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Brittany Fung


The purpose of this lab was to get information about our DNA history and to helps us get
lab experience. Also, we get to learn about common lab practice.


My hypothesis was that we would determine the history of my DNA. Also, we would
learn how to pipette the right way and in a real lab.


BABEC (Bay Area Bioscience Education Community)


We used cubes of ice instead of crushed ice and that might have caused a problem in the
lab. Also, I might of micropipette wrong. It was our first time micropipetting in a lab and
a lot of things could have gone wrong.

Analysis and Discussion

We used 2% agarose gel and ran it at 150 volts for 20 minutes and stained it with red gel
for 72 hours. Lanes 1 A-H and 2 A-H has 20 ml of a 50 ml DNA/ 10 ml loading dye
solution. As you can see, lane 1A and lane 2A have 100 base pair ladder. Lanes 1E and 2C
both have faint results. I worked with lane 1E. My DNA sample was so faint because it
didnt have enough DNA.

Since, we didnt have enough results the teacher provided us with made up results.
Shown in the table below:

Genotype Number of Students Number of + Number of -

Alleles Alleles

+/+ 15 30 0

+/- 10 10 10

-/- 12 0 24

Total: 74 40/74 34/74

On this table, I multiplied the number of students by 2 because we have two genotype.
The number of + is 0.541p and the number of - is 0.459q and when you add them up
they equal to 1.0.

We also tried to find genotype frequencies by using this simple equation.

p^2+2pq+q^2=1.0 We plugged in the numbers and got the right answer.


When doing this lab, students had a hard time micropipetting and that might have
caused our experiment not to work. In this experiment, we tried to find Alu repeats in
our DNA by using PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction). PCR is used to amplify a single piece
of DNA and make multiple copies. During the lab, when we had to micropipette the DNA
and dye mixture into the well combs. There were a lot of ways to mess up. We could
have not micropipette deep enough into the well combs. Which can caused most of the
DNA to go everywhere. Another way that we could have messed up was when we were
putting in the DNA and we could have poked a hole into the gel. Overall, it was our first
time micropipetting in a lab and it might have been difficult for others.