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HISTORY AND EVOLUTION OF

ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT
EMGT101 LECTURE 2
IN THIS LECTURE, WE WILL

Name people who contributed to the evolution of


Engineering Management; and
Describe their works and principles which are still adapted
nowadays.
FREDERICK WINSLOW TAYLOR
American Mechanical
Engineer
Known today as the Father
of Scientific Management
One of his many contributions
to modern management is the
common practice of giving
employees rest breaks
throughout the day.
Frederick W. Taylor, 1856-1915 3
FREDERICK WINSLOW TAYLOR
Taylors key ideas have stood the test of time. These
include:
Using systematic analysis to identify the best methods
Scientifically selecting, training, and developing workers
Promoting cooperation between management and labor
Developing standardized approaches and tools
Setting specific tasks or goals and then rewarding workers
with financial incentives
Giving workers shorter work hours and frequent breaks 4
FRANK & LILLIAN GILBRETH

Frank is known primarily for his


time and motion studies. Lillian, an
industrial psychologist, focused on
the human aspects of work and the
understanding of workers
personalities and needs.

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FRANK & LILLIAN GILBRETH

Time Study
Timing how long it takes good workers
to complete each part of their jobs.

Motion Study
Breaking each task into its separate
motions and then eliminating those that
are unnecessary or repetitive.
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FRANK & LILLIAN GILBRETH

In addition to their use of motion studies to simplify work,


Frank and Lillian Gilbreth also made significant contributions
to the employment of handicapped workers and industrial
psychology.

Lillian Gilbreth, the first woman to receive a Ph.D. in


Management, also convinced the government to enact laws
regarding workplace safety, ergonomics, and child labor.
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HENRY L. GANTT

Developed the Gantt Chart which


is used for scheduling multiple
over-lapping tasks over a time
period. He focused on motivational
schemes, emphasizing the greater
effectiveness of rewards for good
work (rather than penalties for poor
work).
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1861 - 1919
HENRY GANTT GANTT CHART

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HENRI FAYOL

The Father of Modern


Management Theory
Divided industrial activities into
six groups: technical,
commercial, financial, security,
accounting and managerial.
Formulated the fourteen
Principles of Management.
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1841 - 1925
14 PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT
1. Division of work 8. Centralization

2. Authority and
9. Scalar chain
responsibility

3. Discipline 10. Order

4. Unity of command 11. Equity

12. Stability of tenure


5. Unity of direction
of personnel
6. Subordination of
13. Initiative
individual interests

7. Remuneration 14. Esprit de corps


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Adapted from Exhibit 2.4


MAX WEBER
The Father of Modern Sociology
Analyzed bureaucracy as the most
logical and rational structure for large
organizations. Bureaucracies are
founded on legal or rational authority
which is based on law, procedures
and rules.
Max Weber, 1864-1920
Bureaucracy
- Literally means to rule from a desk or office
- The exercise of control on the basis of
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knowledge, expertise, or experience.
THE AIMS OF BUREAUCRACY

1. Qualification-based hiring

2. Merit-based promotion

3. Chain of command

4. Division of labor

5. Impartial application of rules and procedures

6. Recorded in writing

7. Managers separate from owners


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MARY PARKER FOLLETT

Mary Parker Follett is known


today as the Mother of
Scientific Management
Her many contributions to
modern management include
the ideas of negotiation,
conflict resolution, and power
sharing.

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1868-1933
CONSTRUCTIVE CONFLICT AND COORDINATION:
MARY PARKER FOLLETT

Domination

Dealing with
Compromise
Conflict

Integration

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GEORGE ELTON MAYO

Father of the Hawthorne


Studies -- Identified the
Hawthorne Effect or the bias
that occurs when people know
that they are being studied.

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1880 - 1949
HAWTHORNE STUDIES: ELTON MAYO

Workers feelings and


attitudes affected their work

Financial incentives werent


the most important motivator
for workers

Group norms and behavior


play a critical role in behavior
at work 20
CHESTER I. BARNARD

Systems Theory: The task of


managers is to maintain a
system of cooperative effort in
a formal organization. He
suggested a comprehensive
social systems approach to
managing.
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1886 - 1961
COOPERATION AND ACCEPTANCE OF AUTHORITY:

Managers can gain cooperation by:

Securing essential services from individuals

Unifying people by clearly formulating an organizations


purpose and objectives

Providing a system of effective communication 22


THE END.
I HOPE YOU LEARNED A LOT.
SEE YOU NEXT MEETING =)