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FIRE DETECTION, PROTECTION,

AND SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS

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Fire detection and alarm systems contain:
1. System control unit
2. Primary (mains) electrical supply
3. Secondary (battery or
capacitor stand-by) power
supply. An emergency
generator could also be used
4. Alarm activation devices
manual or automatic
5. Alarm indication devices
audible and/or visual
6. Remote indication on a
building monitoring / management system
Elements of a Control Panel
Requires two Power Sources
ANNUNCIATOR

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An annunciator is an electrical
signaling devise used to
identify the location of a
system problem or the origin of
a phone call.
Annunciators may also be used
to show which doors or gates
are open, or which fire or
smoke alarms are sounding.
Usually, a light will go on and
the panel is labeled to identify
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the location.
A Simplex 4247 fire alarm
control panel.

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ELEMENTS OF A
CONTROL PANEL

Inputs

Smoke Detector

Manual Pull Station


A fire alarm system can have a variety of
7 input devices.
FIRE DETECTORS
Smoke Detectors
Heat Detectors
Flame Detectors Smoke Detectors
Gas Detectors

Heat Detectors

Gas Detectors

8 Flame Detectors
1. SMOKE DETECTORS
Designed to sense the presence of smoke
Commonly found in school, hospital, business, and
commercial occupancies with fire alarm systems
Most common are ionization and photoelectric detectors.
Application:
1. Optical type (photo-electric) detectors in
circulation spaces, i.e. hallways, corridors and landings.
2. Ionisation type detectors in living and dining areas.
IONIZATION
SMOKE
DETECTORS

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PHOTOELECTRIC SMOKE
DETECTORS

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IONIZATION VERSUS PHOTOELECTRIC
SMOKE DETECTORS

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2. HEAT DETECTOR
A heat detector is a fire alarm device designed to
respond when the convected thermal energy of a fire increases the
temperature of a heat sensitive element. The thermal mass and
conductivity of the element regulate the rate flow of heat into the
element. All heat detectors have this thermal lag. Heat detectors
have two main classifications of operation, "rate-of-rise" and
"fixed temperature.
Generally used in situations where smoke alarms cannot be
used.
Often installed in unheated areas.
Generally very reliable and less prone to
false alarms than smoke alarms.
Designed to operate at a preset temperature.
Usually use a metal alloy that will melt at the
preset temperature.
3. FLAME DETECTOR
A flame detector is a sensor intended to sight and
respond to the presence of a flame, such as by turning on a fire
suppression system or by turning off a fuel line, sooner than a
smoke detector or a heat detector would.
Specialized devices that detect
the electromagnetic light waves
produced by a flame
Typically found in places where
early detection and rapid reaction
to a fire is critical
Complicated and expensive
4. GAS DETECTOR
A gas detector is a device which detects the presence
of various gases within an area. This type of equipment is used to
detect a gas leak and interface with a control system so a process
can be automatically shut down. Gas detectors can be used to
detect combustible, flammable and toxic gases,
and oxygen depletion.
Calibrated to detect the presence of a specific gas
Need regular calibration
Usually found only in
specific commercial or
industrial applications
PREFERRED LOCATION OF DETECTORS:
Over 300 mm from light fittings.
Min. one per storey.
with alarm linked to be operated by others in the dwelling.
Circulation spaces between bedrooms.
Circulation spaces < 7.5 m from doors to habitable rooms.
Kitchens (with regard to heat/smoke producing
appliances).
Living rooms.

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THE STAGES OF A FIRE & DETECTORS
1.Incipient: Products of Combustion particles are produced
(<0.3 microns). No visible smoke or detectable heat. May occur
for milliseconds or days.
Use ionization detectors
2.Smoldering: Visible smoke particles are produced (>0.3
microns). Little visible flame or noticeable heat.
Use Photoelectric Detectors
3.Flame: Rapid combustion produces radiant energy in the visible,
and invisible (IR, UV) spectrums. Heat begins to buildup at this
stage.
Use Spark or Flame Detectors
4.High Heat: Uncontrolled combustion is caused by the heating of
nearby combustibles to their ignition point.
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Use Heat Detectors
ALARM SYSTEMS
A fire alarm system is a set of electric/electronic
devices/equipment working together to detect and alert people
through visual and audio appliances when smoke/fire is
present. These alarms may be activated from smoke detectors,
heat detectors, water flow sensors, which are automatic or
from a manual fire alarm pull station.

Residential Fire
Alarm

Manual Initiation
Devices
Notification Appliances Types

Audible - Horns,
Bells,
Sounders,
Sirens,
Chimes,
Speakers

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Notification Appliances Types
Strobe

Chime/Strobe

Horn/ Speaker/St
Visual Devices Strobe robe
FIRE SUPPRESSION
FIRE EXTINGUISHER
A fire extinguisher, is an active fire protection device
used to extinguish or control small fires, often in emergency
situations.
It is not intended for use on an out-of-control fire, such as
one which has reached the ceiling, endangers the user, or
otherwise requires the expertise of a fire department.
TYPES
Water type
Foam type
Dry powder or chemical dry powder
Carbon dioxide
Vaporizing liquid extinguishers (halon group)
High discharge extinguishers
Other types
Characters of portable fire extinguishers
Less weight can be easily lifted by any trained person.
First aid fire fighting means
Use friendly in operation
SPRINKLERS
A fire sprinkler system is an active fire
protection measure, consisting of a water supply system,
providing adequate pressure and flow rate to a water distribution
piping system, onto which fire sprinklers are connected.
Working Principles
Water sprinklers provide an automatic spray dedicated to
the area of fire outbreak.
Sprinkler heads have temperature sensitive elements that
respond immediately to heat, discharging the contents of the
water main to which they are attached.
In addition to a rapid response which reduces and isolates
fire damage, sprinklers use less water to control a fire than the
firefighting service, therefore preventing further damage from
excess water.
The simplest application is
to attach and suspend
sprinkler heads from a
water main fixed at ceiling
level. However, some means
of regulation and control is
needed
Sprinkler head spacing
area covered by one head, maximum 12 sqm.
Maximum distance between heads - 4 m.
Maximum distance from wall to ceiling mounted head -2 m.
Minimum distance between heads in the same room - 2 m
(only 1 head per room is normal).
Sprinkler Head Operation
Fire sprinklers are activated by heat, and not by smoke, or
steam. The activation point varies depending on the thermo
bulb or thermo link installed.
Residential heads are quick response type heads. They
traditionally activate at a temperature of 57 deg Celsius to
260 deg Celsius depending on the need in the area.
Generally heads with an activation temperature of 68 to 74
Celsius are used. The colour of the thermo bulb indicates the
temperature rating.
Quartzoid bulb - a glass tube is used to retain a water valve on
its seating. The bulb or tube contains a coloured volatile fluid,
which when heated to a specific temperature expands to shatter
the glass and open the valve.
Water flows on to a deflector, dispersing as a spray over
the source of fire. Operating temperatures vary with a colour
coded liquid.
Sprinkler Head Designs
Sidewall Installations
The least expensive style of installation as you can have
multiple heads on a single riser and all of the pipes can remain on
interior walls.
FIRE SPRINKLER DESIGN
Fire sprinklers are widely recognized as the single
most effective method for fighting the spread of fires in their
early stages before they can cause severe injury to
people and damage to property.

There are 4 basic types of fire sprinkler systems:

Wet Pipe System


Dry Pipe System
Deluge System
Pre-action System
WET PIPE SPRINKLER SYSTEM
A wet pipe sprinkler system is a sprinkler system
employing automatic sprinkler heads attached to a piping system
containing water and connected to a water supply so that water
discharges immediately from sprinklers opened by heat from a
fire.

Each sprinkler is activated individually


when it is heated to its design
temperature. Most sprinklers discharge
approximately 20-25 gallons per minute
(gpm), depending on the system design.
Sprinklers for special applications are
designed to discharge up to 100 gpm.
DRY PIPE SPRINKLER SYSTEMS
A dry pipe sprinkler system is sprinkler system
employing automatic sprinklers that are attached to a piping
system containing air or nitrogen under pressure, the release of
which (as from the opening of a sprinkler) permits the water
pressure to open a valve known as a dry pipe valve, and the water
then flows into the piping system and out the
opened sprinklers.
Dry pipe sprinkler systems are
installed in areas where wet pipe systems
may be inappropriate such as areas where
freezing temperatures might be expected.
Wet pipe Vs Dry pipe
Wet pipe systems are not suited for sub-freezing
environments.
There may also be a concern where piping is subject to
severe impact damage and could consequently leak.
With the exception of unheated building spaces and freezer
rooms, dry pipe systems do not offer any significant
advantages over wet pipe systems.
3. DELUGE SPRINKLER SYSTEM
The arrangement of deluge system piping is similar to a
wet or dry pipe system with two major differences:
A. Standard sprinklers are used, but they are all open. The
activating elements have been removed so that when the control
valve is opened water will flow from all of the sprinklers
simultaneously and deluge the area with water.
B. The deluge valve is normally closed. The
valve is opened by the activation of a separate
fire detection system. Deluge systems are
used where large quantities of water are
needed quickly to control a fast-developing
fire. Deluge valves can be electrically,
pneumatically or hydraulically operated.
4. PRE-ACTION SPRINKLER SYSTEM
A pre-action sprinkler system is similar to a deluge
sprinkler system except the sprinklers are closed.
The pre-action valve is normally closed and is operated by a
separate detection system.
Activation of a fire detector will open the pre-action valve,
allowing water to enter the system piping. Water will not flow
from the sprinklers until heat activates the
operating element in individual sprinklers.
Opening of the pre-action valve
effectively converts the system to a wet
pipe sprinkler system.
In a pre-action system the piping is
pressurized with air or nitrogen,
monitoring of this air pressure provides a
means of supervising the system piping.
Loss of the supervisory air pressure in the system piping results
in a trouble signal at the alarm panel.
This type system is typically used in areas containing high value
equipment or contents and spaces which are highly sensitive to the
effects of accidental sprinkler water discharge.
DRENCHER SYSTEMS
Drencher systems shall be installed on all refuge floors to
cover all external wall openings.
DRENCHER SYSTEMS
FIRE HOSE REELS
Fire hose reels are located to provide a reasonably
accessible and controlled supply of water to combat a potential
fire risk. The length of a fully extended fire hose is between 18
and 36 meters with a diameter of 13 or 19mm Internal
Diameter. These appliances are designed to deliver, as a minimum,
0.33ltrs of water per second. A control nozzle attached to the
end of the hose enables the operator to control the direction and
flow of water to the fire. All fire hose reels come with a unique
ball or gate valve shut off device, a plastic or solid brass hose reel
nozzle, and mounting bracket.
FIRE HYDRANT
FIRE PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS FOR HIGH RISE
BUILDINGS 15 m IN HEIGHT OR ABOVE
Set backs
Floor Area Ratio (FAR) The quotient obtained by
dividing the total covered area (plinth area) on all floors by
the area of the plot; FAR= Total covered area of all floors/
Plot area.
CONSTRUCTION - All materials of constructions in load
bearing elements, stairways and corridors and facades shall be
non-combustible.
The interior finish materials shall not have a flame spread
ability rating exceeding Class A.
STAIRCASE - The internal walls or staircase shall be of
brick or reinforced concrete with a minimum of 2 h fire
rating.
The staircase shall be ventilated to the atmosphere at each
landing and a vent at the top; the vent openings shall be of 0.5 m
in the external wall and the top.
Glazing or glass bricks if used in staircase, shall have fire
resistance rating of minimum 2 h.
LIFT - Walls of lift enclosures shall have a fire rating of 2 h;
lifts shafts shall have a vent at the top of area not less than 0.2
sq.m.
The number of lifts in one row for a lift bank shall not exceed
4 and the total number of lifts in the bank (of two rows) shall not
exceed 8.
Lift car door shall have a fire resistance rating of half an hour.
Collapsible gates shall not be permitted for lifts and shall have
solid doors with fire resistance of at least 1 h.
Exit from the lift lobby, if located in the core of the building,
shall be through a self closing smoke stop door of half an hour fire
resistance.
Grounding switch, at ground floor level, shall be provided on
all the lifts to enable the fire service to ground the lifts.
Telephone or other communication facilities for lifts shall be
connected to fire control room for the building.
BASEMENTS - In multi-storey basements, intake ducts may
serve all basement levels, but each basement levels and basement
compartment shall have separate smoke outlet duct or ducts.
Ducts so provided shall have the same fire resistance rating as
the compartment itself.
Fire rating may be taken as the required smoke extraction time
for smoke extraction ducts.
Mechanical extractors for smoke venting system from lower
basement levels shall also be provided.
If the travel distance exceeds, additional staircases shall be
provided at proper places.
Use of basements for kitchens working on gas fuel shall not be
permitted, unless air conditioned. The basement shall not be
permitted below the ward block of a hospital nursing home unless
it is fully sprinkled.
Building services such as electrical sub-stations, boiler rooms in
basements shall comply with the provisions of the Indian Electricity
Act/Rules.
SERVICE DUCTS / SHAFTS - Service ducts and shafts shall
be enclosed by walls of 2 h and doors of 1 h, fire rating. All such
ducts/shafts shall be properly sealed and fire stopped at all floor
levels.
A vent opening at the top of the service shaft shall be provided
having between one-fourth and one-half of the area of the shaft.
REFUSE CHUTES - Refuse chutes shall have opening at least
1 m above roof level or venting purpose and they shall have an
enclosure wall of non-combustible material with fire resistance of
not less than 2 h.
They shall not be located within the staircase enclosure or
service shafts, or air-conditioning shafts inspection panel and
doors shall be tight fitting with 1 h fire resistance; the chutes
should be as far away as possible from exits.
The inspection panel doors and any other opening in the shaft
shall be provided with air-tight fire doors having fire resistance of
not less than2h;
GAS SUPPLY - Where gas pipes are run in buildings, the same
shall be run in separate shafts exclusively for this purpose and
these shall be on external walls, away from the staircases. There
shall no interconnection of this shaft with the rest of the floors.
LPG distribution pipes shall always be below the false ceiling.
Gas meters shall be housed in a suitably constructed metal
cupboard located in a well ventilated space.
ILLUMINATION OF MEANS OF EXIT - 10 Lux
AIR-CONDITIONING
FIRE ALARM SYSTEM - All buildings with heights of 15 m
or above shall be equipped with manually operated electrical fire
alarm (MOEFA) system and automatic fire alarm system in
accordance with good practice.
FIRE CONTROL ROOM - For all buildings 15 m in height
or above and apartment buildings with a height of 30 m and
above, there shall be a control room on the entrance floor of the
building with communication system (suitable public address
system) to all floors and facilities for receiving the message from
different floors.
HELIPAD - For high rise buildings above 60 m in height,
provision for helipad should be made.
COMPARTMENTATION - The building shall be suitably
compartmentalized so that fire/smoke remain confined to the
area where fire incident has occurred and does not spread to the
remaining part of the building.
MATERIALS FOR INTERIOR DECORATION /
FURNISHING - The use of materials which are combustible in
nature and may spread toxic fume/gases should not be used for
interior decoration/furnishing, etc.
SPRINKLERS - Sprinkler system is taken parallel to the ceiling
the maximum distance is 250mm from the ceiling.

STORAGE TANK - Terrace storage tank 10000l;


Underground storage tank 75000l.
Connected to the domestic water system to prevent the
stagnation of water for a longer period.
Fire hydrant with hose reel should be provided at all floors
spacing 4.6m 21sqm; 4m 12 sqm; 3.8m 8sqm.