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Dogra

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Not to be confused with Dogar.

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Dogras
Total population
(5.5 million[citation needed])
Regions with significant populations
Jammu region, Himachal Pradesh, East Punjab in India and Azad Kashmir, West Punjab
in Pakistan
Languages
Dogri
Religion
Predominantly Om.svg Hinduism
Related ethnic groups
Indo-Aryans
The Dogras are an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group in India and Pakistan. Dogra
Rajputs ruled Jammu from the 19th century, when Gulab Singh was made a hereditary
Raja of Jammu by the Sikh Emperor Maharaja Ranjit Singh, till Oct 1947. Through the
Treaty of Amritsar (1846), they acquired Kashmir as well. They live predominantly
in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir, and in adjoining areas of Punjab,
Himachal Pradesh, and northeastern Pakistan.[1] The Brahmin Dogras are
predominantly Saraswat Brahmins, genetically of common origin with Saraswat Brahmin
of Kashmir.[2]

The Dogra Regiment and Punjab Regiment of India primarily consists of Dogras and
Sikhs.[3]

Contents [hide]
1 The Jammu region
1.1 Cultural profile
2 Etymology of Jammu and Dogra
3 The Royal House of Jammu and Kashmir (Dogra dynasty)
4 Culture
4.1 Dogra cuisine
4.2 Military history
5 Notable Dogras
6 References
The Jammu region[edit]
The Jammu region, one of the three regions of Jammu and Kashmir state (the others
being the Kashmir Valley and Ladakh), is bound on the north by the Pir Panjal Range
of the middle Himalayas, in the south by Punjab, to the east by Ladakh, and close
to the west by Pakistan. The lower Himalayan ranges begin behind the town of Jammu,
which rests on a slope over 1,300 feet (400 m) above sea level, overlooking and
commanding the plain watered by the Chenab, Ravi, Tawi and Ujh rivers. The Jammu
region consists of ten districts Jammu, Kathua, Udhampur, Doda, Poonch, Kishtwar,
Reasi, Samba, Ramban and Rajouri. The city of Jammu is the winter capital of the
state of Jammu and Kashmir.

The Jammu Dogras traditionally inhabited the area between the slopes of the
Shivalik range of mountains, the sacred lakes of Saroien sar and Mannsar but later
spread over whole of Jammu region. They generally speak Dogri and other dialects
similar to Dogri. The majority of the Dogra are followers of Hinduism, but a large
number in Jammu and Kasmir believe in other religions. In the sixteenth and
seventeenth centuries, some Dogras embraced Islam. These factors, together with the
effects of immigration into the region, have resulted in the Dogra population of
Jammu and Kashmir including members of all three religions.

The Dogra Raj emerged as a regional power, particularly after Maharaja Gulab Singh
emerged as a warrior and his subjects received special martial recognition from the
British Raj. The rule of Gulab Singh's Raj extended over the whole of the Jammu
Region, a large part of the Ladakh region as early as March 1846, and a large part
of the Indian Punjab (now Himachal Pradesh). The Kashmir Valley was handed over to
Gulab Singh by the British government, for assisting the British during the Anglo-
Sikh wars, as part of the territories ceded to the British government by Lahore
State according to the provisions of Article IV of the Treaty of Lahore dated 9
March 1846. Under the Treaty of Amritsar in the same year, the Dogra king of Jammu
and the state was thereafter known as the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir State
(Raj), also thereafter referred as Kashmir State. The term Dogra hence is more akin
to the subjects of Himachal Pradesh, some areas of Punjab and the whole region of
Jammu that was ruled by Raja Gulab Singh as part of the Dogra Raj irrespective of
the religion of the inhabitants.

Cultural profile[edit]
Kud, a ritual dance performed in honour of Lok Devatas. This dance style is
performed mostly at night. It is spontaneous and people of all ages and sexes
participate. Instruments used during the Kud are Narshingha, chhaina, flute, drumsm
etc. The rhythm of music controls the movement of participants. This dance
continues for the whole night. The number of participants ranges from 20 to 30
members.
Heren, a traditional theatre form performed during the Lohri festival by 1015
people. It is mostly performed in hilly regions of Jammu.
Fumenie and Jagarana, a dance style performed by women on the eve of groom's
departure to in-laws house. Both the songs are sung by a group consisting of 1520
members. This traditional dance form depicts the feelings and emotions of women.
BakhGwatriKarkMasade, a chorus narrative sung by a group of 10 singers without any
musical instruments.
Gwatri, a singingdance combined tradition in which the singers narrate some text
which is acted by the Gwatari dancers.
Karak, a narrative ballet sung by a community called 'Jogies'. They narrate a
popular folk tale in their dance style, performed by three members with
accompaniment of a typical folk instrument called 'Rabab'.
Benthe, the chorus singing tradition performed specific community of tribal called
Gujjar and Bakerwal. The dance is performed by 57 members.[4]
Etymology of Jammu and Dogra[edit]
The origins of the name Jammu are shrouded in mystery, as is the history of the
people inhabiting the territory, popularly known as Duggar. The towns of the region
with their fortresses stand testimony to a distinct cultural and linguistic
identity. Some try to trace the origin of the name to the word jambudvipchandraa, a
combination of the words Jambu and dwipa (island). According to Walter Hamilton, It
is possible that an ocean may at one time have reached the base of these mountains
forming high table lands into islands.[5]

The Chinese traveler Xuanzang describes the valley of Pamir as the centre of
Jambudwipa. Some attribute the name to Jambavantha or Jamwant, the Riksharaja (the
king of the bears in the army of King Sugriva in the Ramayana), who is said to have
meditated in the Peer Kho Cave on the banks of the Tawi River. Another popular
belief is that Jammu owes its name to Raja Jambulochan, and the city remains
significant since the 14th century BC. According to the Imperial Gazetteer of India
the origin of the word Dogra is said to have arisen from the fact that the cradle
of the Dogra people lies between the two lakes of Sruinsar and Mansar. Dwigart Desh
(meaning country of two hollows) was converted into Duggar and Dugra, which then
became Dogra.
The Royal House of Jammu and Kashmir (Dogra dynasty)[edit]
Main article The Royal House of Jammu and Kashmir
Dogra dynasty was a dynasty of Hindu Rajputs who ruled Jammu & Kashmir from 1846 to
1947. They traced their ancestry to the Ikshvaku (Solar) Dynasty of Northern India
(the same clan in which Lord Rama was born; he, therefore, is the 'kuldevta'
(family deity) of the Dogras).

Gulab Singh, the first Maharaja of Dogra Rajput dynasty which ruled Jammu &
Kashmir.

Maharaja Hari Singh, the last monarch of Dogra Rajput dynasty which ruled Jammu &
Kashmir.
Among the enlightened rulers of Jammu was Raja Ranjit Dev (17281780) who
introduced certain social reforms such as a ban on 'Sati' (immolation of the wife
on the funeral pyre of the husband) and female infanticide. Later, under Maharaja
Ranjit Singh, the state became part of the Sikh Empire of the Punjab after it was
captured from its Afghan rulers. Ranjit Singh rendered this state to his general,
Maharaja Gulab Singh Jamwal, who belonged to the Jamwal Rajput clan that ruled
Jammu. He extended the boundaries of Jammu to western Tibet with the help of
General Zorawar Singh.

The Sikh Empire rule extended beyond the Jammu Region and the Kashmir Valley to the
Tibetan Buddhist Kingdom of Ladakh and the Emirates of Hunza, Gilgit and Nagar.
After the First Anglo-Sikh War in 1846, the British gave Kashmir and the title of
'Maharaja' to Gulab Singh the chief minister as a reward for aligning with them
against the Sikhs.[6]

Culture[edit]
Dogra cuisine[edit]
Wheat, maize and bajra are staple food besides rice, cereals and a t