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CONTENTS

Preface ix

1. Electric Motors The Basics 1


1. Introduction 1
2. Producing Rotation 1
3. Magnetic Circuits 7
4. Torque Production 15
5. Torque and Motor Volume 19
6. Energy Conversion Motional E.M.F. 24
7. Equivalent Circuit 28
8. Constant Voltage Operation 30
9. General Properties of Electric Motors 36

2. Introduction to Power Electronic Converters for Motor Drives 39


1. Introduction 39
2. Voltage Control D.C. Output from D.C. Supply 41
3. D.C. from A.C. Controlled Rectication 50
4. A.C. from D.C. Inversion 59
5. A.C. from A.C. 64
6. Inverter Switching Devices 66
7. Converter Waveforms, Acoustic Noise, and Cooling 68

3. Conventional D.C. Motors 73


1. Introduction 73
2. Torque Production 75
3. Motional E.M.F. 80
4. D.C. Motor Steady-State Characteristics 84
5. Transient Behavior Current Surges 95
6. Four Quadrant Operation and Regenerative Braking 99
7. Shunt and Series Motors 103
8. Self-Excited D.C. Machine 108
9. Toy Motors 110

4. D.C. Motor Drives 113


1. Introduction 113
2. Thyristor D.C. Drives General 113

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3. Control Arrangements for D.C. Drives 126


4. Chopper-Fed D.C. Motor Drives 133
5. D.C. Servo Drives 136
6. Digitally Controlled Drives 139

5. Induction Motors Rotating Field, Slip and Torque 141


1. Introduction 141
2. The Rotating Magnetic Field 142
3. Torque Production 154
4. Inuence of Rotor Current on Flux 163
5. Stator CurrentSpeed Characteristics 165

6. Induction Motors Operation from 50/60 Hz Supply 169


1. Introduction 169
2. Methods of Starting Cage Motors 169
3. Run-Up and Stable Operating Regions 176
4. TorqueSpeed Curves Inuence of Rotor Parameters 181
5. Inuence of Supply Voltage on TorqueSpeed Curve 185
6. Generating 187
7. Braking 193
8. Speed Control 195
9. Power-Factor Control and Energy Optimization 198
10. Single-Phase Induction Motors 199
11. Power Range 203

7. Variable Frequency Operation of Induction Motors 205


1. Introduction 205
2. Inverter-Fed Induction Motor Drives 207
3. TorqueSpeed Characteristics 209
4. Introduction to Field-Oriented Control 215
5. Steady-State Torque Under Current-Fed Conditions 226
6. Torque vs Slip Frequency Constant Rotor Flux Linkage 230
7. Dynamic Torque Control 234
8. Implementation of Field-Oriented Control 237
9. Direct Torque Control 248

8. Inverter-fed Induction Motor Drives 255


1. Introduction 255
2. Pulse-Width Modulated (PWM) Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) 255
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3. Performance of Inverter-Fed Induction Motor Drives 258


4. Effect of Inverter Waveform and Variable Speed on the Induction Motor 262
5. Effect of the Inverter-Fed Induction Motor on the Utility Supply 266
6. Inverter and Motor Protection 272
7. Alternative Converter Topologies 272

9. Synchronous and Brushless Permanent Magnet Machines


and Drives 281
1. Introduction 281
2. Synchronous Motors 282
3. Equivalent Circuits of Synchronous Motors 287
4. Operation From Constant-Voltage, Constant-Frequency (Utility) Supply 287
5. Variable-Frequency Operation 292
6. Synchronous Motor Drives 300
7. Performance of Brushless Motors 305
8. Reluctance and Hysteresis Motors 311

10. Stepping and Switched-reluctance Motors 315


1. Introduction 315
2. Stepping Motors 315
3. Principle of Motor Operation 320
4. Motor Characteristics 325
5. Steady-State Characteristics Ideal (Constant-Current) Drive 330
6. Drive Circuits and Pull-Out TorqueSpeed Curves 334
7. Transient Performance 340
8. Switched-Reluctance Motor Drives 343

11. Motor/Drive Selection 349


1. Introduction 349
2. Power Ratings and Capabilities 349
3. Drive Characteristics 350
4. Load Requirements TorqueSpeed Characteristics 354
5. General Application Considerations 360

Appendix 1. Introduction to Closed-loop Control 365


Appendix 2. Induction Motor Equivalent Circuit 383
Further Reading 413
Index 415