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CHAPTER 5 DYNAMICS OF UNIFORM

CIRCULAR MOTION
ANSWERS TO FOCUS ON CONCEPTS QUESTIONS
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1. (c) The velocity of car A has a constant magnitude (speed) and direction. Since its velocity
is constant, car A does not have an acceleration. The velocity of car B is continually
changing direction during the turn. Therefore, even though car B has a constant speed, it has
an acceleration (known as a centripetal acceleration).

2. (d) The centripetal (or center-seeking) acceleration of the car is perpendicular to its
velocity and points toward the center of the circle that the road follows.

3. (b) The magnitude of the centripetal acceleration is equal to v2/r, where v is the speed of the
object and r is the radius of the circular path. Since the radius of the track is smaller at A
compared to B, the centripetal acceleration of the car at A has a greater magnitude.

4. (a) The magnitude ac of the centripetal acceleration is given by ac = v2/r.

5. (d) The acceleration (known as the centripetal acceleration) and the net force (known as the
centripetal force) have the same direction and point toward the center of the circular path.

6. (a) According to the discussion in Example 7 in Section 5.3, the maximum speed that the
cylinder can have is given by vmax = s gr , where s is the coefficient of static friction, g
is the acceleration due to gravity, and r is the radius of the path.

7. (d) The radius of path 1 is twice that of path 2. The tension in the cord is the centripetal
force. Since the centripetal force is inversely proportional to the radius r of the path, T1 must
be one-half of T2.

2
8. (a) The centripetal force is given by Fc = mv /r. The centripetal forces for particles 1, 2 and
2 2 2
3 are, respectively, 4m0v0 /r0, 3m0v0 /r0, and 2m0v0 /r0.

9. (d) The centripetal force is directed along the radius and toward the center of the circular
path. The component FN sin of the normal force is directed along the radius and points
toward the center of the path.

2
10. (a) The magnitude of the centripetal force is given by Fc = mv /r. The two cars have the
same speed v and the radius r of the turn is the same. The cars also have the same mass m,
even though they have different weights due to the different accelerations due to gravity.
Therefore, the centripetal accelerations are the same.
244 DYNAMICS OF UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION

11. (e) The centripetal force acting on a satellite is provided by the gravitational force. The
2
magnitude of the gravitational force is inversely proportional to the radius squared (1/r ), so
if the radius is doubled, the gravitational force is one fourth as great; 1/22 = 1/4.

12. The orbital speed is v = 1.02 103 m/s.

13. (b) The magnitude of the centripetal force acting on the astronaut is equal to her apparent
2
weight. The centripetal force is given by Equation 5.3 as Fc = mv /r, which depends on the
square (v2) of the astronauts speed and inversely (1/r) on the radius of the ring. According
to Equation 5.1, r = vT /(2), the radius is directly proportional to the speed. Thus, the
centripetal force is directly proportional to the speed v of the astronaut. As the astronaut
walks from the inner ring to the outer ring, her speed doubles and so does her apparent
weight.

14. (d) The skier at A is speeding up, so the direction of the acceleration, and hence the net
force, must be parallel to the skiers velocity. At B the skier is momentarily traveling at a
constant speed on a circular path of radius r. The direction of the net force, called the
centripetal force, must be toward the center of the path. At C the skier is in free-fall, so the
net force, which is the gravitational force, is straight downward.

15. (b) According to Newtons second law, the net force, FN mg , must equal the mass m
2
times the centripetal acceleration v /r.
Chapter 5 Problems 245

CHAPTER 5 DYNAMICS OF UNIFORM


CIRCULAR MOTION
PROBLEMS

1. SSM REASONING The speed of the plane is given by Equation 5.1: v = 2 r / T , where
T is the period or the time required for the plane to complete one revolution.

SOLUTION Solving Equation 5.1 for T we have


2 r 2 ( 2850 m )
T= = = 160 s
v 110 m / s

2
2. REASONING According to ac = v /r (Equation 5.2), the magnitude ac of the centripetal
acceleration depends on the speed v of the object and the radius r of its circular path. In
Example 2 the object is moving on a path whose radius is infinitely large; in other words,
the object is moving along a straight line.

SOLUTION Using Equation 5.2, we find the following values for the magnitude of the
centripetal acceleration:
2
v 2 (12 m/s )
Example 1 ac = = = 290 m/s2
r 0.50 m

2
v 2 ( 35 m/s )
Example 2 ac = = = 0 m/s2
r

2
v 2 ( 2.3 m/s )
Example 3 ac = = = 2.9 m/s2
r 1.8 m

3. REASONING AND SOLUTION Since the speed of the object on and off the circle
remains constant at the same value, the object always travels the same distance in equal time
intervals, both on and off the circle. Furthermore since the object travels the distance OA in
the same time it would have moved from O to P on the circle, we know that the distance OA
is equal to the distance along the arc of the circle from O to P.
246 DYNAMICS OF UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION

The circumference of the circle is 2 r = 2 (3.6 m) = 22.6 m . The arc OP subtends an


angle of = 25 ; therefore, since any circle contains 360, the arc OP is 25/360 or 6.9 per
cent of the circumference of the circle. Thus,
b gb g
OP = 22.6 m 0.069 = 1.6 m

and, from the argument given above, we conclude that the distance OA is 1.6 m .

4. REASONING AND SOLUTION Let s


represent the length of the path of the pebble
after it is released. From Conceptual
Example 2, we know that the pebble will fly Target
off tangentially. Therefore, the path s is per- s
perpendicular to the radius r of the circle.
Thus, the distances r, s, and d form a right Pebble
triangle with hypotenuse d as shown in the d
figure at the right. From the figure we see that
r

r r 1 35
cos = = =
d 10 r 10 C
or
F
G 1I
= cos 1
H10 JK= 84
Furthermore, from the figure, we see that + + 35 = 180 . Therefore,

= 145 = 14584 = 61
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5. SSM REASONING The magnitude ac of the cars centripetal acceleration is given by


Equation 5.2 as ac = v2 / r , where v is the speed of the car and r is the radius of the track.
3
The radius is r = 2.6 10 m. The speed can be obtained from Equation 5.1 as the
circumference (2 r) of the track divided by the period T of the motion. The period is the
time for the car to go once around the track (T = 360 s).

SOLUTION Since ac = v 2 / r and v = ( 2 r ) / T , the magnitude of the cars centripetal


acceleration is
2
2 r
2 4 2 r 4 ( 2.6 10 m )
2 3

ac =
v
= T
= 2 = = 0.79 m/s 2
2
r r T ( 360 s )
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Chapter 5 Problems 247

6. REASONING Blood traveling through the aortic arch follows a circular path with a
diameter of 5.0 cm and, therefore, a radius of r = 2.5 cm = 0.025 m. We know the speed v of
v2
the blood flow, so the relation ac = (Equation 5.2) will give the magnitude of the
r
bloods centripetal acceleration.

SOLUTION With a blood flow speed of v = 0.32 m/s, the magnitude of the centripetal
acceleration in the aortic arch is

2
v 2 ( 0.32 m/s )
ac = = = 4.1 m/s 2
r 0.025 m

7. REASONING The relationship between the magnitude ac of the centripetal acceleration


and the period T of the tip of a moving clock hand can be obtained by using Equations 5.2
and 5.1:
v2 2 r
ac = (5.2) v= (5.1)
r T

The period is the time it takes a clock hand to go once around the circle. In these
expressions, v is the speed of the tip of the hand and r is the length of the hand. Substituting
Equation 5.1 into Equation 5.2 yields

2
2 r
2 4 2 r
=
v T
ac = = 2 (1)
r r T

SOLUTION The period of the second hand is Tsecond = 60 s. The period of the minute hand
is Tminute = 1 h = 3600 s. Using Equation (1), we find that the ratio of the centripetal
acceleration of the tip of the second hand to that of the minute hand is

4 2 r
2 2 2
ac, second Tsecond Tminute ( 3600 s )
= = = = 3600
ac, minute 4 2 r 2
Tsecond ( 60 s )2
2
Tminute
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

2
8. REASONING The centripetal acceleration is given by Equation 5.2 as ac = v /r. The value
of the radius r is given, so to determine ac we need information about the speed v. But the
speed is related to the period T by v = (2 r)/T, according to Equation 5.1. We can substitute
this expression for the speed into Equation 5.2 and see that
248 DYNAMICS OF UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION

ac =
v2
=
b
2 r / T g = 4
2
2
r
2
r r T

SOLUTION To use the expression obtained in the reasoning, we need a value for the
period T. The period is the time for one revolution. Since the container is turning at
2.0 revolutions per second, the period is T = (1 s)/(2.0 revolutions) = 0.50 s. Thus, we find
that the centripetal acceleration is

ac = =
2
4 2 r 4 0.12 m b g
= 19 m / s 2
T 2
0.50 s b g
2

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9. SSM REASONING AND SOLUTION Since the magnitude of the centripetal


2
acceleration is given by Equation 5.2, a C = v / r , we can solve for r and find that

v2 ( 98.8 m / s ) 2
r= = = 332 m
a C 3.00(9.80 m / s 2 )
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10. REASONING The magnitude of the centripetal acceleration of any point on the helicopter
blade is given by Equation 5.2, a C = v 2 / r , where r is the radius of the circle on which that
point moves. From Equation 5.1: v = 2 r / T . Combining these two expressions, we obtain

4 2 r
aC =
T2

All points on the blade move with the same period T.

SOLUTION The ratio of the centripetal acceleration at the end of the blade (point 1) to that
which exists at a point located 3.0 m from the center of the circle (point 2) is

a C1 4 2 r1 / T 2 r1 6.7 m
= 2 2
= = = 2.2
a C2 4 r2 / T r2 3.0 m
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11. REASONING AND SOLUTION The sample makes one revolution in time T as given by
T = 2 r/v. The speed is

2 2 3 2
v = rac = (5.00 10 m)(6.25 10 )(9.80 m/s ) so that v = 55.3 m/s
Chapter 5 Problems 249

The period is

2 3 5
T = 2 (5.00 10 m)/(55.3 m/s) = 5.68 10 s = 9.47 10 min

The number of revolutions per minute = 1/T = 10 600 rev/min .


_____________________________________________________________________________________________

12. REASONING AND SOLUTION


a. At the equator a person travels in a circle whose radius equals the radius of the earth,
6
r = Re = 6.38 10 m, and whose period of rotation is T = 1 day = 86 400 s. We have

v = 2Re/T = 464 m/s


The centripetal acceleration is

2
v 2 ( 464 m/s )
ac = = = 3.37 102 m/s 2
r 6.38 106 m

b. At 30.0 latitude a person travels in a circle of radius,

6
r = Re cos 30.0 = 5.53 10 m
Thus,
2 2 2
v = 2 r/T = 402 m/s and ac = v /r = 2.92 10 m/s
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

13. REASONING The magnitude Fc of the centripetal force that acts on the skater is given by
Equation 5.3 as Fc = mv 2 / r , where m and v are the mass and speed of the skater, and r is
the distance of the skater from the pivot. Since all of these variables are known, we can find
the magnitude of the centripetal force.

SOLUTION The magnitude of the centripetal force is


2
mv 2 ( 80.0 kg )( 6.80 m/s )
Fc = = = 606 N
r 6.10 m
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14. REASONING The centripetal acceleration depends on the speed v and the radius r of the
curve, according to ac = v2/r (Equation 5.2). The speeds of the cars are the same, and since
they are negotiating the same curve, the radius is the same. Therefore, the cars have the
same centripetal acceleration. However, the magnitude Fc of the centripetal force depends
on the mass m of the car, as well as the speed and the radius of the curve, according to
250 DYNAMICS OF UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION

2
Fc = mv /r (Equation 5.3). Since the speed and the radius are the same for each car, the car
with the greater mass, which is car B, experiences the greater centripetal acceleration.

SOLUTION We find the following values for the magnitudes of the centripetal
accelerations and forces:

Car A ac =
v2
=
b
27 m / s g=
2

6.1 m / s 2 (5.2)
r 120 m

Fc =
mA v 2
=
b1100 kg gb27 m / sg = 2

6700 N (5.3)
r 120 m

Car B ac =
v2
=
27 m / s b g=
2

6.1 m / s 2 (5.2)
r 120 m

Fc =
mB v 2
=
b1600 kg gb27 m / sg = 2

9700 N (5.3)
r 120 m
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

15. SSM REASONING AND SOLUTION The magnitude of the centripetal force on the
ball is given by Equation 5.3: FC = mv 2 / r . Solving for v, we have

FC r (0.028 N)(0.25 m)
v= = = 0.68 m / s
m 0.015 kg
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

16. REASONING At the maximum speed, the maximum centripetal force acts on the tires, and
static friction supplies it. The magnitude of the maximum force of static friction is specified
by Equation 4.7 as fsMAX = s FN , where s is the coefficient of static friction and FN is the
magnitude of the normal force. Our strategy, then, is to find the normal force, substitute it
into the expression for the maximum frictional force, and then equate the result to the
centripetal force, which is Fc = mv 2 / r , according to Equation 5.3. This will lead us to an
expression for the maximum speed that we can apply to each car.

SOLUTION Since neither car accelerates in the vertical direction, we can conclude that the
cars weight mg is balanced by the normal force, so FN = mg. From Equations 4.7 and 5.3 it
follows that
mv 2
fsMAX = s FN = s mg = Fc =
r
Thus, we find that
mv 2
s mg = or v = s gr
r
Chapter 5 Problems 251

Applying this result to car A and car B gives

vA = s, A gr and vB = s, B gr

In these two equations, the radius r does not have a subscript, since the radius is the same for
either car. Dividing the two equations and noting that the terms g and r are eliminated
algebraically, we see that

vB s, B gr s, B s, B 0.85
= = or vB = vA = ( 25 m/s ) = 22 m/s
vA s, A g r s, A s, A 1.1

17. REASONING AND SOLUTION Initially, the stone executes uniform circular motion in a
circle of radius r which is equal to the radius of the tire. At the instant that the stone flies out
of the tire, the force of static friction just exceeds its maximum value f sMAX = s FN (see
Equation 4.7). The force of static friction that acts on the stone from one side of the tread
channel is, therefore,
fsMAX = 0.90 (1.8 N) = 1.6 N

and the magnitude of the total frictional force that acts on the stone just before it flies out is
2 1.6 N = 3.2 N . If we assume that only static friction supplies the centripetal force, then,
Fc = 3.2 N . Solving Equation 5.3 ( Fc = mv 2 / r ) for the radius r, we have

r=
mv 2
=
(
6.0 103 kg (13 m/s)2)= 0.31 m
Fc 3.2 N
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

18. REASONING AND SOLUTION The force P supplied by the man will
be largest when the partner is at the lowest point in the swing. The
diagram at the right shows the forces acting on the partner in this
P
situation. The centripetal force necessary to keep the partner swinging
along the arc of a circle is provided by the resultant of the force supplied
by the man and the weight of the partner. From the figure
mv 2
P mg =
r
mg
Therefore,
mv 2
P= + mg
r
252 DYNAMICS OF UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION

Since the weight of the partner, W, is equal to mg, it follows that m = (W/g) and

(W/g )v 2 [(475 N)/(9.80 m/s 2 )] (4.00 m/s)2


P= +W = + (475 N) = 594 N
r (6.50 m)

19. REASONING The centripetal force is the name given to the net force pointing toward the
center of the circular path. At the lowest point the net force consists of the tension in the arm
pointing upward toward the center and the weight pointing downward or away from the
2
center. In either case the centripetal force is given by Equation 5.3 as Fc = mv /r.

SOLUTION
(a) The centripetal force is

Fc =
mv 2
=
b gb
9 .5 kg 2 .8 m / s g=
2

88 N
r 0.85 m

(b) Using T to denote the tension in the arm, at the bottom of the circle we have
mv 2
Fc = T mg =
r
2
mv 2 ( 9.5 kg )( 2.8 m/s ) = 181 N
T = mg +
r
(
= ( 9.5kg ) 9.80 m/s2 + ) 0.85 m

20. REASONING When the penny is rotating with the disk (and not sliding relative to it), it is
the static frictional force that provides the centripetal force required to keep the penny
moving on a circular path. The magnitude fsMAX of the maximum static frictional force is
given by f sMAX = s F N (Equation 4.7), where FN is the magnitude of the normal force and
s is the coefficient of static friction. Solving this relation for s gives

fsMAX
s = (1)
FN

Since the maximum centripetal force that can act on the penny is the maximum static
frictional force, we have F c = f sMAX . Since Fc = mv2/r (Equation 5.3), it follows that
f sMAX = mv 2 / r . Substituting this expression into Equation (1) yields
Chapter 5 Problems 253

mv 2
fsMAX (2)
s = = r
FN FN

The speed of the penny can be determined from the period T of the motion and the radius r
according to v = 2 r/T (Equation 5.1). Furthermore, since the penny does not accelerate in
the vertical direction, the upward normal force must be balanced by the downward-pointing
weight, so that FN = mg, where g is the acceleration due to gravity. Substituting these two
expressions for v and FN into Equation (2) gives

2
2 r
2 m 4 2 r
=
mv T (3)
s = =
r FN r ( mg ) gT2

SOLUTION Using Equation (3), we find that the coefficient of static friction required to
keep the penny rotating on the disk is

4 2 r 4 2 ( 0.150 m )
s = = = 0.187
gT2 ( )
9.80 m/s2 (1.80 s )
2

______________________________________________________________________________

21. REASONING AND SOLUTION The centripetal acceleration of the block is

ac = v2/r = (28 m/s)2/(150 m) = 5.2 m/s2

The angle can be obtained from

= tan 1
F
G
a I
C
J F5.2 m / s IJ=
= tan G 1
2

Hg K H9.80 m / s K 2
28

22. REASONING The coefficient s of static friction is related to the magnitude f sMAX of the
maximum static frictional force and the magnitude FN of the normal force acting on the car
by fsMAX = s FN (Equation 4.7), so that:
fsMAX
s = (1)
FN
mv 2
The car is going around an unbanked curve, so the centripetal force Fc =
r
(Equation 5.3) must be horizontal. The static frictional force is the only horizontal force, so
254 DYNAMICS OF UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION

it serves as the centripetal force. The maximum centripetal force occurs when Fc = f sMAX .
Therefore, the maximum speed v the car can have without slipping is related to f sMAX by

mv 2
Fc = fsMAX = (2)
r

Substituting Equation (2) into Equation (1) yields

mv 2
s = r (3)
FN

In part a the car is subject to two downward-pointing forces, its weight W and the
downforce D. The vertical acceleration of the car is zero, so the upward normal force must
balance the two downward forces: FN = W + D. Combining this relation with Equation (3),
we obtain an expression for the coefficient of static friction:

mv 2 mv 2
mv 2
s = r = r = (4)
FN W + D r ( mg + D )

SOLUTION
a. Since the downforce is D = 11 000 N, Equation (4) gives the coefficient of static friction
as
2
mv 2 ( 830 kg )( 58 m/s )
s = = = 0.91
r ( mg + D ) (160 m ) ( 830 kg ) 9.80 m/s 2 + 11 000 N
( )

b. The downforce is now absent (D = 0 N). Solving Equation (4) for the speed of the car,
we find that

s r ( mg + D ) s r ( mg + 0 N ) s r ( mg )
v= = =
m m m

= s rg = ( 0.91)(160 m ) ( 9.80 m/s2 ) = 38 m/s


Chapter 5 Problems 255

23. REASONING
a. The free body diagram shows the swing ride and the two forces that act on a chair: the
tension T in the cable, and the weight mg of the chair and its occupant. We note that the
chair does not accelerate vertically, so the net force Fy in the vertical direction must be
zero, Fy = 0 . The net force consists of the upward vertical component of the tension and
the downward weight of the chair. The fact that the net force is zero will allow us to
determine the magnitude of the tension.

60.0 T
15.0 m +y

+x
r

mg

b. According to Newtons second law, the net force Fx in the horizontal direction is
equal to the mass m of the chair and its occupant times the centripetal acceleration
( ac = v 2 / r ) , so that Fx = mac = mv2 / r . There is only one force in the horizontal
direction, the horizontal component of the tension, so it is the net force. We will use
Newtons second law to find the speed v of the chair.

SOLUTION
a. The vertical component of the tension is +T cos 60.0, and the weight is mg, where we
have chosen up as the + direction. Since the chair and its occupant have no vertical
acceleration, we have that Fy = 0 , so

+T cos 60.0 mg = 0 (1)



Fy

Solving for the magnitude T of the tension gives

mg (179 kg ) ( 9.80 m/s2 )


T= = = 3510 N
cos 60.0 cos 60.0

b. The horizontal component of the tension is +T sin 60.0, where we have chosen the
direction to the left in the diagram as the + direction. Since the chair and its occupant have a
centripetal acceleration in this direction, we have
256 DYNAMICS OF UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION

v2
T sin
60.0 = mac
= m (2)
r
xF

From the drawing we see that the radius r of the circular path is r = (15.0 m) sin 60.0 =
13.0 m. Solving Equation (2) for the speed v gives

v=
r T sin 60.0
=
(13.0 m )( 3510 N ) sin 60.0 = 14.9 m/s
m 179 kg

24. REASONING We will treat this situation as Seawall


a circular turn on a banked surface, with the
angle that the rider leans serving as the
banking angle. The banking angle is
r
related to the speed v of the watercraft, the Beginning
radius r of the curve and the magnitude g of of turn
2
v
the acceleration due to gravity by tan = r
rg
(Equation 5.4). If the rider is closer to the
seawall than r, she will hit the wall while
making the turn Therefore, the minimum
distance at which she must begin the turn is r, the minimum turn radius (see the drawing).

SOLUTION Solving Equation 5.4 for r, we obtain the minimum distance:

2
v2 ( 26 m/s )
r= = = 170 m
g tan ( )
9.80 m/s 2 tan 22

25. REASONING The angle at which a friction-free curve is banked depends on the radius r
of the curve and the speed v with which the curve is to be negotiated, according to
2
Equation 5.4: tan = v /(rg). For known values of and r, the safe speed is

v = rg tan
Before we can use this result, we must determine tan for the banking of the track.

SOLUTION The drawing at the right shows a


cross-section of the track. From the drawing we have 18 m
18 m
tan = = 0. 34
53 m 165 m 112 m = 53 m
Chapter 5 Problems 257

a. Therefore, the smallest speed at which cars can move on this track without relying on
friction is
vmin = (112 m ) ( 9.80 m/s2 ) ( 0.34 ) = 19 m/s

b. Similarly, the largest speed is

vmax = (165 m ) ( 9.80 m/s 2 ) ( 0.34 ) = 23 m/s

v2
26. REASONING The relation tan = (Equation 5.4) determines the banking angle that
rg
a banked curve of radius r must have if a car is to travel around it at a speed v without
relying on friction. In this expression g is the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity.
We will solve for v and apply the result to each curve. The fact that the radius of each curve
is the same will allow us to determine the unknown speed.

SOLUTION According to Equation 5.4, we have

v2
tan = or v = r g tan
rg
Applying this result for the speed to each curve gives

vA = r g tan A and vB = r g tan B

Note that the terms r and g are the same for each curve. Therefore, these terms are
eliminated algebraically when we divide the two equations. We find, then, that

vB r g tan B tan B tan B tan19


= = or vB = vA = (18 m/s ) = 22 m/s
vA r g tan A tan A tan A tan13

27. REASONING From the discussion on banked curves in Section 5.4, we know that a car
can safely round a banked curve without the aid of static friction if the angle of the banked
curve is given by tan = v02 / ( r g ) , where vo is the speed of the car and r is the radius of the
curve (see Equation 5.4). The maximum speed that a car can have when rounding an
unbanked curve is v0 = s g r (see Example 7). By combining these two relations, we can
find the angle .
258 DYNAMICS OF UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION

SOLUTION The angle of the banked curve is = tan 1 v02 / ( r g ) . Substituting the
expression v0 = s g r into this equation gives

v02 gr
= tan = tan 1 s = tan 1 ( s ) = tan 1 ( 0.81) = 39
1

rg rg
______________________________________________________________________________

28. REASONING The lifting force L is perpendicular to the jets


L sin
wings. When the jet banks at an angle above the horizontal,
therefore, the lifting force tilts an angle from the vertical (see the
free-body diagram). Because the jet has no vertical acceleration
L cos
L
during the horizontal turn, the upward vertical component L cos of
the lifting force balances the jets weight: L cos = mg, where m is
the jets mass and g is the acceleration due to gravity. Therefore, the mg
magnitude of the lifting force is L = mg cos .

At this point we know m and g, but not the banking angle . Since
the jet follows a horizontal circle, the centripetal force must be Free-body diagram
horizontal. The only horizontal force acting on the jet is the
horizontal component L sin of the lifting force, so this must be the
centripetal force. The situation is completely analogous to that of a car driving around a
banked curve without the assistance of friction. The relation tan = v 2 ( rg ) (Equation 5.4),
therefore, expresses the relationship between the jets unknown banking angle , its speed v,
the radius r of the turn, and g, all of which are known.

SOLUTION The magnitude of the lifting force is

L=
mg
=
( )(
2.00 105 kg 9.80 m/s2 ) (1)
cos cos

Solving the relation tan = v 2 ( rg ) (Equation 5.4) for the angle , we obtain

2
1 v
2
= tan = tan 1 (123 m/s )
= 22.1
rg (
( 3810 m ) 9.80 m/s2 )

Substituting this value for into Equation (1) for the lifting force gives

L=
mg
=
( )(
2.00 105 kg 9.80 m/s2 )
= 2.12 106 N
cos cos 22.1
Chapter 5 Problems 259

29. REASONING The distance d is


related to the radius r of the circle FN +y
on which the car travels by 50.0
d = r/sin 50.0 (see the drawing). r Car +x

We can obtain the radius by noting mg


that the car experiences a centripetal d
50.0
force that is directed toward the
center of the circular path. This 40.0
force is provided by the component,
FN cos 50.0, of the normal force that is parallel to the radius. Setting this force equal to the
mass m of the car times the centripetal acceleration ( ac = v 2 / r ) gives
FN cos 50.0 = mac = mv 2 / r . Solving for the radius r and substituting it into the relation
d = r/sin 50.0 gives

mv 2
r FN cos 50.0 mv 2 (1)
d= = =
sin 50.0 sin 50.0 ( FN cos 50.0) ( sin 50.0)
The magnitude FN of the normal force can be obtained by observing that the car has no
vertical acceleration, so the net force in the vertical direction must be zero, Fy = 0 . The
net force consists of the upward vertical component of the normal force and the downward
weight of the car. The vertical component of the normal force is +FN sin 50.0, and the
weight is mg, where we have chosen the up direction as the + direction. Thus, we have
that
+ FN sin 50.0 mg = 0 (2)

Fy

Solving this equation for FN and substituting it into the equation above will yield the
distance d.

SOLUTION Solving Equation (2) for FN and substituting the result into Equation (1) gives

mv 2 mv 2
d= =
( FN cos 50.0) ( sin 50.0) mg ( cos 50.0)( sin 50.0)
sin 50.0
2

=
v2
=
( 34.0 m/s ) = 184 m
g cos 50.0 ( 9.80 m/s 2 ) cos 50.0
______________________________________________________________________________
260 DYNAMICS OF UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION

30. REASONING The centripetal force Fc required to keep an object of mass m that moves
with speed v on a circle of radius r is Fc = mv 2 / r (Equation 5.3). From Equation 5.1, we
know that v = 2 r / T , where T is the period or the time for the suitcase to go around once.
Therefore, the centripetal force can be written as

m ( 2 r / T ) 2 4 m 2 r
Fc = = (1)
r T2

This expression can be solved for T. However, we must first find the centripetal force that
acts on the suitcase.

SOLUTION Three forces act on the suitcase. They are the weight mg of the suitcase, the
force of static friction f sMAX , and the normal force FN exerted on the suitcase by the surface
of the carousel. The following figure shows the free body diagram for the suitcase. In this
diagram, the y axis is along the vertical direction. +y
The force of gravity acts, then, in the y direction. FN fs
MAX
The centripetal force that causes the suitcase to
move on its circular path is provided by the net
force in the +x direction in the diagram. From the +x
diagram, we can see that only the forces FN and
f sMAX have horizontal components. Thus, we have
Fc = f sMAX cos FN sin , where the minus sign
mg
indicates that the x component of FN points to the
left in the diagram. Using Equation 4.7 for the
maximum static frictional force, we can write this result as in equation (2).

Fc = s FN cos FN sin = FN ( s cos sin ) (2)


If we apply Newton's second law in the y direction, we see from the diagram that

FN cos + f s MAX sin mg = ma y = 0 or FN cos + s FN sin mg = 0

where we again have used Equation 4.7 for the maximum static frictional force. Solving for
the normal force, we find
mg
FN =
cos + s sin

Using this result in equation (2), we obtain the magnitude of the centripetal force that acts
on the suitcase:
mg ( s cos sin )
Fc = FN ( s cos sin ) =
cos + s sin

With this expression for the centripetal force, equation (1) becomes
Chapter 5 Problems 261

mg ( s cos sin ) 4 m 2 r
=
cos + s sin T2

Solving for the period T, we find

4 2 r ( cos + s sin ) 4 2 (11.0 m) ( cos 36.0 + 0.760 sin 36.0 )


T= = = 45 s
g ( s cos sin ) (9.80 m/s2 ) ( 0.760 cos 36.0 sin 36.0 )

31. REASONING The speed v of a satellite in circular orbit about the earth is given by
v = GM E / r (Equation 5.5), where G is the universal gravitational constant, ME is the
mass of the earth, and r is the radius of the orbit. The radius is measured from the center of
the earth, not the surface of the earth, to the satellite. Therefore, the radius is found by
adding the height of the satellite above the surface of the earth to the radius of the earth
6
(6.38 10 m).

SOLUTION First we add the orbital heights to the radius of the earth to obtain the orbital
radii. Then we use Equation 5.5 to calculate the speeds.

Satellite A rA = 6.38 10 6 m + 360 10 3 m = 6.74 10 6 m

v=
GM E
=
c6.67 10 11
N m 2 / kg 2 hc5.98 10 24
kg h= 7690 m / s
6
rA 6.74 10 m

Satellite B rA = 6.38 10 6 m + 720 10 3 m = 7.10 10 6 m

v=
GM E
=
c6.67 10 11
N m 2 / kg 2 hc5.98 10 24
kg h= 7500 m / s
rA 7 .10 10 6 m
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

2
32. REASONING AND SOLUTION We have for Jupiter v = GMJ/r, where
5 7 7
r = 6.00 10 m + 7.14 10 m = 7.20 10 m
Thus,

v=
( 6.67 1011 N m 2 / kg 2 )(1.90 1027 kg ) = 4.20 104 m/s
7
7.20 10 m
____________________________________________________________________________________________
262 DYNAMICS OF UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION

33. SSM WWW REASONING Equation 5.5 gives the orbital speed for a satellite in a
circular orbit around the earth. It can be modified to determine the orbital speed around any
planet P by replacing the mass of the earth M E by the mass of the planet M P :
v= GM P / r .

SOLUTION The ratio of the orbital speeds is, therefore,

v2 GM P / r2 r1
= =
v1 GM P / r1 r2
Solving for v2 gives

r1 5.25 10 6 m
v 2 = v1 = (1.70 10 4 m / s) = 1.33 10 4 m / s
r2 8.60 10 6 m

34. REASONING AND SOLUTION The normal force exerted by the wall on each astronaut is
2
the centripetal force needed to keep him in the circular path, i.e., Fc = mv /r. Rearranging
and letting Fc = (1/2)mg yields

2 2 2
r = 2v /g = 2(35.8 m/s) /(9.80 m/s ) = 262 m

35. REASONING In Section 5.5 it is shown that the period T of a satellite in a circular orbit
about the earth is given by (see Equation 5.6)

2 r 3/ 2
T=
GM E

where r is the radius of the orbit, G is the universal gravitational constant, and ME is the
mass of the earth. The ratio of the periods of satellites A and B is, then,

2 rA3/2
TA GM E rA3/2
= =
TB 2 rB3/2 rB3/2
GM E

We do not know the radii rA and rB. However we do know that the speed v of a satellite is
equal to the circumference (2 r) of its orbit divided by the period T, so v = 2 r / T .
Chapter 5 Problems 263

SOLUTION Solving the relation v = 2 r / T for r gives r = vT / 2 . Substituting this value


for r into Equation (1) yields
3/ 2 3/ 2
TA rA3/2 v T / ( 2 ) ( vA TA )
= 3/2 = A A 3/ 2
= 3/ 2
TB rB vB TB / ( 2 ) ( vB TB )
Squaring both sides of this equation, algebraically solving for the ratio TA/TB, and using the
fact that vA = 3vB gives
TA vB3 vB3 1
= 3 = 3
=
TB vA ( 3vB ) 27
______________________________________________________________________________

36. REASONING AND SOLUTION The period of the moon's motion (approximately the
length of a month) is given by
3
4 2 r 3 4 2 ( 3.85 108 m )
T= =
GM E ( 6.67 1011 N m 2 / kg 2 )( 5.98 1024 kg )
= 2.38 106 s = 27.5 days

37. SSM REASONING Equation 5.2 for the centripetal acceleration applies to both the plane
and the satellite, and the centripetal acceleration is the same for each. Thus, we have

2
v plane 2
v satellite Fr I
ac =
rplane
=
rsatellite
or v plane = G
G
Hr
plane

satellite
JJKv satellite

The speed of the satellite can be obtained directly from Equation 5.5.

SOLUTION Using Equation 5.5, we can express the speed of the satellite as

Gm E
v satellite =
rsatellite

Substituting this expression into the expression obtained in the reasoning for the speed of the
plane gives
264 DYNAMICS OF UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION

Fr I Fr I Gm r GmE
G
G J
plane
Gr plane
JJ r = r plane

Hr JK G
E
v plane = v =
satellite H
satellite
satellite K satellite satellite

v plane =
b15 mgc6.67 10 N m 11 2
/ kg h
c5.98 10
2 24
kg h= 12 m / s
6.7 10 6 m

GM S
38. REASONING The speed v of a planet orbiting a star is given by v =
r
11 2 2
(Equation 5.5), where MS is the mass of the star, G = 6.674 10 N m / kg is the
universal gravitational constant, and r is the orbital radius. This expression can be solved for
2 r
MS. However, the orbital radius r is not known, so we will use the relation v =
T
(Equation 5.1) to eliminate r in favor of the known quantities v and T (the period). Returning
to Equation 5.5, we square both sides and solve for the mass of the star:

GM S rv 2
= v2 or MS = (1)
r G

2 r vT
Then, solving v = for r yields r = , which we substitute into Equation (1):
T 2

vT 2

2 v v 3T
MS =
rv
= 2
= (2)
G G 2 G

We will use Equation (2) to calculate the mass of the star in part a. In part b, we will solve
Equation (2) for the period T of the faster planet, which should be shorter than that of the
slower planet.

SOLUTION
a. The speed of the slower planet is v = 43.3 km/s = 43.3103 m/s. Its orbital period in
seconds is T = (7.60 yr)[(3.156 107 s)/(1 yr)] = 2.40108 s. Substituting these values into
Equation (2) yields the mass of the star:

MS =
v 3T
=
(
43.3 103 m/s 2.40 108 s)( = 4.65 1031 kg
)
(
2 G 2 6.674 10 11 2
N m / kg 2
)
This is roughly 23 times the mass of the sun.
Chapter 5 Problems 265

b. Solving Equation (2) for the orbital period T, we obtain

v 3T 2 GM S
= MS or T= (3)
2 G v3

The speed of the faster planet is v = 58.6 km/s = 58.6 103 m/s. Equation (3) now gives the
orbital period of the faster planet in seconds:

T=
( )(
2 6.674 1011 N m2 / kg 2 4.65 1031 kg ) = 9.69 107 s
3
(58.6 103 m/s)
Lastly, we convert the period from seconds to years:

1 yr
(
T = 9.69 107 s ) 7
3.156 10 s
= 3.07 yr

39. REASONING The satellites true weight W when at rest on the surface of the planet is the
gravitational force the planet exerts on it. This force is given by W = GM P m r 2
(Equation 4.4), where G is the universal gravitational constant, MP is the mass of the planet,
m is the mass of the satellite, and r is the distance between the satellite and the center of the
planet. When the satellite is at rest on the planets surface, its distance from the planets
center is RP, the radius of the planet, so we have W = GM P m RP2 . The satellites mass m is
2 r 3 2
given, as is the planets radius RP. But we must use the relation T = (Equation 5.6)
GM P
to determine the planets mass MP in terms of the satellites orbital period T and orbital
radius r. Squaring both sides of Equation 5.6 and solving for MP, we obtain

T2 =
( )
22 2 r 3 2
=
4 2 r 3
or MP =
4 2 r 3
(1)
2 GM P GT 2
( GM P )
GM P m
Substituting Equation (1) into W = (Equation 4.4), we find that
RP2

Gm G m 4 2 r 3 4 2r 3m
W= ( P ) 2 2 = 2 2
M = (2)
RP2 RP G T RPT
266 DYNAMICS OF UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION

SOLUTION All of the quantities in Equation (2), except for the period T, are given in SI
base units, so we must convert the period from hours to seconds, the SI base unit for time:
T = (2.00 h)[(3600 s)/(1 h)] = 7.20103 s. The satellites orbital radius r in Equation (2) is
the distance between the satellite and the center of the orbit, which is the planets center.
Therefore, the orbital radius is the sum of the planets radius RP and the satellites height h
above the planets surface: r = RP + h = 4.15106 m + 4.1105 m = 4.56106 m. We now
use Equation (2) to calculate the satellites true weight at the planets surface:

W=
4 2 r 3m
=
(
4 2 4.56 106 m ) ( 5850 kg )
= 2.45 104 N
RP2T 2 2 2
( 4.15 10 m ) ( 7.20 10 s )
6 3

40. REASONING AND SOLUTION


a. The centripetal acceleration of a point on the rim of chamber A is the artificial
acceleration due to gravity,
2 2
aA = vA /rA = 10.0 m/s

A point on the rim of chamber A moves with a speed vA = 2 rA/T where T is the period of
revolution, 60.0 s. Substituting the second equation into the first and rearranging yields

2 2
rA = aAT /(4 ) = 912 m

b. Now
rB = rA/4.00 = 228 m

2
c. A point on the rim of chamber B has a centripetal acceleration aB = vB /rB. The point
moves with a speed vB = 2 rB/T. Substituting the second equation into the first yields

4 2 rB 4 2 ( 228 m )
aB = = 2
= 2.50 m/s 2
T2 ( 60.0 s )

41. SSM REASONING According to Equation 5.3, the Passenger


magnitude Fc of the centripetal force that acts on each
r
passenger is Fc = mv 2 / r , where m and v are the mass and
speed of a passenger and r is the radius of the turn. From this
relation we see that the speed is given by v = Fc r / m . The 2 mg
centripetal force is the net force required to keep each
mg
Chapter 5 Problems 267

passenger moving on the circular path and points toward the center of the circle. With the
aid of a free-body diagram, we will evaluate the net force and, hence, determine the speed.

SOLUTION The free-body diagram shows a passenger at the bottom of the circular dip.
There are two forces acting: her downward-acting weight mg and the upward-acting force
2mg that the seat exerts on her. The net force is +2mg mg = +mg, where we have taken
up as the positive direction. Thus, Fc = mg. The speed of the passenger can be found by
using this result in the equation above.

Substituting Fc = mg into the relation v = Fc r / m yields

Fc r ( mg ) r
v=
m
=
m
= gr = ( 9.80 m/s ) ( 20.0 m ) = 14.0 m/s
2

42. REASONING The riders speed v at the top of the


loop is related to the centripetal force acting on her FN = 770 N
mv 2 FN = 350 N
by Fc = (Equation 5.3). The centripetal force mg
r
Fc is the net force, which is the sum of the two
vertical forces: W (her weight) and FN (the Top of loop mg = 770 N
free-body
magnitude of the normal force exerted on her by diagram
the electronic sensor). Both forces are illustrated in Stationary
the Top of loop free-body diagram. Because both free-body
forces point in the same direction, the magnitude of diagram
the centripetal force is Fc = mg + FN . Thus, we
mv 2
have that mg + FN = . We will solve this relation to find the speed v of the rider. The
r
reading on the sensor at the top of the loop gives the magnitude FN = 350 N of the
downward normal force. Her weight mg is equal to the reading on the sensor when level and
stationary (see the Stationary free-body diagram).
mv 2
SOLUTION Solving mg + FN = for the speed v, we obtain
r

r ( mg + FN ) r ( mg + FN )
v2 = or v=
m m

The only quantity not yet known is the riders mass m, so we will calculate it from her
weight W by using the relation W = mg (Equation 4.5). Thus, m = W/g
= (770 N)/(9.80 m/s2) = 79 kg. The speed of the rider at the top of the loop is
268 DYNAMICS OF UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION

r ( mg + FN ) ( 21 m )( 770 N + 350 N ) = 17 m/s


v= =
m 79 kg

43. SSM REASONING The centripetal force is the name given to the net force pointing
toward the center of the circular path. At point 3 at the top the net force pointing toward the
center of the circle consists of the normal force and the weight, both pointing toward the
center. At point 1 at the bottom the net force consists of the normal force pointing upward
toward the center and the weight pointing downward or away from the center. In either case
the centripetal force is given by Equation 5.3 as Fc = mv2/r.

SOLUTION At point 3 we have


mv 32
Fc = F N + mg =
r
At point 1 we have
mv12
Fc = F N mg =
r

Subtracting the second equation from the first gives

mv 32 mv12
2 mg =
r r
Rearranging gives
v 32 = 2 gr + v 12
Thus, we find that

c
v 3 = 2 9 .80 m / s 2 hb3.0 mgb
+ 15 m / s g =
2
17 m / s
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

44. REASONING The normal force (magnitude FN) that


the pilots seat exerts on him is part of the centripetal
force that keeps him on the vertical circular path.
However, there is another contribution to the centripetal
force, as the drawing at the right shows. This additional FN
contribution is the pilots weight (magnitude W). To +
obtain the ratio FN/W, we will apply Equation 5.3, which
specifies the centripetal force as Fc = mv 2 / r .
W
SOLUTION Noting that the direction upward (toward the center of the circular path) is
positive in the drawing, we see that the centripetal force is Fc = FN W . Thus, from
Equation 5.3 we have
Chapter 5 Problems 269

mv2
Fc = FN W =
r

The weight is given by W = mg (Equation 4.5), so we can divide the expression for the
centripetal force by the expression for the weight and obtain that

FN W mv 2 FN v2
Fc = = or 1 =
W mg r W gr

Solving for the ratio FN /W, we find that

2
FN v2 ( 230 m/s )
= 1+ = 1+ = 8.8
W gr (
9.80 m/s2 ( 690 m ))

45. REASONING The magnitude Fc of the centripetal force is Fc = mv 2 / r (Equation 5.3).


Since the speed v, the mass m, and the radius r are fixed, the magnitude of the centripetal
force is the same at each point on the circle. When the ball is at the three oclock position,
the force of gravity, acting downward, is perpendicular to the stick and cannot contribute to
the centripetal force. (See Figure 5.21 in the text, point 2, for a similar situation.) At this
point, only the tension of T = 16 N contributes to the centripetal force. Considering that the
centripetal force is the same everywhere, we can conclude that it has a magnitude of 16 N
everywhere.

At the twelve oclock position the tension T and the force of gravity mg both act downward
(the negative direction) toward the center of the circle, with the result that the centripetal
force at this point is T mg. (See Figure 5.21, point 3.) At the six oclock position the
tension points upward toward the center of the circle, while the force of gravity points
downward, with the result that the centripetal force at this point is T mg. (See Figure 5.21,
point 1.)

SOLUTION Assuming that upward is the positive direction, we find at the twelve and six
oclock positions that
270 DYNAMICS OF UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION

Twelve o' clock T mg = 16 N



Centripetal
force

b gc
T = 16 N 0.20 kg 9 .80 m / s 2 = 14 N h
Six o' clock T mg = 16 N

Centripetal
force

b gc
T = 16 N + 0.20 kg 9 .80 m / s 2 = 18 N h
46. REASONING Because the crest of the hill is a circular arc, the
motorcycles speed v is related to the centripetal force Fc acting FN
on the motorcycle: Fc = mv 2 r (Equation 5.3), where m is the
mass of the motorcycle and r is the radius of the circular crest.
Solving Equation 5.3 for the speed, we obtain v 2 = Fc r m or mg
v = Fc r m . The free-body diagram shows that two vertical
forces act on the motorcycle. One is the weight mg of the Free-body diagram of
the motorcycle
motorcycle, which points downward. The other is the normal
force FN exerted by the road. The normal force points directly
opposite the motorcycles weight. Note that the motorcycles weight must be greater than
the normal force. The reason for this is that the centripetal force is the net force produced by
mg and FN and must point toward the center of the circle, which lies below the motorcycle.
Only if the magnitude mg of the weight exceeds the magnitude FN of the normal force will
the centripetal force point downward. Therefore, we can express the magnitude of the
centripetal force as Fc = mg FN. With this identity, the relation v = Fc r m becomes

v=
( mg FN ) r (1)
m

SOLUTION When the motorcycle rides over the crest sufficiently fast, it loses contact with
the road. At that point, the normal force FN is zero. In that case, Equation (1) yields the
motorcycles maximum speed:

( mg 0 ) r m gr
v=
m
=
m
= gr = (9.80 m/s2 ) ( 45.0 m) = 21.0 m/s
Chapter 5 Problems 271

47. REASONING When the stone is whirled in a horizontal circle, the centripetal force is
provided by the tension Th in the string and is given by Equation 5.3 as

mv 2
Th = (1)
r
Centripetal
force

where m and v are the mass and speed of the stone, and r is the radius of the
circle. When the stone is whirled in a vertical circle, the maximum tension Tv
occurs when the stone is at the lowest point in its path. The free-body
diagram shows the forces that act on the stone in this situation: the tension
Tv in the string and the weight mg of the stone. The centripetal force is the
net force that points toward the center of the circle. Setting the centripetal Stone
force equal to mv 2 / r , as per Equation 5.3, we have
mg
mv 2
+Tv mg = (2)
r
Centripetal
force

Here, we have assumed upward to be the positive direction. We are given that the maximum
tension in the string in the case of vertical motion is 15.0% larger than that in the case of
horizontal motion. We can use this fact, along with Equations 1 and 2, to find the speed of
the stone.

Solution Since the maximum tension in the string in the case of vertical motion is 15.0%
larger than that in the horizontal motion, Tv = (1.000 + 0.150) Th . Substituting the values of
Th and Tv from Equations (1) and (2) into this relation gives

Tv = (1.000 + 0.150 ) Th

mv 2 mv 2
+ mg = (1.000 + 0.150 )
r r

Solving this equation for the speed v of the stone yields

gr (9.80 m/s 2 ) (1.10 m)


v= = = 8.48 m/s
0.150 0.150
272 DYNAMICS OF UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION

48. REASONING The drawing at the right Clothes


shows the two forces that act on a piece of FN
clothing just before it loses contact with the
mg
wall of the cylinder. At that instant the
centripetal force is provided by the normal
force FN and the radial component of the
weight. From the drawing, the radial
component of the weight is given by

mg cos = mg cos (90 ) = mg sin

Therefore, with inward taken as the positive direction, Equation 5.3 ( Fc = mv 2 / r ) gives

mv 2
FN + mg sin =
r

At the instant that a piece of clothing loses contact with the surface of the drum, FN = 0 N,
and the above expression becomes
mv 2
mg sin =
r

According to Equation 5.1, v = 2 r / T , and with this substitution we obtain

( 2 r / T ) 2 4 2 r
g sin = =
r T2

This expression can be solved for the period T. Since the period is the required time for one
revolution, the number of revolutions per second can be found by calculating 1/T.

SOLUTION Solving for the period, we obtain

4 2 r r 0.32 m
T= = 2 = 2
g sin g sin c9.80 m / s hsin 70.0 = 1.17 s
2

Therefore, the number of revolutions per second that the cylinder should make is

1 1
= = 0.85 rev / s
T 1.17 s
Chapter 5 Problems 273

49. SSM REASONING In Example 3, it was shown that the magnitudes of the centripetal
acceleration for the two cases are
Radius = 33 m a C = 35 m / s 2
Radius = 24 m a C = 48 m / s 2

According to Newton's second law, the centripetal force is FC = ma C (see Equation 5.3).

SOLUTION a. Therefore, when the sled undergoes the turn of radius 33 m,

FC = ma C = ( 350 kg)(35 m / s 2 ) = 1.2 10 4 N

b. Similarly, when the radius of the turn is 24 m,

FC = ma C = ( 350 kg)(48 m / s 2 ) = 1.7 10 4 N

50. REASONING Two pieces of information are provided. One is the fact that the magnitude
of the centripetal acceleration ac is 9.80 m/s2. The other is that the space station should not
rotate faster than two revolutions per minute. This rate of twice per minute corresponds to
thirty seconds per revolution, which is the minimum value for the period T of the motion.
With these data in mind, we will base our solution on Equation 5.2, which gives the
centripetal acceleration as ac = v 2 / r , and on Equation 5.1, which specifies that the speed v
on a circular path of radius r is v = 2 r / T .

SOLUTION From Equation 5.2, we have


v2 v2
ac = or r=
r ac
Substituting v = 2 r / T into this result and solving for the radius gives
2

r=
v 2 ( 2 r / T )
=
2
or r=
acT 2
=
( 9.80 m/s 2 ) ( 30.0 s )
= 223 m
ac ac 4 2 4 2

51. REASONING Since the tip of the blade moves on a circular path, it experiences a
centripetal acceleration whose magnitude ac is given by Equation 5.2 as, ac = v 2 / r , where v
is the speed of blade tip and r is the radius of the circular path. The radius is known, and the
speed can be obtained by dividing the distance that the tip travels by the time t of travel.
274 DYNAMICS OF UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION

Since an angle of 90 corresponds to one fourth of the circumference of a circle, the distance
is 14 ( 2 r ) .

SOLUTION Since ac = v 2 / r and v = 1


4 ( 2 r ) / t = r / ( 2t ) , the magnitude of the centripetal
acceleration of the blade tip is
2
r
v 2 2t
2
2 r ( 0.45 m )
ac = = = 2 = 2
= 6.9 m/s 2
r r 4t 4 ( 0.40 s )

52. REASONING AND SOLUTION


a. In terms of the period of the motion, the centripetal force is written as

Fc = 42mr/T2 = 42 (0.0120 kg)(0.100 m)/(0.500 s)2 = 0.189 N

b. The centripetal force varies as the square of the speed. Thus, doubling the speed would
increase the centripetal force by a factor of 2 2 = 4 .

53. REASONING The astronaut in the chamber is subjected to a centripetal acceleration ac that
is given by ac = v 2 / r (Equation 5.2). In this expression v is the speed at which the
astronaut in the chamber moves on the circular path of radius r. We can solve this relation
for the speed.

SOLUTION Using Equation 5.2, we have

v2
ac = or v = ac r = 7.5 9.80 m/s2 (15 m ) = 33 m/s
( )
r

54. REASONING The person feels the centripetal force acting on his back. This force is
2
Fc = mv /r, according to Equation 5.3. This expression can be solved directly to determine
the radius r of the chamber.

SOLUTION Solving Equation 5.3 for the radius r gives

r=
mv 2
=
b gb
83 kg 3.2 m / s g=
2

1.5 m
FC 560 N
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Chapter 5 Problems 275

55. SSM REASONING As the motorcycle passes over the top of the hill, it will experience
a centripetal force, the magnitude of which is given by Equation 5.3: FC = mv 2 / r . The
centripetal force is provided by the net force on the cycle + driver system. At that instant,
the net force on the system is composed of the normal force, which points upward, and the
weight, which points downward. Taking the direction toward the center of the circle
(downward) as the positive direction, we have FC = mg FN . This expression can be solved
for FN , the normal force.

SOLUTION
a. The magnitude of the centripetal force is

mv 2 (342 kg)(25.0 m / s) 2
FC = = = 1.70 10 3 N
r 126 m

b. The magnitude of the normal force is

FN = mg FC = (342 kg)(9.80 m/s 2 ) 1.70 103 N = 1.66 103 N


_____________________________________________________________________________________________

56. REASONING The speed of the satellite is given by Equation 5.1 as v = 2 r / T . Since we
are given that the period is T = 1.20 104 s, it will be possible to determine the speed from
Equation 5.1 if we can determine the radius r of the orbit. To find the radius, we will use
Equation 5.6, which relates the period to the radius according to T = 2 r 3 / 2 / GM E , where
G is the universal gravitational constant and ME is the mass of the earth.

SOLUTION According to Equation 5.1, the orbital speed is

2 r
v=
T

To find a value for the radius, we begin with Equation 5.6:

2 r 3/ 2 T GM E
T= or r 3/ 2 =
GM E 2

Next, we square both sides of the result for r3/2:

2
2 T GM E T 2GM E
( r 3/ 2
) =
2


or r3 =
4 2

276 DYNAMICS OF UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION

We can now take the cube root of both sides of the expression for r3 in order to determine r:

2
3 (
T 2GM E 1.20 10 4 s ) ( 6.67 10 11 N m 2 /kg 2 )( 5.98 1024 kg )
r= 3 = = 1.13 107 m
4 2 4 2

With this value for the radius, we can use Equation 5.1 to obtain the speed:

v=
( 7
2 r 2 1.13 10 m
=
)
= 5.92 103 m/s
T 4
1.20 10 s

57. SSM REASONING AND SOLUTION The centripetal acceleration for any point on the
blade a distance r from center of the circle, according to Equation 5.2, is ac = v 2 / r . From
Equation 5.1, we know that v = 2 r / T where T is the period of the motion. Combining
these two equations, we obtain

( 2 r / T ) 2 4 2 r
ac = =
r T2

a. Since the turbine blades rotate at 617 rev/s, all points on the blades rotate with a period
of T = (1/617) s = 1.62 103 s . Therefore, for a point with r = 0.020 m , the magnitude of
the centripetal acceleration is

4 2 ( 0.020 m)
ac = 3 2
= 3.0 10 5 m / s 2
(1.62 10 s)

b. Expressed as a multiple of g, this centripetal acceleration is

c
a c = 3.0 10 5 m / s 2 hF
G 1.00 g I
H9.80 m / s JK=
2
3.1 10 4 g
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58. REASONING The centripetal acceleration for any point that is a distance r from the center
of the disc is, according to Equation 5.2, ac = v 2 / r . From Equation 5.1, we know that
v = 2 r / T where T is the period of the motion. Combining these two equations, we obtain

( 2 r / T ) 2 4 2 r
ac = =
r T2
Chapter 5 Problems 277

SOLUTION Using the above expression for ac , the ratio of the centripetal accelerations of
the two points in question is
a 2 4 2 r2 / T22 r2 / T22
= =
a 1 4 2 r1 / T12 r1 / T12

Since the disc is rigid, all points on the disc must move with the same period, so T1 = T2 .
Making this cancellation and solving for a2 , we obtain

a 2 = a1
r2
r1
c
= 120 m / s 2 hF
G0.050 m I
H0.030 m JK= 2.0 10 2 m / s 2

Note that even though T1 = T2 , it is not true that v1 = v 2 . Thus, the simplest way to approach
this problem is to express the centripetal acceleration in terms of the period T which cancels
in the final step.
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

59. SSM WWW REASONING Let v0 be the initial speed of the ball as it begins its
projectile motion. Then, the centripetal force is given by Equation 5.3: FC = mv02 / r . We
are given the values for m and r; however, we must determine the value of v0 from the
details of the projectile motion after the ball is released.

In the absence of air resistance, the x component of the projectile motion has zero
acceleration, while the y component of the motion is subject to the acceleration due to
gravity. The horizontal distance traveled by the ball is given by Equation 3.5a (with
a x = 0 m/s2):
x = v 0 x t = ( v 0 cos ) t

with t equal to the flight time of the ball while it exhibits projectile motion. The time t can
be found by considering the vertical motion. From Equation 3.3b,

v y = v0 y + a y t

After a time t, v y = v0 y . Assuming that up and to the right are the positive directions, we
have
2 v 0 y 2 v 0 sin
t= =
ay ay
and
F2 v sin I
x = ( v 0 cos ) G
H a JK
0

Using the fact that 2sin cos = sin 2 , we have


278 DYNAMICS OF UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION

2 v 02 cos sin v 02 sin 2


x= = (1)
ay ay

Equation (1) (with upward and to the right chosen as the positive directions) can be used to
determine the speed v0 with which the ball begins its projectile motion. Then Equation 5.3
can be used to find the centripetal force.

SOLUTION Solving equation (1) for v0 , we have

x ay ( 86.75 m)(9.80 m / s 2 )
v0 = = = 29 . 3 m / s
sin 2 sin 2(41 )

Then, from Equation 5.3,


mv 02
(7.3 kg)(29.3 m / s) 2
FC = = = 3500 N
r 1.8 m
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

60. REASONING AND SOLUTION


a. The centripetal force is provided by the normal force exerted on the rider by the wall .

b. Newton's second law applied in the horizontal direction gives

2 2
FN = mv /r = (55.0 kg)(10.0 m/s) /(3.30 m) = 1670 N

c. Newton's second law applied in the vertical direction gives sFN mg = 0 or

s = (mg)/FN = 0.323
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

61. SSM WWW REASONING If the effects of gravity are not ignored in Example 5, the
plane will make an angle with the vertical as shown in figure A below. The figure B
shows the forces that act on the plane, and figure C shows the horizontal and vertical
components of these forces.
Chapter 5 Problems 279

T cos
T
L L
T sin

mg mg
r

A B C

From figure C we see that the resultant force in the horizontal direction is the horizontal
component of the tension in the guideline and provides the centripetal force. Therefore,

mv 2
T sin =
r

From figure A, the radius r is related to the length L of the guideline by r = L sin ;
therefore,
mv 2
T sin = (1)
L sin

The resultant force in the vertical direction is zero: T cos mg = 0 , so that

T cos = mg (2)
From equation (2) we have
mg
T= (3)
cos

Equation (3) contains two unknown, T and . First we will solve equations (1) and (3)
simultaneously to determine the value(s) of the angle . Once is known, we can calculate
the tension using equation (3).

SOLUTION Substituting equation (3) into equation (1):

F
G mg I mv 2
Hcos JKsin = L sin
Thus,
sin 2 v2
= (4)
cos gL

Using the fact that cos2 + sin2 = 1, equation (4) can be written
280 DYNAMICS OF UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION

1 cos 2 v2
=
cos gL
or
1 v2
cos =
cos gL

This can be put in the form of an equation that is quadratic in cos . Multiplying both sides
by cos and rearranging yields:

v2
cos 2 + cos 1 = 0 (5)
gL
Equation (5) is of the form
ax 2 + bx + c = 0 (6)

with x = cos , a = 1, b = v2/(gL), and c = 1. The solution to equation (6) is found from the
quadratic formula:
b b 2 4 ac
x =
2a

When v = 19.0 m/s, b = 2.17. The positive root from the quadratic formula gives x = cos =
0.391. Substitution into equation (3) yields

mg (0.900 kg)(9.80 m / s 2 )
T= = = 23 N
cos 0.391

When v = 38.0 m/s, b = 8.67. The positive root from the quadratic formula gives x = cos =
0.114. Substitution into equation (3) yields

mg (0.900 kg)(9.80 m / s 2 )
T= = = 77 N
cos 0.114
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