery by the system of liquid additives.

Motorcycle bulldozer for the needed conformation.
Car tank.

pneumatic Compactor.

In the procedure for the rehabilitation for this method there includes the removal of the
whole existing material for this work with the machine the governing debit to control the
frequency and opening of the hatch with the one that was determining the depth of the
removed material and the granulometry for the material needed to stabilizing. The application
of the additives must be followed by the step of the desegregation, the temperature of the
asphalt emulsion must be in an average of 140 to 135C one proceeds to add 2 % of water to
temperature set what was causing a physical reaction lowering his viscosity that will make
exploit the mixture in warm turning it into a frothy mixture Which must proceed to carry out
several tests to determine his expansion that it was determining if functioning will be most
indicated which must us give the properties of expansion adds the asphalt skimmed off in a
container previously calibrated (weight and volume) one adds the asphalt skimmed off after
his flow has regulated what must give a value of expansion of the asphalt between 12 and 14
times the value of his volume with water content between 1 and 2 %; one proceeds to realize
also the test of the joists with 50 blows for each of his faces his process of compaction begins
normally After spent from mixture his compaction will depend on the depth of the
stabilization of type of properties of the asphalt and possibly on climatic conditions
temperatures and dampness the asphalt was staying in normal conditions after finished credit
the reaction with the water like final point does a capture of densities to itself and the whole
procedure is this for the rehabilitation and recycling with skimmed off asphalt.
segn el articulo 461 del invias toca trabajar la disgregacin de las capas asflticas y
parte de la base granular de un pavimento existente, de acuerdo con las
profundidades de corte sealadas en los documentos del proyecto o indicadas por el
interventor; la eventual adicin de nuevos materiales ptreos, agua, mejoradores de
adherencia, controladores de rotura, puzolanas y otros elementos de aporte; la
incorporacin de emulsin asfltica o cemento asfltico espumado; y la mezcla,
extensin, compactacin y curado de los materiales tratados, de acuerdo con los
planos del proyecto y las instrucciones del interventor.
los agregados ptreos sern los resultantes de la pulverizacin mecnica de las capas
de pavimento en el espesor indicado en el proyecto y ajustado por el interventor
cuando corresponda, los cuales debern cumplir con la granulometra indicada.

37.5 mm 1 1/2" 100
25.0 mm 1" 75 - 100
19.0 mm 3/4" 65 - 100
9.5 mm 3/8" 45 - 75
4.75 mm No. 4 30 - 60
2.00 mm No. 10 20 - 45
425 m No. 40 10 - 30
75 m No. 200 5 - 20

en el caso de que se requiera la adicin de material ptreo para satisfacer el requisito

de gradacin, ste deber cumplir con las caractersticas para material de adicin para
reciclado en fro.
para los reciclados en fro en el lugar con emulsin asfltica, sta ser de rompimiento
lento, del tipo crl-1, cuyo residuo de destilacin tenga una penetracin entre cien y
doscientas cincuenta (100250) dcimas de milmetro, que sea compatible con los
agregados ptreos, la cual deber cumplir con los requisitos de calidad establecidos
en el numeral 400.2.4 del artculo 400 de las presentes especificaciones.
en cualquier caso, se prohbe la adicin de fluidificantes ligeros o crudos de petrleo
para producir el reblandecimiento del asfalto del pavimento existente.
puzolanas, se consideran como tales, algunos llenantes comerciales que
complementan la accin del ligante asfltico en cuanto a su reactividad. los ms
utilizados son el cemento prtland, la cal hidratada y las cenizas volantes, cuyas
caractersticas se debern establecer en una especificacin particular.
el agua requerida para el humedecimiento previo de los agregados ptreos estar libre
de materia orgnica y de elementos qumicos que dificulten el proceso de mezclado y
el curado de la mezcla. su ph, medido segn la norma astm d-1293, deber estar
entre cinco y medio y ocho (5.5-8.0) y su contenido de sulfatos, expresado como so4 =
, no deber ser mayor de un gramo por litro (1 g/l). el contenido de sulfatos se
determinar de acuerdo con la norma astm d-516. el agua reconocida como potable
se podr emplear sin necesidad de ensayos de verificacin.
en adicin a lo que establece el numeral 400.3 del artculo 400, el equipo para los
trabajos aqu especificados deber contar con elementos para la explotacin, cargues,
transportes, trituracin, lavado cuando se requiera, y clasificacin de los eventuales
agregados ptreos de adicin para la correccin granulomtrica; para la extraccin de
agua; para el almacenamiento, transporte y distribucin del agua y del ligante
asfltico; para la disgregacin del pavimento existente y para la mezcla adecuada de
todos los ingredientes; as como para la compactacin y conformacin de la capa
al respecto, rige todo lo que sea pertinente del numeral 400.4.2 del artculo 400. el
constructor estimar la cantidad ptima terica necesaria de ligante residual para la
combinacin de agregados de cada tramo homogneo y determinar el tipo y
porcentaje de emulsin asfltica o cemento asfltico espumado y de los aditivos y
otros elementos por incorporar, de modo de producir una mezcla cuya calidad sea
comparable a una base estabilizada con emulsin asfltica elaborada con agregados
ptreos y ligante asfltico nuevos.
en el caso de reciclados con emulsin asfltica, se utilizar para el diseo de la
mezcla el ensayo de inmersin-compresin (anexo de la norma inv e-738),
aplicndose los siguientes criterios como guas para la seleccin del contenido ptimo
de ligante en la mezcla reciclada:
- resistencia de probetas curadas en seco 20 kg/cm2
- resistencia conservada tras curado hmedo 75%
en el caso de reciclados con cemento asfltico espumado, el diseo de la mezcla se
efectuar a travs de la medida de la resistencia a la tensin indirecta, de acuerdo con
el procedimiento descrito en la norma de ensayo inv e-785, establecindose los
siguientes parmetros para la preparacin del espumado del asfalto:
- relacin de expansin 10
- vida media (segundos) 10
para la seleccin del contenido ptimo de cemento asfltico en la mezcla reciclada, se
aplicarn los siguientes criterios:
- resistencia de probetas curadas en seco 2.5 kg/cm2
- resistencia conservada tras curado hmedo 50 %
extendida la mezcla, se proceder a su compactacin en el instante y con el equipo y
procedimiento aprobados durante la fase de experimentacin, hasta lograr los niveles
de compactacin exigidos. sin embargo, no podr transcurrir ms de media hora
desde su extensin hasta el inicio de la compactacin.
la compactacin se realizar longitudinalmente, comenzando por el borde ms bajo de
la franja que se est tratando, de manera continua, hasta alcanzar la masa unitaria
especificada en este artculo. al compactar cada franja se efectuar un traslapo de no
menos de quince centmetros (15 cm) con la precedente.
los rodillos debern llevar su rueda motriz hacia el frente; los cambios de direccin se
harn sobre la mezcla ya compactada y los cambios de sentido se efectuarn con
siempre que el interventor tenga alguna incertidumbre en relacin con la calidad del
agua utilizada en el reciclado en fro con ligantes bituminosos, verificar su ph y su
contenido de sulfatos. sus resultados debern satisfacer las exigencias del numeral
461.2.5 para permitir su empleo. si no las satisfacen, se impedir el uso posterior de
dicha agua y se sometern a observacin los tramos ya elaborados con ella.