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Naqada III

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Naqada III
Geographical range Egypt
Dates circa 3,200 B.C.E. circa 3,150 B.C.E.
Major sites Naqada
Preceded by Gerzeh culture
Followed by Early Dynastic Period (Egypt)
Naqada III is located in Egypt NaqadaNaqada
Map of Egypt showing Naqada during the Protodynastic Period of Egypt (clickable

The Narmer Palette, thought to mark the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt; note
the images of the goddess Bat at the top, as well as the serpopards that form the
central intertwined image.
Naqada III is the last phase of the Naqada culture of ancient Egyptian prehistory,
dating approximately from 3200 to 3000 BC.[1] It is the period during which the
process of state formation, which had begun to take place in Naqada II, became
highly visible, with named kings heading powerful polities. Naqada III is often
referred to as Dynasty 0 or the Protodynastic Period[1] to reflect the presence of
kings at the head of influential states, although, in fact, the kings involved
would not have been a part of a dynasty. They would more probably have been
completely unrelated and very possibly in competition with each other. In this
period, those kings' names were inscribed in the form of serekhs on a variety of
surfaces including pottery and tombs.

The Protodynastic Period in ancient Egypt was characterised by an ongoing process

of political unification, culminating in the formation of a single state to begin
the Early Dynastic Period. Furthermore, it is during this time that the Egyptian
language was first recorded in hieroglyphs. There is also strong archaeological
evidence of Egyptian settlements in southern Canaan during the Protodynastic
Period, which are regarded as colonies or trading entrepts.

State formation began during this era and perhaps even earlier. Various small city-
states arose along the Nile. Centuries of conquest then reduced Upper Egypt to
three major states Thinis, Naqada, and Nekhen. Sandwiched between Thinis and
Nekhen, Naqada was the first to fall. Thinis then conquered Lower Egypt. Nekhen's
relationship with Thinis is uncertain, but these two states may have merged
peacefully, with the Thinite royal family ruling all of Egypt. The Thinite kings
were buried at Abydos in the Umm el-Qa'ab cemetery.

Most Egyptologists consider Narmer to be both the last king of this period and the
first king of the First Dynasty. He was possibly preceded over some parts of Upper
Egypt by Crocodile, Iry-Hor, Ka and perhaps by the so-called Scorpion King(s),
whose name may refer to, or be derived from, the goddess Serket, a special early
protector of other deities and the rulers.[2]

Naqada III extended all over Egypt and was characterized by some notable firsts

The first hieroglyphs

The first graphical narratives on palettes
The first regular use of serekhs
The first truly royal cemeteries
Possibly the first example of irrigation
The invention of sail navigation[3] (independently from its prior invention in the
Persian Gulf 2,000 years earlier)[4]
^ Jump up to a b Shaw 2000, p. 479.
Jump up ^ Shaw 2000, p. 71.
Jump up ^ Meza, A.I. (2007) Neolithic Boats Ancient Egypt and the Maltese Islands.
A Minoan Connection J-C. Goyon,C. Cardin (Eds.) Actes Du Neuvime Congrs
International Des gyptologues, p. 1287.
Jump up ^ Robinson, D. (2012). Review of Anderson, A., et al. (2010), The Global
Origins and Development of Seafaring. International Journal of Nautical
Archaeology. 41 (1) 206208. doi10.1111j.1095-9270.2011.00333_2.x.
Further reading[edit]
Andelkovic, Branislav (2002). Southern Canaan as an Egyptian Protodynastic Colony.
Cahiers Caribens dgyptologie. 34 (Dix ans de hiroglyphes au campus) 7592.
Bard, Katherine A. (2000). The Emergence of the Egyptian State. In Shaw, Ian. The
Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford and New York Oxford University Press. pp.
6188. ISBN 0-19-815034-2.
Midant-Reynes, Batrix (2000). The Prehistory of Egypt From the First Egyptians to
the First Pharaohs. Oxford and Malden Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-20169-6.
Shaw, Ian, ed. (2000). The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University
Press. ISBN 0-19-815034-2.
Wilkinson, Toby Alexander Howard (2001). Early Dynastic Egypt (2nd ed.). London
Routledge. ISBN 0-415-18633-1.
Wright, Mary (1985). Contacts Between Egypt and Syro-Palestine During the
Protodynastic Period. Biblical Archeologist Perspectives on the Ancient World from
Mesopotamia to the Mediterranean. 48 (4) 24053.
External links[edit]
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Naqada III.

Unification Theories, Digital Egypt, UK UCL.