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Vol. 12 Supple 2 J. CENT. SOUTH UNIV. TECHNOL. Oct.

2005

Article ID: 1005 - 9784(2005)$2 - 0081 - 05

Life cycle of remanufactured engines


YANG Ming(~ N), CHEN Ming(~ ~)
(School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Shanghai J iaotong University,
Shanghai 200030, China)

Abstract. The life cycle index of remanufactured engines was assessed by using the method of life cycle assessment
(LCA). A remanufactured engine of a certain domestic brand was taken as researching object. Engine reproducing
engineering was investigated from three aspects which were energy, material and environment. The application of
LCA on remanufacturing engines was discussed in detail with a practical case. The results indicate that remanufac-
turing an engine can save 55 kg steels, 8.3 kg aluminum and 113 kW h electric powers and reduce emissions of 565
kg CO2, 6.09 kg CO, 1.01 kg NOt, 3. 985 kg SOt and 288. 725 kg solid waste. The remanufacturing of engines
possesses great economic value and practicability.
Key words, life cycle assessment; engines; remanufacture
CLC number: TH12 Document code.. A

1 INTRODUCTION to provide methods and data supports for develo-


ping L C A on other remanufactured products.
T h e environmental protection and sustainable
development are obtaining more and more recogni- LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT ON REMANU-
tions in the world increasingly. And then, the pro- FACTURED ENGINES
cessing s t r a t e g y after the end of product life seems
T h e stage of remanufacturing is just the end
to be very important. N o w a d a y s , as a kind of main
part of engines' whole life cycle, but we can m a k e
processing m e t h o d , remanufacturing can save re-
use of life cycle assessment method to assess ener-
sources and funds, and reduce environmental pol-
gy and original material c o n s u m p t i o n , environmen-
lutions. At the same time, it can reserve the acces-
tal affection during the remanufactured engines'
sional value of products and spare parts.
whole life cycle. This research comes from the na-
At p r e s e n t , remanufactured engines are the
tional natural science fund-remanufacturing foun-
main contents in the realm of remanufacturing in
dation theories and key techniques, and eollects da-
our country [13. H o w e v e r , the proportion of reman-
ta to establish i n p u t / o u t p u t forms of remanufac-
ufactured engines in presently using engines of our
tured engines' unit process on the spot with coop-
country is less than 10% E21. Owing to the lack of
erating Shanghai Dazong limited company coopera-
analysis data of remanufactured engines' whole life tion.
cycle, it is very difficult to provide basis for consti-
T h e energy data came from the actual statis-
tuting policy of engines' remanufaeturing. T h e life
tic. T h e material data came from the detailed list.
cycle a s s e s s m e n t ( L C A ) method provides a system T h e data of accessorial material was integrated.
which can assess energy consumption, raw materi- T h e emission data based on the craft statistic data
al consumption and environmental influence during consulted " I n d u s t r y Pollutant Creation and Emis-
the whole process of p r o d u c t ' s life. T h e most de- sion Coefficient Manual". T h e total data quality is
tailed L C A remanufacturing study to date was on preferable.
the remanufacturing of photocopiers at Fuji Xerox
Australia and the good effect was obtained E33. 2.1 Research target and system boundary
Following the national promulgation T h e target of this research was the electronics
ISO14040, this research adopts life cycle assess- jet remanufactured engine of Santana. T h e scope of
m e n t m e t h o d to analysis energy consumption, raw this system involves five stages which begin from
material consumption and the environmental emis- new engine discarding to remanufaetured engine
sions of remanufaetured engines quantificationally discarding, a m o n g them including the energy pro-
in the whole life cycle and builds up basal database ducing stage of electric power and gasoline etc, as
of remanufactured engines' whole life cycle in order shown in Fig. 1.

O Foundation item: Project (50235030) supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China
Received date: 2005 - 07 - 26 ; Accepteddate: 2005 - 08 - 20
Correspondence:YANGMing, Master; Tel: +86-13661931837; E-mail: ym19770212(~sohu,eom
82 - Journal CSUT Vol.12 Supple, 2 2005

New-enginediscard I

...~ Discard-engineconveyance[
Electric power
Gasoline
Water
Labor IDiscard-engine remanufacturing

1 [ Air emissions [
Remanufactured-engine conveyance I
I Water emissions
|I Solid waste
New engine parts ]I 1
[ Relnanufactured-engine use and service I

1
Remanufactured-engine discard I

Fig. 1 Flowchart of remanufactured engine

2.2 Inventoryanalysis ted for 98.81% sharing the overwhelming majority.


2.2.1 Energy consumption analysis 2) Stage of engine remanufacturing. The
1) During whole life cycle. Remanufactured stage of engine remanufacturing is an important
engines in the whole life cycle use gasoline and stage in remanufactured engines' whole life cycle.
electric power as main energies, so the gasoline Therefore this stage is analyzed solely. Remanu-
and electric power are regarded as the evaluation facturing one engine has eight craft processes
factors of energy consumption. The electric power mainly including disassembly, cleaning, checking
of Shanghai entirely comes from the thermal pow- and replacing, repairing, machining, inspection,
er ~J. And producing 1 kW h electric power needs assembly, packing, as shown in Fig. 2.
consuming 11 636 kJ energy and 400 g normal The life cycle assessment includes products'
coalsEs?. So by collecting and calculating actual da- whole life cycle from cradle to grave, so the inputs
ta, one electronic jet remanufactured engine of and outputs of each craft stage are cumulation of
Santana in whole life cycle demands consuming others craft stages' inputs and outputs. Energy
481.67 kW h electric power, 192 668 g normal consumption of one remanufactured engine at each
coals used for generating electricity power and remanufacturing craft process is listed in Table 2.
14 475.95 L fuel at the same time. The energy It is seen from Table 2 that one remanufac-
consumption of one remanufactured engine in the tured engine in remanufacturing process totally
whole life cycle is listed in Table 1. consumed 2 027 532 kJ energies, among them the
total direct energy consumption is 422 947 kJ ac-
Table 1
Energy consumption of one counting for 7 0 . 2 % , the total conveyance energy
remanufactured engine in whole life cycle kJ consumption is 3 299 kJ accounting for 0 . 2 % , the
Producing energy Using energy Total energy total other energy consumption is 601 286 kJ ac-
counting for 29.6 ~ .
Electric power 5 604 712 1 734 012 7 338 724 2 . 2 . 2 Material consumption analysis
There are 12 kinds of major materials in the
Gasoline 103 386 017 504 767 007 608 153 024
engines' whole remanufacturing system. Their
consumptions are shown in Table 3. In addition,
It can be seen from Table 1, one remanufac- other accessorial material are used in the remanu-
tured engine in its whole life cycle consumes the facturing system, including 2.5 L cleaning liquid,
total energy of 615 491 748 kJ, among them the elec- 3.3 L cutting liquid and 1.5 L wiping-carbon liq-
tric power accounted for 1.19%, the gasoline accoun- uid.
YANG Ming, et ah Life cycle of remanufactured engines 83

Engine reclaiming [

Assembly
Disassembly

Cleaning

No

---- Re-machining ]
Nc

[Packing]
Repairing and machining ]
[
Warehouse

No

Recycling ] ,[ Warehous
I

Fig. 2 Remanufacturing craft processes

Table 2 E n e r g y c o n s u m p t i o n of o n e r e m a n u f a c t u r e d e n g i n e at
each remanufacturing craft process
Percent of
Craft Direct energy Conveyance energy Other energy Total energy
direct energy
process consumption/kJ consumption/kJ consumption/kJ consumption/kJ
consumption/~
Disassembly 158 400 983 33 065 192 448 82

Cleaning 165 600 576 84 830 251 006 66

Checking 144 000 482 63 629 208 111 69

Repairing 455 400 140 110 970 566 510 80

Machining 181 512 154 155 111 336 777 54

Inspection 37 800 187 24 463 62 450 61

Assembly 233 435 262 102 092 335 789 70

Packing 46 800 515 27 126 74 441 63


84 Journal CSUT Vol. 12 Supple. 2 2005

Table 3 Material consumption of It is seen from Table 4 that one remanufac-


one remanufactured engine in tured engine in its whole life cycle totally exhausts
remanufacturing system 49 558.43 kg castoff, among them the total air
Material Quantity Unit emissions was 48 667.61 kg accounting for 9 8 . 2 % ,
the total water emissions was 508.31 kg accounting
Water 368 L
for 1.03%, the total solid waste was 382.51 kg ac-
Air 580 m3 counting for 0.77 %.
Wood 2.8 kg
3 CONCLUSIONS
Steel 32.6 kg

Iron 12.3 kg 1) The energy consumption in remanufactur-


ing stage accounts for few parts of the energy con-
Aluminum 19.4 kg
sumption in remanufactured engines' whole life cy-
Bronze 0.4 kg cle, the percentage is 0. 03%~ the energy con-
Rubber 0.8 kg
sumption in using stage accounts for main parts of
the energy consumption in remanufactured engines'
Asbestos 0.3 kg
whole life cycle, the percentage is 82%.
Polyamide 0.6 kg 2) The air emissions which accounts for
89.76% come from gasoline burning, so using new
Polypropylene 0.5 kg
varieties of energy is very important~ the water
Tin 0.2 kg emissions mainly come from the energy producing
and using stage of remanufactured engine, inclu-
2.2. 3 Environmental emissions analysis ding suspended solids and dissolubility solids and
Remanufactured engines in the whole life cycle heavy metal, accounting for 9 3 . 6 ~ of total water
mainly produces the waste air, waste water and emissions~ the waste solids mainly come from the
solid waste which are brought from electric power energy producing and remanufactured engine' using
and gasolineE6' 71. According to the coefficient of stages, accounting for 93% of the total waste sol-
gasoline producing and burning E8-1] , the coefficient ids.
of emissions which are produced by electric power 3) One electronics jet remanufactured engine
when 1 kW h electric power was generated in the of Santana contains 15 parts that can be remanufac-
fire-electricity factoryEn? , in addition producing tured and reused, which could save 55 kg steels,
1 kW h electric power generated 51. 136 g solid 8.3 kg aluminum and 113 kW electric powers and
waste [12-141 , we got the environmental emission reduce the emissions of 565 kg CO2, 6.09 kg CO,
quantities of one remanufactured engine in the 1.01 kg NO~, 3. 985 kg SO~, 288. 725 kg solid
whole life cycle, as shown in Table 4. waste. The price of one remanufactured engine is

Table 4 Environmental emissions of one remanufactured engine kg/t


Pollution Producing Remanufacturing Conveyance Use and Total
energy engine service engine

C02 4 904.190 7.510 4 229.270 33 721.75 42 862.720

SO2 43.190 0.126 5.230 41.890 90.436


Air
CO 11.140 0.070 619.040 4 952.290 5 582.540
emissions
NOx 12. 080 0.028 1. 855 14.840 28.803

PM 4.425 0.014 10.960 87.710 103.109

BOD 0. 174 6 0.004 2 0. 021 7 0. 173 6 0. 569 4

COD 0. 829 1 0.012 6 0. 103 1 0.824 7 1.769 5

Water SS 0. 141 7 0.007 0 0. 017 6 0. 140 7 0. 465 4

emissions DS 235. 120 0 0.004 6 29. 220 0 233. 790 0 498. 134 6

HM 0. 548 3 0.003 4 0. 068 3 0.546 3 1. 166 3

HC 2. 930 0 0.002 8 0. 363 8 2.910 0 6.206 6

Solid waste 190.45 6.50 20.62 164. 94 382. 51


YANG Ming, et al~ Life cycle of remanufactured engines 85

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