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Working Report 2006-20

Drilling and the Associated


Borehole Measurements
of the Pilot Hole ONK-PH3
Antti hberg
Eero Heikkinen

Hannele Hirvonen

Kimmo Kemppainen
Johan Majapuro

Juha Niemonen

Jari Pllnen
Pekka Rouhiainen

March 2006

POSIVA OY
FI-27160 OLKILUOTO, FINLAND
Tel +358-2-8372 31
Fax +358-2-8372 3709
Working Report 2006-20

Drilling and the Associated


Borehole Measurements
of the Pilot Hole ONK-PH3
Editor: Antti hberg
Saanio & Riekkola Oy

Eero Heikkinen
JP-Fintact Oy

Hannele Hirvonen
Teollisuuden Voima Oy

Kimmo Kemppainen
Posiva Oy

Johan Majapuro
Suomen Malmi Oy

Juha Niemonen
Oy Kalajoen Timanttikairaus Ab

Jari Pllnen, Pekka Rouhiainen


PRG-Tec Oy

March 2006

Working Reports contain information on work in progress


or pending completion.
DRILLING AND THE ASSOCIATED BOREHOLE MEASUREMENTS OF THE
PILOT HOLE ONK-PH3

ABSTRACT

The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto.
Most of the investigations related to the construction of the access tunnel aim to ensure
successful excavations, reinforcement and sealing. Pilot holes are boreholes, which are
core drilled along the tunnel profile. The length of the pilot holes typically varies from
several tens of metres to a couple of hundred metres. The pilot holes will mostly aim to
confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, and in particular at
identifying water conductive fractured zones and at providing information that could
result in modifications of the existing construction plans.

The pilot hole ONK-PH3 was drilled in September 2005. The length of the borehole is
145.04 metres. The aim during the drilling work was to orientate core samples as much
as possible. The deviation of the borehole was measured during and after the drilling
phase. Electric conductivity was measured from the collected returning water samples.

Logging of the core samples included the following parameters: lithology, foliation,
fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss and weathering. The
rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The tests to determine rock
strength and deformation properties were made with a Rock Tester-equipment.

Difference Flow method was used for the determination of hydraulic conductivity in
fractures and fractured zones in the borehole. The overlapping i.e. the detailed flow
logging mode was used. The flow logging was performed with 0.5 m section length and
with 0.1 m depth increments. Water loss tests (Lugeon tests) and a pressure build-up
test were used to give background information for the grouting design.

Geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging surveys of the pilot hole PH3
included the field work of all the surveys, the integration of the data as well as
interpretation of the acoustic and borehole radar data.

One of the objectives of the geochemical study was to get information of composition
of ONKALO's groundwater before the construction will disturb the chemical condition.
The groundwater samples were collected from the sampling section 102.09 - 144.91 m.
The collected groundwater samples were analysed in different laboratories.

Keywords: pilot hole, core drilling, borehole measurements, geophysical borehole


logging, geochemical sampling, flow logging
PILOTTIREIN ONK-PH3 KAIRAUS JA REIKTUTKIMUKSET

TIIVISTELM

ONKALOn ajotunnelin rakentaminen aloitettiin Olkiluodossa syyskuussa 2004.


Useimmat ajotunnelin rakentamisen aikaiset tutkimukset liittyvt louhinnan, lujituksen
ja injektoinnin suunnitteluun. Pilottireikien, jotka kairataan tunnelin profiiliin, pituus
vaihtelee tyypillisesti muutamien kymmenien metrien ja muutaman sadan metrin vlill.
Pilottireikien avulla varmistutaan kalliomassan laadusta ennen sen louhimista. Pilotti-
reikien avulla tunnistetaan vettjohtavat rakenteet ja niist saatavalla tiedolla voidaan
modifioida olemassa olevia louhintasuunnitelmia.

Pilottireik ONK-PH3 kairattiin syyskuussa 2005. Rein pituus on noin 145,04 m.


Kairauksen tavoitteena oli saada mahdollisimman paljon nytteest suunnattuna. Si-
vusuunta ja taipuma mitattiin kairauksen aikana ja sen jlkeen. Shknjohtavuus mitat-
tiin reist palautuvasta reikvedest otetuista vesinytteist.

Kallionytteen kartoitus ksitti seuraavat parametrit: litologia, liuskeisuus, rakoilu, ra-


koluku, RQD, rikkonaisuusvyhykkeet, nytehukka ja rapautuneisuus. Kalliomekaani-
nen raportointi perustui Q-luokitukseen. Kiven lujuus- ja muodonmuutosparametrit
mritettiin Rock Tester -laitteistolla.

Rakojen sek rakovyhykkeiden vedenjohtavuus mitattiin virtausmittarilla eromittaus-


menetelmll kytten rakohakumoodia. Mittausvlin pituus oli 0,5 m ja pistevli
0,1 m. Vesimenekkitestej (Lugeon-testi) ja painekoetta (pressure build-up test) ky-
tettiin kallion injektoinnin suunnitteluun.

Reikgeofysiikan mittausten ja rein optisen kuvantamisen lisksi saatuja tuloksia on


integroitu ja akustisen menetelmn ja reiktutkan data on tulkittu.

Geokemian nytteenoton tavoitteena oli saada listietoa ONKALOn pohjaveden koos-


tumuksesta ennen pohjaveden tilaa hiritsev louhintaa. Nytteet otettiin reikvlilt
102,09 - 144,91 m. Kertyt vesinytteet analysoitiin eri laboratorioissa.

Avainsanat: pilottireik, kallionytekairaus, reikmittaukset, geofysikaaliset reikmit-


taukset, geokemian nytteenotto, virtausmittaus
FOREWORD

In this report the results of drilling pilot hole ONK-PH3 and the associated borehole
investigations are presented. Oy Kalajoen Timanttikairaus Ab (Oy Kati Ab) as the
subcontractor of Kalliorakennus Oy drilled the pilot hole and answered for water loss
tests. Posiva carried out the geological logging of the drill core as well as water
samplings and pressure build-up test.

Hydraulic flow measurements were assigned to PRG-Tec Oy. Suomen Malmi Oy was
assigned the geophysical borehole surveys and the rock mechanical tests on drill core
samples.

The following persons have contributed to the compilation of this report: section 1 Antti
hberg/Saanio & Riekkola Oy, section 2 Juha Niemonen/Oy Kati Ab, section 3 Kimmo
Kemppainen/Posiva Oy, section 4; (4.1) Antti hberg/Saanio & Riekkola Oy; (4.2)
Kimmo Kemppainen/Posiva Oy; (4.3) Tauno Rautio/Suomen Malmi Oy), section 5
(5.1) Antti hberg/Saanio & Riekkola Oy; (5.2) Jari Pllnen and Pekka Rouhiai-
nen/PRG-Tec Oy; (5.3) Juha Niemonen/Oy Kati Ab; (5.4) Johanna Hansen/Posiva Oy,
section 6 Johan Majapuro/Suomen Malmi Oy and Eero Heikkinen/JP-Fintact Oy,
section 7 Hannele Hirvonen/TVO Oy and section 8 Antti hberg/Saanio & Riekkola
Oy.

This report was prepared for publication by Helka Suomi from Posiva Oy.
1

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT
TIIVISTELM
FOREWORD

1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................... 3
2.1 General ........................................................................................................ 5
2.2 Equipment .................................................................................................... 5
2.3 Mobilization and preparing to work .............................................................. 6
2.4 Drilling work.................................................................................................. 6
2.5 Deviation surveys......................................................................................... 8
2.6 Electric Conductivity surveys ....................................................................... 8
2.7 Demobilization.............................................................................................. 8

3 GEOLOGICAL LOGGING ..................................................................................... 9


3.1 General ........................................................................................................ 9
3.2 Lithology....................................................................................................... 9
3.3 Foliation........................................................................................................ 9
3.4 Fracturing ................................................................................................... 11
3.5 Fracture frequency and RQD ..................................................................... 17
3.6 Fractured zones and core loss................................................................... 18
3.7 Weathering................................................................................................. 18

4 ROCK MECHANICS ........................................................................................... 21


4.1 General ...................................................................................................... 21
4.2 Q-classification........................................................................................... 21
4.3 Rock mechanical field tests on core samples ............................................ 24
4.3.1 Description of tests ......................................................................... 24
4.3.2 Strength and elastic properties....................................................... 26

5 HYDRAULIC MEASUREMENTS ........................................................................ 29


5.1 General ...................................................................................................... 29
5.2 Flow logging ............................................................................................... 29
5.2.1 Principles of measurement and interpretation ................................ 29
5.2.2 Equipment specifications................................................................ 37
5.2.3 Description of the data set.............................................................. 38
5.3 Water loss tests (Lugeon tests).................................................................. 39
5.4 Pressure build-up test ................................................................................ 39

6 GEOPHYSICAL LOGGINGS .............................................................................. 41


6.1 General ...................................................................................................... 41
6.2 Equipment and methods ............................................................................ 41
6.2.1 WellMac equipment ........................................................................ 41
6.2.2 Rautaruukki equipment................................................................... 42
6.2.3 Geovista Normal resistivity sonde .................................................. 42
6.2.4 RAMAC equipment......................................................................... 42
6.2.5 Sonic equipment............................................................................. 43
6.2.6 Optical televiewer ........................................................................... 43
2

6.3 Fieldwork.................................................................................................... 45
6.4 Processing and results............................................................................... 46
6.4.1 Natural gamma radiation ................................................................ 46
6.4.2 Gamma-gamma density ................................................................. 47
6.4.3 Magnetic susceptibility.................................................................... 47
6.4.4 Single point resistance ................................................................... 47
6.4.5 Wenner resistivity ........................................................................... 47
6.4.6 Borehole radar................................................................................ 47
6.4.7 Full Waveform Sonic ...................................................................... 48
6.4.8 Borehole image .............................................................................. 49
6.5 Conclusions................................................................................................ 49

7 GROUNDWATER SAMPLING AND ANALYSES ............................................... 51


7.1 General ...................................................................................................... 51
7.2 Equipment and method .............................................................................. 51
7.3 Groundwater sampling ............................................................................... 51
7.4 Laboratory analysis .................................................................................... 53
7.5 Analysis results .......................................................................................... 53
7.5.1 Physico-chemical properties........................................................... 53
7.5.2 Results............................................................................................ 53
7.6 Representativeness of the samples ........................................................... 55
7.6.1 Charge balance .............................................................................. 55
7.6.2 Uncertainties of the laboratory analyses ........................................ 55

8 SUMMARY .......................................................................................................... 57

REFERENCES ............................................................................................................. 59

APPENDICES............................................................................................................... 63
3

1 INTRODUCTION

The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004. The
investigations during the construction of the access tunnel will provide complementary
and detailed information about the host rock and will also include monitoring of
disturbances caused by the construction activities. Most of these investigations related
to construction aim to ensure successful excavations, reinforcement and sealing and are
also used in ordinary tunnelling projects. Some of the investigations are specific for this
project, such as the pilot core holes along the tunnel profile. The location of ONKALO
is presented in Figure 1-1.

When the access tunnel progresses deeper, specific attention will be paid to the impact
of high groundwater pressure on the construction and investigations activities.
Investigations essential for the construction activities can be divided into probing,
mapping and drilling of pilot core holes. Again, most information acquired for
construction purposes will be essential also for the site characterisation. Additional
investigations for pure characterisation purposes will also be carried out.

Pilot holes are cored boreholes to be drilled along the tunnel profile. The length of the
pilot core holes typically varies from several tens of metres to a couple of hundred
metres. The pilot holes will mostly aim to confirm the quality of the rock mass for
tunnel construction, and in particular at identifying water conductive fractured zones
and at providing information that could result in modifications of the existing
construction plans (i.e. they are an integral part of coordinated investigation, design and
construction activities). The pilot holes will also be used for the comparison of the drill
core and the tunnel sidewall mapping, particularly on the characterisation levels.

The first pilot hole PH1 was core drilled from the surface prior to the excavation work
of the ONKALO access tunnel. The pilot hole PH1 reached its final depth, 160.08 m, in
January 2004 (Niinimki 2004). The second pilot hole PH2 reached its final depth,
122.31 m, in December 2004 (hberg at al. 2005). The third pilot hole PH3, which is
described in this report, was core drilled in September 2005, Table 1-1.

Furthermore, at the repository construction phase, long pilot holes (200 - 250 m) will
likely play an important role in the assessment of rock mass conditions before the
disposal tunnels are excavated. For this reason, it is important to gain as much
experience as possible of their use at a stage as early as possible. A number of pilot
holes will thus be drilled already in parts of the access tunnel. Decisions on the location
of these pilot holes will be based on the bedrock model and other relevant data, possibly
assisted by statistical analyses. Such boreholes may, for example, be drilled into major
fractured zones or other structures of interest.

Pilot holes are planned to cover only those sections of the access tunnel, where it will
intersect significant structures based on the bedrock model. According to the current
bedrock model (Vaittinen et al. 2003) and the latest layout about 1200 m of pilot holes
are needed above the main characterisation level. The pilot holes in ONKALO will be
drilled inside the tunnel profile to avoid disturbances in the surrounding rock mass
(Posiva Oy 2003).
4

Pilot holes will play an important role on the main characterisation level to prevent the
tunnels from unexpectedly intersecting fractured zones, which would result in large
groundwater inflows, and to make it possible to consider such intersections in advance
and carry out appropriate pre-grouting. According to the current plans all the research
tunnels need to be explored by means of pilot holes before construction. Pilot holes are
also fundamental for acquiring reliable in-situ data on the host rock. The boreholes must
be designed, assessed and constructed so that disturbances to the host rock (e.g.
undesirable hydraulic connections, uncontrolled leakages, etc.) are minimised and the
natural integrity of the host rock is not jeopardised.

In this report the term borehole depth is defined as borehole length from the tunnel
face.

Figure 1-1. The location of ONKALO at Olkiluoto.

Table 1-1. Timetable of drilling PH3 and the associated measurements.

Activity Duration Start End September 2005


(h) (ddmmyy) (ddmmyy) 6 7 8 9 1011 1213141516
* Drilling 98 60905 100905
* Flow logging 12 100905 110905
* Water sampling 30 110905 120905
* Press. build-up 1 120905 120905
* Boreh. imaging 15 120905 130905
* Geophysics 20 130905 130905
* Water loss 45 130905 160905
5

2 CORE DRILLING

2.1 General

The aim of the drilling work was to drill a 140 m long core drilled borehole ONK-PH3
(later PH3) inside the ONKALO access tunnel profile. The tunnel profile at the starting
point of the pilot hole was 10 m wide and 7 m high and after chainage 700, the tunnel
profile was changed to a 5.6 m wide and 5 m high. The gradient of the tunnel was 1: -10
(-5.7 degrees). The planned starting point for the pilot hole was at the chainage 700 and
the target point at the chainage 840, Figure 2-1. The actual starting point was at the
chainage 696.87 and the actual ending point about 145 m ahead at the chainage 841.78.
The main purpose of the drilling was to acquire and adjust the geological, geophysical
and rock mechanical knowledge prior to the excavation of the tunnel into the area.

Figure 2-1. The planned position of borehole PH3 in chainage interval from 700 to
840.

2.2 Equipment

The pilot hole PH3 was drilled with a fully hydraulic ONRAM-1000/4 rig powered by
electric motor. The drill rig and working base was installed on Mercedes Benz truck,
Figure 2-2. The list of equipment at the site is presented in Appendix 2.1.

Hagby-Asahis wireline drill rods (wl-76) and a 3-metre triple tube core barrel were
used in this work. The diameter of the hole is 76.3 mm and diameter of core sample is
51.0 mm. Triple tube coring enables undisturbed core sampling from broken rock and
fracture fillings. The inner tube can be opened and the undisturbed sample can be taken
out from the inner tube.
6

Figure 2-2. The drill rig and working base are installed on a truck.

2.3 Mobilization and preparing to work

The rig was mobilized to Olkiluoto on the 5th of September in 2005. After unloading the
rig was moved into the access tunnel of ONKALO and installed to the site. A surveying
contractor (Prismarit Oy) checked the orientation of the rig and collaring the hole was
started on the 6th of September by casing drilling.

2.4 Drilling work

Core drilling started on the 6th of September after preliminary preparations. Initial
azimuth of the borehole was 225 degrees and initial dip 5.8 degrees, Table 2-1. The
drilling contractor, Oy Kati Ab, was prepared to orientate the borehole according to the
demands (the pilot hole must stay inside the tunnel profile) appointed by Posiva Oy.
The orientation was planned to be done by using a wedge. One wedge would have
bended the hole approximately 1.0-1.5 degrees. The drilling contractor was also
7

prepared to use directional drilling equipment, owned by Liwingstone AB. The


deviation of the borehole was measured with two different devices. After drilling of
every run, the dip of the borehole was measured, and additionally, after every 25 metres
the azimuth and the dip were measured with Flexit smart tool. Flexit is an electronic
multi-shot and single-shot system that uses the same methodology as the EMS system.

Table 2-1. The starting point coordinates and orientation of PH3.

PH3 Northing Easting Elevation Direction (o) Dip (o) Chainage


Planned 6792048.274 1526128.026 -59.775 225 -5,71 695
Measured 6792046.873 1526126.618 -59.976 225.1355 -5.843 696.87

The pilot hole was planned to be drilled to the chainage 840 (the final borehole depth
was 145.04 m). The pilot hole reached the chainage 841.78 in the end of the hole. The
drilling work was completed normally as anticipated. The path of the hole was inside
the tolerances and no orientation work was needed.

Drilling work was carried out as 2 shift work ( 12 h). The crew in a shift consisted of a
driller and an assistant driller. Surveyor completed deviation surveys and drilling
manager superintended the work.

Drill core samples were wrapped into aluminium foil and placed in wooden core boxes.
Before closing the aluminium wrap the boxes were photographed with a digital camera.
After each run the hole depth was marked on a wooden block wrapped into aluminium
foil as well.

The hole was completed in 56 runs, Appendix 2.2. Average length of a run was 2.59
metres. The drilling report sheet is presented in Appendix 2.3.

The flushing water was labelled. The label substance uranine (sodium fluorescein) was
readily mixed by Posiva Oy into the water taken from the tunnel waterline. The sample
from the water returning from the hole was taken during every drill run. Altogether 53
water samples were collected for electric conductivity measurements. Once a day one
sample of labelled water was collected from the waterline for analysis in TVOs
laboratory. That water sample was collected into a brown glass bottle wrapped into
aluminium foil to prevent degradation of label substance. During the drilling operation
100.01 m3 of water was used and 83.87 m3 of water returned from the hole.

The casing was drilled to the depth of 0.50 m. The casing was cemented into place with
aluminate cement. The casing was cemented into the tunnel face with aluminate cement
(Ciment Fondu La Farge) the volume of which was about 6 litres. The volume of 0.5 dl
of Accelerating agent (Ciment Fondu) was added to the mixture. Down to the final
borehole depth of 145.04 metres the rock was normal and drilling progressed normally.

The hole was washed and cleaned with a steel brush and water jet directed to the
borehole walls through the holes drilled in the brush frame made of stainless steel. The
used water pressure was 40 bars. The rods were lowered slowly downwards and the
8

rods were rotated simultaneously. During the cleaning and washing operation 7.01 m3
of labelled water was used.

2.5 Deviation surveys

The deviation survey was completed by about 25 metres intervals with Flexit tool in
order to monitor the straightness of the hole and to ensure that the hole was inside the
planned tunnel profile. The hole went straight and wedging or steering was not needed.

The survey tools were pumped to the bottom with wire-line water pump and the survey
was completed by pulling the tool upwards in three metres intervals with wire-line
winch. Inclination measurement with a dip tool was done after every run.

The deviation survey was carried out with Maxibor device in borehole depths 79.89
metres and 145.04 metres.

The results of the final survey with Flexit tool indicate that the hole was deviated 3.31
metres right and 0.98 metres down at the borehole depth of 144.00 metres. Deviation
survey with Maxibor tool showed deviation of 0.90 m right and 0.98 metres down at the
same borehole depth. The big difference in the horizontal component of deviation is
caused by magnetic anomalies in the rock. Flexit is based on the earths magnetic field
and magnetic anomalies will cause errors in results. The results of deviation survey by
Flexit tool is given in Appendix 2.4. The deviation survey by Maxibor tool is presented
in Appendix 2.5 and the inclination surveys with EZ-DIP tool in Appendix 2.6.

2.6 Electric Conductivity surveys

The collected 53 water samples from returning water were measured with a Pioneer Ion
Check 65 conductivity meter. The meter was calibrated according to the conductivity
standard (Unidose Radiometer analytical 1000 S/cm) and the conductivity values are
temperature corrected to 20C. The conductivity readings are presented in Appendix
2.7.

2.7 Demobilization

Demobilization of the rig took place after water loss tests, the last field activity in PH3,
on Sept. 16, 2005.
9

3 GEOLOGICAL LOGGING

3.1 General

The core logging follows essentially normal Posiva logging procedure, which was used
in previous core drilling programme at Olkiluoto. The logging consists among other
things tables of lithology, foliation, fracturing, and fractured zones, weathering, rock
quality and kinematical intersections. The wooden core boxes were transported to
Posivas core archive, where geologists, from Posiva and Geological Survey of Finland,
carried out geological core logging as on-line mapping during drilling. After logging
digital photos were taken and core samples were selected for rock mechanical field-
testing. The core box numbers and the photographs of rock samples in the core boxes
are provided in Appendices 3.10 and 3.11, respectively.

3.2 Lithology

The lithological classification used in the mapping follows the classification developed
by Krki & Paulamki (2005). In this classification, metamorphic gneisses are separated
into veined- (VGN), stromatic- (SGN), diatexitic- (DGN), mica- (MGN), mafic-
(MFGN), quartz- (QGN) and tonalitic-granodioritic-granitic (TGG) gneisses). The
metamorphic rocks form a compositional series that can be separated by rock texture
and the proportion of neosome. Igneous rock names used in the classification are
coarse-grained pegmatitic granite and diabase.

The core-drilled sample mainly consists of diatexitic gneiss (62.7 %) but also pegmatitic
granite (25.5 %), veined gneiss (7.8 %) and mafic-, mica- and quartz gneiss
(1-2 %) sections occur (Appendix 3.1). In diatexitic gneiss neosome content varies
between 50-80 %. The neosome is irregular or gneiss-like. Diatexitic gneisses are
medium grained - the grain size varies between 1 and 5 mm. Kaolinite and pinite are
common alteration products in the major rock types. Pegmatitic granite sections occur
in diatexitic gneisses. The length varies from 0.5 to 7.5 m. Pegmatitic granites are
normally coarse-grained and weathering degree is low. Pinite and kaolinite spots are
common.

Mica-, mafic- or quartz gneisses occur as inclusions and intersections vary from 0.5 to
2.5 m. The inclusions are normally fine grained and massive, some leucosome bands are
also present.

3.3 Foliation

Foliation measurements were carried out systematically in one metre intervals. A total
of 145 foliation observations were performed and 83 of these were orientated using
borehole image. The reason for lacking orientation data was the irregular foliation
(diatexitic gneiss) or massive (pegmatitic granite) sections of the core. The measured
foliation orientations are shown as a stereogram in Figure 3-1 and presented in
Appendix 3.2. From Figure 3-1 it is obvious that the dominant orientation of foliation is
dipping moderately to east.
10

Figure 3-1. Measured foliation orientations of PH3 on a lower hemisphere projection.


The trend of the pilot hole is shown as a black line.

Foliation type was estimated visually in one metre intervals and classified into five
categories:

MAS = massive
GNE = gneissic
BAN = banded
SCH = schistose
IRR = irregular

The gneissic type (GNE) corresponds to a rock dominated by quartz and feldspars,
micas and amphiboles occur only as minor constituents. Banded foliation type (BAN)
consists of intercalated gneissic and schistose layers, which are either separated or
discontinuous layers of micas or amphiboles. Schistose type (SCH) is dominated by
micas or amphiboles, which have a strong preferred orientation. Massive (MAS)
corresponds to massive rock with no visible orientations and irregular (IRR) to folded or
chaotic rock.

Typically foliation is gneissic (71 % of orientated core) in PH3 samples, but also
irregular (18 %), banded (10 %) and schistose (1 %) types are recorded.

The intensity of the foliation is also based on visual estimation and classified into three
categories:

0 = Massive or irregular
1 = Weakly foliated
2 = Moderately foliated
3 = Strongly foliated
11

The intensity in PH3 is mainly weak (71 % of orientated core) in every rock types.
Often diatexitic gneiss and pegmatitic granites are massive or the foliation is irregular
(18 %). The moderately foliated (11 %) sections occur in veined and mica gneisses.

3.4 Fracturing

Each fracture is described individually and attributes include among other things
orientation, type, colour, fracture filling, surface shape and roughness. Also information
for Q-classification is collected from each fracture, which means ratings for roughness
and alteration.

The abbreviations used to describe the type of fracture are in accordance with the
classification used by Suomen Malmi Oy (Niinimki 2004) and are as follows:

op = open
ti = tight, no filling material
fi = filled
fisl = filled slickensided
grfi = grain filled
clfi = clay filled

Filled fractures with intact surfaces were also described as closed or partly closed in the
remarks column, corresponding to healed and partly healed fractures, respectively. The
thickness of the filling was measured with an accuracy of 0.1 mm, where the value
0.1 mm typically corresponds to an opened foliation plane with a biotite surface. The
recognition of fracture fillings is qualitative and is based on visual estimation. Where
the recognition of the specified mineral facies was not possible, the mineral was
described with a common mineral group name, such as clay and sulphide, in the fracture
filling column. When it was possible to identify the sulphide, the name of the mineral
was added to the remarks column. The list of the mineral abbreviations is based on
fracture mineral database, which Kivitieto Oy has developed, Table 3-1.
12

Table 3-1. The mineral abbreviations.

Abbreviation Mineral Abbreviation Mineral


AN = analcime NA = nakrite
KS = kaolinite + other HB = hydrobiotite
clay minerals
BT = biotite PA = palygorsgite
LM = laumontite HE = hematite
CC = calcite PB = galena
MH = molybdenite IL = illite
CU = chalcopyrite SK = pyrite
MK = pyrrhotite IS = illite + other clay
minerals
DO = dolomite SM = smectite
MO = montmorillonite KA = kaolinite
EP = epidote SR = sericite
MP = black pigment KI = kaolinite + illlite
FG = phlogopite SV = clay mineral
MS = feldspar KL = chlorite
GR = graphite VM = vermikulite
MU = muscovite KM = K-feldspar
GS = gismondite ZN = zinc blende

The fracture surface shape:

- Planar
- Stepped
- Undulated

The roughness of fracture surface:

- Rough
- Smooth
- Slickensided

In addition to this, the fracture morphology and fracture alteration were also classified
according to the Q-system (Grimstad & Barton 1993). Fracture roughness was
described with the joint roughness number, Jr (Table 3-2) and the fracture alteration
with the joint alteration number Ja (Table 3-3), Appendix 3.3.
13

Table 3-2. The concise description of joint roughness number Jr (Grimstad & Barton
1993).

Jr Profile i) Rock wall contact or ii) Rock wall contact before 10 cm


shear
4 SRO Discontinuous joint or rough and stepped
3 SSM Stepped smooth
2 SSL Stepped slickensided
3 URO Rough and undulating
2 USM Smooth and undulating
1,5 USL Slickensided and undulating
1,5 PRO Rough or irregular, planar
1 PSM Smooth, planar
0,5 PSL Slickensided, planar

Table 3-3. The concise description of joint alteration number Ja (Grimstad & Barton
1993).

Ja Rock wall contact


0,75 Tightly healed, hard, non-softening impermeable filling, i.e. quartz, or
epidote
1 Unaltered joint walls, surface staining only.
2 Slightly altered joint walls. Non-softening mineral coatings, sandy
particles, clay-free disintegrated rock, etc.
3 Silty or sandy clay coatings, small clay fraction (non-softening)
4 Softening or low-friction clay mineral coatings, i.e. kaolinite, mica,
chlorite, talc, gypsum, and graphite, etc., and small quantities of
swelling clays (discontinuous coatings, 1-2 mm or less in thickness.
Rock wall contact before 10 cm shear
4 Sandy particles, clay-free disintegrated rock, etc.
6 Strongly over-consolidated, non-softening clay mineral fillings
(continuous, <5 mm in thickness)
8 Medium or low over-consolidation, softening, claymineral filling
(continuous <5 mm in thickness)
8-12 Swelling clay filling, i.e. montmorillonite (continuous, <5 mm in
thickness). Value of Ja depends on percentage of swelling clay-sized
particles, and access to water, etc.

Fracture surface colour was logged using the colour of the dominating fracture mineral
or minerals (e.g. green, white). Existence of minor filling minerals usually causes some
variation in the colour of the fracture surface. These shades were described as reddish or
greenish, for example.
14

During the fracture mapping a total of 182 fractures were mapped, Appendix 3.4. Of
these fractures, 167 fractures i.e. 91.8 % are filled. Six fractures have a slickensided
surface (approximately 3.3 %), five fractures are tight with no filling material (2.7 %)
and five fractures are grain-filled (2.7 %). The frequencies of fracture surface qualities
and morphologies and both joint roughness and joint alteration numbers are shown as
histograms in Figures 3.2-3.6.

The fracture fillings are most commonly kaolinite, carbonate, sulphides or chlorite.
Minor occurrences of sericite and variable clay minerals (e.g. illite) were also recorded.
Fracture surfaces filled with kaolinite and carbonate, are usually white or grey. Chlorite
fillings usually have a black and greenish colour.

Fracture shape

160 149

140

120

100

80

60

40 32

20
1
0
stepped undulated planar

Figure 3-2. Histograms of fracture surface qualities.

Fracture roughness

160 152

140

120

100

80

60

40
24
20
6

0
rough smoot h slickensided

Figure 3-3. Histogram of fracture morphologies.


15

Joint roughness num ber

140
124

120

100

80

60

40 30

17
20 8
0 0
0
0.5 1 1.5 2 3 4

Figure 3-4. Histogram of joint roughness numbers.

Joint alteration num ber

70
61
60

50 46
42

40

29
30

20

10
2 1
0
0
0.75 1 2 3 4 5 6

Figure 3-5. Histogram of joint alteration numbers.

SV
Fracture filling m inerals in ONK-PH3 SR
SK
100 % MU
MS

80 % MK
KV
KM
60 %
KL
KA
40 %
IL
IM
20 % HE
GR
0% EP
0- 20 m 20-40 m 40-60 m 60- 80 m 80-100 m 100- 120 m 120-145 m CC
BT

Figure 3-6. Diagram of fracture filling minerals. Fracture logging data has been
divided to 20 m sections.
16

The fractures were orientated during mapping using oriented core and in-hole digital
borehole images, Appendix 3.4 and 3.5. The aim during the drilling work was to
orientate core samples as much as possible. During drilling 35 orientation marks were
done, seven of those were rejected due to bad quality, Appendix 3.6. The total length of
the oriented core is 99.70 m (69 %). From the oriented sections the fractures were
orientated by measuring the core alpha and beta angles, Figure 3-7.

Figure 3-7. The fracture orientation measurements from orientated core. The core
alpha () angle measured relatively to core axis. The core beta () angle measured
clockwise relatively to reference line looking downward core axis in direction of
drilling. Figure modified from Rocscience Inc. Borehole orientation data pairs, Dips (v.
5.102) Help.

From not orientated borehole sections only the alpha angle could be determined.
Accordingly, borehole image was used to orientate the fractures where possible. The
method used to orientate is mentioned in the method column of the fracture table,
Appendix 3.5.

The most common fracture direction is north-south trending and dipping moderately to
east. Fracture orientations are partly coincident with the most common foliation
directions. The directions are declination corrected and weighted based on the drill hole
direction by Terzaghi correction method. Fracture orientations are shown on a lower
hemisphere projection in Figure 3-8.
17

Figure 3-8. Fracture orientation data of all the orientated fractures on a lower
hemisphere projection. A is measurements from sample and B is from OBI-40 image.
The trend of the pilot hole is shown as a black line.

The fractures were classified by aperture, hydraulic condition, borehole image and flow
logging, Appendix 3.5.

Accurate apertures are measured if possible, Appendix 3.5. The aperture is classified in
five classes:
1. under determination limit
2. under 1 mm
3. 1-5 mm
4. 5-10 mm
5. > 10 mm

Hydraulic conditions of fractures are classified into two classes: leaking or not leaking.
The first class is marked with 1 and the other class is marked with empty space.
Hydraulic conditions are estimated from flow logging. This means visual comparison
with cores and diagrams, Appendix 3.5.

3.5 Fracture frequency and RQD

Average fracture frequency along the borehole is 1.28 fractures/metre and the average
RQD value is 97.89 %. Fracture frequency and RQD are shown graphically in Figure
3-9 and also presented in Appendix 3.7.
18

Fracture frequency and RQD

100 15
80
10
60

40
5
20
0 0

106
113
120
127
134
141
15
22
29
36
43
50
57
64
71
78
85
92
99
1
8

RQD % NAT_FRACTURESpi eces/ m

Figure 3.9. Frequency of natural fractures and RQD along the pilot hole PH3.

3.6 Fractured zones and core loss

The fractured zones are classified as in RG-classification. Fractured or broken core are
divided into four classes RiII, RiIII, RiIV and RiV and described in the Table 3-3.

Table 3-3. Fractured zone classification (Gardemeister et al. 1976, Saanio (ed.) 1987).

RiII Fractured section, where fracture frequency is 10 to 30 centimetres.


RiIII Densely fractured section, where fracture frequency is less than 10
centimetres.
RiIV Densely fractured section, where fracture frequency is less than 10
centimetres. Crust-structure with clay filled fractures.
RiV Weak clay structure

Four fractured zones were intersected by the pilot hole, Appendix 3.8. The first
fractured section (RiIII) was met at the borehole depth interval 19.3020.35 metres,
the second zone at the borehole depth interval 20.3521.80 metres, which is classified
as RiIV-Rk4 clay filled crust structure. These two are considered as one zone
intersection, the dip direction of which is 80 degrees and the dip 80 degrees. The last
two zones were intersected in depth sections 117.91118.84 metres and
119.96120.26 metres, both of them are classified as RiII fractured zones.

Core loss is indication of drilling problems or weak or fractured rock. In this pilot hole
one core loss section was observed, in depth section 46.0146.31 metres. The section
is caused by a technical problem during drilling.

3.7 Weathering

The weathering degree of the drill core was classified according to the method
developed by Korhonen et al. (1974) and Gardemeister et al. (1976) and the following
abbreviations were used:
19

Rp0 = unweathered
Rp1 = slightly weathered
Rp2 = strongly weathered
Rp3 = completely weathered

Most of the drill core can be described as slightly weathered (84 %). An unweathered
(15 %) and slightly weathered section alternates and contacts are fuzzy. In the depth
section 21.2021.75 m and 30.0031.10 m the weathering degree is strong, caused by
feldspar alteration. These sections do not represent normal strong weathered but
weathering degree is rather between Rp1-2. The weathering degree along the tunnel is
illustrated in Figure 3-10 and also presented in Appendix 3.9.

Figure 3-10. The weathering along the tunnel profile.


20
21

4 ROCK MECHANICS

4.1 General

Rock strength and deformation property tests were made with a Rock Tester-equipment.
The device is meant for field-testing of rock cores to evaluate rock strength and
deformation parameters. The samples for testing the strength and deformation properties
of the rock were chosen and taken by Posiva. The tests were done by Suomen Malmi
Oy.

Also dynamic rock mechanical parameters, Youngs modulus Edyn, Shear modulus dyn,
Poissons ratio dyn and apparent Q value (Barton 2002) were computed from the
acoustic and density data, see chapter 6.4.7.

4.2 Q-classification

The rock mechanical logging basis is Q-classification. The core is visually divided into
sections, the lengths of which can vary from less than a metre to several metres. In each
section the rock quality is as homogenous as possible. Q-parameters are estimated
visually for each section. The RQD is defined as the cumulative length of core pieces
longer than 10 cm in a run divided by the total length of the core run. The total length of
core must include all lost core sections. Any mechanical breaks caused by the drilling
process or extracting the core from the core barrel should be ignored. The joint set,
roughness and alteration numbers are classified for each section. The roughness and
alteration numbers are estimated and the most descriptive number is given to the
section. The roughness and alteration are described in more details in the fracture table,
Appendix 3.3. Parameters are illustrated in Figures 4-1, 4-2 and 4-3.

Q-value is calculated by equation 4-1 (Barton 1974 and Grimstad & Barton 1993)

RQD J r J w
Q= * * (4-1)
Jn J a SRF

In calculations Jw and SRF are 1. Consequently the calculated value is actually Q-


value. Results are presented in Figure 4-4 and Appendix 3.3. Briefly, the rock quality in
PH3 is good or better. In the depth interval 19.2021.35 m the rock quality is poor.
The fracture surfaces are mainly undulated and rough.
22

Figure 4-1. Description of RQD and joint set number Jn (Grimstad & Barton 1993).

Figure 4-2. Description of joint roughness number Jr (Grimstad & Barton 1993).
23

Figure 4-3. Description of joint alteration number Ja (Grimstad & Barton 1993).

Figure 4-4. The rock quality along the tunnel profile. Joint water and stress reduction
factors are assumed as 1.
24

4.3 Rock mechanical field tests on core samples

4.3.1 Description of tests

Rock strength and deformation property tests were made with Rock Tester-equipment.
The device is meant for field-testing of cores to evaluate rock strength and deformation
parameters. The cores tested can be unprepared and the test itself is easy to perform and
hence is a lucrative testing method.

Youngs Modulus E, Poissons ratio and Modulus of Rupture Smax were measured
with a Bend test in which the outer supports (L) were placed 190 mm apart and the
inner supports (U) 58 mm apart. The diameter of the core (D) is about 51 mm. The test
arrangement is shown in Figure 4-5.

Youngs modulus describes the stiffness of rock in the condition of isotropic elasticity.
This can be calculated based on Hookes reduced law, Equation 4-2.


E= [Pa] (4-2)
a

= stress [Pa]
a = axial strain

Poissons ratio is defined as the ratio of radial strain and axial strain, Equation 4-3.

r
= (4-3)
a

r = radial strain
a = axial strain

Values of the Modulus of Rupture are read directly from the Bend test measurement.

The uniaxial compressive strength, c, of the rock was determined indirectly from the
point load test results. The point load tests were made according the ISRM suggestions
(ISRM 1981 and ISRM 1985). The point load index IS50, which is determined in the test,
is multiplied by 20 and the resulting value corresponds to the uniaxial compressive
strength (Pohjanper et al. 2005).
25

L > 3,5D
D
D U L/3

Figure 4-5. Bend test with radial and axial strain gauges glued on the core sample.

In the point load test, the load is increased until the core sample breaks, Figure 4-6. The
point load index is calculated from the load required to break the sample. The test result
is valid only if the broken surface goes through the load points. The point load index IS
is calculated from Equation 4-4.

P
IS = [Pa] (4-4)
D2

P = point load [N]


D = diameter of the core sample [mm]

The point load index is dependent on the diameter of the core sample and it is therefore
corrected to the point load index Is50 (i.e. a 50 mm diameter core) using Equations 4-5
and 4-6. The index IS50 is then correlated with the uniaxial compressive strength of the
rock by multiplying the index by a coefficient of 20. The result is not then dependent on
the sample size.

I S 50 = F I S (4-5)

0 , 45
D
F= (4-6)
50

D L > 0,5D

Figure 4-6. Point load test.


26

4.3.2 Strength and elastic properties

Samples for testing the strength and elastic properties of the rock were chosen and taken
by Posiva. In total, six samples were tested. One Bend test and two Point load tests were
made on each sample.

The mean uniaxial compressive strength of the rock in borehole PH3 is 129 MPa. The
mean elastic modulus (Youngs Modulus) is 38 GPa and the mean Poissons ratio 0.20.

Differences in results are probably caused by the variability in the foliation intensity and
the grain size. Before these measurements, a geologist marked test direction on the point
load samples and logged the following parameters: foliation angles in the Point load
tests, rock type, foliation intensity and description of foliation. The description of
foliation in the point-loaded samples is presented in Table 4-1.

The rock mechanics test results and foliation information for the point test samples are
presented in Table 4-1. The uniaxial compressive strength, Youngs Modulus and
Modulus of Rupture versus depth are shown in Figure 4-7.

Young's Modulus [GPa]

Uniaxial compressive strength 40.00


200.00
Uniaxial compressive strength [MPa] an

[MPa]
Modulus of Rupture [MPa] 35.00
175.00

Modulus of Rupture [MPa


Young's Modulus [GPa]

30.00
150.00
25.00
125.00

100.00 20.00

75.00 15.00

50.00 10.00

25.00 5.00

0.00 0.00
0.0 50.0 100.0 150.0
Borehole depth [m]

Figure 4-7. Uniaxial compressive strength, elastic modulus, and Modulus of Rupture
versus depth in borehole PH3.
27

Table 4-1. Summary of rock mechanics field test results in borehole PH3.

Test Degree Foliation Foliation Description


Start End C14 Smax
point, m of
foliation of foliation
depth depth 3
intensity angle () angle ()
m m 1
2 2 GPa MPa MPa
2.38 3.06 44.3 0.18 15.6
2.56 1 30 0 weak 146.7
2.84 2 35 20 irregular 119.5
24.59 25.10 36.5 0.32 14.8
24.68 0 102.5
24.93 0 148.1
57.24 57.59 32.2 0.22 9.7
57.33 0 117.0
57.48 0 134.8
88.45 88.86 35.4 0.18 16.4
88.59 2 15 0 137.4
irregular,
88.73 1 15 30 twisting 135.6
114.26 114.86 43.9 0.16 14.5
114.46 1 10 80 129.4
114.65 1 20 90 116.6
131.05 131.67 37.2 0.15 15.0
131.20 2 35 0 twisting 149.3
131.39 2 25 10 116.0
Means 38.3 0.20 129.4 14.3

Notes for Table 4-1.


1
Foliation intensity in the tested, point-loaded sample. 0=no foliation, 1=weak,
2=medium, 3=strong (based on the Finnish engineering geological rock
classification)
2
Definition of and angles and measured in the tested, point-loaded
sample

3
Additional description of foliation in the tested, point-loaded sample such as
regular through the sample, irregular, two different foliations, etc.
4
Calculated from the point load index using the coefficient factor of 20
28
29

5 HYDRAULIC MEASUREMENTS

5.1 General

Borehole PH3 was measured with Posiva Flow Log/Difference Flow method in
September 2005. The fieldwork as well as the subsequent interpretation were conducted
by PRG-Tec Oy. Borehole PH3 is entirely below the groundwater level and water was
flowing out from the open borehole during the flow measurements. Borehole PH3 was
measured with 0.5 m section length.

Water loss tests (Lugeon tests) and a pressure build-up test were used to give
background information for the grouting design. In the water loss tests pressurized
water is pumped into a borehole section, and the loss of water is measured. The results
are used for evaluation of grouting needs.

A pressure build-up test is a transient test, where pressure and flow are studied as a
function of time. This gives a possibility to investigate the hydraulic properties further
away from a borehole and e.g. see if the borehole is connected to larger, more
conductive fractures, which are not necessarily identified with flow logging.

5.2 Flow logging

5.2.1 Principles of measurement and interpretation

5.2.1.1 Measurements

Unlike traditional types of borehole flowmeters, the Difference flowmeter method


measures the flow rate into or out of limited sections of the borehole instead of
measuring the total cumulative flow rate along the borehole. The advantage of
measuring the flow rate in isolated sections is a better detection of the incremental
changes of flow along the borehole, which are generally very small and can easily be
missed using traditional types of flowmeters.

Rubber disks at both ends of the downhole tool are used to isolate the flow in the test
section from that in the rest of the borehole, see Figure 5-1. The flow along the borehole
outside the isolated test section passes through the test section by means of a bypass
pipe and is discharged at the upper end of the downhole tool.

The Difference flowmeter can be used in two modes, a sequential mode and an
overlapping mode. In the sequential mode, the measurement increment is as long as the
section length. It is used for determining the transmissivity and the hydraulic head
(hberg & Rouhiainen 2000). In the overlapping mode, the measurement increment is
shorter than the section length. It is mostly used to determine the location of
hydraulically conductive fractures with their transmissivities and to classify them with
regard to their flow rates.

The Difference flowmeter measures the flow rate into or out of the test section by
means of thermistors, which track both the dilution (cooling) of a thermal pulse and
30

transfer of thermal pulse with moving water. In the sequential mode, both methods are
used, whereas in the overlapping mode, only the thermal dilution method is used
because it is faster than the thermal pulse method.

Besides incremental changes of flow, the downhole tool of the Difference flowmeter
can be used to measure:

- The electric conductivity (EC) of the borehole water and fracture-specific water. The
electrode for the EC measurements is placed on the top of the flow sensor, Figure 5-
1.
- The single point resistance (SPR) of the borehole wall (grounding resistance). The
electrode of the Single point resistance tool is located in between the uppermost
rubber disks, see Figure 5-1. This method is used for high resolution depth/length
determination of fractures and geological structures.
- The prevailing water pressure profile in the borehole. The pressure sensor is located
inside the electronics tube and connected via another tube to the borehole water,
Figure 5-2.
- Temperature of the borehole water. The temperature sensor is placed in the flow
sensor, Figure 5-1.

Pump Winch
Computer

EC electrode
Flow sensor
-Temperature sensor is located
in the flow sensor
Measured Single point resistance electrode
flow

Rubber
disks

Flow along the borehole

Figure 5-1. Schematic of the downhole equipment used in the Difference flowmeter.
31

CABLE

PRESSURE SENSOR (INSIDE THE ELECTRONICSTUBE)

FLOW SENSOR

FLOW TO BE MEASURED

RUBBER
DISKS

FLOW ALONG
THE BOREHOLE

Figure 5-2. The absolute pressure sensor is located inside the electronics tube and
connected via another tube to the borehole water.

The principles of difference flow measurements are described in Figures 5-3 and 5-4.
The flow sensor consists of three thermistors, see Figure 5-3 a. The central thermistor,
A, is used both as a heating element for the thermal pulse method and for registration of
temperature changes in the thermal dilution method, Figures 5-3 b and c. The side
thermistors, B1 and B2, serve to detect the moving thermal pulse, Figure 5-3 d, caused
by the constant power heating in A, Figure 5-3 b.

Flow rate is measured during the constant power heating, Figure 5-3 b. If the flow rate
exceeds 600 mL/h, the constant power heating is increased (Figure 5-4 b) and the
thermal dilution method is applied.

If the flow rate during the constant power heating (Figure 5-3 b) falls below 600 mL/h,
the measurement continues with monitoring of transient thermal dilution (Figure 5-3 c)
and thermal pulse response (Figure 5-3 d). When applying the thermal pulse method,
also thermal dilution is always measured. The same heat pulse is used for both methods.

Flow is measured when the tool is at rest. After transfer to a new position, there is a
waiting time (the duration can be adjusted according to the prevailing circumstances)
before the heat pulse (Figure 5-3 b) is launched. The waiting time after the constant
power thermal pulse can also be adjusted, but is normally 10 s long for thermal dilution
and 300 s long for thermal pulse. The measuring range of each method is given in Table
5-1.
32

The lower end limits of the thermal dilution and the thermal pulse methods in Table 5-1
correspond to the theoretical lowest measurable values. Depending on the borehole
conditions, these limits may not always prevail. Examples of disturbing conditions are
floating drill cuttings in the borehole water, gas bubbles in the water and high flow rates
(above about 30 L/min) along the borehole. If disturbing conditions are significant, a
practical measurement limit is calculated for each set of data.

Table 5-1. Ranges of flow measurements.

Method Range of measurement


(mL/h)
Thermal dilution P1 30 - 6 000
Thermal dilution P2 600 - 300 000
Thermal pulse 6 600
33

Flow sensor

B1 A B2

a)

50

40
Power (mW)

Constant power in A
30 P1

20
b)
10

0 10 20 30 40 50
Flow rate (mL/h)
15
594
248
125
10
Thermal dilution method 71.4
dT (C)

Temperature change in A 28.4


5 12.3
c) 5.40
3.00
0

0 10 20 30 40 50
Temperature difference (mC)

100
Thermal pulse method
Temparature difference between B1 and B2

50

d)

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
Time (s)
Figure 5-3. Flow measurement, flow rate <600 mL/h.
34

Flow sensor

B1 A B2

a)

200
P2
150
Power (mW)

100 Constant power in A

b) 50
P1
0

-5 0 5 10 15
Flow rate (mL/h)
60
321 000
50 132 000
40 Thermal dilution method 54 900
dT(C)

Temperature change in A 24 800


30
13 100
20 6 120
c) 10 3 070
1 110
0

-5 0 5 10 15
Time (s)

Figure 5-4. Flow measurement, flow rate > 600 mL/h.


35

5.2.1.2 Interpretation

The interpretation is based on Thiems or Dupuits formula (Equation 5-1) that describes
a steady state and two dimensional radial flow into the borehole (Marsily 1986):

hf h = Q/(Ta) (5-1)

where

- h is hydraulic head in the vicinity of the borehole and h = hf at the radius of influence
(R),

- Q is the flow rate into the borehole,

- T is the transmissivity of fracture,

- a is a constant depending on the assumed flow geometry, Equation 5-2. For


cylindrical flow, the constant a is:

a = 2/ln(R/r0) (5-2)

where

- r0 is the radius of the well and

- R is the radius of influence, i.e. the zone inside which the effect of the pumping is
detected.

If flow rate measurements are carried out using two levels of hydraulic heads in the
borehole, i.e. natural or pump-induced hydraulic heads, then the undisturbed (natural)
hydraulic head and transmissivity of fractures can be calculated. Two equations (5-3
and 5-4) can be written directly from Equation 5-1:

Qf1 = Tfa(hf- h1) (5-3)

Qf2 = Tfa(hf- h2) (5-4)

where

- h1 and h2 are the hydraulic heads in the borehole at the test level,

- Qf1 and Qf2 are the flow rates at a fracture and

- hf and Tf are the hydraulic head (far away from borehole) and the transmissivity of a
fracture, respectively.

Since, in general, very little is known of the flow geometry, cylindrical flow without
skin zones is assumed. Cylindrical flow geometry is also justified because the borehole
36

is at a constant head and there are no strong pressure gradients along the borehole,
except at its ends.

The radial distance R to the undisturbed hydraulic head hf is not known and must be
assumed. Here a value of 500 is selected for the quotient R/r0.

The hydraulic head and the transmissivity of fracture can be deduced from the two
measurements (Equations 5-5 and 5-6):

hf = (h1- (Qf1/Qf2)h2)/(1- Qf1/Qf2) (5-5)

Tf = (1/a) (Qf1-Qf2)/(h2-h1) (5-6)

Since the actual flow geometry and the skin effects are unknown, transmissivity values
should be taken as indicating orders of magnitude. As the calculated hydraulic heads do
not depend on geometrical properties but only on the ratio of the flows measured at
different heads in the borehole, they should be less sensitive to unknown fracture
geometry. A discussion of potential uncertainties in the calculation of transmissivity and
hydraulic head is provided in (Ludvigson et al. 2002).

Hydraulic aperture of fractures can be calculated with Equations 5-7 and 5-8 (Marsily
1986):

T = e3g/(12C) (5-7)

e = (12TC/(g))1/3 (5-8)

where

- T = transmissivity of fracture (m2/s)


- e = hydraulic aperture (m)
- = viscosity of water, 0.00139 (kg/(ms))
- g = acceleration for gravity, 9.81 (m/s2)
- = density of water, 999 (kg/m3)
- C = experimental constant for roughness of fracture, here chosen to be 1.
37

5.2.2 Equipment specifications

The Posiva Flow Log/Difference flowmeter monitors the flow of groundwater into or
out from a borehole by means of a flow guide (rubber discs). The flow guide thereby
defines the test section to be measured without altering the hydraulic head. Groundwater
flowing into or out from the test section is guided to the flow sensor. Flow is measured
using the thermal pulse and/or thermal dilution methods. Measured values are
transferred in digital form to the PC computer.

Type of instrument: Posiva Flow Log/Difference Flowmeter.


Borehole diameters: 56 mm, 66 mm and 76-77 mm.
Length of test section: A variable length flow guide is used.
Method of flow measurement: Thermal pulse and/or thermal dilution.
Range and accuracy of measurement: Table 5-2.
Additional measurements: Temperature, Single point resistance,
Electric conductivity of water, Caliper,
Water pressure.

Winch: Mount Sopris Wna 10, 0.55 kW,


220V/50Hz. Steel wire cable 1500 m, four
conductors, Gerhard -Owen cable head.

Length determination: Based on the marked cable and on the


digital length counter.

Logging computer: PC, Windows XP.


Software Based on MS Visual Basic.
Total power consumption: 1.5 - 2.5 kW depending on the pumps.
Calibration of cable length Using length marks in the borehole.

Table 5-2. Range and accuracy of sensors.

Sensor Range Accuracy


Flow 6 300 000 mL/h +/- 10% curr.value
Temperature (middle thermistor) 0 50 C 0.1 C
Temperature difference (between outer thermistors) -2 - + 2 C 0.0001 C
Electric conductivity of water (EC) 0.02 11 S/m +/- 5% curr.value
Single point resistance 5 500 000 +/- 10% curr.value
Groundwater level sensor 0 0.1 Mpa +/- 1 % fullscale
Absolute pressure sensor 0 - 20 MPa +/- 0.01 % fullscale
38

5.2.3 Description of the data set

5.2.3.1 Field work

The activity schedule is presented in Table 5-3.

Table 5-3. Activity schedule.

Started Finished Activity

10.9.2005 16:36 11.9.2005 4:46 Borehole PH3. Flow logging without pumping
(during natural outflow from the open borehole)
(L = 0.5 m, dL = 0.1 m)

5.2.3.2 Results of borehole PH3

Due to the time constraints, a short but effective program was carried out in PH3.
The detailed flow logging was performed with 0.5 m section length and with 0.1 m
depth increments, see Appendices 5.1 5.8. The method gives the borehole depth of
fractures with a depth resolution of 0.1 m. The test section length determines the width
of a flow anomaly of a single fracture. If the distance between flowing fractures is less
than the section length, the anomalies will be overlapped resulting in a stepwise flow
anomaly.

Transmissivity was calculated using Equation 5-6 assuming that h1 = 6 m (masl,


elevation of groundwater level), h2 = -59.976 m (masl, elevation of the top of the
borehole), see Appendices 5.9 and 5.10. Drawdown in the borehole is then h1 - h2 =
65.976 m and the corresponding flow is Qf2. Qf1 (assumed flow when head in the
borehole is 6 m) is assumed to be much smaller than Qf2 and therefore Qf1 is neglected
(Qf1= 0).

Detected fractures are shown on the depth scale with their positions, Appendices 5.1
5.8. They are interpreted on the basis of the flow curves and therefore represent flowing
fractures. A long line represents the location of a leaky fracture; a short line denotes that
the existence of a leaky fracture is uncertain. A short line is used if the flow rate is less
than 30 ml/h or if the flow anomalies are overlapping or they are unclear because of
noise.

Hydraulic aperture is calculated assuming C = 1, i.e. fracture surface is assumed to be


smooth. This results small hydraulic apertures.

Electric conductivity and temperature of borehole water were measured during flow
logging, see Appendices 5.11 and 5.12. Temperature was measured during the flow
measurement. These results represent borehole water at each depth only approximately
because the flow guide carries water with it. The EC-values are temperature corrected to
25 C to make them more comparable with other EC measurements (Heikkonen et al.
2002).
39

Flow out from the open borehole was measured few times during flow logging. This
flow was about 6.2 l/min, see Appendix 5.13.

5.3 Water loss tests (Lugeon tests)

Water loss tests were performed by the drilling crew, which returned to PH3 on Sept. 13
to complete the tests. The upper and the lower packers blocked 6.46 metres long interval
by three 7 cm wide swelling rubber seals. The total length of both upper and lower seal
element was 0.24 metres before pressing. By pressing the rods against the bottom of the
hole the rubber seals swell and isolate the test interval from the rest of the borehole and
fixed water pressure for measuring interval can be introduced with the water pump of
the drill rig. Between the packers two 3 metres long perforated drill rods were used to
convey water into pressurized area. Tests were completed with 9, 13, 17, 13 and 9 bar
water pressure levels for each measuring interval. The pressurization time was 10
minutes per each pressure level and per each interval. For each pressure level the
amount of water released into bedrock was measured with water flow gauge. The
measured interval was moved upwards by adding two 3 metres long drill rods below the
closed lower packer after every measuring session per depth interval. In the first interval
only the upper packer and two 3 metres long perforated drill rods with 13,5 cm thread
protection bushing was used. The bottom of the borehole acted as lower packer in the
first interval 138.77 145.04 metres. The first interval was 6.27 metres long.

The hole was measured by 24 intervals from 2.88 metres to the bottom (145.04 metres)
of the hole. The hydrostatic pressure used in interpretation calculations was 6.2 bars for
the entire borehole. Between the depths 54.00 and 72.46 m a noticeable amount of water
leaked out from the hole during the pressurizing and the survey for intervals 54.00
60.46 m; 60.00 66.46 m and 66.00 72.46 m was renewed.

The interpretation of Packer test results was completed by Gridpoint Oy. The
interpreted results are in Appendixes 5.14-5.19.

5.4 Pressure build-up test

A new test was introduced in PH3 to get data about the development of pressure along
the borehole. So-called pressure build-up test is a hydraulic test, which describes the
behaviour of fractured rock mass. A pressure build-up test is a transient test where
pressure and flow are studied as a function of time. This gives a possibility to
investigate the hydraulic properties of bedrock further away from a borehole and see if
the borehole is connected to larger, more conductive fractures, which are not
necessarily, identified using another hydraulic test. The pressure build-up test starts with
a flow period and ends by a recovery period (Emmelin et al. 2004). The measuring time
is short with larger inflows and if the inflows are very small the measuring time is
longer. In PH3 the measurement were performed by Posiva field personnel. The
development of pressure in the pilot hole was registered and the result is presented in
Appendix 5.20. The measurement took one hour and pressure registration device is
presented in Appendix 5.21. The recovery period and release of pressure was not
measured and it may cause inadequate interpretation. After pressure build-up test the
inflow from pilot hole was decreased by app. 10 litres.
40

Description of method is written by sa Fransson, Chalmers University of Technology.


The transmissivity, T, is estimated from the recovery phase of the pressure build-up test
using Jacobs method (Cooper and Jacob 1946). The recovery, s, is expressed as given
below:

Q 1 T t t Q Tt e
s" = 0.8091 + ln 2 PB P =
0.8091 + ln
2T 2 r S t PB + t P 4T r 2S

where r=radial distance, S=storage coefficient and Q=flow (e.g. Gustafson 1986). The
adjusted time, te, is estimated from the time of injection or flow time, tP, and the time
since recovery started or the Pressure build-up time, tPB. Initially, log-log plots of the
recovery, s, and the adjusted time, te, are used to evaluate the flow dimension of tests.
A slope of 1:1 indicates an effect of wellbore storage. The shape of curves also indicates
if there is one-dimensional (1D) flow, radial or two-dimensional (2D) flow, or three-
dimensional (3D) flow, (e.g., Carlsson and Gustafson 1991). Doe and Geier (1990)
further describe the spatial dimension for flow in hydraulic tests. Jacobs method
consists of plotting the recovery, s, and the adjusted time, te, on a semi-logarithmic
plot. The transmissivity is evaluated using the following equation:

0.183Q
T=
s"

where, s is the slope of the recovery line on the plot of s against te (change in s
during a decade, t1 to 10t1).

A pressure build-up test was used in the grouting project in APSE tunnel SP HRL
(Emmelin et al. 2004) and it gave background information for the grouting design.
Results from PH3 are used for LPHTEK field test and the pressure build-up test gives
valuable information for planning of the grouting design. The interpretation of the
results will be presented in the Posiva working report from the LPHTEK field test
during 2006.
41

6 GEOPHYSICAL LOGGINGS

6.1 General

Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) carried out geophysical borehole surveys of the borehole
PH3 for Posiva Oy in September 2005. The assignment included imaging and
geophysical surveys and interpretation according to the purchase order 9828/05/TUAH.
The borehole geophysics contributes to fracture detection and orientation as well as
further description of the crystalline bedrock at the Olkiluoto Site.

This Chapter describes the field operation of the borehole surveys and the data
processing and interpretation. The quality of the results is shortly analysed and the data
presented in the Appendices.

6.2 Equipment and methods

The geophysical survey carried out in PH3 included optical imaging, Wenner resistivity,
natural gamma radiation, gamma-gamma density, magnetic susceptibility, acoustic and
borehole radar measurements. The borehole surveys were carried out using Advanced
Logic Technologys (ALT) OBI-40 optical televiewer and FWS40 Full Waveform
Sonic Tool, Mal Geosciences WellMac probes and RAMAC GPR borehole antenna
as well as Rautaruukkis RROM-2 probe. Applied control units were ALT Abox, Mal
Geoscience Ramac CU II and WellMac, and RROY KTP-84. All the equipment is
property of Smoy.

Cable was operated by a motorised winch. The depth measurement is triggered by


pulses of sensitive depth encoder, installed on a pulley wheel. Optical imaging and full
wave sonic applied a Mount Sopris manufactured 1000 m long, 3/16 steel reinforced
4-conductor cable, WellMac and RROY measurements a 1000 m long 3/16
polyurethane covered 5-conductor cable, and radar measurement a 150 m long optical
cable. The cables were marked with 10 m intervals for controlling the depth
measurement to adjust any cable slip and stretch.

6.2.1 WellMac equipment

The WellMac system consists of a surface unit and a laptop interface as well as a cable
winch, a depth measuring wheel and the borehole probes. The probes applied in this
survey were the natural gamma probe, the gamma-gamma density probe and the
susceptibility probe. All these probes have a diameter of 42 mm. The field assembly and
tool configurations of the WellMac system as well as technical information of the
probes are presented in Appendix 6.1.
42

6.2.2 Rautaruukki equipment

The Wenner-resistivity was measured using Rautaruukki Oy manufactured RROM-2


probe and recorded with KTP-84 data logging unit. The galvanic resistivity is measured
from the borehole wall using four electrode Wenner configuration (a=31.8 cm). The
probe diameter is 42 mm. The configuration of the probe is presented in Figure 6-1 and
the technical information of the tool in Appendix 6.2.

Figure 6-1. The configuration of the Rautaruukki RROM-2 Wenner-probe.

6.2.3 Geovista Normal resistivity sonde

The Geovista Normal resistivity sonde (ELOG) is compatible with ALT acquisition
system. The sonde carries out simultaneously four different measurements. The
measurements available are 16 normal resistivity, 64 normal resistivity, single point
resistance (SPR) and spontaneous potential (SP). The measuring range of the system is
modified from 0-10 000 Ohm-m to 0-40 0000 Ohm-m. Probe diameter is 42 mm. Probe
does not contain electrically conductive parts, except the voltage return in the middle of
10 m insulator bridle, and the current return grounded on steel armored cable and the
cable connector. Some of the technical information of the ELOG sonde is presented in
Appendix 6.3.

6.2.4 RAMAC equipment

The borehole radar survey was carried out using RAMAC GPR 250 MHz dipole
antenna with 150 m optical cable. The system consists of computer, control unit CU II,
depth encoder, optical cable and borehole radar probe. Measurement was controlled
with Mal Groundvision software. Tool zero time was calibrated before the
43

measurement. The downhole probe diameter is 50 mm. Transmitter and receiver were
separated by a 0.5 m tube (Tx Rx dipole center point distance is 1.71 m). The tool
technical information is presented in Appendix 6.4.

6.2.5 Sonic equipment

The full waveform sonic was recorded with Advanced Logic Technologys (ALT)
FWS40 probe that is compatible with Smoys ALT acquisition system. The Full
Waveform Sonic Tool has one piezoceramic transmitter (Tx) of 15 kHz nominal
frequency, and two receivers (Rx), with Tx-Rx spacing of 0.6 m (Rx1) and 1.0 m (Rx2).
Tool diameter is 42 mm. Some technical details of the system are presented in
Appendix 6.5.

6.2.6 Optical televiewer

The borehole imaging was carried out using OBI40 optical televiewer manufactured by
Advanced Logic Technology (ALT). Tool diameter is 42 mm. Tool maximum
azimuthal resolution is 720 pixels and vertical resolution 0.5 mm. Smoy has prepared
special centralisers for 76 mm boreholes. The tool configuration is shown in Figure 6-2
and optical assembly in Figure 6-3. The probe and logging control unit are also
presented in Appendix 6.6.
44

Figure 6-2. The configuration of the OBI40-mk3, length 1.7 m (ALT, Optical Borehole
Televiewer Operator Manual).

Figure 6-3. Optical assembly of the OBI40. The high sensitivity CCD digital camera
with Pentax optics is located above a conical mirror. The light source is a ring of light
bulbs located in the optical head (ALT, Optical Borehole Televiewer Operator Manual).
45

6.3 Fieldwork

The fieldwork was carried out within 35 working hours 12.9.2005-13.9.2005. The
assignment consisted of borehole surveys of PH3 with estimated total survey amount of
140 m. Only Elogs single point resistance could not be performed due to tool wreck.
The borehole specifications are listed in Table 6-1 and the duration of the field work in
Table 6-2. Table 6-3 shows the survey parameters of each method.

Table 6-1. Specifications of the boreholes surveyed.

Diameter Azimuth Dip Length (m)


PH3 76 mm 225,15 -5,84 144,91

Table 6-2. Timing of the field work.

Date Actions Surveyors


12.9.05 12:00 - Borehole digital imaging AS, JM, LJ
13.9.05 03:00
13.9.05 03:00- Full wave sonic survey JM, LJ
13.9.05 06:00
13.9.05 06:00- Natural gamma survey AS, AK
13.9.05 08:30
13.9.05 08:30- Density survey AS, AK
13.9.05 11:00
13.9.05 11:00- Susceptibility survey AS, AK
13.9.05 13:30
13.9.05 13:30- Wenner survey AS, AK
13.9.05 16:00
13.9.05 16:00- Single point resistance survey AS, AK, JM
13.9.05 20:00 Could not be performed because of tool wreck
13.9.05 20:00- Borehole radar survey AS, JM
13.9.05 23:00

Table 6-3. Survey parameters of the applied methods.

Method Depth sampling Settings Survey speed


Borehole imaging 0.0005m 720 pixels / turn 0.18 m/min
Full wave sonic 0.02 m Time sampling 2 s, time Interval 2048 s 1.0 m/min
R1 gain 1, R2 gain 1
Wenner resistivity 0.02 m Calibrated with control box 2.0 m/min
Natural gamma 0.02 m Calibrated for rapakivi granite in 1999 2.0 m/min
Density 0.02 m Calibrated for KR19-KR22 in 2001 2.0 m/min
Susceptibility 0.02 m Calibration with brick 2.0 m/min
46

Single point resistance, 0.02 m Calibration tested with resistors and earlier 3.0 m/min
results
normal resistivities
Borehole radar 0.02 m Zero time calibrated. Depth sampling 0.02 m, 1.0 m/min
time sampling 0.18 ns, sampling frequency
5418 MHz

6.4 Processing and results

The processing of the conventional geophysical results includes basic corrections and
calibrations presented in Posivas Working report 2001-30 (Lahti et al. 2001). The sonic
interpretations and depth adjustments as well as data integration were carried out by JP-
Fintact Ltd.

The results of the natural gamma radiation, gamma-gamma density, magnetic


susceptibility and Wenner resistivity are presented in Appendix 6.7. The borehole radar
results and interpretation are presented in Appendices 6.8 - 6.11. The full waveform
sonic results are shown in Appendices 6.12 and 6.13. The optical televiewer example of
the image log is shown in Appendix 6.14.

The results, presented in the Appendices, were joined with available geological data
received from Posiva. These include lithology and fracture frequency, and location of
fractures.

Initial depth match is based on cable mark control. Locations of rock type contacts and
fractures in core were used in final depth matching. The image was first adjusted to core
data, then the gamma-gamma density was set to image depth using the mafic gneiss
variants. Susceptibility, natural gamma and sonic data were adjusted according to
density. Electrical measurements were adjusted according to sonic and density minima,
and high resistivity mafic units. Finally the radar results were adjusted to depth of
electrical results, using direct radar wave velocity and amplitude profile. Depth
accuracy to core depth of all methods is better than 5 cm.

6.4.1 Natural gamma radiation

The measured values are converted into R/h values using coefficient determined at
Hstholmen boreholes HH-KR5 and HH-KR8 in Loviisa. The conversion is carried out
so that 1 R/h equals 3.267 p/s. The determination of the coefficient is presented in
Posivas Working report 99-22 (Laurila et al. 1999).

Table 6-4. Results of processed parameters of natural gamma data.

File name Depth interval (m) Range R/h

ONKPH3_Geoph_Data.xls 0.30 - 144.70 5.20 83.87


47

6.4.2 Gamma-gamma density

The calibration of the density values is carried out using the calibration conducted
during surveys of borehole KR19, KR20 and KR22 and the petrophysical samples taken
from those boreholes (Lahti et al. 2003). Accuracy of the density data is 0.01 g/cm3. The
levels of both magnetic susceptibility and density would be more reliably calibrated
with petrophysical sample data from the borehole surveyed.

Table 6-5. Results of processed parameters of gamma-gamma density data.

3
File name Depth interval(m) Range g/cm

ONKPH3_Geoph_Data.xls 0.30 144.76 2.66 3.76

6.4.3 Magnetic susceptibility

The susceptibility probe was calibrated using a calibration brick with known
susceptibility of 74010-5 SI. Temperature drift was not compensated. Reading
accuracy is 1-2 10-5 SI.

Table 6-6. Processing parameters of susceptibility data.

-5
File name Depth interval (m) Range 10 SI

ONKPH3_Geoph_Data.xls 0.74 144.76 4 19515

6.4.4 Single point resistance

Single point resistance survey was not conducted because of communication failure
between the tool and a logger.

6.4.5 Wenner resistivity

The Wenner-equipment includes a calibration unit that contains resistors from 1 Ohm to
100 000 Ohm with a 0.5 decade interval. The calibration measurement using the unit
was carried out before the actual surveys. The output values (mV) are being calibrated
into Ohm-m using the calibration scale.

Table 6-7. Results of processed parameters of Wenner resistivity data.

File name Depth interval(m) Range m

ONKPH3_Geoph_Data.xls 7.04 144.24 0.83 1548.82

6.4.6 Borehole radar

Radar measurements applied the Mal Geoscience manufactured Ramac, with 250 MHz
borehole antenna. Data quality and resolution is very high. Locally there occur some
diffractions (which cannot be fitted to hyperbola due to too high apparent angles)
48

probably from open fractures and pyrite layers in host rock. Raw, depth adjusted
radargram is displayed on Appendix 6.8 with the first arrival amplitude and time
computed using ReflexW (2003).

Table 6-8. Results of processed parameters of borehole radar data.

File name Depth interval(m) First arrival time (ns)

ONKPH3_Geoph_Data.xls 0.92 143.88 22.89 28.17

Table 6-9. Results of processed parameters of borehole radar data.

File name Depth interval(m) First arrival amplitude (V)

ONKPH3_Geoph_Data.xls 0.92 143.88 601 26132

Interpretation applied the Mal GeoScience Radinter_2 utility (Radinter 1999). The
previously (Lahti & Heikkinen 2004) defined velocity 117 m/s was used. Reflectors
were defined with setting a hyperbola on each reflection. Different filtering and
amplitude settings were used to enhance both strong and weak reflections.

The interpreted reflector angles and orientations are displayed in Appendix 6.9.
Reflectors with their interpreted parameters are listed on Appendix 6.10. List contains
also explanations from geophysical properties. Mapped reflectors are shown on radar
image in Appendix 6.11.

Reflector length was measured according to (Saksa et al. 2001) along the reflector
plane, upwards and downwards the borehole. The radar maximum range out of borehole
was estimated for each reflector. Reflector orientation was defined using the fracture
and foliation orientations received from Posiva. Intersection angle of fractures, foliation
and reflections were compared at +/- 1 m length range. When there was a fracture with
an intersection angle within 20 degrees to the radar angle, the fracture orientation was
assigned. When there was no matching fracture but foliation was measured within this
window, and angle was closer than 20 degrees, the orientation of foliation was assigned
to the radar reflection. If angle was differing more than 20 degrees, or there was no
fracture or measured foliation, no orientation was given.

6.4.7 Full Waveform Sonic

Processing has followed the outlines defined in (Lahti & Heikkinen 2004, 2005) for the
FWS40 tool. Processing consisted of visual inspection of the recording and defining P
and S wave velocities and tube wave energies for both channels, and their attenuations.

After first review of the velocities with semblance processing (Paillet and Cheng 1991)
in WellCAD (ALT 2001), the raw data was exported to ReflexW (2003). A phase
follower was applied to pick the appropriate distinct P and S wave coherently.
Semiautomatic process was continued where the automatic picking failed. Typically a
49

half cycle (wave length time, 21-22 s for this dataset) was subtracted from the most
distinct cycle time (first maximum and minimum for S and P, respectively).

Following processing sequence included a stand-off correction (Lahti & Heikkinen


2005), computation of P and S wave attenuations, computing reflected tubewave
energies, and finally the attenuation of tubewaves.

Also dynamic rock mechanical parameters, Youngs modulus Edyn, Shear modulus
dyn, Poissons ratio dyn and apparent Q value (Barton 2002) were computed from
the acoustic and density data. All the acoustic data and derived parameters are displayed
in Appendices 6.12 and 6.13.

Table 6-10. Results of processed parameters of FWS data.

File Processed data Depth interval (m) Range


name
P1 velocity 0.30 144.68 4348.81 7028.60 m/s
P2 velocity 0.30 144.68 3597.18 6690.84 m/s
S1 velocity 0.30 144.68 2474.05 4256.87 m/s
ONKPH3_Geoph_Data.xls

S2 velocity 0.30 144.68 2650.14 3978.96 m/s


P attenuation 0.30 144.68 -144.72 82.39 dB/m
S attenuation 0.30 144.68 -279.93 137.29 dB/m
R1 tubewave energy 0.30 144.68 190.82 46483.30
R2 tubewave energy 0.30 144.68 99.90 122807
Tubewave attenuation 0.30 144.68 -28.12 31.34 dB/m
Poissons Ratio 0.32 144.68 -0.38 0.37 GPa
Shear Modulus 0.32 144.68 17.20 56.72 GPa
Youngs Modulus 0.32 144.68 43.74 136.42 GPa
Apparent Q 0.32 144.68 1.25 1551.80

6.4.8 Borehole image

The applied survey parameters of the borehole imaging were determined according to
earlier optical televiewer works in the Olkiluoto Site (Lahti 2004a, Lahti 2004b). The
quality of the image was controlled during survey by taking samples of the image and
applying histogram analysis. Also the vertical resolution was checked using captured
images. The data processing carried out after the fieldwork consists of depth adjustment
and image orientation of the raw image. The depth adjustment and image orientation
methods are presented in the report Lahti 2004a. The images were produced to depth
matched and oriented to high side presentations including a 3-D image. Images can be
reviewed with WellCAD Reader and WellCAD software.

6.5 Conclusions

The task of surveying the boreholes PH3, was concluded within 35 hours in 12.9.2005-
13.9.2005. The work was conducted continuously but due to technical problems of
Elog-tool single point resistance was not surveyed. The processed and interpreted data
was delivered to the Client in digital format. The draft report was compiled in October
2005. The quality of the data widely achieves the required level. The quality was
observed and validated by the Clients representative JP-Fintact Ltd.
50
51

7 GROUNDWATER SAMPLING AND ANALYSES

7.1 General

The aim of the groundwater samplings at pilot holes is to get information of


groundwater that will flow to ONKALO during construction (Posiva Oy 2003). The
main challenge of the sampling is to get representative groundwater samples after
drilling and all other investigations in a limited time. Usually the time needed for the
groundwater sampling is several weeks but in the case of pilot holes the time available
is only hours or at maximum days.

7.2 Equipment and method

Sampling section was selected based on flow measurements and on EC results from the
borehole water of the pilot hole PH3. The groundwater samples were collected from the
sampling section 102.09144.91 m. The vertical depth of the sampling section from
the surface is about 7585 m.

Pilot hole was equipped with one packer for the groundwater sampling. The depth
location of the packer was decided so that the sampling section would include the flow
point of the most saline groundwater. The packer was installed to the depth of 102.09 m
(borehole length) and the samples were taken between this packer and the bottom of the
borehole. The installation of the equipment was taken care by Posiva. The water flow
from the sampling section was 1.23 L/min. The scavenging period of the groundwater
sample lasted 25.5 h and 1882 L water was removed from the sampling section. The
sampling section was flushed 2.4 times with groundwater before sampling. The
concentration of the sodium fluorescein (label agent used in drilling water) was checked
before sampling and it was <10 g/L, which means that groundwater samples contained
maximum 4 % flushing water left from the drilling.

7.3 Groundwater sampling

Posiva Oy collected the groundwater samples into 5 L plastic canisters and 2 L Duran-
bottles. Duran-bottles were pre-washed with nitric acid. In addition, groundwater
samples for sulphide analysis were collected into three Winkler-bottles (100 mL), which
contained preserving chemicals. Details of sample vessels are given in Table 7-1.

The water samples were transported from the ONKALO to the TVO's laboratory as
soon as possible. Water samples were filtered with a membrane filter (0.45 m) and
bottled in the laboratory. Some of the water samples for metal analyses needed
preserving chemicals after filtration. The exact sample preparation is shown in the
Posiva water sampling guide (Paaso et al. 2003). Analysis parameters, sample filtration,
bottling and preserving chemicals used are shown in Table 7-1.
52

Table 7-1. Information of the pretreatment of the groundwater samples.

Parameters Container (L) Filtering Preserving chemicals Comments Laboratory


Conductivity, 1 x 0.5 PE
density
- - TVO
pH,
ammonium
Alkalinity, 1 x 0.5 Duran bottle Sample is taken to Duran-bottle in
x - TVO
Acidity field and filtered in laboratory
Ferrous iron, Fe2+, 6 x 0.05 glassy Samples are transferred to measuring
Addition of
Total iron, Fetot measuring bottle x bottles and ferrozine is added as TVO
Ferrozine reagent
soon as possible
Sulphide, S2- 4 x 0.1 measuring 0.5 mL ZnAc2+ 1 sample for water color analysis
- TVO
bottle 0.5 mL 0.1 M NaOH
Cl, Br, SO4, Stot 1 x 0.5 PE x - TVO
F 1 x 0.25 PE x -
DIC / DOC 1 x 0.25
x - TVO
brown glass bottle
Na, K, Mg, Ca, 1x 0.25 PE, 1.25 mL suprapur HNO3
x TVO
Fe, Mn acid washed / 250 ml
Phosphate, PO4 1x 0.25 PE 2.5 mL 4 M H2SO4
x TVO
/ 250 ml
Sodium fluorescein 0.25 PE
x - TVO
in aluminum foil
Sr 1 x 0.1 PE, - 1 mL conc. HNO3
VTT
acid washed / 100 mL
Btot 1 x 0.25 PE, - - VTT
acid washed
SiO2 1 x 0.1 PE - - TVO
Nitrate, NO3 1 x 0.25 PE
Rauman
Nitrite, NO2 x -
ymp.lab.
Total nitrogen, Ntot
Carbon, C-13/C-14 1 x brown glass bottle Sample volume is 1 L if alkalinity is
x - Uppsala
< 0.8 mmol/L
Deuterium H-2, 1 x 0.125 Sample bottle is filled to the brim.
- - GTK
Oxygen O-18 Nalgene bottle
Tritium H-3 1 x 0.25 glass bottle - - The Netherlands
Strontium, 1 x 0.125
Sr-87/Sr-86 Nalgene bottle, - - GTK
acid washed
Radon, Rn-222 1 x 0.01 Ultimagold Precise sampling time is recorded.
- - STUK
solution bottle
Sulphur, S-34 (SO4) 1 x HDPE bottle, acid 10 mg of Zn Ac2 is added if
Oxygen, O-18 (SO4) washed with 10% HCl - sulphide concentration Waterloo
is < 1.5 mg/L
Uranium, Utot 1 x 1 PE 50 ml conc. HCl Filtration membranes are saved for
x HYRL
/1L analysis.
Uranium, 1 x 1 PE 50 ml conc. HCl Filtration membranes are saved for
x HYRL
U-234/U-238 /1L analysis.
PE = Polyethylene; HDPE = high density polyethylene

Laboratories:
TVO Teollisuuden Voima Oy
VTT VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Rauman ymp.lab.Rauman ympristlaboratorio
Uppsala University of Uppsala
GTK The Geological Survey of Finland
The Netherlands University of Groningen, Centre for Isotope Research
STUK Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority in Finland
Waterloo University of Waterloo
HYRL University of Helsinki, Laboratory of Radiochemistry
53

7.4 Laboratory analysis

Most of the water analyses were made at the TVO's laboratory at Olkiluoto. Some of the
analyses were made according to the Posiva water sampling guide (Paaso et al. 2003).
These analyses were alkalinity, acidity, bicarbonate, chloride, fluoride, ferrous iron and
total iron. Other laboratory analyses were made according to TVO's or TVONS's
instructions. All laboratory analyses were made by standard methods or by other
generally acceptable methods (Appendix 7.1).

Rauman ympristlaboratorio (Environmental laboratory in Rauma) analysed nitrate,


nitrite and total nitrogen. VTT analysed strontium and total boron. All analysis methods,
detection limits and accuracies are shown in Appendix 7.1.

7.5 Analysis results

7.5.1 Physico-chemical properties

The pH value of the groundwater sample was slightly alkaline (8.0). The electric
conductivity of the groundwater sample was 4.1 mS/cm. Both of these parameters are in
accordance with pH and conductivity measured manually during the scavenging period
(pH 8.18.2, EC 4.4 mS/cm).

Davis and De Wiest (1967) have made a classification system for the water types. The
water type of the sample from borehole PH3 was Na-Ca-Cl, when the dominating water
type in these depths (0150 m) is usually Na-Cl-HCO3 (Pitknen et al. 2003). In earlier
study (Pitknen et al. 2003) it was also showed that when chloride concentration is
10001500 mg/L, calcium concentration is usually less than 250 mg/L. In this case the
calcium concentration is a bit high (330 mg/L) compared to the chloride concentration
(1140 mg/L).

The salinity of the groundwater sample (Total Dissolved Solids, TDS) is 2730 mg/L.
According to the TDS-classification (Davis 1964) the sample is brackish (1000 < TDS <
10000 mg/L).

7.5.2 Results

The analysis results of water sample are shown in Table 7-2. Isotope analyses results are
not available yet and they will be reported separately in further pilot hole reports. The
analysis methods and accuracies are shown in Appendix 7.1 and analysis report is
presented in Appendix 7.2.
54

Table 7-2. Analytical results of groundwater sample from PH3.

Parameter Units PH3


pH 8.0
Electric Conductivity mS/cm 4.1
Density g/ml 0.9998
Carbonate alkalinity,
mmol/L <0.05
HCl uptake
Total alkalinity, HCl uptake mmol/L 2.72
-
Bicarbonate, HCO3 mg/L 170
Total acidity, NaOH uptake mmol/L 0.07
Ferrous iron, Fe2+ mg/L <0.01
Total iron, Fetot mg/L 0.01
Total iron, Fetot, GFAAS mg/L <0.017
Potassium, K mg/L 5.9
Calcium, Ca mg/L 330
Manganese, Mn g/L 280
Magnesium, Mg mg/L 46
Sodium, Na mg/L 590
Silicate, SiO2 mg/L 11
Fluoride, F mg/L 0.5
Chloride, Cl mg/L 1140
Bromide, Br mg/L 3.8
2-
Sulphate, SO4 mg/L 150
Sulphur, Stot mg/L 49
2-
Sulphide, S mg/L <0.01
Nitrite, NO2 mg/L <0.01
Nitrate, NO3 mg/L -
Nitrogen, Ntotal mg/L <0.2
DIC mg/L 35
DOC mg/L <1.8
Strontium, Sr mg/L 1.6
Boron, Btotal mg/L 0.58
Ammonium, NH4+ mg/L 0.068
Phosphate, PO4 mg/L <0.03
Sodium
g/L <10
fluorescein
GFAAS= graphite atom adsorption technique
- = could not be analysed due to the high chloride concentration
55

7.6 Representativeness of the samples

7.6.1 Charge balance

Representativity of the groundwater sample can be estimated by charge balance (CB)


analysis, which is calculated as a percentage, using the following equation:

CB(%) = (Cations - Anions)/ (Cations + Anions) x 100 (7-1)

For this, the concentration mg/L, have to be converted into mEq/L, with the following
equation:

mEq/L = c charge (1/M) (7-2)

Where c = concentration of the ion, mg/L, charge = mEq/mmol and M = molecular


weight of the ion, mg/mmol.

The total concentrations (mEq/L) of the anions and cations are summarized and
calculated using Equations 7-1 and 7-2. The charge balance can be evaluated using
Hounslow's (1995) criteria (results must be within 5 %). The charge balance of
groundwater sample is as high as 9.6 % probably due to the high calcium concentration
(see section 7.5.1).

7.6.2 Uncertainties of the laboratory analyses

The quality of analyses is checked with the laboratory quality control (QC) samples and
with saline reference water samples (OLSO). Results from the OLSO reference water
analyses are given in Appendix 7.3.

The relative standard deviation (RSD) values for the analysed chemical parameters were
calculated from at least three parallel samples. Analyses succeeded excellently with
RSD values under 6 %. All RSD values are presented in Appendix 7.2.
56
57

8 SUMMARY

The pilot hole ONK-PH3 was drilled in September 2005. The final borehole depth was
145.04 metres between chainage interval 696.87841.78. The requirement for the hole
was so stay inside the planned access tunnel profile of ONKALO. The deviation of the
borehole was measured frequently during the drilling phase to control the need for
steering the hole. No steering by wedging or directional drilling was needed. Triple tube
wireline (NW/L) core barrel was used to get almost undisturbed core samples and to
maximise core and fracture filling recovery. The aim during the drilling work was to
orientate core samples as much as possible. 99,7 metres (69 %) of the total length of the
borehole were orientated. Electric conductivity was measured from the collected
returning water samples.

Logging of the core samples was carried out immediately after core barrel was emptied.
The core-drilled sample mainly consists of diatexitic gneiss (62.7 %) but also pegmatitic
granite (25.5 %), veined gneiss (7.8 %) and mafic-, mica- and quartz gneiss
(1-2 %) sections occur.

The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. Rock strength and
deformation properties were tested with a Rock Tester-equipment. According to test
results the mean uniaxial compressive strength is 129 MPa, the average Youngs
modulus 38 GPa and the average Poissons ratio 0.20.

Difference Flow method/Overlapping i.e. the detailed flow logging mode was used to
determine the location of hydraulically conductive fractures in the borehole with their
transmissivities. The flow logging was performed with 0.5 m section length and with
0.1 m depth increments. Water loss tests (Lugeon tests) were used to give background
information for the grouting design.

Geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging surveys of the pilot hole included the
field work of all the surveys, the integration of the data as well as interpretation of the
acoustic and borehole radar data. The data from borehole imaging and geophysics
contributed to fracture detection and orientation as well as further description of the
crystalline bedrock at the Olkiluoto site. The obtained data was immediately applied to
rock engineering design (grouting).

One of the objectives of the geochemical study was to get information about the
composition of ONKALO's groundwater. The groundwater samples from PH3 were
collected from the sampling section 102.09144.91 m. The water type of the sample
from borehole PH3 was Na-Ca-Cl, when the dominating water type in these depths
(0150 m) is usually Na-Cl-HCO3. The calcium concentration is a bit high (330 mg/L)
compared to the chloride concentration (1140 mg/L). The salinity of the groundwater
sample (Total Dissolved Solids, TDS) is 2730 mg/L.
58
59

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61

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62

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63

APPENDICES

Appendix 2.1 The list of equipment at the site


Appendix 2.2 The list of core runs
Appendix 2.3 The drilling report sheet
Appendix 2.4 The deviation survey by Flexit tool
Appendix 2.5 The deviation survey by Maxibor tool
Appendix 2.6 The inclination surveys by EZ-DIP tool
Appendix 2.7 The Electric Conductivity readings
Appendix 3.1 Rock types
Appendix 3.2 Ductile deformation
Appendix 3.3 Rock quality
Appendix 3.4 Fracture log core
Appendix 3.5 Fracture log image
Appendix 3.6 Core orientation
Appendix 3.7 Fracture frequency and RQD
Appendix 3.8 Fractured zones and core loss
Appendix 3.9 Weathering
Appendix 3.10 Core box numbers
Appendix 3.11 Photographs of core samples in core boxes
Appendix 5.1 Flow rate and single point resistance, depth section 0 - 20 m
Appendix 5.2 Flow rate and single point resistance, depth section 20 - 40 m
Appendix 5.3 Flow rate and single point resistance, depth section 40 - 60 m
Appendix 5.4 Flow rate and single point resistance, depth section 60 - 80 m
Appendix 5.5 Flow rate and single point resistance, depth section 80 - 100 m
Appendix 5.6 Flow rate and single point resistance, depth section 100 - 120 m
Appendix 5.7 Flow rate and single point resistance, depth section 120 - 140 m
Appendix 5.8 Flow rate and single point resistance, depth section 140 - 144 m
Appendix 5.9 Plotted transmissivity and hydraulic aperture of detected fractures
Appendix 5.10 Tabulated results of detected fractures
Appendix 5.11 Electric conductivity of borehole water
Appendix 5.12 Temperature of borehole water
Appendix 5.13 Flow rate out from the borehole during flow logging
Appendix 5.14 Water loss measurements, depth section 3 - 24.46 m
Appendix 5.15 Water loss measurements, depth section 24 - 48.46 m
Appendix 5.16 Water loss measurements, depth section 48 - 72.46 m
Appendix 5.17 Water loss measurements, depth section 72 - 96.46 m
Appendix 5.18 Water loss measurements, depth section 96 - 120.46 m
Appendix 5.19 Water loss measurements, depth section 120 - 145.05 m
Appendix 5.20 Pressure build-up test, pressure and flow as a function of time
Appendix 5.21 Pressure build-up test, pressure registration device
Appendix 6.1 Tool technical information, WellMac
Appendix 6.2 Tool technical information, Rautaruukki RROM-2
Appendix 6.3 Tool technical information, Geovista ELOG
Appendix 6.4 Tool technical information, RAMAC
Appendix 6.5 Tool technical information, ALT Full Waveform Sonic
Appendix 6.6 Tool technical information, ALT Acquisition systems and OBI40
Appendix 6.7 Results, Borehole logging (the geophysical data is provided on the
attached CD)
64

Appendix 6.8 Results, Radargram


Appendix 6.9 Results, Radar orientations
Appendix 6.10 Results, Interpreted reflectors, table
Appendix 6.11 Results, Interpreted reflectors on radargram
Appendix 6.12 Results, Acoustic logging
Appendix 6.13 Results, Acoustic image
Appendix 6.14 Results, Example of Borehole image (the rest of the images on CD)
Appendix 7.1 Parameters, analysis methods, laboratories and accuracies
Appendix 7.2 Analysis results
Appendix 7.3 OLSO reference water results
65 Appendix 2.1

LIST OF DRILLING EQUIPMENT

Drill Rig year


Mercedes Bentz truck diesel 1988
Onram-1000/4 drill rig electric 2004
Electric transformer Trafotek type KTK-620 400/690V 100 KVA
Electric switching exchange Un 690/400V, In 250 A
Front device for electric cable Un 690/400V, In 250 A, fuse 200 A
Electric cable Buflex TP-C 1000 V 130 meters
In electric system internal pilot connector (=safety system) when 400 V voltage is used

Other equipment
Toyota Hilux van diesel 1999
Peugeot boxer van diesel 2002
Valtra traktor 8650 diesel 2003
Traktor trailer Tuhti
Flexit deviation survey tool
Maxibor deviation survey tool
Inclinometer EZ-DIP
Fiber class rods 20 pc for inclinometer
Water gauge 2 pc
Casing rods 84/77 mm
WL-76 drill rods
WL-76 triple core tube
Drill bits
Reamers
Core orientation marking tool
Core boxes
Aluminium paper
Tools etc.
Wedging equipment for directional wedging
Water containers plastic 1000 liters 2 pc
Water precipitation pool plastic 500 liters2 pc
Water pipeline plastic
Water electric conductivity meter package Pioneer Ion Check 65
Personal mine lamps 6 pc
personal mine rescue package 4 pc
digital camera
66 Appendix 2.2

The length of the core runs

N:o Depth Lenght m N:o Depth Lenght m


0 0,00 46 118,85 2,96
1 0,50 0,50 47 121,80 2,95
2 2,15 1,65 48 124,70 2,90
3 5,15 3,00 49 127,70 3,00
4 8,14 2,99 50 128,15 0,45
5 11,11 2,97 51 131,10 2,95
6 14,10 2,99 52 134,05 2,95
7 17,11 3,01 53 136,93 2,88
8 20,09 2,98 54 139,86 2,93
9 21,75 1,66 55 142,50 2,64
10 23,16 1,41 56 145,04 2,54
11 26,10 2,94
12 28,16 2,06 Average 2,59
13 31,10 2,94
14 34,10 3,00
15 35,15 1,05
16 38,12 2,97
17 41,15 3,03
18 44,15 3,00
19 46,35 2,20
20 47,15 0,80
21 50,12 2,97
22 53,09 2,97
23 56,05 2,96
24 59,03 2,98
25 61,98 2,95
26 64,96 2,98
27 66,65 1,69
28 68,16 1,51
29 71,10 2,94
30 74,05 2,95
31 77,00 2,95
32 79,98 2,98
33 82,95 2,97
34 85,91 2,96
35 88,86 2,95
36 91,82 2,96
37 94,78 2,96
38 97,72 2,94
39 99,62 1,90
40 101,13 1,51
41 104,02 2,89
42 107,00 2,98
43 109,97 2,97
44 112,93 2,96
45 115,89 2,96
67 Appendix 2.3

Drilling report sheet ONK-PH3

Day Time Depth Remarks Shift Start Pulling Flushing Returning


of change of the water water
the the run press. gauge gauge
hole run (bar) reading reading
5.9. 4:00 Mobilization
5.9. 13:00 Arrival to Olkiluoto
5.9. 14:00 Unloading completed
5.9. 14:00 Meeting with Posiva
5.9. 17:00 Waiting for start
5.9. 18:00 Waiting for start x
6.9. 2:30 Waiting for start
6.9. 6:00 Moving the rig to Onkalo x
6.9. 13:00 Luchbreak
6.9. 13:30 Casing drilling x x
6.9. 14:45 0,50 Cementing the casing
6.9. 15:15 0,50 Waiting for cement hardening
6.9. 18:00 0,50 Waiting for cement harde x
6.9. 18:40 0,50 Drilling starts x 5 89673 47
6.9. 19:04 2,15 x x 90189 129
6.9. 20:00 2,15 x 10 90247 160
6.9. 20:25 5,15 x x 90802 692
6.9. 21:46 5,15 x x 12 90892 791
6.9. 22:07 8,14 x 91395 1289
6.9. 22:57 8,14 x x 15 91580 1446
6.9. 23:18 11,11 x 92152 2007
6.9. 23:58 11,11 x x 13 92355 2187
7.9. 0:21 14,10 x 92877 2696
7.9. 1:09 14,10 Break
7.9. 1:41 14,10 x x 16 93074 2868
7.9. 2:06 17,11 x 93621 3413
7.9. 2:48 17,11 x x 11 93909 3654
7.9. 3:09 20,09 x 94406 4141
7.9. 3:45 20,09 x 17 94689 4404
7.9. 3:58 21,75 x 95015 4733
7.9. 4:28 21,75 x x 17 95238 4968
7.9. 4:40 23,16 x 95524 5250
7.9. 5:28 23,16 x x 18 95804 5534
7.9. 5:48 26,10 x 96325 6038
7.9. 6:03 26,10 x
7.9. 7:36 26,10 Waiting for surveyor
7.9. 8:19 26,10 Deviation survey by flexit
7.9. 8:50 26,10 x 20 96692 6465
7.9. 9:06 28,16 x x 96962 6645
7.9. 9:50 28,16 x 20 97927 7723
7.9. 10:07 31,10 x x 98420 8176
7.9. 10:54 31,10 x 15 98929 8245
7.9. 11:07 34,10 x 99211 8743
7.9. 11:40 34,10 Break
7.9. 12:25 34,10 x x 40
7.9. 12:45 35,15 Some core left in hole, ne x 99608 9179
7.9. 13:41 35,15 x x 70 100369 9862
7.9. 13:59 38,12 x 100995 10329
7.9. 15:08 38,12 x x 40 101763 10987
7.9. 15:29 41,15 x 102447 11260
68 Appendix 2.3

7.9. 16:04 41,15 Fixing the core tube


7.9. 16:12 41,15 Lowering core tube into th
7.9. 16:15 41,15 x x 15 102913 11996
7.9. 16:41 44,15 x x
7.9. 17:17 44,15 Core tube not locking in p
7.9. 17:27 44,15 Lifting and lowering drill r
7.9. 17:43 44,15 Lowering core tube into th
7.9. 18:00 44,15 x
7.9. 18:34 44,15 x x 105515 14575
7.9. 19:02 46,35 core blocking in tube, cor x 105959 15013
7.9. 20:13 46,35 x x 18 106415 15480
7.9. 20:27 47,15 x 106630 15729
7.9. 21:19 47,15 x x 18 107222 16340
7.9. 21:40 50,12 x 107729 16743
7.9. 22:04 50,12 Deviation survey by flexit
7.9. 23:12 50,12 Deviation survey complet
8.9. 0:11 50,12 Break
8.9. 0:53 50,12 x x 21 108765 17479
8.9. 1:14 53,09 x 109308 18015
8.9. 1:49 53,09 x x 18 109940 18647
8.9. 2:08 56,05 x 110437 19128
8.9. 2:49 56,05 x x 19 111171 19733
8.9. 3:15 59,03 x 111735 20290
8.9. 3:51 59,03 x x 20 112485 20960
8.9. 4:13 61,98 x 112878 21341
8.9. 4:50 61,98 x x 12 113702 22069
8.9. 5:16 64,96 x 114165 22503
8.9. 5:51 64,96 x
8.9. 6:00 64,96 Measuring the volume of
8.9. 6:30 64,96 x x 20 114938 23292
8.9. 7:17 66,65 x 115925 23375
8.9. 7:37 66,65 x x 15 116494 23980
8.9. 7:52 68,16 x 116776 24391
8.9. 8:53 68,16 x x 118793 25906
8.9. 9:23 71,10 x 119349 26684
8.9. 10:27 71,10 x x 40 120188 27373
8.9. 11:06 74,05 x 120781 28056
8.9. 12:36 74,05 x x 121708 28785
8.9. 13:14 77,00 x 40 122254 29340
8.9. 13:30 77,00 Deviation survey by flexit
8.9. 14:34 77,00 Bit change
8.9. 15:18 77,00 x x 33 123752 30744
8.9. 15:44 79,98 x 124473 31557
8.9. 16:31 79,98 Deviation survey by maxi
8.9. 17:31 79,98 x x 30 125732 32653
8.9. 17:51 79,98 x
8.9. 18:14 82,95 x 126538 33468
8.9. 19:13 82,95 x x 40 127499 34262
8.9. 19:37 85,91 x 128445 35162
8.9. 20:25 85,91 x x 40 129452 36065
8.9. 20:51 88,86 x 130418 37030
8.9. 21:32 88,86 x x 40 131433 37948
8.9. 22:04 91,82 x 132519 39029
8.9. 22:51 91,82 x x 42 133561 40041
8.9. 23:19 94,78 x 134635 41068
8.9. 23:57 94,78 Break
69 Appendix 2.3

9.9. 0:34 94,78 x x 45 135720 41986


9.9. 1:00 97,72 x 136717 42936
9.9. 1:51 97,72 x x 137859 43949
9.9. 2:09 99,62 x 138600 44668
9.9. 2:54 99,62 Deviation survey by flexit
9.9. 4:51 99,62 x x 30 139544 45735
9.9. 5:06 101,13 x 139999 46178
9.9. 6:00 101,13 x x x 30 141171 47257
9.9. 6:45 104,02 x 142099 47885
9.9. 7:53 104,02 x x 25 142809 49296
9.9. 8:34 107,00 x 143843 49789
9.9. 9:23 109,97 x x 15 145120 51150
9.9. 9:58 109,97 x 145760 51812
9.9. 10:48 109,97 x x 22 147036 53027
9.9. 11:15 112,93 x 147547 53515
9.9. 12:00 112,93 Break
9.9. 13:00 112,93 x x 20 148915 54782
9.9. 13:26 115,89 x 149392 55595
9.9. 14:12 115,89 x x 23 150805 56916
9.9. 14:33 118,85 x 151280 57454
9.9. 15:23 118,85 x x 25 152727 58633
9.9. 15:43 121,80 x 153165 59086
9.9. 16:29 121,80 x x 30 154736 60440
9.9. 16:47 124,70 x 155212 60769
9.9. 18:00 124,70 Measuring the volume of x
9.9. 18:10 124,70 x x 30 155952 61838
9.9. 18:34 127,70 x 156500 62177
9.9. 19:03 127,70 Deviation survey by flexit
9.9. 20:47 127,70 x 157701 63637
9.9. 20:59 128,15 x 157938 63877
9.9. 21:49 128,15 x x 35 169434 65429
9.9. 22:12 131,10 x 170008 65995
9.9. 23:14 131,10 x x 37 171777 67627
9.9. 23:39 134,05 x 172549 68321
10.9. 0:35 134,05 Break
10.9. 1:14 134,05 x x 35 174334 70214
10.9. 1:35 136,93 x 174946 70811
10.9. 2:37 136,93 x x 37 176814 72660
10.9. 3:01 139,86 x 177546 73326
10.9. 4:02 139,86 x x 35 179513 75133
10.9. 4:23 142,50 x 180209 75731
10.9. 5:23 142,50 x x 182088 77146
10.9. 5:44 145,04 The hole drilling completed x 182669 77653
10.9. 6:00 x
10.9. 6:20 Deviation survey by maxibor tool
10.9. 9:24 Deviation survey by flexit tool
10.9. 10:30 Break
10.9. 11:29 Brushing and flushing 185545 81780
10.9. 15:30 The hole handed over 192557 88046
Amount of water in litres used in drilling operation 92996 77606
Amount of water in litres used in brushing and flushing 7012 6266
operation
Water usage litres total 100008 83873
70 Appendix 2.4

Deviation survey by Flexit tool

Hole ID Station Dip Azimuth Easting Northing Elevation UpDown LeftRight Shortfall
Metres Degrees Degrees Metres Metres Metres Metres Metres Metres
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 0 -5,72 225,00 1526126,62 6792046,87 -59,98 0,00 0,00 0,00
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 3 -5,74 225,50 1526124,50 6792044,77 -60,28 0,00 0,01 0,00
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 6 -5,72 226,00 1526122,36 6792042,69 -60,58 0,00 0,05 0,00
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 9 -5,76 226,49 1526120,20 6792040,62 -60,88 0,00 0,12 0,00
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 12 -5,77 225,09 1526118,06 6792038,54 -61,18 0,00 0,16 0,00
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 15 -5,80 224,70 1526115,96 6792036,43 -61,48 -0,01 0,15 0,00
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 18 -5,83 223,75 1526113,88 6792034,29 -61,78 -0,01 0,11 0,00
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 21 -5,81 224,69 1526111,80 6792032,15 -62,09 -0,02 0,07 0,00
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 24 -5,87 223,52 1526109,72 6792030,01 -62,39 -0,02 0,03 0,00
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 27 -5,90 225,48 1526107,63 6792027,88 -62,70 -0,03 0,00 0,00
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 30 -5,93 224,79 1526105,51 6792025,78 -63,01 -0,04 0,01 0,00
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 33 -5,93 225,38 1526103,40 6792023,67 -63,32 -0,05 0,01 0,00
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 36 -5,92 227,74 1526101,23 6792021,62 -63,63 -0,06 0,09 0,00
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 39 -5,98 225,06 1526099,07 6792019,56 -63,94 -0,08 0,17 -0,01
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 42 -6,00 225,33 1526096,95 6792017,46 -64,25 -0,09 0,18 -0,01
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 45 -6,07 223,37 1526094,87 6792015,32 -64,57 -0,11 0,14 -0,01
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 48 -6,12 225,88 1526092,77 6792013,20 -64,89 -0,13 0,12 -0,01
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 51 -6,16 229,70 1526090,56 6792011,20 -65,21 -0,15 0,27 -0,01
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 54 -6,17 226,17 1526088,35 6792009,20 -65,53 -0,17 0,42 -0,02
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 57 -6,13 226,47 1526086,19 6792007,14 -65,85 -0,20 0,49 -0,02
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 60 -6,16 226,28 1526084,03 6792005,08 -66,17 -0,22 0,56 -0,02
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 63 -6,14 226,64 1526081,87 6792003,03 -66,49 -0,24 0,64 -0,02
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 66 -6,21 226,64 1526079,70 6792000,98 -66,82 -0,26 0,72 -0,02
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 69 -6,20 226,00 1526077,55 6791998,92 -67,14 -0,29 0,79 -0,02
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 72 -6,20 225,60 1526075,41 6791996,84 -67,46 -0,32 0,83 -0,02
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 75 -6,17 225,17 1526073,29 6791994,74 -67,79 -0,34 0,85 -0,02
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 78 -6,18 226,00 1526071,16 6791992,66 -68,11 -0,36 0,88 -0,02
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 81 -6,19 227,00 1526068,99 6791990,60 -68,43 -0,39 0,96 -0,02
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 84 -6,18 228,00 1526066,79 6791988,59 -68,76 -0,41 1,09 -0,03
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 87 -6,18 229,34 1526064,55 6791986,62 -69,08 -0,44 1,28 -0,03
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 90 -6,20 229,60 1526062,29 6791984,68 -69,40 -0,46 1,51 -0,04
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 93 -6,23 227,70 1526060,05 6791982,71 -69,73 -0,49 1,70 -0,05
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 96 -6,28 226,77 1526057,86 6791980,69 -70,06 -0,52 1,82 -0,05
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 99 -6,32 225,64 1526055,71 6791978,62 -70,38 -0,55 1,88 -0,05
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 102 -6,24 225,86 1526053,57 6791976,54 -70,71 -0,58 1,92 -0,05
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 105 -6,25 226,00 1526051,43 6791974,47 -71,04 -0,60 1,97 -0,05
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 108 -6,24 226,25 1526049,28 6791972,40 -71,36 -0,63 2,03 -0,05
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 111 -6,24 226,50 1526047,12 6791970,34 -71,69 -0,66 2,10 -0,05
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 114 -6,21 226,50 1526044,96 6791968,29 -72,02 -0,68 2,18 -0,05
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 117 -6,21 226,80 1526042,79 6791966,24 -72,34 -0,71 2,26 -0,06
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 120 -6,24 227,00 1526040,61 6791964,21 -72,67 -0,74 2,36 -0,06
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 123 -6,25 227,30 1526038,42 6791962,18 -72,99 -0,76 2,47 -0,06
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 126 -6,24 227,66 1526036,23 6791960,16 -73,32 -0,79 2,60 -0,06
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 129 -6,28 227,10 1526034,03 6791958,14 -73,65 -0,82 2,73 -0,06
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 132 -6,28 226,85 1526031,85 6791956,11 -73,97 -0,85 2,83 -0,07
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 135 -6,32 227,15 1526029,67 6791954,07 -74,30 -0,88 2,93 -0,07
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 138 -6,34 227,45 1526027,48 6791952,05 -74,63 -0,91 3,05 -0,07
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 141 -6,36 227,45 1526025,28 6791950,04 -74,97 -0,95 3,18 -0,07
ONK-PH3(0-144M) 144 -6,32 227,45 1526023,09 6791948,02 -75,30 -0,98 3,31 -0,08
down right
71 Appendix 2.5

Deviation survey by Maxibor tool

Hole ID Station Easting Northing Elevation Dip Azimuth


ONKPH3 6 1526127 6792047 -59,98 -5,84 225,14
ONKPH3 9 1526125 6792045 -60,29 -5,87 225,16
ONKPH3 12 1526122 6792043 -60,59 -5,87 225,19
ONKPH3 15 1526120 6792041 -60,90 -5,84 225,18
ONKPH3 18 1526118 6792038 -61,20 -5,80 225,17
ONKPH3 21 1526116 6792036 -61,51 -5,79 225,17
ONKPH3 24 1526114 6792034 -61,81 -5,76 225,20
ONKPH3 27 1526112 6792032 -62,11 -5,72 225,21
ONKPH3 30 1526110 6792030 -62,41 -5,68 225,23
ONKPH3 33 1526108 6792028 -62,71 -5,65 225,25
ONKPH3 36 1526105 6792026 -63,00 -5,63 225,27
ONKPH3 39 1526103 6792024 -63,30 -5,66 225,27
ONKPH3 42 1526101 6792022 -63,59 -5,61 225,28
ONKPH3 45 1526099 6792020 -63,89 -5,55 225,30
ONKPH3 48 1526097 6792017 -64,18 -5,51 225,33
ONKPH3 51 1526095 6792015 -64,46 -5,43 225,37
ONKPH3 54 1526093 6792013 -64,75 -5,38 225,39
ONKPH3 57 1526091 6792011 -65,03 -5,38 225,39
ONKPH3 60 1526088 6792009 -65,31 -5,40 225,39
ONKPH3 63 1526086 6792007 -65,59 -5,40 225,40
ONKPH3 66 1526084 6792005 -65,88 -5,39 225,41
ONKPH3 69 1526082 6792003 -66,16 -5,36 225,41
ONKPH3 72 1526080 6792001 -66,44 -5,33 225,40
ONKPH3 75 1526078 6791999 -66,72 -5,34 225,42
ONKPH3 78 1526076 6791996 -66,99 -5,34 225,46
ONKPH3 81 1526074 6791994 -67,27 -5,35 225,50
ONKPH3 84 1526071 6791992 -67,55 -5,35 225,53
ONKPH3 87 1526069 6791990 -67,83 -5,34 225,56
ONKPH3 90 1526067 6791988 -68,11 -5,34 225,59
ONKPH3 93 1526065 6791986 -68,39 -5,32 225,60
ONKPH3 96 1526063 6791984 -68,67 -5,29 225,63
ONKPH3 99 1526061 6791982 -68,95 -5,27 225,68
ONKPH3 102 1526059 6791980 -69,22 -5,26 225,71
ONKPH3 105 1526056 6791978 -69,50 -5,26 225,71
ONKPH3 108 1526054 6791976 -69,77 -5,27 225,70
ONKPH3 111 1526052 6791973 -70,05 -5,28 225,71
ONKPH3 114 1526050 6791971 -70,32 -5,30 225,73
ONKPH3 117 1526048 6791969 -70,60 -5,31 225,74
ONKPH3 120 1526046 6791967 -70,88 -5,32 225,76
ONKPH3 123 1526044 6791965 -71,16 -5,31 225,77
ONKPH3 126 1526042 6791963 -71,43 -5,27 225,79
ONKPH3 129 1526039 6791961 -71,71 -5,27 225,80
ONKPH3 132 1526037 6791959 -71,99 -5,27 225,80
ONKPH3 135 1526035 6791957 -72,26 -5,25 225,81
ONKPH3 138 1526033 6791955 -72,54 -5,23 225,84
ONKPH3 141 1526031 6791953 -72,81 -5,21 225,85
ONKPH3 144 1526029 6791951 -73,08 -5,17 225,86
Deviation 1,02 metres down and 0,90 metres right
72 Appendix 2.6

Inclination surveys by EZ-DIP tool.

Borehole Reading
depth (m) (degrees)
2,15 -5,7
5,15 -5,7
8,14 -5,6
11,11 -5,5
14,10 -5,6
17,11 -5,7
21,75 -5,6
28,16 -5,8
31,10 -5,8
34,10 -5,9
35,15 -5,8
38,12 -5,9
41,15 -5,9
44,15 -5,9
46,35 -5,9
47,15 -6,1
50,12 -6,1
53,09 -6,1
56,05 -6,1
59,03 -6,2
61,98 -6,3
68,16 -6,2
71,10 -6,3
74,05 -6,3
77,00 -6,0
79,98 -6,1
82,95 -6,1
85,91 -5,9
88,86 -6,1
91,82 -6,1
94,78 -6,1
99,62 -6,0
104,02 -6,2
107,00 -6,1
109,97 -5,9
112,93 -6,3
115,89 -6,1
118,85 -6,2
121,80 -6,2
124,70 -6,2
127,70 -6,1
128,15 -6,1
131,10 -6,3
134,05 -6,0
136,93 -6,2
139,86 -6,2
73 Appendix 2.7

Conductivity readings from returned water PH3


Readings corrected to temperature 20 degrees C
Borehole Sample Electric Date Date
depth temperature conductivity measured sample
(metres) (degrees C) (S/cm) was taken
2,15 25,6 321 9.9.2005 6.9.2005
5,15 26,9 229 9.9.2005 6.9.2005
8,14 25,6 259 9.9.2005 6.9.2005
11,11 24,8 225 9.9.2005 6.9.2005
14,10 26,9 254 9.9.2005 6.9.2005
17,11 26,0 252 9.9.2005 7.9.2005
18,50 24,7 246 9.9.2005 7.9.2005
22,30 24,7 259 9.9.2005 7.9.2005
23,50 24,9 256 9.9.2005 7.9.2005
27,10 24,9 414 9.9.2005 7.9.2005
29,10 24,5 254 9.9.2005 7.9.2005
32,00 24,8 362 9.9.2005 7.9.2005
34,90 24,5 270 9.9.2005 7.9.2005
36,00 24,9 282 9.9.2005 7.9.2005
38,70 24,7 248 9.9.2005 7.9.2005
41,90 24,3 263 9.9.2005 7.9.2005
45,25 24,7 249 9.9.2005 7.9.2005
46,80 25,1 247 9.9.2005 7.9.2005
48,25 24,5 266 9.9.2005 7.9.2005
50,45 23,8 258 9.9.2005 8.9.2005
53,95 21,2 257 10.9.2005 8.9.2005
56,90 21,0 258 10.9.2005 8.9.2005
59,25 21,2 271 10.9.2005 8.9.2005
62,50 21,1 373 10.9.2005 8.9.2005
65,20 21,4 256 10.9.2005 8.9.2005
66,95 21,5 320 10.9.2005 8.9.2005
68,70 21,6 294 10.9.2005 8.9.2005
71,80 21,6 293 10.9.2005 8.9.2005
74,60 21,3 399 10.9.2005 8.9.2005
77,90 21,6 251 10.9.2005 8.9.2005
80,30 21,3 243 10.9.2005 8.9.2005
83,40 20,8 204 10.9.2005 8.9.2005
86,67 20,7 225 10.9.2005 8.9.2005
89,25 20,8 214 10.9.2005 8.9.2005
92,35 20,7 213 10.9.2005 8.9.2005
96,10 20,7 219 10.9.2005 9.9.2005
98,10 20,8 217 10.9.2005 9.9.2005
99,90 20,8 1590 10.9.2005 9.9.2005
102,00 20,8 270 10.9.2005 9.9.2005
104,50 20,7 1611 10.9.2005 9.9.2005
107,60 20,9 284 10.9.2005 9.9.2005
110,60 21,4 328 11.9.2005 9.9.2005
112,90 21,3 725 11.9.2005 9.9.2005
116,30 21,2 289 11.9.2005 9.9.2005
119,50 20,9 293 11.9.2005 9.9.2005
122,90 20,9 312 11.9.2005 9.9.2005
125,10 21,0 1999 11.9.2005 9.9.2005
128,35 20,8 255 11.9.2005 9.9.2005
132,00 20,8 238 11.9.2005 9.9.2005
134,45 21,2 749 11.9.2005 10.9.2005
137,85 20,7 267 11.9.2005 10.9.2005
140,20 20,6 283 11.9.2005 10.9.2005
143,25 20,6 272 11.9.2005 10.9.2005

25,0 1000 9.9.2005 calibration


APPENDIX 3.1

74
ROCK TYPES

Hole ID: ONK-PH3 Contractor: KATI


Northing: 6792046.873 Drilling started: 6.9.2005
Easting: 1526126.618 Drilling ended: 10.9.2005
Elevation: -59.976 Machine/fixture: ONRAM 1000/4
Direction: 225.1355 Target: Verifing geological properties in the ONKALO profile (current layout).
Dip: -5.843 Purpose: Verification of geology
Core diameter: 50.2 Extension:
Casing: 0.9/1.0 Logging date: 7.-20.9.2005
Remarks: PL 696.87 Geologist: KJOK, HLAM, TJUU, NJK, TJUR, JENG
Max depth: 144.91

HOLE_ID M_FROM M_TO ROCK_TYPE DESCRIPTION

ONK-PH3 0 0.5 PGR Casing. Mainly pegmatitic granite with mica bands. Some pinite spots.

ONK-PH3 0.5 3.09 VGN Veined gneiss, where mica bands and leucosome appr. 30 %. Alteration pinite and kaolinite. Few fractures. Foliation intensity medium.

ONK-PH3 3.09 7.02 PGR Light red coarse grained pegmatitic granite. Alteration pinite, kaolinite and sericite. Some mica band and spot. Unfoliated.

ONK-PH3 7.02 15.69 DGN Mixture of pegmatitic veins (10-15 cm)/spots and mica bands. Leucosome 50-80 %. Can be described as pegmatitic granite with plenty
of micas. End of section tecxture is pit like sheared. Alteration pinite and kaolinite.
ONK-PH3 15.69 17.62 PGR Coarse grained red pegmatite. Some biotite/chlorite blasts occurs. Weak alteration. 17.28-17.33 chloritizated fracture intersection.

ONK-PH3 17.62 19.4 QGN Fine grained quartz gneiss. 18.18-18.50 pegmatitic vein with mica bands. Mica amounth degreases to borders.

ONK-PH3 19.4 23.13 DGN Strongly altered (chloritization, pinite) and fractured diatexitic gneiss. Leucosome >50 %. Some slickensided and grain filled fractures.

ONK-PH3 23.13 27.84 DGN Leucosome 50-70 %. Alteration pinite and kaolinite. Very few fracture.

ONK-PH3 27.84 30.15 PGR Mainly coarse grained pegmatite, where some mica bands and pinite spots.

ONK-PH3 30.15 31.2 DGN Strongly weathered diatexitic gneiss. Surface of drill core is "rugged"

ONK-PH3 31.2 35.56 DGN Leucosome 50-70 %. Alteration pinite and kaolinite. Very few fracture. 32.81-35.15 drilled twice.

ONK-PH3 35.56 38.5 VGN Veined texture, with 50 % of leucosome. Alteration pinite.

ONK-PH3 38.5 43.25 PGR Mainly coarse to medium grained pegmatite, where mica bands (5-15 cm) and pinite spots. After 41.10 m like DGN

ONK-PH3 43.25 46.5 DGN Mixture of pegmatitic veins (2-10 cm)/spots and mica bands -> DGN. Leucosome 50-80 %. Alteration pinite and kaolinite.

ONK-PH3 46.5 48.75 PGR Coarse grained grey pegmatite. Plenty of pinite spots. Some healed fractures and one low (alpha) angle CC, KA bearing fractures.

ONK-PH3 48.75 51.32 DGN Slightly weathered diatexite gneiss. Pinite and kaolinite alteration. One welded kaolinite bearing fracture. Leucosome 60-70%.

ONK-PH3 51.32 56.4 PGR Grey pegmatite with pinite alteration. Some mica rich bands. A few healed fractures with kaolinite fillings.

ONK-PH3 56.4 59.36 DGN Slightly weathered diatexite gneiss. Pinite and kaolinite alteration. At 57.00-57.20 fine grained, dark grey mica gneiss inclusion.
Leucosome content about 60 %. A few healed kaolinite bearing fracture.
ONK-PH3 59.36 61 PGR Grey pegmatite with pinite and kaolinite alteration. Some mica rich bands. Several healed fractures with kaolinite fillings.

ONK-PH3 61 69.5 DGN Diatexite gneiss with pinite and kaolinite alteration. Leucosome 50-70 %. At 64.10-64.30 fine grained, dark grey mica gneiss inclusion.
Some short sections of granitepegmatite (about 10-30 cm wide).
ONK-PH3 69.5 77 PGR Coarse grained reddish grey pegmatite. Pinite alteration. Some mica rich bands. Only three fractures in the whole intersection.

ONK-PH3 77 83.7 DGN Diatexite gneiss with pinite alteration. Leucosome about 70 %. Only one fracture (with pyrite dissemination) in the whole intersection.

ONK-PH3 83.7 85.91 PGR Coarse grained pegmatite with pinite alteration. Only one fracture with kaolinite filling.

ONK-PH3 85.91 90.55 DGN Mica rich diatexite gneiss without any fractures. Leucosome content 50-60 %. Pinite alteration.

ONK-PH3 90.55 92.02 MFGN Fine grained, greenish brown mafic gneiss with some KV +/- MS veins. One 0.5 cm wide biotite/pyrite vein.

ONK-PH3 92.02 95.8 DGN Mica rich diatexite gneiss. Leucosome content 50-60 %. Pinite alteration.

ONK-PH3 95.8 97.72 PGR Coarse grained pegmatite. Pinite alteration. Only one fracture (with kaolinite filling).

ONK-PH3 97.72 108 DGN Mica rich diatexite gneiss with leucosome content of 50-60 %. Some short parts of more leucosome rich diatexite gneiss (>70 %). Pinite
alteration.
ONK-PH3 108 109.17 DGN Dark grey, more fine grained than the previous DGN-section at 97.72-108. Clear gneissic appearance. A few healed fracture with white
filling (kaolinite/calcite). Here and there pinite alteration.
ONK-PH3 109.17 122.6 DGN Mica rich diatexite gneiss. Leucosome content 50-70 %. Some pinite alteration.

ONK-PH3 122.6 126.75 DGN Diatexite gneiss with clear gneissic appearance. Leucosome content about 60 %. Pinite and kaolinite alteration.

ONK-PH3 126.75 128.78 DGN Diatexite gneiss with some short sections of QGN (5-15 cm wide). Pinite alteration. Old welded kaolinite bearing fractures.

ONK-PH3 128.78 134.58 VGN Veined texture, with about 50 % of leucosome. Old welded fractures with white filling.

ONK-PH3 134.58 138.4 DGN Diatexite gneiss with leucosome content of about 80 %. Pinite alteration. Some old healed, kaolinite bearing fractures.

ONK-PH3 138.4 140.9 MGN Dark, fine grained, brownish grey mica gneiss with some leucosome veins. Clear gneissic appearance. Planar smooth (PSM) fractures.

ONK-PH3 140.9 142 DGN Diatexite gneiss with leucosome content of about 60 %. Weak gneissic appearance.

ONK-PH3 142 144.25 PGR Coarse grained pegmatite. Some biotite bands.

ONK-PH3 144.25 144.91 MGN Dark, fine grained, brownish grey mica gneiss with some biotite veins. Clear gneissic appearance. DGN begins ( from 144.81).
DUCTILE DEFORMATION

Hole ID: ONK-PH3 KATI


Northing: 6792046.873 6.9.2005
Easting: 1526126.618 10.9.2005
Elevation: -59.976 ONRAM 1000/4
Direction: 225.1355 Verifing geological properties in the ONKALO profile (current layout).
Dip: -5.843 Verification of geology
Core diameter: 50.2
Casing: 0.9/1.0 7.-20.9.2005
Remarks: PL 696.87 KJOK, HLAM, TJUU, NJK, TJUR, JENG
144.91

HOLE_ID M_FROM M_TO REFERENCE_LINE ELEMENT AZIM DIP ALPHA BETA TREND PLUNGE FOLIATION FOLIATION METHOD ROCK_TYPE REMARKS
() () () () () TYPE INTENSITY
ONK-PH3 0 1 FOL BAN 1 WellCad VGN
ONK-PH3 1 2 FOL 100 64 34 117 BAN 1 WellCad VGN
ONK-PH3 2 3 FOL 110 64 25 115 BAN 1 WellCad VGN
ONK-PH3 3 4 FOL MAS 0 WellCad PGR
ONK-PH3 4 5 FOL MAS 0 WellCad PGR
ONK-PH3 5 6 FOL MAS 0 WellCad PGR
ONK-PH3 6 7 FOL MAS 0 WellCad PGR
ONK-PH3 7 8 FOL IRR 0 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 8 9 FOL IRR 0 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 9 10 FOL IRR 0 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 10 11 FOL IRR 0 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 11 12 FOL IRR 0 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 12 13 FOL 112 40 19 141 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 13 14 FOL IRR 0 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 14 15 FOL 81 51 43 141 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 15 16 FOL 98 49 31 135 IRR 0 WellCad DGN
75

ONK-PH3 16 17 FOL MAS 0 WellCad PGR


ONK-PH3 17 18 FOL MAS 0 WellCad PGR
ONK-PH3 18 19 FOL 187 65 42 311 GNE 1 WellCad QGN
ONK-PH3 19 20 FOL 197 73 54 309 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 20 21 FOL IRR 0 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 21 22 FOL IRR 0 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 22 23 FOL IRR 0 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 23 24 FOL 283 87 31 83 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 24 25 FOL 181 40 22 331 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 25 26 FOL IRR 0 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 26 27 FOL 204 39 30 345 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 27 28 FOL 72 30 32 165 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 28 29 FOL MAS 0 WellCad PGR
ONK-PH3 29 30 FOL MAS 0 WellCad PGR
ONK-PH3 30 31 FOL IRR 0 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 31 32 FOL 72 33 35 163 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 32 33 FOL IRR 0 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 33 34 FOL IRR 0 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 34 35 FOL IRR 0 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 35 36 FOL IRR 0 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 36 37 FOL IRR 0 WellCad VGN
ONK-PH3 37 38 FOL 35 41 46 189 GNE 1 WellCad VGN
ONK-PH3 38 39 FOL IRR 0 WellCad VGN
ONK-PH3 39 40 FOL MAS 0 WellCad PGR
ONK-PH3 40 41 FOL MAS 0 WellCad PGR
ONK-PH3 41 42 FOL MAS 0 WellCad PGR
ONK-PH3 42 43 FOL 120 46 15 134 GNE 1 WellCad PGR
ONK-PH3 43 44 FOL 104 50 28 132 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 44 45 FOL IRR 0 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 45 46 FOL IRR 0 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 46 47 FOL 77 36 36 158 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 47 48 FOL IRR 0 WellCad PGR
APPENDIX 3.2

ONK-PH3 48 49 FOL 118 43 17 137 IRR 0 WellCad PGR


ONK-PH3 49 50 FOL 99 41 28 143 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 50 51 FOL 60 50 53 161 IRR 0 WellCad DGN
HOLE_ID M_FROM M_TO REFERENCE_LINE ELEMENT AZIM DIP ALPHA BETA TREND PLUNGE FOLIATION FOLIATION METHOD ROCK_TYPE REMARKS
() () () () () TYPE INTENSITY
ONK-PH3 51 52 FOL 17 59 54 224 IRR 0 WellCad PGR
ONK-PH3 52 53 FOL 75 48 45 148 GNE 1 WellCad PGR
ONK-PH3 53 54 FOL 87 30 28 158 GNE 1 WellCad PGR
ONK-PH3 54 55 FOL 174 52 25 318 GNE 1 WellCad PGR
ONK-PH3 55 56 FOL 80 70 54 115 GNE 1 WellCad PGR
ONK-PH3 56 57 FOL 107 49 25 133 IRR 0 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 57 58 FOL IRR 0 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 58 59 FOL 77 66 55 124 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 59 60 FOL 105 79 31 99 GNE 1 WellCad PGR
ONK-PH3 60 61 FOL IRR 0 WellCad PGR
ONK-PH3 61 62 FOL 23 80 67 260 IRR 0 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 62 63 FOL 74 38 39 158 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 63 64 FOL IRR 0 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 64 65 FOL 86 59 45 129 IRR 0 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 65 66 FOL 85 51 42 139 IRR 0 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 66 67 FOL 89 42 34 146 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 67 68 FOL 106 29 19 153 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 68 69 FOL 110 50 24 131 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 69 70 FOL 106 54 27 128 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 70 71 FOL MAS 0 WellCad PGR
ONK-PH3 71 72 FOL MAS 0 WellCad PGR
ONK-PH3 72 73 FOL MAS 0 WellCad PGR
ONK-PH3 73 74 FOL MAS 0 WellCad PGR
ONK-PH3 74 75 FOL MAS 0 WellCad PGR
ONK-PH3 75 76 FOL MAS 0 WellCad PGR
ONK-PH3 76 77 FOL MAS 0 WellCad PGR
ONK-PH3 77 78 FOL IRR 0 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 78 79 FOL IRR 0 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 79 80 FOL IRR 0 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 80 81 FOL IRR 0 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 81 82 FOL 148 46 4 315 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 82 83 FOL IRR 0 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 83 84 FOL 162 45 13 319 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
76

ONK-PH3 84 85 FOL IRR 0 WellCad PGR


ONK-PH3 85 86 FOL 103 25 19 158 IRR 0 WellCad PGR
ONK-PH3 86 87 FOL 95 25 22 160 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 87 88 FOL 30 40 44 194 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 88 89 FOL GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 89 90 FOL IRR 0 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 90 91 FOL 81 25 27 164 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 91 92 FOL 89 20 20 166 GNE 2 WellCad MFGN
ONK-PH3 92 93 FOL 52 53 59 171 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 93 94 FOL 27 39 43 195 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 94 95 FOL 64 37 41 166 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 95 96 FOL 76 44 42 152 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 96 97 FOL IRR 0 WellCad PGR
ONK-PH3 97 98 FOL IRR 0 WellCad PGR
ONK-PH3 98 99 FOL 115 43 19 137 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 99 100 FOL 19 57 54 219 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 100 101 FOL 91 56 40 130 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 101 102 FOL 90 18 19 166 IRR 0 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 102 103 FOL 111 45 22 136 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 103 104 FOL 14 41 39 206 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 104 105 FOL 35 20 26 184 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 105 106 FOL 81 55 47 136 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 106 107 FOL 115 43 19 138 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 107 108 FOL IRR 0 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 108 109 FOL GNE 2 WellCad DGN Undulating DGN which cross sample in low angle.
ONK-PH3 109 110 FOL IRR 0 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 110 111 FOL 203 30 21 348 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 111 112 FOL 166 55 20 311 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 112 113 FOL 164 46 15 319 GNE 2 WellCad DGN Undulating DGN which cross sample in low angle.
ONK-PH3 113 114 FOL 126 45 11 135 GNE 1 WellCad DGN Undulating DGN which cross sample in low angle.
ONK-PH3 114 115 FOL 121 40 14 140 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 115 116 FOL 162 31 7 332 IRR 0 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 116 117 FOL GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 117 118 FOL 79 48 44 145 IRR 0 WellCad DGN
HOLE_ID M_FROM M_TO REFERENCE_LINE ELEMENT AZIM DIP ALPHA BETA TREND PLUNGE FOLIATION FOLIATION METHOD ROCK_TYPE REMARKS
() () () () () TYPE INTENSITY
ONK-PH3 118 119 FOL 72 50 49 149 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 119 120 FOL 51 41 48 174 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 120 121 FOL IRR 0 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 121 122 FOL 232 61 54 10 IRR 0 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 122 123 FOL 273 77 40 67 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 123 124 FOL 102 43 27 140 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 124 125 FOL GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 125 126 FOL IRR 0 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 126 127 FOL 36 30 36 186 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 127 128 FOL 79 42 40 152 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 128 129 FOL 58 46 51 166 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 129 130 FOL 85 38 34 152 BAN 1 WellCad VGN
ONK-PH3 130 131 FOL 95 55 37 130 BAN 1 WellCad VGN
ONK-PH3 131 132 FOL 91 33 28 154 BAN 2 WellCad VGN
ONK-PH3 132 133 FOL 77 46 44 150 BAN 2 WellCad VGN
ONK-PH3 133 134 FOL 84 45 39 145 BAN 2 WellCad VGN
ONK-PH3 134 135 FOL 36 46 51 192 BAN 1 WellCad VGN
ONK-PH3 135 136 FOL IRR 0 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 136 137 FOL 40 11 18 181 GNE 1 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 137 138 FOL 99 31 24 153 IRR 0 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 138 139 FOL 117 19 12 161 GNE 2 WellCad MGN Undulating DGN which cross sample in low angle.
ONK-PH3 139 140 FOL 113 33 18 149 GNE 2 WellCad MGN
ONK-PH3 140 141 FOL 93 26 24 159 SCH 2 WellCad MGN
ONK-PH3 141 142 FOL 66 31 35 168 GNE 2 WellCad DGN
ONK-PH3 142 143 FOL 64 42 45 163 IRR 0 WellCad PGR
ONK-PH3 143 144 FOL IRR 0 WellCad PGR
ONK-PH3 144 144.91 FOL GNE 2 WellCad MGN
77
ROCK QUALITY

Hole ID: ONK-PH3 Contractor: KATI


Northing: 6792046.87 Drilling started: 6.9.2005
Easting: 1526126.62 Drilling ended: 10.9.2005
Elevation: -59.976 Machine/fixture: ONRAM 1000/4
Direction: 225.1355 Target: Verifing geological properties in the ONKALO profile (current layout).
Dip: -5.843 Purpose: Verification of geology
Core diameter: 50.2 Extension:
Casing: 0.9/1.0 Logging date: 7.-20.9.2005
Remarks: PL 696.87 Geologist: KJOK, HLAM, TJUU, NJK, TJUR, JENG
Max depth: 144.91

HOLE_ID M_FROM M_TO LENGTH_M > 10 cm RQD RQD Jn Jr Jr Ja ROCK_QUALITY_CLASS REMARKS


cm % >10 median Profile median Q' Q GSI
ONK-PH3 0 6.12 6.12 612 100 100.0 1 5 URO 1 Exceptionally Good No fractures. 500.00 99.93
ONK-PH3 6.12 13.8 7.68 766 100 99.7 3 2.5 URO 4 Good 20.78 71.31
ONK-PH3 13.8 17.3 3.5 350 100 100.0 2 3 URO 3 Very Good 50.00 79.21
ONK-PH3 17.3 19.2 1.9 183 96 96.3 4 2.5 URO 4 Good 15.05 68.40
ONK-PH3 19.2 21.35 2.15 180 84 83.7 6 2 URO 3 Fair 9.30 64.07
ONK-PH3 21.35 23.2 1.85 144 78 77.8 4 3 USL 4 Good 14.59 68.13
ONK-PH3 23.2 40.4 17.2 1708 99 99.3 2 3 URO 1 Extremely Good 148.95 89.03
ONK-PH3 40.4 46.84 6.44 636 99 98.8 3 3 URO 3 Good 32.92 75.45
ONK-PH3 46.84 50.3 3.46 346 100 100.0 3 1.5 PRO 3 Good 16.67 69.32
78

ONK-PH3 50.3 68 17.7 1767 100 99.8 4 3 URO 4 Good 18.72 70.37
ONK-PH3 68 75.4 7.4 740 100 100.0 3 3 URO 2.5 Good 40.00 77.20
ONK-PH3 75.4 91.6 16.2 1620 100 100.0 4 3 URO 1 Very Good 75.00 82.86
ONK-PH3 91.6 103 11.4 1140 100 100.0 6 3 URO 1 Very Good 50.00 79.21
ONK-PH3 103 108.2 5.2 520 100 100.0 1 5 URO 1 Exceptionally Good No fractures 500.00 99.93
ONK-PH3 108.2 110.2 2 200 100 100.0 3 2.25 PRO 1 Very Good 75.00 82.86
ONK-PH3 110.2 116.5 6.3 630 100 100.0 1 5 URO 1 Exceptionally Good No fractures 500.00 99.93
ONK-PH3 116.5 122.8 6.3 621 99 98.6 3 3 URO 1.5 Very Good 65.71 81.67
ONK-PH3 122.8 131.6 8.8 880 100 100.0 2 1.5 URO 1.75 Very Good 42.86 77.82
ONK-PH3 131.6 138 6.4 640 100 100.0 3 3 URO 1 Very Good 100.00 85.45
ONK-PH3 138 141.8 3.8 368 97 96.8 6 1 PSM 1 Good 16.14 69.03
ONK-PH3 141.8 144.91 3.11 311 100 100 3 3 URO 1 Very Good 100 85.45
APPENDIX 3.3
FRACTURE LOG CORE

Hole ID: ONK-PH3 Contractor: KATI


Northing: 6792046.873 Drilling started: 6.9.2005
Easting: 1526126.618 Drilling ended: #######
Elevation: -59.976 Machine/fixture: ONRAM 1000/4
Direction: 225.1355 Target: Verifing geological properties in the ONKALO profile (current layout).
Dip: -5.843 Purpose: Verification of geology
Core diameter: 50.2 Extension:
Casing: 0.9/1.0 Logging date: 7.-20.9.2005
Remarks: PL 696.87 Geologist: KJOK, HLAM, TJUU, NJK, TJUR, JENG
Max depth: 144.91

HOLE_ID FRACTURE M_FROM M_TO CORE_ALPHA CORE_BETA AZIM DIP METHOD TYPE COLOUR_OF FRACTURE THICKNESS_OF FRACTURE FRACTURE Jr Ja CLASS_OF_THE REMARKS F_vector Kinematics Source Remarks
NUMBER 1.28 () () () () FRACTURE_SURFACE FILLING FILLING (mm) SHAPE ROUGHNESS 2 4 FRACTURED_ZONE FDip Fdir UP E S Certainty Description
ONK-PH3 1 0.2 45 Sample ti gray stepped rough 4 1
ONK-PH3 2 0.28 76 Sample ti gray planar rough 1.5 1
ONK-PH3 3 0.37 48 Sample ti dark gray undulated rough 3 1
ONK-PH3 4 6.12 66 Sample fi light gray CC,SK,SR 0.4 undulated smooth 2 3
ONK-PH3 5 6.14 58 Sample fi light green CC,SK,SR,KA 0.4 planar rough 1.5 4
ONK-PH3 6 6.31 42 Sample fisl dark gray CC,KL,SK 0.5 undulated slickensided 1.5 4
ONK-PH3 7 6.53 12 Sample fi light gray KA,SK,CC,KL 0.5 undulated rough 3 4
ONK-PH3 8 8.81 29 180 Sample fi light gray KA,SK 0.5 undulated rough 3 4
ONK-PH3 9 11.3 Sample fi SK,CC,KA 1 undulated smooth 2 3 healed fracture
ONK-PH3 10 13.24 16 Sample fi light gray SK,KA,SR,CC 0.6 undulated rough 3 4
ONK-PH3 11 15.15 27 Sample fi light gray KA,SK,SR 0.5 planar rough 1.5 4
ONK-PH3 12 15.27 Sample fi light gray KA 0.4 undulated rough 3 4 healed fracture
ONK-PH3 13 15.43 60 Sample fi light gray SK,KA 0.4 undulated rough 3 4
ONK-PH3 14 16.44 49 Sample fi light green CC 0.5 planar rough 1.5 1
ONK-PH3 15 16.57 26 Sample fi light green CC,SK,SR 0.5 undulated rough 3 2
ONK-PH3 16 16.7 21 Sample fi light red CC 0.5 undulated rough 3 1 healed fracture
ONK-PH3 17 17.44 38 90 Sample fi gray SK,CC 0.5 undulated rough 3 1
ONK-PH3 18 17.51 45 84 Sample fi gray CC,SK,KL 0.5 planar rough 1.5 4
ONK-PH3 19 17.61 44 90 Sample fi gray CC,SK,KL 0.5 undulated smooth 2 4
ONK-PH3 20 18.52 24 245 Sample fi dark gray KA,SK,CC 0.5 undulated rough 3 4
ONK-PH3 21 19.3 19.76 Sample RiIII
ONK-PH3 22 19.3 32 Sample fi dark gray SK,CC 0.3 planar rough 1.5 2
ONK-PH3 23 19.57 35 Sample fi light gray CC 1 planar rough 1.5 2
ONK-PH3 24 19.72 12 Sample fi light gray CC,KA,SK 0.5 planar rough 1.5 4
ONK-PH3 25 19.74 41 Sample fi gray KA,SK,CC 0.3 undulated rough 3 3
ONK-PH3 26 20.09 34 Sample fi light gray CC,SK 0.4 undulated rough 3 2
ONK-PH3 27 20.35 38 Sample fi light gray CC,SK,KL 0.5 planar smooth 1 4
ONK-PH3 28 20.43 10 Sample fi light gray CC,KA,SK 0.3 undulated smooth 2 3
ONK-PH3 29 20.57 55 Sample fi light gray SK,CC,SR 0.4 planar rough 1.5 3
ONK-PH3 30 20.72 28 Sample fi gray CC,SK,KL 0.4 undulated rough 3 4
ONK-PH3 31 20.79 Sample fi light green SR,CC 0.3 undulated smooth 2 3
ONK-PH3 32 20.83 Sample fi light gray CC 0.4 undulated rough 3 2
ONK-PH3 33 20.85 34 Sample fi light gray CC,SR 0.4 undulated rough 3 3
ONK-PH3 34 20.94 21.23 Sample RiIV-Rk3
79

ONK-PH3 35 20.94 Sample fi gray KA,CC,SR 1 undulated rough 3 4


ONK-PH3 36 21.04 Sample grfi light gray KA,CU,CC,KL,SR 1 undulated rough 3 5
ONK-PH3 37 21.14 Sample fi light gray KA,CC,KL 0.5 undulated smooth 2 4
ONK-PH3 38 21.27 21.75 Sample RiIII
ONK-PH3 39 21.27 26 Sample fisl gree KL,IL,KA,SR 1 undulated slickensided 1.5 5 UNDU kaoline and clay bearing surface
ONK-PH3 40 21.3 Sample fi dark gray KL,IL,KA,SR 1 undulated smooth 2 4
ONK-PH3 41 21.45 21 Sample grfi dgre KL,SV,SK,SR,KA 0.7 undulated slickensided 1.5 6 UNDU kaoline and clay bearing surface.
ONK-PH3 42 21.5 24 Sample fisl dark gray KL,KA 0.6 undulated slickensided 1.5 4 PLAN, STIA clay bearing surface
ONK-PH3 43 21.6 26 Sample fisl light green SK,KA,SR,CC,KL 0.5 undulated slickensided 1.5 4 IRREG kaoline bearing surface
ONK-PH3 44 21.73 Sample fi light gray KA,SK,KL 0.4 undulated rough 3 4 IRREG, GROV, STRIA
ONK-PH3 45 21.81 86 Sample fi light gray SK,CC 0.4 undulated rough 3 2
ONK-PH3 46 22.28 10 Sample fi dark gray KL,SK,KA,CC 0.4 undulated rough 3 4
ONK-PH3 47 22.33 Sample fi gray CC,SK 0.4 undulated rough 3 2
ONK-PH3 48 22.36 Sample fi gray CC,SK 0.4 undulated rough 3 2
ONK-PH3 49 22.67 28 Sample fi light gray CC,KA 0.4 undulated rough 3 3
ONK-PH3 50 22.84 26 Sample fi light gray CC,KA 0.2 undulated rough 3 3 healed fracture
ONK-PH3 51 22.9 50 Sample fisl dark gray KL,CC 0.4 undulated slickensided 1.5 4
ONK-PH3 52 22.98 15 Sample fi light gray SK,CC 0.8 undulated rough 3 2 healed fracture
ONK-PH3 53 23.04 20 Sample fi gray SK,CC,KL,KA 0.5 undulated rough 3 4
ONK-PH3 54 23.56 39 100 Sample fi light green KL,SK,KA,CC 0.5 undulated smooth 2 4
ONK-PH3 55 28.48 Sample fi light green KA 0.2 undulated rough 3 2
ONK-PH3 56 28.56 20 Sample fi light gray CC 0.4 undulated rough 3 1 healed fracture
ONK-PH3 57 28.6 15 Sample fi light gray CC 0.3 undulated rough 3 1 healed fracture
ONK-PH3 58 29.1 Sample fi light gray CC,KL 0.3 undulated rough 3 3 healed fracture
ONK-PH3 59 29.23 27 Sample fi light gray KA,KL,CC 0.3 undulated smooth 2 4 healed fracture
ONK-PH3 60 38.59 Sample fi light gray CC 0.2 undulated rough 3 1 healed fracture
ONK-PH3 61 38.63 Sample fi light gray CC 0.2 undulated rough 3 1 healed fracture
ONK-PH3 62 39.15 28 Sample fi light green KA,KL,SK 0.5 undulated rough 3 4
ONK-PH3 63 40.68 40 Sample fi light gray KA,CC 0.5 planar rough 1.5 4
ONK-PH3 64 40.99 40 Sample fi light green KL,KA,CC 0.5 planar rough 1.5 4
ONK-PH3 65 41.04 19 Sample fi light gray KA,CC 0.3 undulated smooth 2 3 healed fracture
ONK-PH3 66 41.07 45 Sample fi light gray KA,CC 0.3 undulated rough 3 3 healed fracture
ONK-PH3 67 41.17 10 Sample fi light gray KA,SK,CC 0.3 undulated rough 3 3 healed fracture
ONK-PH3 68 43.61 60 Sample fi light gray KA,CC,KL 0.5 planar rough 1.5 4
ONK-PH3 69 43.95 32 Sample fi gray KA,BT 0.3 undulated rough 3 4 healed fracture
ONK-PH3 70 44.19 32 Sample fi light gray KA,SK,CC 0.4 undulated rough 3 4
ONK-PH3 71 44.41 36 Sample fi light gray KA,CC.KL 0.4 undulated rough 3 4
ONK-PH3 72 45.1 23 Sample fi gray KA,SK,CC 0.5 undulated rough 3 3
ONK-PH3 73 45.99 35 Sample fi light gray KA,SK 0.4 undulated rough 3 4
ONK-PH3 74 46.7 53 Sample ti light brown undulated smooth 2 1
ONK-PH3 75 46.84 38 Sample fi light gray KA,CC 0.5 undulated rough 3 3
ONK-PH3 76 47.34 Sample fi light gray KA 0.5 planar rough 1.5 3 healed fracture
ONK-PH3 77 47.5 13 Sample fi light gray KA,SK 0.5 planar rough 1.5 4 healed fracture
ONK-PH3 78 47.83 30 Sample fi light gray KA 0.4 planar rough 1.5 4
ONK-PH3 79 48.18 18 75 Sample fi light gray CC,KA,SK,KL 0.5 planar rough 1.5 4
APPENDIX 3.4

ONK-PH3 80 49.66 10 Sample fi light gray KA 0.2 undulated smooth 2 3 healed fracture
ONK-PH3 81 49.78 Sample fi dark gray KA,BT 0.5 undulated smooth 2 3
ONK-PH3 82 50.23 Sample fi light gray CC 0.4 undulated smooth 2 2 healed fracture
ONK-PH3 83 50.85 30 175 Sample fi white KA,SK 0.5 undulated rough 3 4
ONK-PH3 84 52.21 15 220 Sample fi light gray KA,CC 0.2 undulated rough 3 4 healed fracture
ONK-PH3 85 52.56 50 130 Sample fi light gray KA 0.4 undulated rough 3 4
ONK-PH3 86 52.59 25 180 Sample fi white KA 0.4 undulated rough 3 4
HOLE_ID FRACTURE M_FROM M_TO CORE_ALPHA CORE_BETA AZIM DIP METHOD TYPE COLOUR_OF FRACTURE THICKNESS_OF FRACTURE FRACTURE Jr Ja CLASS_OF_THE REMARKS F_vector Kinematics Source Remarks
NUMBER 1.28 () () () () FRACTURE_SURFACE FILLING FILLING (mm) SHAPE ROUGHNESS 2 4 FRACTURED_ZONE FDip Fdir UP E S Certainty Description
ONK-PH3 87 54.1 10 Sample fi gray KA,SK,CC 0.5 undulated rough 3 4
ONK-PH3 88 54.18 30 Sample fi white KA 0.1 undulated rough 3 4 healed fracture
ONK-PH3 89 56.12 35 330 Sample fi white KA 0.1 undulated rough 3 4 healed fracture
ONK-PH3 90 56.17 30 310 Sample fi white KA 0.1 undulated rough 3 4 healed fracture
ONK-PH3 91 56.2 45 330 Sample fi white KA 0.1 undulated rough 3 4
ONK-PH3 92 56.97 45 150 Sample fi dark gray KA, BT 0.1 undulated rough 3 3
ONK-PH3 93 57.24 70 150 Sample fi light gray KA, BT 0.1 undulated rough 3 3
ONK-PH3 94 57.99 80 140 Sample fi dark gray BT, KA 0.1 undulated rough 3 2
ONK-PH3 95 58.35 40 220 Sample fi light gray KA 0.2 undulated rough 3 4
ONK-PH3 96 59.99 70 120 Sample fi light gray KA 0.2 undulated rough 3 4
ONK-PH3 97 60.16 35 110 Sample fi light gray KA 0.2 undulated rough 3 4
ONK-PH3 98 60.39 15 110 Sample fi dark gray KA 0.2 undulated rough 3 4 healed fracture
ONK-PH3 99 60.6 35 130 Sample fi gray KA,SK,BT 0.3 undulated rough 3 4
ONK-PH3 100 62.34 70 150 Sample fi dark gray BT,KA 0.2 undulated rough 3 4
ONK-PH3 101 62.52 20 120 Sample fi light gray KA,SK 0.2 undulated rough 3 4
ONK-PH3 102 64.31 50 340 Sample grfi greenish gray KA,BT,EP 0.4 undulated rough 3 4 drill cutting
ONK-PH3 103 64.64 55 Sample fi white KA 0.4 undulated rough 3 4
ONK-PH3 104 65.14 25 10 Sample fi dark gray BT, SK, KA 0.3 undulated rough 3 2 healed fracture
ONK-PH3 105 65.46 40 170 Sample fi light gray KA, SK 0.2 undulated rough 3 3 healed fracture
ONK-PH3 106 65.5 50 190 Sample fi light gray KA, SK 0.4 undulated rough 3 4
ONK-PH3 107 67.54 70 160 Sample fi dark gray KA, BT 0.1 undulated rough 3 2
ONK-PH3 108 69.08 60 150 Sample fi dark gray BT 0.2 undulated rough 3 3
ONK-PH3 109 70.29 85 190 Sample fi light gray KA 0.1 undulated rough 3 3
ONK-PH3 110 72.56 70 100 Sample fi dark gray BT, SK 0.3 undulated rough 3 2
ONK-PH3 111 75.71 85 100 Sample grfi light gray SK 0.2 undulated rough 3 1 drill cutting
ONK-PH3 112 82.1 60 240 Sample fi light gray BT, SK 0.1 undulated rough 3 1
ONK-PH3 113 85.53 50 170 Sample fi light gray KA, SK 0.3 undulated rough 3 4
ONK-PH3 114 90.73 50 270 Sample fi dark gray 0.1 undulated rough 1 1 drill cutting
ONK-PH3 115 92.61 40 240 Sample fi light gray SK, KA 0.1 undulated rough 3 2 drill cutting
ONK-PH3 116 92.9 45 210 Sample fi dark gray SK, BT 0.1 undulated smooth 2 1
ONK-PH3 117 93.34 50 300 Sample fi light gray SK, BT 0.1 undulated rough 3 1 healed fracture
ONK-PH3 118 93.36 50 280 Sample fi light gray SK, BT 0.1 undulated rough 3 1
ONK-PH3 119 95.48 30 215 Sample grfi black KL,SK,SV,CC 3 undulated rough 3 4
ONK-PH3 120 96.44 60 150 Sample fi light gray KA 0.1 undulated rough 3 2
ONK-PH3 121 98.19 50 170 Sample fi light gray KA, SK 0.1 undulated rough 3 2
ONK-PH3 122 98.52 60 210 Sample fi light gray KA 0.1 undulated rough 3 2
ONK-PH3 123 99.25 70 30 Sample fi light gray KA 0.4 undulated rough 3 4
ONK-PH3 124 100.12 80 210 Sample fi dark gray SK 0.2 planar rough 1.5 1
ONK-PH3 125 100.25 70 10 Sample fi light gray SK 0.1 undulated rough 3 1
ONK-PH3 126 100.49 70 190 Sample fi light gray SK 0.1 undulated rough 3 1
ONK-PH3 127 100.96 60 0 Sample fi light gray KA 0.2 undulated rough 3 3
ONK-PH3 128 102.76 40 350 Sample fi light gray SK 0.1 undulated rough 3 1
ONK-PH3 129 102.98 70 Sample fi greenish gray SK, KA, BT 0.2 undulated rough 3 3
ONK-PH3 130 108.39 15 150 Sample fi dark gray BT 0.1 undulated rough 3 1 drill cutting
ONK-PH3 131 109.17 85 270 Sample fi light gray 0.1 planar rough 1.5 1 drill cutting
ONK-PH3 132 109.88 30 Sample fi white KA 0.3 planar rough 1.5 4
ONK-PH3 133 109.99 30 350 Sample fi light gray KA 0.2 undulated rough 3 3 healed fracture
ONK-PH3 134 116.96 30 Sample fi dark gray 0.1 undulated rough 3 1 drill cutting
ONK-PH3 135 117.16 50 Sample fi dark gray KA 0.1 undulated rough 3 1 drill cutting
80

ONK-PH3 136 117.91 55 Sample fi light gray KA 0.2 undulated rough 3 3 drill cutting
ONK-PH3 137 117.92 50 Sample fi light gray KA 0.2 undulated rough 3 3 drill cutting
ONK-PH3 138 117.96 30 Sample fi light gray KA 0.1 undulated rough 3 3 healed fracture
ONK-PH3 139 118.19 60 Sample fi dark gray KA,SV 0.2 undulated rough 3 3 drill cutting
ONK-PH3 140 118.53 70 Sample fi light gray KA,SK 0.2 undulated rough 3 3
ONK-PH3 141 118.61 50 Sample fi light gray KA 0.2 undulated rough 3 3 healed fracture
ONK-PH3 142 118.82 30 Sample fi light gray KA 0.1 undulated rough 3 2 drill cutting
ONK-PH3 143 118.84 35 Sample fi light gray 0.1 undulated rough 3 1 drill cutting
ONK-PH3 144 119.01 70 Sample fi dark gray SK, BT 0.2 undulated rough 3 1
ONK-PH3 145 119.37 70 Sample fi dark gray SK, BT 0.2 undulated rough 3 1 drill cutting
ONK-PH3 146 119.96 20 Sample fi light gray KA 0.2 undulated rough 3 3 drill cutting
ONK-PH3 147 119.97 50 Sample fi light gray SK, KA 0.2 undulated rough 3 3 drill cutting
ONK-PH3 148 120.12 60 Sample fi light gray KA, SK 0.2 undulated rough 3 3 drill cutting
ONK-PH3 149 120.26 40 Sample fi light gray KA 0.2 undulated rough 3 3
ONK-PH3 150 120.48 70 Sample fi light gray KA 0.2 undulated rough 3 3
ONK-PH3 151 121.02 30 Sample fi light gray KA 0.2 undulated rough 3 3
ONK-PH3 152 122.56 45 330 Sample fi light gray KA 0.1 undulated rough 3 2
ONK-PH3 153 125.14 30 355 Sample fi white KA, SK 0.3 undulated rough 3 4
ONK-PH3 154 128.5 40 340 Sample fi dark gray KA 0.1 planar rough 1.5 2
ONK-PH3 155 128.7 30 280 Sample fi dark gray CC, SK 0.1 planar rough 1.5 1
ONK-PH3 156 131.62 50 330 Sample fi white KA 0.4 planar rough 1.5 4
ONK-PH3 157 131.91 50 340 Sample fi light gray KA, SK 0.1 undulated rough 3 2
ONK-PH3 158 132.08 50 0 Sample fi light gray CC, SK 0.3 undulated rough 3 1
ONK-PH3 159 132.18 40 40 Sample fi light gray CC, SK 0.2 undulated rough 3 1
ONK-PH3 160 132.64 35 320 Sample fi light gray SK 0.2 undulated rough 3 1
ONK-PH3 161 133.64 50 350 Sample fi gray KA, SK 0.2 planar rough 1.5 3
ONK-PH3 162 134.11 70 180 Sample fi dark gray KA, SK 0.1 undulated rough 3 2
ONK-PH3 163 134.55 60 330 Sample fi dark gray KA, SK 0.1 undulated rough 3 2
ONK-PH3 164 138.09 65 80 Sample fi dark gray CC, SK 0.2 undulated rough 3 1
ONK-PH3 165 138.4 60 310 Sample fi greenish brown KA, SK 0.1 undulated rough 3 2
ONK-PH3 166 138.53 45 310 Sample fi dark gray SK, KA 0.2 undulated rough 3 1
ONK-PH3 167 138.74 60 140 Sample ti light gray planar smooth 1 1
ONK-PH3 168 139.47 50 40 Sample fi dark gray SK 0.2 planar rough 1.5 1
ONK-PH3 169 139.48 60 270 Sample fi dark gray SK 0.2 planar rough 1.5 1
ONK-PH3 170 140.07 20 130 Sample fi dark gray CC, SK 0.1 planar smooth 1 1
ONK-PH3 171 140.25 55 60 Sample fi dark gray CC, SK 0.1 planar smooth 1 1
ONK-PH3 172 140.68 55 300 Sample fi dark gray CC, SK 0.1 planar smooth 1 1
ONK-PH3 173 140.71 50 280 Sample fi dark gray CC, SK 0.1 planar smooth 1 1
ONK-PH3 174 140.78 30 140 Sample fi dark gray SK 0.1 planar smooth 1 1
ONK-PH3 175 141.95 50 30 Sample fi dark gray SK 0.1 undulated rough 3 1
ONK-PH3 176 142.21 80 150 Sample fi light gray CC, SK 0.2 undulated rough 3 1
ONK-PH3 177 142.88 70 230 Sample fi reddish brown SK, SV 0.2 undulated rough 3 2
ONK-PH3 178 143.18 70 190 Sample fi reddish brown SK 0.2 undulated rough 3 1
ONK-PH3 179 143.46 55 210 Sample fi dark gray KA, EP 0.2 undulated rough 3 3
ONK-PH3 180 143.73 70 270 Sample fi dark gray KA, SK 0.2 undulated rough 3 3
ONK-PH3 181 143.86 75 350 Sample fi light gray SK 0.2 undulated rough 3 1
ONK-PH3 182 143.92 45 190 Sample fi light gray KA 0.1 undulated rough 3 2 healed fracture
ONK-PH3 183 144.25 80 270 Sample fi light gray CC, SK 0.2 undulated rough 3 1
ONK-PH3 184 144.47 5 180 Sample fi dark gray BT 1 undulated smooth 2 3
ONK-PH3 185 144.8 25 210 Sample fi dark gray BT, CC 0.6 undulated smooth 2 2 healed fracture
APPENDIX 3.5

81
FRACTURE LOG IMAGE

Hole ID: ONK-PH3 Contractor: KATI


Northing: 6792046.87 Drilling started: 6.9.2005
Easting: 1526126.62 Drilling ended: 10.9.2005
Elevation: -59.976 Machine/fixture: ONRAM 1000/4
Direction: 225.1355 Target: Verifing geological properties in the ONKALO profile (current layout).
Dip: -5.843 Purpose: Verification of geology
Core diameter: 50.2 Extension:
Casing: 0.9/1.0 Logging date: 7.-20.9.2005
Remarks: PL 696.87 Geologist: KJOK, HLAM, TJUU, NJK, TJUR, JENG
Max depth: 144.91

HOLE_ID FRACTURE M_FROM M_TO AZIM DIP ALPHA BETA METHOD APERTURE APERTURE H_COND
NUMBER 1.28 () () CLASS (mm)
ONK-PH3 1 0.2 1
ONK-PH3 2 0.28 1
ONK-PH3 3 0.37 1
ONK-PH3 4 6.12 245 82 66 55 image 1
ONK-PH3 5 6.14 260 88 54 78 image 1
ONK-PH3 6 6.31 89 87 47 88 image 1
ONK-PH3 7 6.53 1 1
ONK-PH3 8 8.81 80 28 28 163 image 1
ONK-PH3 9 11.3 1
ONK-PH3 10 13.24 128 7 7 173 image 1
ONK-PH3 11 15.15 168 66 27 300 image 1
ONK-PH3 12 15.27 92 45 34 141 image 1
ONK-PH3 13 15.43 92 46 34 140 image 1
ONK-PH3 14 16.44 259 70 48 51 image 1
ONK-PH3 15 16.57 284 74 28 68 image 2 0.3 1
ONK-PH3 16 16.7 4 24 23 197 image 1
ONK-PH3 17 17.44 110 58 24 123 image 1
ONK-PH3 18 17.51 98 85 38 91 image 1 1
ONK-PH3 19 17.61 94 75 41 105 image 2 0.2 1
ONK-PH3 20 18.52 341 82 26 264 image 1
ONK-PH3 21 19.3 19.76 359 49 36 222 image 0
ONK-PH3 22 19.3 341 34 19 212 image 1
ONK-PH3 23 19.57 260 37 24 22 image 1 1
ONK-PH3 24 19.72 333 18 11 197 image 2 0.3 1
ONK-PH3 25 19.74 359 72 43 250 image 1
ONK-PH3 26 20.09 5 47 39 218 image 1
ONK-PH3 27 20.35 256 57 41 34 image 1
ONK-PH3 28 20.43 1 20 20 194 image 1
ONK-PH3 29 20.57 284 88 31 84 image 2 0.2
ONK-PH3 30 20.72 235 75 67 25 image 1
ONK-PH3 31 20.79 24 37 40 196 image 1
ONK-PH3 32 20.83 78 67 54 122 image 1
ONK-PH3 33 20.85 1
ONK-PH3 34 20.94 21.23 1
ONK-PH3 35 20.94 298 87 17 85 image 1
ONK-PH3 36 21.04 130 82 6 97 image 2 0.3
ONK-PH3 37 21.14 119 80 17 99 image 1
ONK-PH3 38 21.27 21.75 1
ONK-PH3 39 21.27 1
ONK-PH3 40 21.3 1 1
ONK-PH3 41 21.45 118 72 18 107 image 3 1 1
ONK-PH3 42 21.5 1
ONK-PH3 43 21.6 113 81 23 97 image 2 0.3 1
ONK-PH3 44 21.73 1
ONK-PH3 45 21.81 38 81 82 248 image 1
ONK-PH3 46 22.28 188 18 8 349 image 2 0.3
ONK-PH3 47 22.33 1
ONK-PH3 48 22.36 1
ONK-PH3 49 22.67 77 26 27 165 image 1
ONK-PH3 50 22.84 88 89 47 85 image 1
ONK-PH3 51 22.9 1
ONK-PH3 52 22.98 342 16 13 195 image 1
ONK-PH3 53 23.04 56 13 19 177 image 2 0.2 1
ONK-PH3 54 23.56 281 87 34 82 image 1 1
ONK-PH3 55 28.48 53 48 54 170 image 1
ONK-PH3 56 28.56 99 35 25 149 image 1
ONK-PH3 57 28.6 45 20 26 180 image 1
ONK-PH3 58 29.1 43 29 35 181 image 1
ONK-PH3 59 29.23 100 21 18 162 image 0
ONK-PH3 60 38.59 108 47 24 134 image 1
ONK-PH3 61 38.63 107 69 28 111 image 1
ONK-PH3 62 39.15 90 43 34 144 image 1 1
ONK-PH3 63 40.68 67 23 27 171 image 0
ONK-PH3 64 40.99 80 48 43 144 image 0
ONK-PH3 65 41.04 90 36 30 151 image 0
ONK-PH3 66 41.07 72 31 33 164 image 0
ONK-PH3 67 41.17 23 24 28 190 image 0
ONK-PH3 68 43.61 70 86 65 86 image 1
ONK-PH3 69 43.95 261 80 51 66 image 1
ONK-PH3 70 44.19 74 57 52 138 image 1
ONK-PH3 71 44.41 105 60 29 121 image 1
ONK-PH3 72 45.1 100 13 14 169 image 0
ONK-PH3 73 45.99 1
ONK-PH3 74 46.7 2 87 46 272 image 1
ONK-PH3 75 46.84 90 68 45 115 image 1
ONK-PH3 76 47.34 1
ONK-PH3 77 47.5 1
ONK-PH3 78 47.83 109 36 20 146 image 1
ONK-PH3 79 48.18 121 66 16 114 image 0
ONK-PH3 80 49.66 69 66 61 130 image 1
ONK-PH3 81 49.78 42 69 75 191 image 1
ONK-PH3 82 50.23 177 73 37 297 image 1
ONK-PH3 83 50.85 47 45 51 178 image 1
ONK-PH3 84 52.21 45 14 20 180 image 1
ONK-PH3 85 52.56 87 71 47 112 image 1
ONK-PH3 86 52.59 62 35 39 168 image 1
ONK-PH3 87 54.1 116 19 12 162 image 0
82 APPENDIX 3.5

HOLE_ID FRACTURE M_FROM M_TO AZIM DIP ALPHA BETA METHOD APERTURE APERTURE H_COND
NUMBER 1.28 () () CLASS (mm)
ONK-PH3 88 54.18 99 61 34 122 image 0
ONK-PH3 89 56.12 169 75 30 291 image 1
ONK-PH3 90 56.17 174 67 32 302 image 1
ONK-PH3 91 56.2 177 74 37 295 image 1
ONK-PH3 92 56.97 87 9 13 174 image 0
ONK-PH3 93 57.24 88 69 46 115 image 1
ONK-PH3 94 57.99 43 76 82 195 image 1
ONK-PH3 95 58.35 19 23 27 191 image 0
ONK-PH3 96 59.99 78 68 55 119 image 1
ONK-PH3 97 60.16 88 30 27 158 image 1
ONK-PH3 98 60.39 115 45 19 136 image 1
ONK-PH3 99 60.6 94 32 26 154 image 1
ONK-PH3 100 62.34 59 53 57 160 image 1
ONK-PH3 101 62.52 108 50 25 131 image 1
ONK-PH3 102 64.31 75 43 42 153 image 0
ONK-PH3 103 64.64 88 62 44 123 image 1
ONK-PH3 104 65.14 55 17 23 177 image 1
ONK-PH3 105 65.46 64 25 30 171 image 2 0.2 1
ONK-PH3 106 65.5 76 34 35 160 image 1 1
ONK-PH3 107 67.54 50 61 67 170 image 1
ONK-PH3 108 69.08 84 66 49 120 image 1
ONK-PH3 109 70.29 72 70 61 121 image 1
ONK-PH3 110 72.56 93 59 39 125 image 1
ONK-PH3 111 75.71 56 76 78 128 image 1
ONK-PH3 112 82.1 28 51 53 203 image 1
ONK-PH3 113 85.53 98 57 35 126 image 1
ONK-PH3 114 90.73 182 87 46 281 image 0
ONK-PH3 115 92.61 352 50 31 227 image 1 1
ONK-PH3 116 92.9 359 38 31 212 image 0
ONK-PH3 117 93.34 7 76 52 256 image 1
ONK-PH3 118 93.36 8 63 49 235 image 1 1
ONK-PH3 119 95.48 64 9 15 177 image 2 0.3 1
ONK-PH3 120 96.44 87 90 48 83 image 1 1
ONK-PH3 121 98.19 4 41 35 212 image 1 1
ONK-PH3 122 98.52 33 45 50 194 image 1 1
ONK-PH3 123 99.25 229 69 62 7 image 1 1
ONK-PH3 124 100.12 38 72 76 211 image 1 1
ONK-PH3 125 100.25 228 80 73 9 image 0 1
ONK-PH3 126 100.49 47 68 74 175 image 1
ONK-PH3 127 100.96 213 62 54 341 image 0
ONK-PH3 128 102.76 226 37 30 360 image 1 1
ONK-PH3 129 102.98 2 0.3 1
ONK-PH3 130 108.39 128 8 7 172 image 0
ONK-PH3 131 109.17 18 33 34 198 image 1
ONK-PH3 132 109.88 248 29 21 12 image 2 0.4 1
ONK-PH3 133 109.99 235 37 30 7 image 1 1
ONK-PH3 134 116.96 180 73 39 298 image 1
ONK-PH3 135 117.16 173 75 34 292 image 1
ONK-PH3 136 117.91 55 33 39 174 image 0
ONK-PH3 137 117.92 61 28 33 172 image 0
ONK-PH3 138 117.96 72 32 35 163 image 0
ONK-PH3 139 118.19 54 42 48 172 image 1
ONK-PH3 140 118.53 359 70 43 249 image 1 1
ONK-PH3 141 118.61 7 68 50 244 image 0
ONK-PH3 142 118.82 57 68 71 147 image 1 1
ONK-PH3 143 118.84 220 28 22 357 image 2 0.2 1
ONK-PH3 144 119.01 53 62 67 163 image 1 1
ONK-PH3 145 119.37 78 82 58 95 image 1
ONK-PH3 146 119.96 56 25 31 175 image 1
ONK-PH3 147 119.97 235 47 40 9 image 2 0.2 1
ONK-PH3 148 120.12 22 63 60 225 image 0
ONK-PH3 149 120.26 214 44 37 350 image 1 1
ONK-PH3 150 120.48 57 71 74 139 image 1
ONK-PH3 151 121.02 200 41 30 341 image 1
ONK-PH3 152 122.56 203 47 37 339 image 1
ONK-PH3 153 125.14 230 30 23 2 image 2 0.2 1
ONK-PH3 154 128.5 235 50 43 10 image 0
ONK-PH3 155 128.7 181 59 33 314 image 0
ONK-PH3 156 131.62 213 50 42 346 image 2 0.2 1
ONK-PH3 157 131.91 190 79 50 296 image 1 1
ONK-PH3 158 132.08 264 54 34 37 image 0
ONK-PH3 159 132.18 286 68 25 62 image 1
ONK-PH3 160 132.64 355 79 40 261 image 1 1
ONK-PH3 161 133.64 205 47 37 341 image 1
ONK-PH3 162 134.11 65 42 45 162 image 1 1
ONK-PH3 163 134.55 209 56 47 339 image 1
ONK-PH3 164 138.09 106 82 30 95 image 2 0.2 1
ONK-PH3 165 138.4 209 60 50 336 image 2 0.2 1
ONK-PH3 166 138.53 204 55 43 335 image 2 0.2 1
ONK-PH3 167 138.74 66 52 54 153 image 0
ONK-PH3 168 139.47 201 74 57 312 image 1
ONK-PH3 169 139.48 260 65 44 46 image 1
ONK-PH3 170 140.07 119 22 12 159 image 2 0.1 1
ONK-PH3 171 140.25 269 87 46 78 image 1 1
ONK-PH3 172 140.68 189 85 52 287 image 0
ONK-PH3 173 140.71 189 81 50 292 image 0
ONK-PH3 174 140.78 96 24 21 161 image 0
ONK-PH3 175 141.95 251 44 33 21 image 1
ONK-PH3 176 142.21 27 90 70 288 image 1
ONK-PH3 177 142.88 233 55 48 9 image 1
ONK-PH3 178 143.18 7 61 47 234 image 1
ONK-PH3 179 143.46 11 48 43 216 image 1
ONK-PH3 180 143.73 19 59 55 223 image 1
ONK-PH3 181 143.86 26 51 53 205 image 1
ONK-PH3 182 143.92 83 28 28 161 image 1
ONK-PH3 183 144.25 156 49 10 314 image 1
ONK-PH3 184 144.47 159 51 13 312 image 1
ONK-PH3 185 144.8 1
83 APPENDIX 3.6

CORE ORIENTATION

Hole ID: ONK-PH3 Contractor: KATI


Northing: 6792046.873 Drilling started: 6.9.2005
Easting: 1526126.618 Drilling ended: 10.9.2005
Elevation: -59.976 Machine/fixture: ONRAM 1000/4
Direction: 225.1355 Target: Verifing geological properties in the ONKALO profile (current layout).
Dip: -5.843 Purpose: Verification of geology
Core diameter: 50.2 Extension:
Casing: 0.9/1.0 Logging date: 7.-20.9.2005
Remarks: PL 696.87 Geologist: KJOK, HLAM, TJUU, NJK, TJUR, JENG
Max depth: 144.91

HOLE_ID MARK_NR MARK_DEPTH M_FROM M_TO LENGTH REMARKS


99.70 69 %
ONK-PH3 1 2.16 0.5 6.1 5.60 Not so accurate mark.
ONK-PH3 2 11.1 8.14 13.28 5.14
ONK-PH3 3 14.08 14.08 15.2 1.12
ONK-PH3 4 17.05 17.05 19.28 2.23
ONK-PH3 5 23.13 23.13 26.09 2.96
ONK-PH3 6 38.04 Not good.
ONK-PH3 7 47.11 46.3 50.09 3.79 55 degree error berween marks 47.11 and 50.09
ONK-PH3 8 50.09 50.09 53 2.91
ONK-PH3 9 56.02 55.88 58.49 2.61
ONK-PH3 10 58.98 58.98 61.95 2.97
ONK-PH3 11 61.95 61.95 64.64 2.69
ONK-PH3 12 64.91 64.91 68.15 3.24
ONK-PH3 13 68.15 68.15 71.1 2.95
ONK-PH3 14 71.1 71.1 74.05 2.95
ONK-PH3 15 74.05 74.05 79.09 5.04
ONK-PH3 16 76.99 Not good.
ONK-PH3 17 79.97 79.09 82.27 3.18
ONK-PH3 18 82.95 82.95 88.86 5.91
ONK-PH3 19 85.9 Not good.
ONK-PH3 20 88.86 88.86 94.77 5.91
ONK-PH3 21 94.77 94.77 97.69 2.92
ONK-PH3 22 97.72 Not good.
ONK-PH3 23 101.03 97.72 101.8 4.08
ONK-PH3 24 103.97 Not good.
ONK-PH3 25 106.95 106.95 109.53 2.58
ONK-PH3 26 112.88 110 115.75 5.75
ONK-PH3 27 115.79 Not good.
ONK-PH3 28 121.74 121.74 128.09 6.35
ONK-PH3 29 128.09 128.09 131.05 2.96
ONK-PH3 30 131.05 131.05 133.84 2.79
ONK-PH3 31 133.84 133.84 136.8 2.96
ONK-PH3 32 136.8 136.8 139.49 2.69
ONK-PH3 33 139.49 139.49 142.4 2.91
ONK-PH3 34 142.4 142.4 144.91 2.51
84 APPENDIX 3.7

FRACTURE FREQUENCY AND RQD

Hole ID: ONK-PH3 Contractor: KATI


Northing: 6792046.873 Drilling started: 6.9.2005
Easting: 1526126.618 Drilling ended: 10.9.2005
Elevation: -59.976 Machine/fixture: ONRAM 1000/4
Direction: 225.1355 Target: Verifing geological properties in the ONKALO profile (curren
Dip: -5.843 Purpose: Verification of geology
Core diameter: 50.2 Extension:
Casing: 0.9/1.0 Logging date: 7.-20.9.2005
Remarks: PL 696.87 Geologist: KJOK, HLAM, TJUU, NJK, TJUR, JENG
Max depth: 144.91

HOLE_ID M_FROM M_TO ALL_FRACTURES NAT_FRACTURES RQD Remarks


pieces/m pieces/m %
ONK-PH3 0 1 8 3 50 Casing, The first 50 cm is break because of excacation.
ONK-PH3 1 2 2 0 100
ONK-PH3 2 3 1 0 100
ONK-PH3 3 4 1 0 100
ONK-PH3 4 5 3 0 100
ONK-PH3 5 6 3 0 100
ONK-PH3 6 7 7 4 95
ONK-PH3 7 8 6 0 91
ONK-PH3 8 9 3 1 100
ONK-PH3 9 10 5 0 100
ONK-PH3 10 11 2 0 100
ONK-PH3 11 12 6 1 100
ONK-PH3 12 13 3 0 100
ONK-PH3 13 14 5 1 100
ONK-PH3 14 15 5 0 100
ONK-PH3 15 16 5 3 100
ONK-PH3 16 17 7 3 95
ONK-PH3 17 18 5 3 82
ONK-PH3 18 19 4 1 100
ONK-PH3 19 20 6 4 75
ONK-PH3 20 21 12 9 80 Several fractures that cross each other, lose core particles.
ONK-PH3 21 22 13 8 65 Several fractures that cross each other, lose core particles.
ONK-PH3 22 23 11 7 77
ONK-PH3 23 24 4 2 100
ONK-PH3 24 25 2 0 100
ONK-PH3 25 26 2 0 100
ONK-PH3 26 27 3 0 100
ONK-PH3 27 28 5 0 100
ONK-PH3 28 29 7 3 100
ONK-PH3 29 30 7 2 100
ONK-PH3 30 31 6 0 100
ONK-PH3 31 32 3 0 100
ONK-PH3 32 33 7 0 100 Drillcore was stuck in the hole, 32.81-35.15 drilled twice.
ONK-PH3 33 34 5 0 100 Drillcore was stuck in the hole, 32.81-35.15 drilled twice.
ONK-PH3 34 35 8 0 100 Drillcore was stuck in the hole, 32.81-35.15 drilled twice.
ONK-PH3 35 36 4 0 100
ONK-PH3 36 37 1 0 100
ONK-PH3 37 38 3 0 100
ONK-PH3 38 39 6 2 95
ONK-PH3 39 40 6 1 100
ONK-PH3 40 41 6 2 100
ONK-PH3 41 42 6 3 86
ONK-PH3 42 43 5 0 100
ONK-PH3 43 44 11 0 100 Core lifter has slipped during the lift.
ONK-PH3 44 45 7 3 100
ONK-PH3 45 46 7 2 100
ONK-PH3 46 47 4 2 100
ONK-PH3 47 48 6 3 100
ONK-PH3 48 49 4 1 100
ONK-PH3 49 50 4 2 100
ONK-PH3 50 51 4 0 100
ONK-PH3 51 52 3 0 97
ONK-PH3 52 53 4 3 100
ONK-PH3 53 54 2 0 100
ONK-PH3 54 55 5 2 100
ONK-PH3 55 56 4 0 100
ONK-PH3 56 57 7 4 92
ONK-PH3 57 58 3 2 100
ONK-PH3 58 59 4 1 100
ONK-PH3 59 60 2 1 100
ONK-PH3 60 61 6 3 100
ONK-PH3 61 62 3 0 100
ONK-PH3 62 63 3 2 90
ONK-PH3 63 64 3 0 100
ONK-PH3 64 65 3 2 100
ONK-PH3 65 66 5 3 96
ONK-PH3 66 67 5 0 100
ONK-PH3 67 68 3 1 100
ONK-PH3 68 69 2 0 100
ONK-PH3 69 70 4 1 100
ONK-PH3 70 71 2 1 100
ONK-PH3 71 72 6 0 100
ONK-PH3 72 73 3 1 100
ONK-PH3 73 74 3 0 100
85 APPENDIX 3.7

HOLE_ID M_FROM M_TO ALL_FRACTURES NAT_FRACTURES RQD Remarks


pieces/m pieces/m %
ONK-PH3 74 75 4 0 100
ONK-PH3 75 76 3 1 100
ONK-PH3 76 77 5 0 100
ONK-PH3 77 78 2 0 100
ONK-PH3 78 79 3 0 100
ONK-PH3 79 80 2 0 100
ONK-PH3 80 81 1 0 100
ONK-PH3 81 82 1 0 100
ONK-PH3 82 83 4 1 100
ONK-PH3 83 84 1 0 100
ONK-PH3 84 85 1 0 100
ONK-PH3 85 86 2 1 100
ONK-PH3 86 87 2 0 100
ONK-PH3 87 88 2 0 100
ONK-PH3 88 89 2 0 100
ONK-PH3 89 90 2 0 100
ONK-PH3 90 91 4 1 100
ONK-PH3 91 92 2 0 100
ONK-PH3 92 93 3 2 100
ONK-PH3 93 94 4 2 97
ONK-PH3 94 95 3 0 100
ONK-PH3 95 96 2 1 100
ONK-PH3 96 97 3 1 100
ONK-PH3 97 98 3 0 100
ONK-PH3 98 99 2 2 100
ONK-PH3 99 100 3 1 96
ONK-PH3 100 101 4 4 100
ONK-PH3 101 102 3 0 100
ONK-PH3 102 103 5 2 100
ONK-PH3 103 104 4 0 100
ONK-PH3 104 105 1 0 100
ONK-PH3 105 106 2 0 100
ONK-PH3 106 107 4 0 100
ONK-PH3 107 108 3 0 100
ONK-PH3 108 109 4 1 100
ONK-PH3 109 110 4 3 92
ONK-PH3 110 111 2 0 100
ONK-PH3 111 112 3 0 100
ONK-PH3 112 113 3 0 100
ONK-PH3 113 114 4 0 100
ONK-PH3 114 115 2 0 100
ONK-PH3 115 116 1 0 100
ONK-PH3 116 117 2 1 100
ONK-PH3 117 118 7 4 93
ONK-PH3 118 119 6 5 89
ONK-PH3 119 120 6 4 98
ONK-PH3 120 121 6 3 90
ONK-PH3 121 122 6 1 100
ONK-PH3 122 123 3 1 100
ONK-PH3 123 124 2 0 100
ONK-PH3 124 125 2 0 100
ONK-PH3 125 126 3 1 100
ONK-PH3 126 127 1 0 100
ONK-PH3 127 128 3 0 100
ONK-PH3 128 129 3 2 100
ONK-PH3 129 130 3 0 100
ONK-PH3 130 131 2 0 100
ONK-PH3 131 132 3 2 100
ONK-PH3 132 133 6 3 91
ONK-PH3 133 134 5 1 100
ONK-PH3 134 135 3 2 100
ONK-PH3 135 136 1 0 100
ONK-PH3 136 137 2 0 100
ONK-PH3 137 138 3 0 100
ONK-PH3 138 139 5 4 100
ONK-PH3 139 140 3 2 98
ONK-PH3 140 141 6 5 90
ONK-PH3 141 142 5 1 100
ONK-PH3 142 143 5 2 100
ONK-PH3 143 144 5 5 94
ONK-PH3 144 144.91 6 3 100
86 APPENDIX 3.8

FRACTURE ZONES AND CORE LOSS

Hole ID: ONK-PH3 Contractor:


Northing: 6792046.873 Drilling started:
Easting: 1526126.618 Drilling ended:
Elevation: -59.976 achine/fixtu
M re:
Direction: 225.1355 Target:
Dip: -5.843 Pu rpose:
Core diameter: 50.2 Extension:
Casing: 0.9/1.0 Logging date:
Remarks: PL 696.87 eologist:
G
axdepth:
M

HOLE_ID M_FROM M_TO CLASS_OF_THE CORE LOSS Remarks


FRACTURED_ZONE m
ONK-PH3 19.3 20.35 RiIII rFactu
res filled with CC, KA,SK,KL,
thickness u nder 0.5 mm
ONK-PH3 20.35 21.8 RiIV
-Rk4 Partly b
roken b y drilling,strong
chloritizaton. Filling KL,CC,SK,
thickness 0.5-1.0 mm. This intersection
contains 5 fractu res with slickenside
su
rface. It was possib le to measure the
orientation from only two fractu res at
21.45 m and 21.60 m (118/72 and
113/81).
ONK-PH3 46.01 46.31 0.3 etween 44.15-46.35
B
ONK-PH3 117.91 118.84 RiII 8 fractures,filled b y KA,SVand SK.
thickness < 0.2 mm.
ONK-PH3 119.96 120.26 RiII 4 fractu res,filled with KA and SK.
Thickness < 0.2mm.
87
APPENDIX 3.9
WEATHERING

Hole ID: ONK-PH3


Northing: 6792046.873
Easting: 1526126.618
Elevation: -59.976
Direction: 225.1355
Dip: -5.843
Core diameter: 50.2
Casing: 0.9/1.0
Remarks: PL 696.87

HOLE_ID M_FROM M_TO WEATHERING Remarks


DEGREE
ONK-PH3 0.5 1.36 Rp0
ONK-PH3 1.36 16.7 Rp1 Slightly weathered feldspars
ONK-PH3 16.7 20.3 Rp0
ONK-PH3 20.3 21.2 Rp1 Slightly weathered feldspars
ONK-PH3 21.2 21.75 Rp2 Totally altered feldspars
ONK-PH3 21.75 27.8 Rp1 Slightly weathered feldspars
ONK-PH3 27.8 30 Rp0
ONK-PH3 30 31.1 Rp2 Altered feldspars
ONK-PH3 31.1 110 Rp1 Slightly weathered feldspars and pinite
ONK-PH3 110 117.5 Rp0
ONK-PH3 117.5 125.6 Rp1 Slightly weathered feldspars and pinite
ONK-PH3 125.6 128.75 Rp0
ONK-PH3 128.75 131.1 Rp1 Slightly weathered feldspars and pinite
ONK-PH3 131.1 133.25 Rp0
ONK-PH3 133.25 138.4 Rp1 Slightly weathered feldspars and pinite
ONK-PH3 138.4 140.85 Rp0
ONK-PH3 140.85 144.91 Rp1 Slightly weathered feldspars and pinite
88
APPENDIX 3.10
LIST OF CORE BOXES

Hole ID: ONK-PH3


Northing: 6792046.873
Easting: 1526126.618
Elevation: -59.976
Direction: 225.1355
Dip: -5.843
Core diameter: 50.2
Casing: 0.9/1.0
Remarks: PL 696.87

HOLE_ID M_FROM M_TO BOX_NUMBER REMARKS

ONK-PH3 0.5 3.06 1


ONK-PH3 3.06 7.18 2
ONK-PH3 7.18 11.09 3
ONK-PH3 11.09 15 4
ONK-PH3 15 18.91 5
ONK-PH3 18.91 22.67 6
ONK-PH3 22.67 26.89 7
ONK-PH3 26.89 30.98 8
ONK-PH3 30.98 35.19 9
ONK-PH3 35.19 39.67 10
ONK-PH3 39.67 44.07 11
ONK-PH3 44.07 48.38 12
ONK-PH3 48.38 52.18 13
ONK-PH3 52.18 56.62 14
ONK-PH3 56.62 60.62 15
ONK-PH3 60.62 64.64 16
ONK-PH3 64.64 68.75 17
ONK-PH3 68.75 73.22 18
ONK-PH3 73.22 77.47 19
ONK-PH3 77.47 81.63 20
ONK-PH3 81.63 85.53 21
ONK-PH3 85.53 89.28 22
ONK-PH3 89.28 93.51 23
ONK-PH3 93.51 97.72 24
ONK-PH3 97.72 101.80 25
ONK-PH3 101.8 106.37 26
ONK-PH3 106.37 110.60 27
ONK-PH3 110.6 114.86 28
ONK-PH3 114.86 118.74 29
ONK-PH3 118.74 123.39 30
ONK-PH3 123.39 126.65 31
ONK-PH3 126.65 130.93 32
ONK-PH3 130.93 134.88 33
ONK-PH3 134.88 138.74 34
ONK-PH3 138.74 142.40 35
ONK-PH3 142.4 144.91 36
89

Appendix 3.11
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98 Appendix 5.1

Olkiluoto, ONKALO, Borehole PH3


Flow rate and single point resistance

Flow from the measured section (L = 0.5 m, dL = 0.1 m), 2005-09-10 - 2005-09-11

Fracture specific flow (into the hole) Fracture specific flow (into the bedrock)
0

9
Depth (m)

10

11

12

13

14

15

16
16.8
17
17.7
18

19 19.4

20 19.8

1 10 1 00 0 00 00 0 0 00 0 0
10 0 1 00 1 00
10 100 1000 10000
10
Flow rate (ml/h) Single point resistance (ohm)
99 Appendix 5.2

Olkiluoto, ONKALO, Borehole PH3


Flow rate and single point resistance

Flow from the measured section (L = 0.5 m, dL = 0.1 m), 2005-09-10 - 2005-09-11

Fracture specific flow (into the hole) Fracture specific flow (into the bedrock)
20

21

22

23 23.1

24

25

26

27

28

29
Depth (m)

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

1 10 1 00 0 00 00 0 0 00 0 0
10 0 1 00 1 00
10 100 1000 10000
10
Flow rate (ml/h) Single point resistance (ohm)
100 Appendix 5.3

Olkiluoto, ONKALO, Borehole PH3


Flow rate and single point resistance

Flow from the measured section (L = 0.5 m, dL = 0.1 m), 2005-09-10 - 2005-09-11

Fracture specific flow (into the hole) Fracture specific flow (into the bedrock)
40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49
Depth (m)

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

57

58

59

60

1 10 1 00 0 00 00 0 0 00 0 0
10 0 1 00 1 00
10 100 1000 10000
10
Flow rate (ml/h) Single point resistance (ohm)
101 Appendix 5.4

Olkiluoto, ONKALO, Borehole PH3


Flow rate and single point resistance

Flow from the measured section (L = 0.5 m, dL = 0.1 m), 2005-09-10 - 2005-09-11

Fracture specific flow (into the hole) Fracture specific flow (into the bedrock)
60

61

62

63

64

65

66

67

68

69
Depth (m)

70

71

72

73

74

75

76

77

78

79

80

1 10 1 00 0 00 00 0 0 00 0 0
10 0 1 00 1 00
10 100 1000 10000
10
Flow rate (ml/h) Single point resistance (ohm)
102 Appendix 5.5

Olkiluoto, ONKALO, Borehole PH3


Flow rate and single point resistance

Flow from the measured section (L = 0.5 m, dL = 0.1 m), 2005-09-10 - 2005-09-11

Fracture specific flow (into the hole) Fracture specific flow (into the bedrock)
80

81

82

83

84

85

86

87

88

89
Depth (m)

90

91
91.8
92
92.6
93 93.4

94

95
95.6
96
96.5
97.0
97 97.4

98

99 99.4

100

1 10 10 0 0 00 0 00 00 00 0
1 00 10 0 100
10 100 1000 10000
10
Flow rate (ml/h) Single point resistance (ohm)
103 Appendix 5.6

Olkiluoto, ONKALO, Borehole PH3


Flow rate and single point resistance

Flow from the measured section (L = 0.5 m, dL = 0.1 m), 2005-09-10 - 2005-09-11

Fracture specific flow (into the hole) Fracture specific flow (into the bedrock)
100 100.3
101.0
101

102
103.0
103

104

105

106
106.5
107 107.1

108
108.6
109
Depth (m)

110 110.2

111

112

113
114.0
114

115

116
116.7
117

118 118.4

119 119.2

120

1 10 10 0 0 00 0 00 00 00 0
1 00 10 0 100
10 100 1000 10000
10
Flow rate (ml/h) Single point resistance (ohm)
104 Appendix 5.7

Olkiluoto, ONKALO, Borehole PH3


Flow rate and single point resistance

Flow from the measured section (L = 0.5 m, dL = 0.1 m), 2005-09-10 - 2005-09-11

Fracture specific flow (into the hole) Fracture specific flow (into the bedrock)
120 120.2

121

122

123

124

125
125.5
126

127

128

129
Depth (m)

130

131 131.3
131.7
132 131.9

133 132.7

134.0
134

135

136

137 137.4

138 137.8
138.9
139

140

1 10 10 0 0 00 0 00 00 00 0
1 00 10 0 100
10 100 1000 10000
10
Flow rate (ml/h) Single point resistance (ohm)
105 Appendix 5.8

Olkiluoto, ONKALO, Borehole PH3


Flow rate and single point resistance

Flow from the measured section (L = 0.5 m, dL = 0.1 m), 2005-09-10 - 2005-09-11

Fracture specific flow (into the hole) Fracture specific flow (into the bedrock)
140
141.0
141
141.3
142

143

144

145

146

147

148

149
Depth (m)

150

151

152

153

154

155

156

157

158

159

160

1 10 10 0 0 00 0 00 00 00 0
1 00 10 0 100
10 100 1000 10000
10
Flow rate (ml/h) Single point resistance (ohm)
106 Appendix 5.9

Olkiluoto, ONKALO, Borehole PH3


Plotted transmissivity and hydraulic aperture of detected fractures

Hydraulic aperture of fracture (mm) Transmissivity of fracture


0

10

20

30

40

50

60
Depth (m)

70

80

90

100

110

120

130

140

150
10

08

07
09

05

04
06

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1


-0

-0
-0

-0

-0

-0
-0
1E

1E

1E

1E

1E

1E

1E

Hydraulic aperture of fracture (mm) Transmissivity (m2/s)


107 Appendix 5.10

Hole: PH3
Elevation of the top of the
hole (masl): -59.976
Inclination: -5.843

Fracture Hydraulic
Depth of fracture along Flow Drawdown
elevation T (m2/s) aperture of Comments
the borehole (m) (ml/h) (m)
(masl) fracture (mm)

16.8 861 -61.7 65.976 3.59E-09 0.018


17.7 1200 -61.8 65.976 5.00E-09 0.020
19.4 3450 -62.0 65.976 1.44E-08 0.029
19.8 3180 -62.0 65.976 1.32E-08 0.028
23.1 10400 -62.3 65.976 4.33E-08 0.042
91.8 633 -69.3 65.976 2.64E-09 0.016
92.6 2280 -69.4 65.976 9.49E-09 0.025
93.4 725 -69.5 65.976 3.02E-09 0.017
95.6 110000 -69.7 65.976 4.58E-07 0.092
96.5 3690 -69.8 65.976 1.54E-08 0.030 *
97.0 9460 -69.9 65.976 3.94E-08 0.041 *
97.4 5510 -69.9 65.976 2.29E-08 0.034
99.4 68500 -70.1 65.976 2.85E-07 0.079
100.3 96 -70.2 65.976 4.00E-10 0.009 *
101.0 403 -70.3 65.976 1.68E-09 0.014 *
103.0 81200 -70.5 65.976 3.38E-07 0.083 *
106.5 102 -70.8 65.976 4.25E-10 0.009 *
107.1 398 -70.9 65.976 1.66E-09 0.014
108.6 146 -71.0 65.976 6.08E-10 0.010 *
110.2 22800 -71.2 65.976 9.49E-08 0.054 *
114.0 32 -71.6 65.976 1.33E-10 0.006 *
116.7 507 -71.9 65.976 2.11E-09 0.015 *
118.4 1110 -72.0 65.976 4.62E-09 0.020 *
119.2 186 -72.1 65.976 7.75E-10 0.011
120.2 198 -72.2 65.976 8.25E-10 0.011 *
125.5 3100 -72.8 65.976 1.29E-08 0.028
131.3 75 -73.3 65.976 3.12E-10 0.008 *
131.7 1590 -73.4 65.976 6.62E-09 0.022 *
131.9 24900 -73.4 65.976 1.04E-07 0.056 *
132.7 452 -73.5 65.976 1.88E-09 0.015 *
134.0 12 -73.6 65.976 5.00E-11 0.004
137.4 1830 -74.0 65.976 7.62E-09 0.023
137.8 830 -74.0 65.976 3.46E-09 0.018
138.9 6870 -74.1 65.976 2.86E-08 0.037
141.0 1640 -74.3 65.976 6.83E-09 0.023
141.3 467 -74.4 65.976 1.94E-09 0.015
* Untertain
108 Appendix 5.11

Olkiluoto, ONKALO, Borehole PH3


Electric conductivity of borehole water

During flow logging, upwards (L = 0.5 m, dL = 0.1 m),


2005-09-10 - 2005-09-11

10

20

30

40

50

60
Depth (m)

70

80

90

100

110

120

130

140

150

0.01 0.1 1 10
Electric conductivity (S/m, 25 oC)
109 Appendix 5.12

Olkiluoto, ONKALO, Borehole PH3


Temperature of borehole water

During flow logging, upwards (L = 0.5 m, dL = 0.1 m),


2005-09-10 - 2005-09-11

10

20

30

40

50

60
Depth (m)

70

80

90

100

110

120

130

140

150

6 6.4 6.8 7.2 7.6 8


Temperature (oC)
110 Appendix 5.13

Olkiluoto, ONKALO, Borehole PH3


Flow rate out from the borehole during flow logging

6
Flow rate out from the borehole (L/min)

0 0 0 0 0 0
1 5: 0 1 8: 0 2 1: 0 / 0: 0 / 3: 0 / 6: 0
-1 0/ -1 0/ -1 0/ 9 -1 1 9 -1 1 9 -1 1
5 -0 9 5 -0 9 5 -0 9 0 5 -0 0 5 -0 0 5 -0
2 00 2 00 2 00 20 20 20
Year-Month-Day / Hour:Minute
27.9.2005

Pauli Syrjnen
TunnustEsi-injekJlki-injeKontroMuu poraus Dry Minor NormalPlentifull

Object: ONKALO Access Tunnel Drilling Type: Pilot Hole PH3

Chainage: 676

Notes:

Mea- Ground- Stan- Interpre-


Hole Depth Water Penetration Mean Notes
suring Mid Depth water dard tated
Value
Length Pressure dev. Value
Measuring Time 10 min
[m] [m] [m] [bar] 9 13 17 13 9 [bar] [Lug]

2 4 6,4 3,4 1,3 [l]


3 6,46 3,46 4,7 6,25 0,17 0,03 0,15
0,21 0,17 0,17 0,15 0,14 [Lug]

1,7 2,2 4,9 1 1 [l]


6 12,46 6,46 9,2 6,29 0,06 0,03 0,05
0,10 0,05 0,07 0,02 0,06 [Lug]

0,4 3,9 4,4 1,5 0,3 [l]


12 18,46 6,46 15,2 6,35 0,05 0,03 0,02
0,02 0,09 0,06 0,03 0,02 [Lug]

20,6 36,3 51,3 34,2 16,9 [l]


18 24,46 6,46 21,2 6,41 0,93 0,20 0,80
1,23 0,85 0,75 0,80 1,01 [Lug]
111
Appendix 5.14 1(2)

11Appendix_5.14_waterloss_3-24,46.xls
Interpretation

Kuvia kytetn veden virtauksen tulkinnassa. Tulkitut arvot vain tummansinisiin soluihin.

A. C. Houlsby: Construction and Design of Cement Grouting. A1990. Wiley-Interscience publication.


Similar Lugeon values for each run indicates laminar flow => Use mean Lugeon value
Low Lugeon values at higher pressures indicates turbulent flow => Use lowest Lugeon value
High Lugeon values at higher pressures indicates dilation => Use lowest Lugeon value or medium value, if lowest values indicates turbulent flow
Lugeon values increasing even when pressure drops, indicates washout => Use Lugeon value of the final run
Decreasing Lugeon values throughout the test indicate void filling => Use lowest Lugeon value

Inter-
Water Penetration Test preta-
Groundwater
Pressure Measuring Time 10 min tion
[bar] Pressure 9 13 17 13 9 [bar] [Lug] 0,00 0,05 0,10 0,15 0,20 0,25

Pres. Diff. 2,75 6,75 10,75 6,75 2,75 [bar]


Flow 2 4 6,4 3,4 1,3 [l]
3 6,25 Penetration 0,21 0,17 0,17 0,15 0,14 [Lug] 0,15
112

0,00 0,02 0,04 0,06 0,08 0,10 0,12

Pres. Diff. 2,71 6,71 10,71 6,71 2,71 [bar]


Flow 1,7 2,2 4,9 1 1 [l]
6 6,29 Penetration 0,10 0,05 0,07 0,02 0,06 [Lug] 0,05
0,00 0,02 0,04 0,06 0,08 0,10

Pres. Diff. 2,65 6,65 10,65 6,65 2,65 [bar]


Flow 0,4 3,9 4,4 1,5 0,3 [l]
12 6,35 Penetration 0,02 0,09 0,06 0,03 0,02 [Lug] 0,02

0,00 0,50 1,00 1,50

Pres. Diff. 2,59 6,59 10,59 6,59 2,59 [bar]


Flow 20,6 36,3 51,3 34,2 16,9 [l]
2(2)

18 6,41 Penetration 1,23 0,85 0,75 0,80 1,01 [Lug] 0,8

Page 1
Appendix 5.15
27.9.2005 1 (2)

Pauli Syrjnen
TunnustEsi-injekJlki-injeKontroMuu poraus Dry Minor NormalPlentifull

Object: ONKALO Access Tunnel Drilling Type: Pilot Hole PH3

Chainage: 676

Notes:

Mea- Ground- Stan- Interpre-


Hole Depth Water Penetration Mean Notes
suring Mid Depth water dard tated
Value
Length Pressure dev. Value
Measuring Time 10 min
[m] [m] [m] [bar] 9 13 17 13 9 [bar] [Lug]

1,2 0,6 3,7 1,7 1 [l]


24 30,46 6,46 27,2 6,47 0,05 0,02 0,04
0,07 0,01 0,05 0,04 0,06 [Lug]

0,8 1,7 2,7 1,7 0,7 [l]


30 36,46 6,46 33,2 6,53 0,04 0,00 0,04
0,05 0,04 0,04 0,04 0,04 [Lug]

0,5 1,5 2,1 1,2 0,9 [l]


36 42,46 6,46 39,2 6,59 0,04 0,01 0,03
0,03 0,04 0,03 0,03 0,06 [Lug]

0,6 1,4 2,8 1,5 1,1 [l]


42 48,46 6,46 45,2 6,65 0,04 0,02 0,04
0,04 0,03 0,04 0,04 0,07 [Lug]
113
Appendix 5.15 1(2)

12Appendix_5.15_waterloss_24-48,46.xls
Interpretation 2(2)

Kuvia kytetn veden virtauksen tulkinnassa. Tulkitut arvot vain tummansinisiin soluihin.

A. C. Houlsby: Construction and Design of Cement Grouting. A1990. Wiley-Interscience publication.


Similar Lugeon values for each run indicates laminar flow => Use mean Lugeon value
Low Lugeon values at higher pressures indicates turbulent flow => Use lowest Lugeon value
High Lugeon values at higher pressures indicates dilation => Use lowest Lugeon value or medium value, if lowest values indicates turbulent flow
Lugeon values increasing even when pressure drops, indicates washout => Use Lugeon value of the final run
Decreasing Lugeon values throughout the test indicate void filling => Use lowest Lugeon value

Inter-
Water Penetration Test preta-
Groundwater
Pressure Measuring Time 10 min tion
[bar] Pressure 9 13 17 13 9 [bar] [Lug] 0,00 0,02 0,04 0,06 0,08

Pres. Diff. 2,53 6,53 10,53 6,53 2,53 [bar]


Flow 1,2 0,6 3,7 1,7 1 [l]
24 6,47 Penetration 0,07 0,01 0,05 0,04 0,06 [Lug] 0,04
114

0,00 0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0,05 0,06

Pres. Diff. 2,47 6,47 10,47 6,47 2,47 [bar]


Flow 0,8 1,7 2,7 1,7 0,7 [l]
30 6,53 Penetration 0,05 0,04 0,04 0,04 0,04 [Lug] 0,04
0,00 0,02 0,04 0,06 0,08

Pres. Diff. 2,41 6,41 10,41 6,41 2,41 [bar]


Flow 0,5 1,5 2,1 1,2 0,9 [l]
36 6,59 Penetration 0,03 0,04 0,03 0,03 0,06 [Lug] 0,03

0,00 0,02 0,04 0,06 0,08

Pres. Diff. 2,35 6,35 10,35 6,35 2,35 [bar]


Flow 0,6 1,4 2,8 1,5 1,1 [l]
2(2)

42 6,65 Penetration 0,04 0,03 0,04 0,04 0,07 [Lug] 0,04

Page 1
Appendix 5.16
27.9.2005 1 (2)

Pauli Syrjnen
TunnustEsi-injekJlki-injeKontroMuu poraus Dry Minor NormalPlentifull

Object: ONKALO Access Tunnel Drilling Type: Pilot Hole PH3

Chainage: 676

Notes:

Mea- Ground- Stan- Interpre-


Hole Depth Water Penetration Mean Notes
suring Mid Depth water dard tated
Value
Length Pressure dev. Value
Measuring Time 10 min
[m] [m] [m] [bar] 9 13 17 13 9 [bar] [Lug]

0,6 3,4 5,4 4,3 2,6 [l]


48 54,46 6,46 51,2 6,71 0,10 0,05 0,20
0,04 0,08 0,08 0,11 0,18 [Lug]

73 112,2 133,2 81,5 54,4 [l]


54 60,46 6,46 57,2 6,77 3,14 1,30 2,00
5,07 2,79 2,02 2,03 3,78 [Lug]

51 75,2 97,9 70 33,2 [l]


60 66,46 6,46 63,2 6,83 2,23 0,85 1,50
3,64 1,89 1,49 1,76 2,37 [Lug]

6,4 29 16 5,1 3,6 [l]


66 72,46 6,46 69,2 6,89 0,37 0,24 0,25
0,47 0,74 0,25 0,13 0,26 [Lug]
115
Appendix 5.16 1(2)

13Appendix_5.16_waterloss_48-72.46.xls
Interpretation 2 (2)

Kuvia kytetn veden virtauksen tulkinnassa. Tulkitut arvot vain tummansinisiin soluihin.

A. C. Houlsby: Construction and Design of Cement Grouting. A1990. Wiley-Interscience publication.


Similar Lugeon values for each run indicates laminar flow => Use mean Lugeon value
Low Lugeon values at higher pressures indicates turbulent flow => Use lowest Lugeon value
High Lugeon values at higher pressures indicates dilation => Use lowest Lugeon value or medium value, if lowest values indicates turbulent flow
Lugeon values increasing even when pressure drops, indicates washout => Use Lugeon value of the final run
Decreasing Lugeon values throughout the test indicate void filling => Use lowest Lugeon value

Inter-
Water Penetration Test preta-
Groundwater
Pressure Measuring Time 10 min tion
[bar] Pressure 9 13 17 13 9 [bar] [Lug] 0,00 0,05 0,10 0,15 0,20

Pres. Diff. 2,29 6,29 10,29 6,29 2,29 [bar]


Flow 0,6 3,4 5,4 4,3 2,6 [l]
48 6,71 Penetration 0,04 0,08 0,08 0,11 0,18 [Lug] 0,2
116

0,00 1,00 2,00 3,00 4,00 5,00 6,00

Pres. Diff. 2,23 6,23 10,23 6,23 2,23 [bar]


Flow 73 112,2 133,2 81,5 54,4 [l]
54 6,77 Penetration 5,07 2,79 2,02 2,03 3,78 [Lug] 2
0,00 1,00 2,00 3,00 4,00

Pres. Diff. 2,17 6,17 10,17 6,17 2,17 [bar]


Flow 51 75,2 97,9 70 33,2 [l]
60 6,83 Penetration 3,64 1,89 1,49 1,76 2,37 [Lug] 1,5

0,00 0,20 0,40 0,60 0,80

Pres. Diff. 2,11 6,11 10,11 6,11 2,11 [bar]


Flow 6,4 29 16 5,1 3,6 [l]
2(2)

66 6,89 Penetration 0,47 0,74 0,25 0,13 0,26 [Lug] 0,25

Page 1
Appendix 5.17
27.9.2005 1 (2)

117

Pauli Syrjnen
TunnustEsi-injekJlki-injeKontroMuu poraus Dry Minor NormalPlentifull

Object: ONKALO Access Tunnel Drilling Type: Pilot Hole PH3

Chainage: 676

Notes:

Mea- Ground- Stan- Interpre-


Hole Depth Water Penetration Mean Notes
suring Mid Depth water Value
dard tated
Length Pressure dev. Value
Measuring Time 10 min
[m] [m] [m] [bar] 9 13 17 13 9 [bar] [Lug]

3,6 3,6 3,5 3 1,8 [l]


72 78,46 6,46 75,2 6,95 0,13 0,09 0,05
0,27 0,09 0,05 0,08 0,14 [Lug]

13,2 4,1 4,7 3,3 1,9 [l]


78 84,46 6,46 81,2 7,01 0,29 0,41 ?
1,03 0,11 0,07 0,09 0,15 [Lug]

4,3 7,8 7,1 5,9 4,4 [l]


84 90,46 6,46 87,2 7,07 0,23 0,11 0,10
0,35 0,20 0,11 0,15 0,35 [Lug]

51,2 89,3 126,8 53,5 24,4 [l]


90 96,46 6,46 93,2 7,13 2,40 1,08 2,00
4,24 2,36 1,99 1,41 2,02 [Lug]

14Appendix_5.17_waterloss_72-96.46.xls
Interpretation 2 (2)

Kuvia kytetn veden virtauksen tulkinnassa. Tulkitut arvot vain tummansinisiin soluihin.

A. C. Houlsby: Construction and Design of Cement Grouting. A1990. Wiley-Interscience publication.


Similar Lugeon values for each run indicates laminar flow => Use mean Lugeon value
Low Lugeon values at higher pressures indicates turbulent flow => Use lowest Lugeon value
High Lugeon values at higher pressures indicates dilation => Use lowest Lugeon value or medium value, if lowest values indicates turbulent flow
Lugeon values increasing even when pressure drops, indicates washout => Use Lugeon value of the final run
Decreasing Lugeon values throughout the test indicate void filling => Use lowest Lugeon value

Inter-
Water Penetration Test preta-
Groundwater
Pressure Measuring Time 10 min tion
[bar] Pressure 9 13 17 13 9 [bar] [Lug] 0,00 0,05 0,10 0,15 0,20 0,25 0,30

Pres. Diff. 2,05 6,05 10,05 6,05 2,05 [bar]


Flow 3,6 3,6 3,5 3 1,8 [l]
72 6,95 Penetration 0,27 0,09 0,05 0,08 0,14 [Lug] 0,05
118

0,00 0,20 0,40 0,60 0,80 1,00 1,20

Pres. Diff. 1,99 5,99 9,99 5,99 1,99 [bar]


Flow 13,2 4,1 4,7 3,3 1,9 [l]
78 7,01 Penetration 1,03 0,11 0,07 0,09 0,15 [Lug] ?
0,00 0,10 0,20 0,30 0,40

Pres. Diff. 1,93 5,93 9,93 5,93 1,93 [bar]


Flow 4,3 7,8 7,1 5,9 4,4 [l]
84 7,07 Penetration 0,35 0,20 0,11 0,15 0,35 [Lug] 0,1

0,00 1,00 2,00 3,00 4,00 5,00

Pres. Diff. 1,87 5,87 9,87 5,87 1,87 [bar]


Flow 51,2 89,3 126,8 53,5 24,4 [l]
2(2)

90 7,13 Penetration 4,24 2,36 1,99 1,41 2,02 [Lug] 2

Page 1
Appendix 5.18
27.9.2005 1 (2)]

Pauli Syrjnen
TunnustEsi-injekJlki-injeKontroMuu poraus Dry Minor NormalPlentifull

Object: ONKALO Access Tunnel Drilling Type: Pilot Hole PH3

Chainage: 676

Notes:

Mea- Ground- Stan- Interpre-


Hole Depth Water Penetration Mean Notes
suring Mid Depth water dard tated
Value
Length Pressure dev. Value
Measuring Time 10 min
[m] [m] [m] [bar] 9 13 17 13 9 [bar] [Lug]

71,5 94,3 116,4 65,4 37,3 [l]


96 102,46 6,46 99,2 7,19 3,08 1,80 1,80
6,12 2,51 1,84 1,74 3,19 [Lug]

43 61,7 94,1 56,2 31,1 [l]


102 108,46 6,46 105,2 7,25 2,25 1,02 1,50
3,81 1,66 1,49 1,51 2,75 [Lug]

8,2 13,9 22,3 7,6 3,3 [l]


108 114,46 6,46 111,2 7,31 0,40 0,21 0,30
0,75 0,38 0,36 0,21 0,30 [Lug]

5,1 18,1 28,3 8,6 3,2 [l]


114 120,46 6,46 117,2 7,37 0,40 0,12 0,30
0,49 0,50 0,46 0,24 0,30 [Lug]
119
Appendix 5.18 1(2)

15Appendix_5.18_waterloss_96-120.46.xls
Interpretation 2 (2)

Kuvia kytetn veden virtauksen tulkinnassa. Tulkitut arvot vain tummansinisiin soluihin.

A. C. Houlsby: Construction and Design of Cement Grouting. A1990. Wiley-Interscience publication.


Similar Lugeon values for each run indicates laminar flow => Use mean Lugeon value
Low Lugeon values at higher pressures indicates turbulent flow => Use lowest Lugeon value
High Lugeon values at higher pressures indicates dilation => Use lowest Lugeon value or medium value, if lowest values indicates turbulent flow
Lugeon values increasing even when pressure drops, indicates washout => Use Lugeon value of the final run
Decreasing Lugeon values throughout the test indicate void filling => Use lowest Lugeon value

Inter-
Water Penetration Test preta-
Groundwater
Pressure Measuring Time 10 min tion
[bar] Pressure 9 13 17 13 9 [bar] [Lug] 0,00 2,00 4,00 6,00 8,00

Pres. Diff. 1,81 5,81 9,81 5,81 1,81 [bar]


Flow 71,5 94,3 116,4 65,4 37,3 [l]
96 7,19 Penetration 6,12 2,51 1,84 1,74 3,19 [Lug] 1,8
120

0,00 1,00 2,00 3,00 4,00

Pres. Diff. 1,75 5,75 9,75 5,75 1,75 [bar]


Flow 43 61,7 94,1 56,2 31,1 [l]
102 7,25 Penetration 3,81 1,66 1,49 1,51 2,75 [Lug] 1,5
0,00 0,20 0,40 0,60 0,80

Pres. Diff. 1,69 5,69 9,69 5,69 1,69 [bar]


Flow 8,2 13,9 22,3 7,6 3,3 [l]
108 7,31 Penetration 0,75 0,38 0,36 0,21 0,30 [Lug] 0,3

0,00 0,10 0,20 0,30 0,40 0,50 0,60

Pres. Diff. 1,63 5,63 9,63 5,63 1,63 [bar]


Flow 5,1 18,1 28,3 8,6 3,2 [l]
2(2)

114 7,37 Penetration 0,49 0,50 0,46 0,24 0,30 [Lug] 0,3

Page 1
Appendix 5.19
27.9.2005 1 (2)

Pauli Syrjnen
TunnustEsi-injekJlki-injeKontroMuu poraus Dry Minor NormalPlentifull

Object: ONKALO Access Tunnel Drilling Type: Pilot Hole PH3

Chainage: 676

Notes:

Mea- Ground- Stan- Interpre-


Hole Depth Water Penetration Mean Notes
suring Mid Depth water dard tated
Value
Length Pressure dev. Value
Measuring Time 10 min
[m] [m] [m] [bar] 9 13 17 13 9 [bar] [Lug]

6,3 18,2 29,5 12,4 6 [l]


120 126,46 6,46 123,2 7,43 0,51 0,11 0,50
0,62 0,51 0,48 0,34 0,59 [Lug]

11,3 17,4 22,9 13,8 7 [l]


126 132,46 6,46 129,2 7,49 0,63 0,33 0,40
1,16 0,49 0,37 0,39 0,72 [Lug]

7,8 8,5 8,9 5 2,4 [l]


132 138,46 6,46 135,2 7,55 0,32 0,29 0,15
0,83 0,24 0,15 0,14 0,26 [Lug]

3,1 4,8 5,3 3,1 2 [l]


138,77 145,05 6,28 141,9 7,62 0,18 0,11 0,10
0,36 0,14 0,09 0,09 0,23 [Lug]
121
Appendix 5.19 1(2)

16Appendix_5.19_waterloss_120-145.04.xls
Interpretation 2 (2)

Kuvia kytetn veden virtauksen tulkinnassa. Tulkitut arvot vain tummansinisiin soluihin.

A. C. Houlsby: Construction and Design of Cement Grouting. A1990. Wiley-Interscience publication.


Similar Lugeon values for each run indicates laminar flow => Use mean Lugeon value
Low Lugeon values at higher pressures indicates turbulent flow => Use lowest Lugeon value
High Lugeon values at higher pressures indicates dilation => Use lowest Lugeon value or medium value, if lowest values indicates turbulent flow
Lugeon values increasing even when pressure drops, indicates washout => Use Lugeon value of the final run
Decreasing Lugeon values throughout the test indicate void filling => Use lowest Lugeon value

Inter-
Water Penetration Test preta-
Groundwater
Pressure Measuring Time 10 min tion
[bar] Pressure 9 13 17 13 9 [bar] [Lug] 0,00 0,20 0,40 0,60 0,80

Pres. Diff. 1,57 5,57 9,57 5,57 1,57 [bar]


Flow 6,3 18,2 29,5 12,4 6 [l]
120 7,43 Penetration 0,62 0,51 0,48 0,34 0,59 [Lug] 0,5
122

0,00 0,50 1,00 1,50

Pres. Diff. 1,51 5,51 9,51 5,51 1,51 [bar]


Flow 11,3 17,4 22,9 13,8 7 [l]
126 7,49 Penetration 1,16 0,49 0,37 0,39 0,72 [Lug] 0,4
0,00 0,20 0,40 0,60 0,80 1,00

Pres. Diff. 1,45 5,45 9,45 5,45 1,45 [bar]


Flow 7,8 8,5 8,9 5 2,4 [l]
132 7,55 Penetration 0,83 0,24 0,15 0,14 0,26 [Lug] 0,15

0,00 0,10 0,20 0,30 0,40

Pres. Diff. 1,38 5,38 9,38 5,38 1,38 [bar]


Flow 3,1 4,8 5,3 3,1 2 [l]
2(2)

138,77 7,62 Penetration 0,36 0,14 0,09 0,09 0,23 [Lug] 0,1

Page 1
Pressure (bar)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Date/Time
9.12.2005 11:12
9.12.2005 11:15
9.12.2005 11:17
9.12.2005 11:20
9.12.2005 11:22
9.12.2005 11:25
9.12.2005 11:28
9.12.2005 11:30
9.12.2005 11:33
9.12.2005 11:35
9.12.2005 11:38
9.12.2005 11:40
9.12.2005 11:43
9.12.2005 11:45
9.12.2005 11:48
9.12.2005 11:51
9.12.2005 11:53
9.12.2005 11:56
9.12.2005 11:58
9.12.2005 12:01
9.12.2005 12:03
9.12.2005 12:06
9.12.2005 12:08
9.12.2005 12:11
ONK-PH3 Pressure build-up test

9.12.2005 12:13
9.12.2005 12:16
9.12.2005 12:19
9.12.2005 12:21
9.12.2005 12:24
9.12.2005 12:26
9.12.2005 12:29
9.12.2005 12:31
9.12.2005 12:34
9.12.2005 12:36
9.12.2005 12:39
9.12.2005 12:42
9.12.2005 12:44
9.12.2005 12:47
9.12.2005 12:49
9.12.2005 12:52
Appendix 5.20 123
124 Appendix 5.21

Pressure build-up test, pressure registration device


125 Appendix 6.1
126
127 Appendix 6.2

Rautaruukki RROM-2

Specifications

Antenna dimensions

-diameter 42 mm
-length 1570 mm
-electrode separation a=318 mm
-diameter of the electrodes 40 mm

Measuring cable minimum 4-conductor, length up to 1000 m, loop resistance for output voltage
conductors max 40 Ohm

Measuring current 10 mA/20 Hz

Range 1-400 000 Ohm-m

Output voltage +5 V-6 V

Power feed 18 V, 3 Ah

Power consumption 2.4 W

Operation temperature -20+50 C


128 Appendix 6.3
Logging Sondes

Normal Resistivity Sonde


The Geovista digital Normal Resistivity Sonde can be used on its own or in
combination with other Geovista sondes for efficient logging and correlation
purposes. The SP can be recorded with the sonde either powered on or off,
using the 16 electrode and a surface fish.

Specifications:
Weight 8kg
Length 2.27m
Diameter 42mm
64N & 16N
Resistivity Range 1 to 10,000 Ohmm
SPR 1 to 10,000 Ohm
SP Range -2.5V to +2.5V
Current return Cable armour
Measure return Bridle electrode
Max. Pressure 20MPa
Max. Temperature 80C

Focused Resistivity Sonde


Provides resistivity logs with finer vertical resolution and a deeper depth of
investigation. Performance is best in higher conductivity mud and higher
resistivity formations. The probe can be used on its own or in combination
with other Geovista sondes.

Specifications:

Weight 7.0 kg
Length 2.37m
Diameter 38mm
Range 1 to 10,000 Ohmm
Max. Pressure 20MPa
Max. Temperature 80C

Geovista reserve the right to change the products list and specifications without prior notice

UNIT 6,CAE FFW T BUSINESS PARK,GLAN CONW Y, LL28 5SP,UK WEB SITE: h t t p : / / www. g e o v i s t a . c o . u k
P H O N E : +44 (0)1492 57 33 99 F A X : +44 (0)1492 58 11 77 E-MAIL: g e o vi s t a @ g e o vi s t a . c o . u k
129 Appendix 6.4

Introduction to
RAMAC/GPR
borehole radar

MAL GeoScience 2000-03-31


130

INTRODUCTION

Borehole radar is based on the same


principles as ground penetrating radar
systems for surface use, which means
that it consists of a radar transmitter
and receiver built into separate probes.
The probes are connected via an optical
cable to a control unit used for time
signal generation and data acquisition.
The data storage and display unit is
normally a Lap Top computer, which is
either a stand-alone component or is
built into the circuitry of the control
unit. Borehole radar instruments can
be used in different modes: reflection,
crosshole, surface-to-borehole and
directional mode. Todays available
systems use centre frequencies from 20
to 250 MHz.

Radar waves are affected by soil and rock conductivity. If the conductivity of
the surrounding media is more than a certain figure reflection radar surveys
are impossible. In high conductivity media the radar equation is not satisfied
and no reflections will appear. In crosshole- and surface-to-borehole radar
mode measurements can be carried out in much higher conductivity areas
because no reflections are needed. Important information concerning the
local geologic conditions are evaluated from the amplitude of the first arrival
and the arrival time of the transmitted wave only, not a reflected component.

Common borehole radar applications include:

Geological investigations
Engineering investigations
Environmental investigations
Hydropower dams investigations
Fracture detection
Cavity detection
Karstified area investigation
Salt layers investigations

DIPOLE REFLECTION SURVEYS

In reflection mode the radar transmitter and receiver probes are lowered in
the same borehole with a fixed distance between them. See figure 1. In this
mode an optical cable for triggering of the probes and data acquisition is
necessary to avoid parasitic antenna effects of the cable. The most commonly
131

used antennas are dipole


antennas, which radiate and
receive reflected signals from a
360-degree space
(omnidiretionally). Borehole
radar interpretation is similar
to that of surface GPR data
with the exception of the
space interpretation. In surface
GPR surveys all the reflections
orginate from one half space
while the borehole data re-
ceive reflections from a 360-
degree radius. It is impossible
to determine the azimuth to
the reflector using data from
only one borehole if dipole
Figure 1
antennas are used. What can
be determined is the distance to the reflector and in the case where the reflec-
tor is a plane, the angle between the plane and the borehole.
As an example, let s imagine a fracture plane crossing a borehole and a
point reflector next to the same borehole (figure 1, left).

When the probes are above the fracture reflections from the upper part of the
plane are imaged, in this case from the left side of the borehole. When the
probes are below the plane, reflections from the bottom of the plane are
imaged, in this case the right side of the borehole. The two sides of the plane
are represented in the synthetic radargram in figure 1. They are seen as two
legs corresponding to each side of the plane. When interpreting borehole
radar data, it is important to remember that the radar image is a 360-degree
representation in one plane. A point reflector shows up as a hyperbola, in the
same way as a point reflector appears in surface GPR data.Interpreting di-
pole radar data from a single borehole, the interpreter can not give the direc-
tion to the point reflector only the distance to source can be interpreted. In
order to estimate the direction to the reflection, data from more than one
borehole need to be interpreted.

Figure 2:
Dipole reflection measurement in granite. The
antenna centre frequency used was 100 MHz.
In granite, normally several tens of meters of
range are achieved using this antenna frequency.
132 Appendix 6.5

Full Waveform Sonic Tool

The ALT full waveform sonic tool has been specially designed for the water, mining and geotechnical industries.
Its superior specification makes it ideal for a cement bond logs, for the measurement of permeability index, and as
a specialist tool to carry out deep fracture identification.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

x OD: 50 or 68mm
x Length: variable depending on configuration
x Max pressure: 200 bars
x Max temperature: 70C
x Variable spacing: all traces synchronously and simultaneously recorded
x Frequency of sonic wave: 15KHz
x Sonic wave sampling rate: configurable, 2 uSec -> 50 Sec
x Sonic wave length: configurable, up to 1024 samples per receiver
x Dynamic range: 12 bits plus configurable 4 bits gain incl. AGC
x Data communication: compatible with ALT acquisition system
x Required wireline: single or multi- conductors

Modular tool allowing a configuration of up to 2 transmitters and 8 receivers

Advantages of the tool include :

x High energy of transmission to give a greater depth of penetration or


longer spacings.
x Lower frequency of operation for greater penetration, especially for the
CBL.
x Ability to record a long wave train for Tube wave train reflection wich
allows for the measurement of fracture aperture and permeability index.
x The absolute value of the amplitude of the received wave form is
measurable thus allowing for the calibration of the amplitude.
x Truly modular construction allowing variation of receiver/transmitter
combinations.
x Higher logging speeds when used in conjunction with the ALT Logger
acquisition system due to the superior rate of data communication
possible.
133 Appendix 6.6

Acquisition systems

ALTlogger 19 rack mountable ALTlogger minirack ABOX

W 48.3 cm (19) 37.6 cm (14.5) 26 cm


L 50 cm (19,7) 35 cm (13.8) 16 cm
H 13.2 cm (3U) 13.2 cm (3U) 9 cm
W 16-20kgs without packaging 12-16kgs without packaging 3kgs

ALTs family of acquisition system is based on modern electronic design in which software control techniques have
been used to the best advantage. The hardware incorporates the latest electronic components with embedded systems
controlled via the specially developed ALTlogger Windows interface program.

Main features

high speed USB interface


Self selecting AC power source from AC 100V to AC 240V
Ruggedised system, heavy duty, fault tolerant
Interfaces downhole probes from many manufacturer (not available on Abox system)
Wireline and winch flexibility (runs on coax, mono, 4 or 7 conductor wireline)
Compatible with most shaft encoder (runs on any 12V or 5V quadrature shaft encoder with any combination of wheel circum-
ference/shaft pulse per revolution)
Totally software controlled
Very easy to use, with graphical user interface (dashboard), self diagnostic features, configurable through files and minimal
technical knowledge needed from the user
Runs on any notebook PC compatible Windows 2000 & windows XP.
Real time data display and printing
Supports Windows supported printers and Printrex thermal printers
optional network enabled distributed architecture

A LT l o g g e r 1 9 r a c k a n d m i n i r a c k
The rack system has been designed to accommodate multivendor tool types. The modular and flexible design architecture of the
system will allow virtually any logging tool to run on any winch supposed the required Tool Adapter and Depth Encoder Adapter is
inserted into the ALTlogger Unit. Any new combination of logging tool and winch unit will just require selection of the proper
ALTlog.ini File and the proper Tol-File.
The Tool Adapter is the software and hardware suitable to interface a specific family of tools. It provides the interface between a
tool specific power, data protocol and wireline conductor format and the system core. When a logging tool is selected for use, the
system automatically addresses the type of adapter associated with the tool.
The latest Digital Signal Processing (DSP) adapter adds even more flexibility to the system with expansion slots for future develop-
ments and upgrades, by implementing a 100% firmware based modem system.

The specifications are not contractual and are subject to modification without notice.
134

The acquisition system ALTLoggersoftware runs on Windows OS and exploits the true pre-emptive multitasking
ability of the Windows NT Kernel

Dashboard
The heart of the graphical user interface is called the Dashboard and
consists of multiple threads running concurrently and handling speci-
fic system tasks. The dashboard is also the operators control panel. It
is used to select and control all systems functions and to monitor data
acquisistion. The dashboard contains seven sub windows:
Depth (depth system)
Tool (tool configuration & power)
TOL file
Communication (data flows and communication control)
Information specific to a particu-
Acquisition (data sampling and replay controls) lar tool is contained in a unique
Browser and processors (data browser and processors controls) tool configuration file which has
the extension *.TOL. Information
Status (self diagnostic system status indicators) contained in the *.TOL file is used
tension (tension gauge system by different components of the
system for initialising Dashboard
components (tool power, data
protocol, etc), as well as setting
parameters for client processes
(browser & processors) handling
data calibration, data processing,
data display or printing. A copy of
the TOL file is included in each
data file acquired

Browser and processors (real time data monitoring)


A Browser is a Client Process. The Browser offer the operator of the logging system a number
of different on-line display facilities to present log data on the screen in a user-friendly, easy
controllable, attractive layout. Depending on the tool category, different Browser are used to
display log data such as conventional curves, full waveform sonics, borehole images ...

Typical user screen with scrolling log display and data monitoring

Btiment A, Route de Niederpallen,


L-8506 Redange-sur-Attert. T:(352) 23 649 289 F:(352) 23 649 364
Grand-Duch de Luxembourg e-mail: sales@alt.lu www.alt.lu
135

OBI 40
slimhole optical televiewer

The tool generates a continuous oriented 360 image of the


borehole wall using an optical imaging system. (downhole CCD
camera which views a image of the borehole wall in a prism).
The tool includes a orientation device consisting of a precision
3 axis magnetometer and 3 accelerometers thus allowing
accurate borehole deviation data to be obtained during the
same logging run (accurate and precise orientation of the
image).
Optical and acoustic televiewer data are complimentary tools
especially when the purpose of the survey is structural analysis.
A common data display option is the projection on a virtual
core that can be rotated and viewed from any orientation.
Actually, an optical televiewer image will complement and even
replace coring survey and its associated problem of core
recovery and orientation.
The optical televiewer is fully downhole digital and can be run
on any standard wireline (mono, four-conductor, seven-
conductor). Resolution is user definable (up to 0.5mm vertical
resolution and 720 pixels azimuthal resolution)

Btiment A, Route de Niederpallen,


L-8506 Redange-sur-Attert. T:(352) 23 649 289 F:(352) 23 649 364
Grand-Duch de Luxembourg e-mail: sales@alt.lu www.alt.lu
136

OBI 40
slimhole optical televiewer

Applications:
The purpose of the optical imaging tool is to provide detailed, oriented, structural
information. Possible applications are :
fracture detection and evaluation
detection of thin beds
bedding dip
lithological characterization
casing inspection

Technical specifications
Diameter 40mm
Length approx. 1.7m
Weight approx 7 kgs
Max temp 50C
Max pressure 200 bars
Borehole diameter 1 3/4" to 24" depending on borehole conditions
Logging speed variable function of resolution and wireline

Cable:
Cable type mono, four-conductor, seven-conductor
Digital data transmission up to 500 Kbps depending on wireline, realtime compressed
Compatibility ALTIogger- ALT-Abox- Mount Sopris MgXII (limited to 41 Kbps)

sensor:
Sensor type downhole DSP based digital CCD camera
Optics plain polycarbonate conic prism system
Azimuthal resolution user definable 90/180/360 or 720 pixels /360
Vertical resolution user definable, depth or time sampling rate
Color resolution 24 bit RGB value
White balance: automatic or user adjustable
Aperture & Shutter automatic or user adjustable
Special functions User configurable real time digital edge enhancing
User configurable ultra low light condition mode
Orientation 3 axis magnetometer and 3 accelerometers.
Inclination accuracy 0.5 degree
Azimuth accuracy: 1.0 degree

Logging parameters:
360 RGB orientated optical image
Borehole azimuth and dip
Tool internal Temperature

The specifications are not contractual and are subject to modification without notice.
137 Appendix 6.7

Suomen Malmi Oy
P.O. Box 10

Borehole Logging FI-00210 ESPOO


+358 9 8524 010
www.smoy.fi

Client: Posiva Oy Hole no: ONK-PH03 : 76 Surveyed by:AS, AK, JM


Site: Olkiluoto X: 1526 126.618 Length: 144.91 Survey date: 13.09.2005
Project no: Y: 6792 046.873 Azimuth: 225.1355 Reported by: JM
Z: -59.976 Dip: -5.843 Report date: Sept 2005

Lith. Fr.freq. Tunnel Gamma-gamma Density Resistivity Wenner Velocity P 0.6 m


Depth
0 1/m 15 pile (m) 2.6 g/cm3 3.2 20 Ohm.m 2000 4000 m/s 7000
Core loss Natural Gamma RadarFirstArrivalTime Velocity S 0.6 m
1m:500m
0 R/h 150 30 ns 22 2000 m/s 5000
Susceptibility Radar First Wave Ampl

0 1E-5 SI 200 0 V 30000


Pegmatite/ 0.0
Pegmatitic granite

Veined gneiss
700.0
Pegmatite/
Pegmatitic granite

Diatexitic gneiss 705.0


10.0

710.0

Pegmatite/
Pegmatitic granite
715.0
Quartz gneiss
20.0
Diatexitic gneiss

720.0
Diatexitic gneiss

Pegmatite/ 725.0
Pegmatitic granite
30.0
Diatexitic gneiss

Diatexitic gneiss 730.0

Veined gneiss

735.0
Pegmatite/
Pegmatitic granite 40.0

740.0
Diatexitic gneiss

Pegmatite/
Pegmatitic granite 745.0
Diatexitic gneiss 50.0
Pegmatite/
Pegmatitic granite 750.0

Diatexitic gneiss
755.0
Pegmatite/Pegmatitic
granite
60.0

Diatexitic gneiss
760.0

765.0
Pegmatite/ 70.0
Pegmatitic granite

770.0

Diatexitic gneiss 775.0


80 0
138

80.0

780.0
Pegmatite/
Pegmatitic granite

Diatexitic gneiss
785.0
90.0
Mafic gneiss

Diatexitic gneiss 790.0

Pegmatite/
Pegmatitic granite
795.0
Diatexitic gneiss
100.0

800.0

Diatexitic gneiss 805.0


Diatexitic gneiss 110.0

810.0

815.0
120.0

Diatexitic gneiss 820.0

Diatexitic gneiss
825.0
Veined gneiss
130.0

830.0
Diatexitic gneiss

835.0
Mica gneiss
140.0
Diatexitic gneiss

Pegmatite/ 840.0
Pegmatitic granite

Mica gneiss
139 Appendix 6.8

Suomen Malmi Oy
P.O. Box 10

Borehole Radar FI-00210 ESPOO


+358 9 8524 010
www.smoy.fi

Client: Posiva Oy Hole no: ONK-PH03 : 76 Surveyed by:AS, JM


Site: Olkiluoto X: 1526 126.618 Length: 144.91 Survey date: 13.09.2005
Project no: Y: 6792 046.873 Azimuth: 225.1355 Reported by: JM
Z: -59.976 Dip: - 5.843 Report date: Sept. 2005

Lith. Fr.freq. Depth Tunnel Resistivity Wenner Radar Raw Image, 250 MHz
pile (m)
0 1/m 15 20 Ohm.m 2000
1m:500m
Core loss Radar 1st Arr. Time 0 nanosec 200

29 ns 22
Radar 1st Wave Ampl

0 V 30000
Pegmatite/ 0.0
Pegmatitic granite

Veined gneiss
700.0
Pegmatite/
Pegmatitic granite

Diatexitic gneiss 705.0


10.0

710.0

Pegmatite/
Pegmatitic granite
715.0
Quartz gneiss
20.0
Diatexitic gneiss

720.0
Diatexitic gneiss

Pegmatite/ 725.0
Pegmatitic granite
30.0
Diatexitic gneiss

Diatexitic gneiss 730.0

Veined gneiss

735.0
Pegmatite/
Pegmatitic granite 40.0

740.0
Diatexitic gneiss

Pegmatite/
Pegmatitic granite 745.0
Diatexitic gneiss 50.0
Pegmatite/
Pegmatitic granite 750.0

Diatexitic gneiss
755.0
Pegmatite/Pegmatitic
granite
60.0

Diatexitic gneiss
760.0

765.0
Pegmatite/ 70.0
Pegmatitic granite

770.0

Diatexitic gneiss 775.0


80 0
140

80.0

780.0
Pegmatite/
Pegmatitic granite

Diatexitic gneiss
785.0
90.0
Mafic gneiss

Diatexitic gneiss 790.0

Pegmatite/
Pegmatitic granite
795.0
Diatexitic gneiss
100.0

800.0

Diatexitic gneiss 805.0


Diatexitic gneiss 110.0

810.0

815.0
120.0

Diatexitic gneiss 820.0

Diatexitic gneiss
825.0
Veined gneiss
130.0

830.0
Diatexitic gneiss

835.0
Mica gneiss
140.0
Diatexitic gneiss

Pegmatite/ 840.0
Pegmatitic granite

Mica gneiss
Suomen Malmi Oy
P.O. Box 10
FI-00210 ESPOO
Borehole Radar +358 9 8524 010
www.smoy.fi

Client: Posiva Oy Hole no: ONK-PH03 : 75.7 Surveyed by:JM, AS


Site: Olkiluoto X: 1526 126.618 Length: 144.91 Survey date: 13.09.2005
Project no: Y: 6792 046.873 Azimuth: 225.1355 Reported by:JM
Z: -59.976 Dip: -5.843 Report date: Sept. 2005

Fr.freq. Radar Intersect. Angles Orient. Reflect.


Lith. Depth Tunnel degrees Radar Orientations Refl. Ext Bckwd Refl. Ext. Fwd Range Out
0 1/m 15 0 90 0 90
pile (m)
Core loss Fract.Angles Oriented Fract.
1m:200m degrees degrees Schmidt Plot - Lower Hemisphere 30 m 0 0 m 30 0 m 7
0 90 0 90

Pegmatite/
0.0
141

Pegmatitic
granite

Veined gneiss
Schmidt Plot - Lower Hemisphere
Depth: -1.30 [m] to 16.00 [m]

700.0 0
Pegmatite/
Pegmatitic
granite 4.0

Diatexitic
gneiss
8.0 705.0

180
Counts Dip[deg] Azi[deg]
12.0 Mean 12 55.38 95.91
7 55.32 103.64
710.0 5 55.48 85.20
Appendix 6.9
Pegmatite/ 16.0
Pegmatitic
granite

Quartz gneiss
715.0 Schmidt Plot - Lower Hemisphere
Depth: 16.00 [m] to 32.06 [m]
Diatexitic 0
gneiss 20.0

720.0
Diatexitic
gneiss
24.0

180
Pegmatite/
28.0 725.0 Counts Dip[deg] Azi[deg]
Pegmatitic Mean 14 54.69 18.77
granite
6 52.15 209.11
8 56.67 21.13
Diatexitic
gneiss

Diatexitic
gneiss 32.0
142

730.0

Schmidt Plot - Lower Hemisphere


Depth: 32.06 [m] to 48.02 [m]

Veined gneiss
0
36.0

735.0
Pegmatite/
Pegmatitic
granite
40.0

740.0 180
Diatexitic
gneiss 44.0 Counts Dip[deg] Azi[deg]
Mean 8 50.04 71.27
2 43.50 77.50
6 52.40 68.33

Pegmatite/
Pegmatitic
granite
granite
48.0 745.0
Diatexitic
gneiss

Schmidt Plot - Lower Hemisphere


Depth: 48.02 [m] to 64.00 [m]
Pegmatite/ 0
Pegmatitic 52.0
granite

750.0

56.0
Diatexitic
gneiss

755.0

180
Pegmatite/Pegm
granite 60.0 Counts Dip[deg] Azi[deg]
Mean 15 53.17 90.54
Diatexitic 8 52.56 87.96
gneiss
7 53.88 95.06

760.0
64.0
143

Schmidt Plot - Lower Hemisphere


Depth: 64.04 [m] to 80.06 [m]
0
68.0 765.0

Pegmatite/
Pegmatitic
granite

72.0

770.0

180
76.0 Counts Dip[deg] Azi[deg]
Mean 9 49.52 82.26
Diatexitic 3 36.29 99.04
gneiss
775.0 6 56.30 73.74
80.0

Schmidt Plot - Lower Hemisphere


Depth: 80.06 [m] to 95.96 [m]
780.0
0
Pegmatite/ 84.0
Pegmatitic
granite

Diatexitic
gneiss

88.0 785.0

Mafic gneiss
180
92.0 Counts Dip[deg] Azi[deg]
Diatexitic
gneiss Mean 12 45.39 66.43
790.0
7 37.74 77.84
5 56.38 36.17

96.0
144

Pegmatite/
Pegmatitic
granite

Diatexitic 795.0
gneiss Schmidt Plot - Lower Hemisphere
Depth: 95.98 [m] to 112.04 [m]
0
100.0

800.0
104.0

180
108.0 805.0 Counts Dip[deg] Azi[deg]
Diatexitic
gneiss Mean 12 36.53 94.33

Diatexitic 7 32.88 74.55


gneiss 5 41.92 210.52
112.0

810.0

Schmidt Plot - Lower Hemisphere


Depth: 112.04 [m] to 127.94 [m]
0
116.0

815.0

120.0

Diatexitic
gneiss 820.0 180
124.0 Counts Dip[deg] Azi[deg]
Mean 13 51.71 129.53
7 45.95 125.98
6 58.40 139.68

Diatexitic
gneiss
128.0
145

825.0

Veined gneiss

Schmidt Plot - Lower Hemisphere


Depth: 127.94 [m] to 144.12 [m]
0
132.0

830.0

Diatexitic
gneiss

136.0

835.0
Mica gneiss
180
140.0 Counts Dip[deg] Azi[deg]
Mean 19 48.19 71.91
Diatexitic
gneiss
8 37.58 77.41
11 56.02 331.01
Pegmatite/
Pegmatitic
granite 840.0
144.0
Mica gneiss

148.0 845.0
146
Ext. Ext.
TYPE Nr. Depth Angle Azimuth Dip backward forward Range out CLASS Comment FILTER
Direction not
PLANE L-98 -1.34 63.09 0.000 0.579 4 Weak given. NoFilter
Direction not
PLANE L-210 -0.82 56.62 0.000 1.874 4 Clear given. HFIR
Foliation, tight
fractures not
PLANE L-97 0.09 39.93 100 64 0.000 4.559 4.5 Clear oriented. Wall. HFIR
PLANE L-148 1.68 40.61 100 64 0.000 5.278 4.5 Clear Foliation FIR
PLANE L-103 2.73 36.24 110 64 0.000 6.419 5 Weak Foliation NoFilter
Not oriented,
explanation
unknown. Seen
12 m down from
projected
Strong, location, not at
PLANE L-155 3.2 6.67 0.000 6.906 2.5 ExtentsFar intersection
PLANE L-96 3.33 31.07 110 64 1.571 8.537 4.5 Clear Foliation NoFilter
PLANE L-92 5.67 23.19 1.686 8.239 4 Strong Not oriented NoFilter
147

PLANE L-101 5.73 28.64 2.536 9.628 4 Strong Not oriented NoFilter
PLANE L-104 6.79 40.09 87 89 3.775 3.775 3.5 Weak Fracture NoFilter
Fracture.
PLANE L-209 6.88 50.53 87 89 1.837 1.837 2.4 Clear Attenuation. HFIR
Not oriented.
Attenuation. GR
PLANE L-102 7.4 30.05 5.146 6.018 3.5 Strong contact. NoFilter
Fracture. Seen
PLANE L-150 8.61 31.52 80 28 3.339 5.068 3.2 Clear downwards. FIR
PLANE L-99 9.3 29.62 80 28 6.044 6.044 3.5 Clear Fracture NoFilter
PLANE L-93 11.63 29.7 112 40 6.913 4.286 3.5 Weak Foliation NoFilter
Foliation.
Orientation
PLANE L-149 12.57 28 112 40 7.027 3.459 3.5 Weak alternates FIR
PLANE L-100 13.56 29.46 81 51 8.678 6.054 4.8 Clear Foliation NoFilter
PLANE L-87 15.25 35.92 92 45 6.445 4.814 4.4 Clear Fracture NoFilter
Fracture.
PLANE L-147 17.46 32.8 98 85 4.147 3.293 2.7 Strong Attenuation. FIR
Appendix 6.10

PLANE L-95 18.46 30.31 341 82 5.132 6.002 3.5 Clear Fracture NoFilter
PLANE L-146 19.05 35.06 359 49 3.623 2.788 2.5 Clear Fracture FIR
PLANE L-208 19.26 70.49 1.137 0.613 2.8 Strong Not oriented HFIR
Fracture. Seen 7
m upwd and 12
m dwnwd from
PLANE L-156 19.88 9.53 333 18 4.866 1.809 1.8 Far projected intrs FIR
Fracture.
Attenuation.
PLANE L-90 21.38 26.57 113 81 6.218 7.118 3 Strong Curved NoFilter
Foliation.
Attenuation.
PLANE L-91 22.93 27.35 283 87 7.515 10.634 3.2 Strong Conductor. NoFilter
Foliation.
Attenuation.
PLANE L-205 23.1 37.93 283 87 3.892 3.892 3.3 Clear Conductor. HFIR
Fracture.
Attenuation.
Conductor. Upwd
PLANE L-145 23.44 34.15 281 87 4.083 3.242 3.3 Weak same as L-205 FIR
Foliation. Time
PLANE L-152 24.2 30.14 181 40 4.267 4.267 2.5 Clear delay. FIR
148

Not oriented,
PLANE L-207 25.35 32.54 4.159 4.159 2.5 Clear possible foliation HFIR
Not oriented,
PLANE L-88 25.68 23.95 6.354 7.273 2.8 Clear possible foliation NoFilter
PLANE L-206 25.93 36.81 204 39 3.544 3.136 2.5 Clear Foliation HFIR
Not oriented,
PLANE L-154 26.76 38.49 3.862 4.653 3.5 Clear possible foliation FIR
PLANE L-94 27.12 28.65 72 30 6.102 6.102 3 Clear Foliation NoFilter
Fracture. Upwd
PLANE L-211 28.71 27.42 45 20 8.847 8.847 4 close to L-86 AGC
PLANE L-86 29.04 25.68 43 29 8.982 8.982 4 Clear Fracture NoFilter
Not oriented,
PLANE L-107 29.85 72.86 1.154 1.154 4 Clear possible foliation NoFilter
PLANE L-89 30.68 36.68 72 33 4.768 3.957 4 Clear Foliation NoFilter
Not oriented,
PLANE L-85 31.17 82.72 0.496 0.496 4 Weak possible foliation NoFilter
Not oriented,
PLANE L-108 32.46 37.17 5.540 5.941 3.5 Clear possible foliation NoFilter
PLANE L-153 32.56 66.24 1.578 0.739 2 Clear Not oriented, FIR
possible foliation
Not oriented,
possible foliation.
PLANE L-151 32.94 15.32 7.676 10.580 2 Clear Attenuation. FIR
Not oriented,
PLANE L-203 33.72 72.68 0.860 0.860 3 Clear possible foliation HFIR
Not oriented,
possible foliation.
Attenuation, time
PLANE L-83 34.83 27.79 5.259 7.929 4 Strong delay, conductor. NoFilter
Not oriented,
possible foliation.
Attenuation, time
PLANE L-204 34.83 34.92 4.046 4.046 2.8 Clear delay, conductor. HFIR
Not oriented,
possible foliation.
Attenuation, time
PLANE L-78 36.58 28.07 6.135 6.135 3.2 Clear delay, conductor. NoFilter
Foliation.
Attenuation.
Time delay.
149

Conductor.
Nearly same as
PLANE L-82 36.94 30.18 35 41 6.010 6.010 3.2 Clear L-78 NoFilter
Not oriented,
possible foliation.
Attenuation, time
delay, conductor.
Nearly same as
PLANE L-106 37.28 32.06 5.892 5.892 3.2 Strong L-78 and L-106 NoFilter
Not oriented,
possible foliation.
Attenuation, time
PLANE L-80 37.5 46.23 3.413 3.062 3.5 clear delay, conductor. NoFilter
Fracture. Time
delay,
PLANE L-105 38.73 12.51 108 47 13.645 10.709 3 Strong attenuation. NoFilter
PLANE L-74 39.55 29.66 90 43 5.166 6.042 3 Clear Fracture NoFilter
PLANE L-84 40.43 31.58 67 23 5.923 5.923 3.5 Clear Fracture NoFilter
PLANE L-79 41.66 16.33 11.489 8.602 3.5 Clear Not oriented. NoFilter
Possible
foliation.
Not oriented.
Possible
PLANE L-144 41.81 30.46 4.253 4.253 2.5 Clear foliation. FIR
PLANE L-71 41.89 23.75 120 46 4.516 6.364 2.5 Clear Foliation NoFilter
Not oriented.
Possible
PLANE L-69 42.07 40.62 2.973 4.512 2.5 Strong foliation. NoFilter
Fracture.
Attenuation, time
PLANE L-202 43.95 72.87 261 80 1.003 1.003 3.2 Strong delay, conductor. HFIR
PLANE L-67 46.08 23.65 77 36 9.130 9.130 2.5 Clear Fracture NoFilter
Not oriented.
Possible
PLANE L-81 46.29 15.85 6.688 6.688 3 Clear foliation. NoFilter
PLANE L-77 46.7 38.87 2 87 3.841 3.841 3 Weak Fracture NoFilter
PLANE L-73 47.03 26.15 6.241 6.241 3 Clear Not oriented NoFilter
PLANE L-60 49.21 22.11 99 41 9.234 9.234 3.5 Strong Foliation NoFilter
PLANE L-142 49.72 36.04 4.807 4.807 3.5 Clear Not oriented FIR
150

Fracture.
Attenuation, time
PLANE L-76 50.42 37.94 177 73 3.089 3.089 3.5 weak delay. NoFilter
PLANE L-70 50.69 28.34 7.005 7.005 4 Clear Not oriented NoFilter
Foliation.
Conductor,
attenuation, time
PLANE L-63 51.64 44.79 75 48 4.577 4.577 4.5 Clear delay. NoFilter
Fracture.
Attenuation, time
PLANE L-143 52.67 38.22 62 36 4.671 3.876 4 Clear delay. FIR
Not oriented.
Attenuation.
PLANE L-72 52.7 16.78 11.463 12.422 3.5 Clear Time delay. NoFilter
Foliation.
Attenuation.
PLANE L-75 53.07 23.43 87 30 8.224 8.224 3 Clear Time delay. NoFilter
Not oriented.
Possible
PLANE L-65 53.24 38.15 5.468 3.880 3.5 Clear foliation. NoFilter
Not oriented.
Possible
PLANE L-157 53.33 50.27 2.829 2.829 3.5 Clear foliation. FIR
PLANE L-212 54.69 48.29 80 70 3.283 3.283 3.5 Foliation AGC
PLANE L-64 55.63 35.98 107 49 4.811 4.811 3.5 Clear Foliation NoFilter
Not oriented.
Possible
PLANE L-201 55.69 70.36 0.971 0.971 3 Clear foliation. HFIR
Not oriented.
Possible
PLANE L-200 56.41 55.57 2.215 2.215 3 Clear foliation. HFIR
Fracture.
Attenuation, time
PLANE L-55 56.48 25.58 169 75 6.271 7.179 3 Strong delay. NoFilter
Fracture.
Attenuation.
Time delay.
PLANE L-199 56.92 57.91 88 69 2.081 2.081 3 Clear Conductor. HFIR
Not oriented.
Possible
PLANE L-59 58.05 22.65 9.198 5.952 3.8 foliation. NoFilter
151

Foliation.
PLANE L-197 58.2 65.8 77 66 1.606 1.606 3.3 Clear Attenuation. HFIR
Fracture.
PLANE L-66 58.41 40.18 19 23 4.156 4.156 3.5 Clear Attenuation. NoFilter
PLANE L-61 59.2 22.5 105 79 6.424 5.492 2.8 Strong Foliation NoFilter
PLANE L-56 59.72 34.11 78 68 4.504 4.504 3.5 Clear Fracture NoFilter
PLANE L-57 60.67 45.27 94 32 4.184 2.757 3 Strong Fracture NoFilter
Foliation.
PLANE L-139 62 25.03 74 38 8.121 5.387 3.5 Clear Attenuation. FIR
Not oriented.
Possible
PLANE L-198 63.27 65.46 1.627 1.200 3.5 Clear foliation. HFIR
PLANE L-53 64.61 47.54 88 62 3.331 1.951 3.5 Clear Fracture NoFilter
PLANE L-58 64.89 22.81 55 17 8.262 9.187 4 Clear Fracture NoFilter
Not oriented.
Possible
PLANE L-216 64.96 65.32 2.060 1.207 3.5 foliation. AGC
PLANE L-62 64.99 36.09 85 51 3.166 3.166 2 Long Foliation NoFilter
PLANE L-111 65.96 65.55 2.042 1.621 4 Clear Not oriented. NoFilter
Attenuation, time
delay. Possible
foliation.
Not oriented.
Possible
foliation.
PLANE L-68 66.43 12.88 12.648 13.625 3 Far, weak Conductive zone NoFilter
Foliation. Time
delay,
attenuation.
PLANE L-50 67.35 23.38 106 29 11.909 8.227 4.5 Clear, Strong Conductor. NoFilter
Foliation. Time
delay,
attenuation.
PLANE L-51 67.53 18.51 106 29 13.253 11.353 4 Clear, Strong Conductor. NoFilter
Fracture.
Attenuation.
Time delay.
PLANE L-196 68.07 74.33 50 61 1.058 1.058 3.5 Clear Conductor. HFIR
Fracture.
Attenuation.
152

Time delay.
PLANE L-195 68.79 57.67 84 66 2.095 2.095 3.5 Strong Conductor. HFIR
Not oriented.
Time delay.
Conductor.
Attenuation. Near
PLANE L-113 68.99 48.12 2.615 2.615 3.5 Clear similar to L_195 NoFilter
Not oriented.
Time delay.
Conductor.
PLANE L-54 69.31 19.35 14.132 13.187 4.5 Very Strong Attenuation. NoFilter
Not oriented.
Time delay.
Conductor.
Attenuation. No
PLANE L-213 69.31 61.2 1.887 1.887 3.5 Fracts AGC
Fracture.
Attenuation.
Time delay.
PLANE L-214 69.9 65.01 72 70 1.655 1.655 3.5 Conductor. AGC
PLANE L-110 70.45 47.51 3.333 3.333 3.5 clear. far Not oriented NoFilter
PLANE L-52 71.34 55.67 2.783 2.783 3.5 Strong. Clear Not oriented NoFilter
PLANE L-109 71.36 12.6 20.479 15.595 4.5 farUp Not oriented NoFilter
Fracture. Delay.
Conductor. No
great attenuation
PLANE L-116 73.29 38.76 93 59 5.422 6.206 4 Clear (mafic vein?) NoFilter
PLANE L-141 73.38 21 16.787 7.899 5 Far Not oriented FIR
Not oriented.
Attenuation, time
PLANE L-112 75.2 30.05 6.889 5.582 3.5 Clear delay, conductor. NoFilter
Not oriented.
Attenuation, time
PLANE L-47 75.39 42.84 3.246 2.497 4.5 Strong delay, conductor. NoFilter
Not oriented.
Time delay,
conductor. No
PLANE L-49 76.47 43.85 5.014 2.084 5 Clear att. NoFilter
Not oriented.
Attenuation, time
153

delay, conductor.
Lower contact of
PLANE L-194 76.74 72.3 1.191 1.191 3.5 Strong GR. HFIR
Not oriented.
Attenuation,
conductor, time
PLANE L-140 77.36 42.58 4.377 2.884 4 Weak delay. FIR
Not oriented.
Possible
PLANE L-48 79.87 27.49 8.842 7.060 4.5 Strong foliation. NoFilter
Not oriented.
Possible
PLANE L-215 79.99 39.89 5.335 2.217 4 foliation. AGC
Not oriented.
Possible
PLANE L-217 81.26 66.65 1.553 0.727 3.5 foliation. AGC
Not oriented.
Possible
PLANE L-46 81.44 35.58 5.245 5.655 3.5 Strong foliation. NoFilter
PLANE L-192 81.64 49.16 28 51 3.227 3.227 3.5 Strong Fracture HFIR
Not oriented.
Strong conductor,
complete
attenuation, time
PLANE L-193 82.87 69.53 1.725 1.725 4.5 Strong delay. HFIR
Foliation. Strong
conductor,
Strong, complete
weaker attenuation, time
PLANE L-115 83.08 12.31 162 45 12.676 15.612 2.8 downwards delay. NoFilter
Not oriented.
Strong conductor,
complete
attenuation, time
PLANE L-43 83.13 36.8 5.164 5.164 3.5 Weak delay. NoFilter
Not oriented.
Strong conductor,
complete
attenuation, time
delay. Possible
PLANE L-188 84.33 39.73 4.572 4.572 3.8 Strong foliation. HFIR
154

Foliation. Strong
conductor,
complete
attenuation, time
PLANE L-138 84.68 34.13 103 25 5.755 5.755 3.8 Strong delay. FIR
Fracture.
PLANE L-38 85.61 39.32 98 57 3.817 3.817 3.6 Strong Attenuation. NoFilter
Foliation.
Attenuation.
PLANE L-191 86.94 43.01 30 40 1.342 5.084 4.5 clear Time delay. HFIR
Not oriented.
Possible
PLANE L-45 87.86 37.61 3.103 4.709 3.5 Clear foliation. NoFilter
Not oriented.
Possible
PLANE L-187 88.11 50.99 2.144 3.742 4 Weak foliation. HFIR
Not oriented.
Possible
PLANE L-42 88.73 33.89 3.675 7.440 5 Clear foliation. NoFilter
PLANE L-189 89.58 61.39 2.363 2.363 4 Strong Not oriented. HFIR
Possible
foliation.
Fracture.
Attenuation.
Time delay.
PLANE L-183 90.66 64.91 182 87 2.092 1.444 4 Weak Mafic gneiss. HFIR
Foliation.
Attenuation.Time
delay, mafic
PLANE L-39 90.84 28.83 89 20 5.208 8.732 4.5 Clear gneiss. NoFilter
Not oriented.
Possible
PLANE L-190 91.42 58.91 3.070 2.023 5 far foliation. HFIR
PLANE L-34 91.59 24.59 52 53 6.322 9.063 4 Clear Foliation NoFilter
Not oriented.
Possible
foliation.
visibility weaker
PLANE L-114 91.67 8.15 23.744 19.782 3 Strong downwards NoFilter
Not oriented.
Possible
155

PLANE L-184 91.97 44.73 4.223 4.939 5 Weak foliation. HFIR


Not oriented.
Possible
foliation. Almost
PLANE L-44 92.09 34.87 4.877 5.704 4.5 Clear same as L-184 NoFilter
PLANE L-137 92.36 36.56 352 50 6.393 6.393 4.5 Storng Fracture FIR
Not oriented.
PLANE L-186 92.76 53.81 3.510 4.105 5.5 Strong Attenuation. HFIR
Fracture.
Conductor.
Attenuation.
Time delay.
PLANE L-40 92.85 23.6 359 38 7.293 9.133 4 Clear Fracture group NoFilter
Foliation.
Attenuation.
PLANE L-181 94.31 40.01 54 37 5.325 5.325 4.5 Clear Time delay. HFIR
Foliation.
PLANE L-158 95.12 33.85 76 44 7.444 6.610 4.5 Clear Attenuation. FIR
Not oriented.
PLANE L-31 96.43 21.98 7.380 12.032 4.3 very strong Attenuation. FIR
Possible
foliation.
Not oriented.
Possible
PLANE L-37 97.02 30.13 8.620 6.013 5 Clear foliation. NoFilter
Not oriented.
Possible
foliation. Curved
PLANE L-185 97.27 54.36 1.684 2.283 3 Weak downwards HFIR
PLANE L-135 97.75 15.05 115 43 7.686 9.625 2.5 Strong Foliation FIR
Not oriented.
Possible
PLANE L-41 98.97 27.51 9.730 12.396 5 Clear foliation. NoFilter
PLANE L-182 99.48 49.5 229 69 3.533 3.730 4 Clear Fracture HFIR
Not oriented.
Possible
PLANE L-219 100.5 7.86 13.845 27.725 4 foliation. FIR+AGC
Foliation.
Downwards
better seen
further away
156

PLANE L-29 101.09 27.36 90 18 5.280 9.743 5 Clear from hole NoFilter
PLANE L-180 101.47 42.68 213 62 4.370 5.111 4.5 Weak Fracture HFIR
Foliation.
Attenuation, time
PLANE L-23 102.33 23.33 111 45 10.994 10.073 4.5 Strong delay, conductor. NoFilter
Foliation.
Attenuation, time
PLANE L-134 103.03 31.63 14 41 7.204 7.632 4.5 Strong delay, conductor. FIR
Not oriented.
Possible
foliation,
attenuation, time
PLANE L-177 103.81 73.68 1.529 1.529 5 Clear delay, conductor. HFIR
Foliation.
Attenuation, time
PLANE L-136 104.03 33.93 35 20 7.437 6.603 5 Strong delay, conductor. FIR
Foliation.
Attenuation, time
PLANE L-33 104.13 29.65 35 20 6.042 7.790 4 Clear delay, conductor. NoFilter
Not oriented.
Possible
foliation,
attenuation, time
PLANE L-176 104.3 61.01 2.391 2.391 4.3 Clear delay, conductor. HFIR
Not oriented.
Possible
foliation,
attenuation, time
PLANE L-30 104.46 22.9 10.105 9.643 4.5 Clear delay, conductor. NoFilter
Not oriented.
Possible
foliation,
attenuation, time
PLANE L-35 105.62 28.63 8.748 8.748 5 Clear delay, conductor. NoFilter
Foliation.
Attenuation, time
PLANE L-36 105.89 33.17 114 43 5.820 5.820 4 Clear delay, conductor. NoFilter
Not oriented.
Possible
PLANE L-32 106.7 42.25 5.147 5.147 4.5 Strong foliation. NoFilter
157

Not oriented.
Possible
PLANE L-117 106.84 30.94 7.688 7.688 4 Strong foliation. NoFilter
Not oriented.
Possible
PLANE L-174 108.45 56.8 3.255 3.255 5 Clear foliation. HFIR
Fracture.
PLANE L-132 108.53 31.98 128 8 6.751 6.751 4 Clear Attenuation. FIR
Fracture. Time
PLANE L-175 109.17 49.22 18 33 3.883 3.883 4.5 Clear delay HFIR
Fracture.
PLANE L-127 110.21 38.02 235 37 6.270 4.683 5 Clear Attenuation. FIR
Not oriented.
Possible
PLANE L-178 110.67 49.26 4.209 3.220 5 Far, cLEAR foliation. HFIR
Not oriented.
Possible
PLANE L-179 112.34 40.71 5.652 3.355 5 Far, cLEAR foliation. HFIR
Not oriented.
PLANE L-218 112.72 54.94 4.283 2.250 5 Possible AGC
foliation. Time
delay, no
attenuation
PLANE L-27 113.5 22.69 126 45 11.970 11.046 5 Clear Foliation NoFilter
Not oriented.
Possible
PLANE L-130 113.83 74.38 1.328 1.328 5 Clear foliation. FIR
PLANE L-222 114.8 11.54 162 31 19.089 14.185 4 Foliation FIR+AGC
PLANE L-13 115.35 14.78 162 31 14.482 13.514 4 Strong Foliation NoFilter
Not oriented.
Possible
PLANE L-128 115.46 48.3 5.294 4.960 5.5 Clear foliation. FIR
Not oriented.
Possible
PLANE L-26 115.52 33.17 7.503 6.241 4.5 Clear foliation. NoFilter
Not oriented.
Attenuation.
Possible
PLANE L-24 116.05 20.75 14.006 12.133 4.5 Long Strong foliation. NoFilter
Not oriented.
Attenuation.
158

Possible
PLANE L-131 116.47 15.88 15.370 12.479 4.5 Strong foliation. FIR
Fracture.
Conductor.
PLANE L-15 116.84 38.58 180 73 6.222 4.647 5 Long Attenuation. NoFilter
Not oriented.
Attenuation.
Conductor.
Possible
PLANE L-221 116.85 5.93 11.908 24.853 2 foliation. FIR+agc
Foliation.
Attenuation.
PLANE L-28 117.14 50.19 79 84 4.129 3.806 5 Clear Conductor. NoFilter
Fracture. Time
PLANE L-19 117.86 58.32 72 50 3.122 2.591 5 ClearUp Delay. NoFilter
Fracture.
PLANE L-124 118.58 55.82 7 68 3.906 2.772 5.5 Strong Attenuation. HFIR
Not oriented.
PLANE L-129 119.3 21.88 13.899 10.180 5.5 Far Possible FIR
foliation.
PLANE L-20 119.77 51.55 78 82 4.636 3.383 6 Weak Fracture NoFilter
PLANE L-133 120.66 54.39 232 61 4.341 3.755 5 Strong Foliation FIR
Fracture.
Attenuation.
Conductor. Time
PLANE L-18 122.53 41.65 203 47 5.195 4.442 4.8 Clear delay. NoFilter
Not oriented.
Attenuation.
Conductor. Time
PLANE L-12 122.66 19.13 16.043 12.258 5.5 Strong delay. NoFilter
Foliation.
Conductor. Time
PLANE L-169 122.71 77.01 102 42 1.109 1.109 5 Strong delay. HFiR
Not oriented.
Attenuation.
Conductor. Time
PLANE L-17 122.74 58.5 2.842 2.842 4.8 Clear delay. NoFilter
Not oriented.
Attenuation.
Conductor. Time
159

PLANE L-25 122.74 15.14 24.119 17.357 6.5 Long, weaK delay. NoFilter
Not oriented.
Possible
PLANE L-122 124.07 38.38 5.450 5.450 4 Strong foliation. FIR
Not oriented.
Possible
PLANE L-8 124.89 46.21 3.764 3.764 5 clear foliation. NoFilter
PLANE L-22 125.09 21.06 230 30 5.548 9.301 3.5 Weak Fracture NoFilter
PLANE L-126 125.12 35.36 36 30 5.670 7.310 4.2 Clear Fracture FIR
Foliation.
Attenuation.
PLANE L-118 125.88 45.27 58 46 4.184 5.601 5.5 Time delay. Clear
Not oriented.
Possible
PLANE L-21 126.18 23.87 6.358 6.358 3.5 Weak foliation. NoFilter
Not oriented.
Attenuation.
Time delay.
PLANE L-11 127.37 13.89 19.399 13.081 4.5 Strong Possible NoFilter
foliation.
Not oriented.
Possible
PLANE L-123 128.08 32.07 7.595 5.892 4.5 Strong foliation. FIR
Not oriented.
Possible
PLANE L-10 128.16 23.71 11.879 10.962 5 long foliation. NoFilter
PLANE L-159 128.46 37.05 235 50 6.352 6.352 4.5 Clear Fracture FIR
Not oriented.
Possible
PLANE L-170 128.88 61.65 2.343 2.343 4 Strong foliation. HFIR
Not oriented.
Possible
PLANE L-220 129.1 6.41 29.802 13.889 3.3 foliation. FIR+AGC
Not oriented.
Possible
foliation. Small
PLANE L-171 129.81 50.22 3.481 3.157 4 Strong time delay HFIR
PLANE L-14 129.99 23.43 95 55 10.065 8.224 4 Clear Foliation NoFilter
PLANE L-119 130.86 13.28 91 33 18.475 11.652 4 Clear Foliation FIR
160

Not oriented.
Possible
PLANE L-173 131.37 60.23 2.450 1.945 4.5 Clear foliation. HFIR
PLANE L-168 131.5 40.56 213 50 6.046 6.046 4.5 Clear Fracture HFIR
Fracture.
Attenuation.
PLANE L-2 131.94 21.35 264 54 11.151 10.217 4 Time delay. NoFilter
PLANE L-162 132.79 45.37 355 79 7.002 3.466 4.5 Strong Fracture HFIR
Not oriented.
Possible
PLANE L-7 132.88 22.49 10.136 9.209 4 strong foliation. NoFilter
Foliation.
Attenuation.
PLANE L-160 133.18 30.86 84 45 5.103 4.235 4.5 Clear Time delay. FIR
PLANE L-172 134.01 50.74 36 46 4.718 3.762 5.5 Strong Fracture HFIR
PLANE L-16 134.29 33.06 65 42 7.512 7.512 5 Clear Fracture NoFilter
Not oriented.
Possible
PLANE L-121 135.13 19.37 10.349 7.508 3.6 Strong foliation. FIR
PLANE L-4 136.14 31.21 40 11 9.382 5.947 5.5 Strong Foliation NoFilter
PLANE L-9 136.75 33.71 99 31 8.291 5.365 5.5 long Foliation NoFilter
Not oriented.
Possible
PLANE L-6 136.76 78.45 0.784 0.784 4 short foliation. NoFilter
POINT P-1 136.97 0 3.84 Strong Point-like reflector
Not oriented.
Possible
PLANE L-167 137.31 65.88 1.601 1.601 4 Clear foliation. HFIR
PLANE L-164 138.46 64.66 209 60 1.677 1.677 4 Strong Fracture HFIR
PLANE L-161 138.72 45.12 66 52 2.764 2.764 4 Clear Fracture FIR
Not oriented.
Possible
PLANE L-163 138.94 40.52 3.751 2.197 3 Strong foliation. HFIR
Foliation.
Attenuation.
PLANE L-5 139.12 32.47 113 33 7.562 3.305 4.5 Time delay. NoFilter
PLANE L-120 140.68 24.89 96 24 12.678 1.664 6 Clear Fracture FIR
Fracture.
Attenuation.
Time delay.
161

PLANE L-3 142.58 58.63 27 90 2.039 0.000 3 Conductor. NoFilter


Fracture.
Attenuation.
Time delay.
PLANE L-165 142.85 34.83 233 55 5.707 0.000 3.5 Strong Conductor. HFOR
Fracture.
Attenuation.
Time delay.
PLANE L-166 143.29 57.26 7 61 2.449 0.000 3.6 Strong Conductor. HFIR
Not oriented. Out
PLANE L-1 145.04 64.21 1.347 0.000 4.5 of depth range. NoFilter
Not oriented. Out
PLANE L-125 149.77 9.1 17.755 0.000 4 Far, Clear of depth range. FIR
Raw records, 250 MHz Range, m HFIR Filtered, interpretations Range, m
01 2 3 4 5 6 6.9 10
162 01 2 3 4 5 6 6.9 10
Appendix 6.11
144 144

140 140

130 130

120 120

110 110

100 100

90 90

80 80

70 70

62 62
0 8 16 72 120 0 8 16 72 120
Two-way time, ns Two-way time, ns
Raw records, 250 MHz Range, m HFIR Filtered, interpretations Range, m
01 2 3 4 5 10
163
6 6.9 01 2 3 4 5 6 6.9 10
62 62

60 60

50 50

40 40

30 30

20 20

10 10

0 0

0 8 16 72 120 0 8 16 72 120
Two-way time, ns Two-way time, ns
Suomen Malmi Oy
P.O. Box 10
FI-00210 ESPOO
Acoustic Logging +358 9 8524 010
www.smoy.fi

Client: Posiva Oy Hole no: ONK-PH03 : 76 Surveyed by:AS, AK, JM


Site: Olkiluoto X: 1526 126.618 Length: 144.91 Survey date: 13.09.2005
Project no: Y: 6792 046.873 Azimuth: 225.1355 Reported by: JM
Z: -59.976 Dip: -5.843 Report date: Sept 2005

Fr.freq. Tunnel Velocity P 0.6 m ApparentQ Poisson's Ratio P Attenuation Tubewave En. R1
Lith. Depth
0 1/m 15 pile (m)
4000 m/s 7000 1 1000 0 0.5 -100 dB/m 100 200 200000
Core loss 1m:500m
Velocity P 1 m G-G Density Shear Modulus (GPa) S Attenuation Tubewave En. R2

4000 m/s 7000 2.6 g/cm3 3.2 10 60 -200 dB/m 100 200 200000
Velocity S 0.6 m Young's Modulus (GPa) Tubewave Att.
164

2000 m/s 5000 40 120 -40 dB/m 40


Velocity S 1 m Bulk Modulus (GPa)

2000 m/s 5000 0 90


Pegmatite
Pegmatitic 0.0
granite

Veined 700.0
gneiss
5.0
Pegmatite
Pegmatitic
granite
705.0
Diatexitic
gneiss 10.0

710.0
15.0
Pegmatite
Pegmatitic
granite
715.0
Quartz
gneiss 20.0
Diatexitic
gneiss 720.0
Diatexitic 25.0
gneiss

Pegmatite 725.0
Pegmatitic
granite 30.0
Appendix 6.12
Diatexitic
gneiss
730.0
Diatexitic
gneiss 35.0
Veined
gneiss 735.0
Pegmatite 40.0
Pegmatitic
granite
740.0
Diatexitic
gneiss 45.0
Pegmatite
Pegmatitic
granite
745.0

Diatexitic
50.0
gneiss

Pegmatite 750.0
Pegmatitic
granite 55.0
Diatexitic
gneiss 755.0
Pegmatite 60.0
granite

Diatexitic 760.0
gneiss
65.0

765.0
Pegmatite 70.0
Pegmatitic
165

granite
770.0
75.0

Diatexitic 775.0
gneiss
80.0

780.0
Pegmatite
Pegmatitic 85.0
granite

Diatexitic
gneiss 785.0
90.0
Mafic
gneiss

Diatexitic 790.0
gneiss
95.0
Pegmatite
Pegmatitic
granite 795.0
Diatexitic 100.0
gneiss

800.0
105.0

Diatexitic 805.0
gneiss
110.0
Diatexitic
Diatexitic
gneiss
810.0
115.0

815.0
120.0

Diatexitic 820.0
gneiss
125.0
Diatexitic
gneiss 825.0
Veined 130.0
gneiss

830.0
Diatexitic
135.0
gneiss

835.0
Mica
gneiss 140.0
Diatexitic
gneiss
840.0
Pegmatite 145.0
Pegmatitic
granite

Mica 845.0
gneiss
150.0
166
Suomen Malmi Oy
P.O. Box 10
FI-00210 ESPOO
Acoustic Logging +358 9 8524 010
www.smoy.fi

Client: Posiva Oy Hole no: ONK-PH03 : 76 Surveyed by:AS, JM


Site: Olkiluoto X: 1526 126.618 Length: 144.91 Survey date: 13.09.2005
Project no: Y: 6792 046.873 Azimuth: 225.1355 Reported by:JM
Z: -59.976 Dip: -5.843 Report date: Sept. 2005

Fr.freq. Tunnel Velocity P 0.6 m Full Wave Sonic, 0.6 m Full Wave Sonic, 1 m
Lith. Depth
0 1/m 15 pile (m)
4000 m/s 7000 0 s 2048 0 s 2048
Core loss 1m:500m
Velocity S 0.6 m

2000 m/s 5000


Pegmatite
Pegmatitic 0.00
granite
167

Veined 700.0
gneiss
5.00
Pegmatite
Pegmatitic
granite
705.0
Diatexitic
gneiss 10.00

710.0
15.00
Pegmatite
Pegmatitic
granite
715.0
Quartz
gneiss 20.00
Diatexitic
gneiss 720.0
Diatexitic 25.00
gneiss

Pegmatite 725.0
Pegmatitic
granite 30.00
Diatexitic
gneiss
730.0
Diatexitic
gneiss 35.00
Veined
gneiss 735.0
Pegmatite 40.00
Appendix 6.13

P titi
Pegmatitic
granite
740.0
Diatexitic
gneiss 45.00
Pegmatite
Pegmatitic
granite
745.0

Diatexitic
50.00
gneiss

Pegmatite 750.0
Pegmatitic
granite 55.00
Diatexitic
gneiss 755.0
Pegmatite 60.00
granite

Diatexitic 760.0
gneiss
65.00

765.0
Pegmatite 70.00
Pegmatitic
granite
770.0
75.00

Diatexitic 775.0
gneiss
80.00
168

780.0
Pegmatite
Pegmatitic 85.00
granite

Diatexitic
gneiss 785.0
90.00
Mafic
gneiss

Diatexitic 790.0
gneiss
95.00
Pegmatite
Pegmatitic
granite 795.0
Diatexitic 100.00
gneiss

800.0
105.00

Diatexitic 805.0
gneiss
110.00
Diatexitic
gneiss
810.0
115.00

815.0
120.00
Diatexitic 820.0
gneiss
125.00
Diatexitic
gneiss 825.0
Veined 130.00
gneiss

830.0
Diatexitic
135.00
gneiss

835.0
Mica
gneiss 140.00
Diatexitic
gneiss 840.0
Pegmatite 145.00
Pegmatitic
granite

Mica 845.0
gneiss
150.00
169
Results, Example of borehole image 170 Appendix 6.14
(the rest of the images on CD)

Suomen Malmi Oy
P.O. Box 10

Borehole Imaging FI-00210 ESPOO


+358 9 8524 010
www.smoy.fi

Client: Posiva Oy Hole no: ONK-PH03 : 76 Surveyed by: JM, LJ, AS


Site: Olkiluoto X: 1526 126.618 Length: 144.91 Survey date: 13.09.2005
Project no: Y: 6792 046.873 Azimuth: 225.1355 Reported by: JM
Z: -59.976 Dip: -5.843 Report date: Sept 2005

Depth ONK-PH03 3-D Image ONK-PH03 Image Section 49-100 m


Oriented to High Side (180 = Bottom)
1m:2m 0
0 90 180 270 0

49.00

49.10

49.20

49.30
171
MUISTIO 1 (3)
Appendix 7.1

Hirvonen Hannele

PARAMETERS, ANALYSIS METHODS, LABORATORIES AND ACCURACIES

PARAMETERS METHODS EQUIPMENT DETECTION ACCURACY LABORAT


LIMITS ORY
pH Posiva water Orion 550A 0.05 TVO
sampling guide
ISO-10532 / 1
Conductivity SFS-EN-27888 / 1 Kemetron UPW 5% TVO
Tetrametric 331
Density Posiva water AntonPaar DMA 0.001 g/cm3
TVO
sampling guide /1 35N
Sodium fluorescein fluorometer Shimadzu 3 g/L 2 x RSD < 8% TVO
RF-1501
Spectrofluoro-
fotometer
Alkalinity Posiva water Mettler DL 50 0.05 mmol/L 2 x RSD < 10% TVO
sampling guide / 1

Acidity Posiva water Mettler DL 50 0.05 mmol/L 2 x RSD < 20% TVO
sampling guide /1

DOC/DIC SFS-EN 1484 Shimadzu TOC- 0.1 mg/L 2 x RSD < 3% TVO
5000
Na FAAS Thermo 80 g/L 2 x RSD < 10%
SFS 3017 Elemental Solaar TVO
M6 MK2
K FAAS Thermo 2 g/L 2 x RSD < 10%
SFS 3017 Elemental Solaar TVO
M6 MK2
Ca FAAS Thermo 20 g/L 2 x RSD < 10%
SFS 3018 Elemental Solaar TVO
M6 MK2
Mn GFAAS Thermo 2 x RSD < 10%
SFS 5074 Elemental Solaar 0.1 g/L TVO
SFS 5502 M6 MK2
Mg FAAS Thermo 4 g/L 2 x RSD < 10%
SFS 3018 Elemental Solaar TVO
M6 MK2
Iron, Fetot Spectrophotometer Shimadzu 1601 10 g/L 2 x RSD < 10% TVO
/1 UV-VIS
Ferrous iron, Fe2+ Spectrophotometer Shimadzu 1601 10 g/L 2 x RSD < 10% TVO
/1 UV-VIS
Fe (tot) GFAAS Thermo 0.2 g/L 2 x RSD < 10%
SFS 5074 Elemental Solaar
SFS 5502 M6 MK2 TVO

Sr ICP-AES ARL 3250 1 g/L 10% VTT


Cl Titration/ Posiva Mettler DL 50 5 mg/L 2 x RSD < 5% TVO
water sampling
guide /1

Br IC, SFS-EN ISO Dionex DX-100 0.5 mg/L 2 x RSD < 8 % TVO
10304-1
F ISE / Posiva water Orion Research 0.1 mg/L 2 x RSD < 10% TVO
sampling guide /1 290A
172
MUISTIO 2 (3)
Appendix 7.1

Hirvonen Hannele

PARAMETERS METHODS EQUIPMENT DETECTION ACCURACY LABORAT


LIMITS ORY
S2- Spectrophotometer Shimadzu 1601 10 g/L 2 x RSD < 20% TVO
SFS 3038 UV-VIS
SO4 IC, SFS-EN ISO Dionex DX-100 0.2 mg/L 2 x RSD < 6% TVO
10304-1
Stot IC, SFS-EN ISO Dionex DX-100 0.2 mg/L 2 x RSD < 6% TVO
10304-1
PO4 Spectrophotometer Shimadzu 1601 30 g/L 2 x RSD < 7% TVO
SFS-EN 1189 UV-VIS
NH4 Spectrophotometer Shimadzu 1601 2 g/L 2 x RSD < 8% TVO
SFS 3032 UV-VIS
Total nitrogen, Ntot SFS 3031 Hitachi U-2000 50 g/L 15%< 500 g/L Rauman
10%> 500 g/L ymprist-
laboratorio
Nitrate, NO3 SFS 3030 Hitachi U-2000 5 g/L 15%< 500 g/L Rauman
10% > 500 g/L ymprist-
laboratorio
Nitrite, NO2 SFS 3029 Hitachi U-2000 Rauman
ymprist-
laboratorio
3
H Electrical LKB Quantulus 0.2 TU 1002, 200.5
enrichment + home and 1.000.10
The
made Proportional TU
Netherlands
Gas counter (PGC)
detection method
2
H MS Finnigan MAT 1
GTK
251
18
O MS Finnigan MAT < 0.1
GTK
251
13
C (DIC) MS VG Optima 0.3 pM 0.05 Uppsala
14
C (DIC) AMS EN-tandem 0.1 pM
accelerator + Uppsala
VG Optima
86
Sr/87Sr MS Eichrom Sr-spec 0.003
Ion-exchange
resin GTK
+ MS: VG Sector
54
34
S (SO4) MS VG MM 602 0.1 mBq/L 0.2 Waterloo
18
O (SO4) MS/2 VG MM Prism 0.5 Waterloo
Rn-222 Liquid scintillation Guardian 1414 5-10% STUK
counting / 3
U(tot) ja Alfaspectrometer Tennelec TC 256
U-234/U-238 ASTM D3648-95, 0.2 mBq/L HYRL
1995
173
MUISTIO 3 (3)
Appendix 7.1

Hirvonen Hannele

Laboratories:
TVO Teollisuuden Voima Oy
VTT VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
Uppsala ngstrmlab, University of Uppsala, Sweden
GTK Geological Survey of Finland
Waterloo Environmental Isotope Lab, University of Waterloo, Canada
The Netherlands Centre for Isotope Research, The Netherlands
STUK Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Finland
HYRL University of Helsinki, Department of radiochemistry

References

1 Paaso, N. (toim.), Mntynen, M., Vepslinen, A. ja Laakso, T. 2003. Posivan vesinytteenoton kentt-
tyohje, rev.3, Posiva Tyraportti 2003-02.

2 Drimmie, R.J., Heemskerk, A.R. and Johnson, J.C., Tritium analysis. Technical Procedure 1.0, Rev 03.
Environmental Isotope Laboratory, 28 p. Depatment of Earth Sciences, university of
Waterloo, Canada

3 Salonen L. and Hukkanen H., Advantaged of low-background liquid scintillation alpha-


spectrometry and pulse shape analysis in measuring 222Rn, uranium and 226Ra in
groundwater samples, Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, Vol 226, Nos 1-2, 1997.
174
MUISTIO
Appendix 7.2

Hirvonen Hannele

ANALYSIS RESULTS
175
MUISTIO 1 (1)
Appendix 7.3

Hirvonen Hannele

OLSO REFERENCE WATER RESULTS