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Chapter 1 Introduction to Solid Waste

1.1 Definition of waste

- OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development)
Unavoidable materials for which there is currently no near future
economic demand and for which treatment and /or disposal may be
- UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme)
Objects which the owner does not want, need or use any longer, which
require treatment and/or disposal

- European Community (Directive 75/442/EEC on Waste)

Any substance or object which the holder disposes of or is required to
dispose of pursuant to the provisions of the national law in force.

1.2 General waste Classification

a. Physical state
solid, liquid , gas

b. Original use
- e.g. solid waste (packaging waste, food waste, etc)

c. Material type/composition
glass, paper, etc

d. Physical properties
combustible, compostable, recyclable

e. Origin
domestic, commercial, agricultural, industrial, etc.

f. Safety level
hazardous, non-hazardous
1.3 Solid Waste Category
No Type Description
1 Agricultural Waste arising from agricultural
practices, especially livestock
production. Often either used (applied
to land) or treated in situ
2 Mining and quarrying Mainly inert mineral wastes; from coal
mining and mineral extraction
3 Dredging spoils Organic and mineral waste from
dredging operations
4 Construction and demolition Building waste, mainly inert mineral or
wood waste
5 Industrial Solid waste from industrial processes.
Sometimes will include energy
production industries
6 Energy production Solid waste from the energy production
industries, including fly ash from coal
7 Sewage sludge Organic solid waste, disposed of by
burning, dumping at sea (?), application
to land or composting. May result from
industrial or domestic waste water
8 Hazardous/special waste Solid waste which can contain
substances that are dangerous to life is
termed as special waste (UK) or
Hazardous waste (EU)
9 Commercial Solid waste from offices, shops,
restaurants, etc. often included in MSW
10 Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Solid waste collected and controlled by
the local authority or municipality and
typically consists of household waste,
commercial and institutional waste.