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Whatever the level of complexity of the model, every Simulink user wants to improve

simulation performance. This article presents tips and techniques to help you make the

most of your memory and processing power. It covers the following topics:

Identifying simulation bottlenecks

Modifying and simplifying your model

Running multiple simulations in parallel

While every situation is unique, the techniques described here can be applied to a wide

range of projects. Use them as a list of things to try whenever you need to increase the

speed of your simulations.

In Simulink, three modes affect simulation performance: Normal, Accelerator, and Rapid

Accelerator (Figure 1). As their names imply, Accelerator is faster than Normal, and Rapid

Accelerator is faster still. Each increase in speed typically means sacrificing another

capabilityfor example, flexibility, interactivity, or diagnostics. In many cases, if you can

work without one of these capabilitiesat least temporarilysimulation performance will

improve.

In Normal mode, Simulink interprets your model during each simulation run. If you change

your model frequently, this is generally the preferred mode to use because it requires no

separate compilation step.

In Accelerator mode, Simulink compiles a model into a binary shared library or DLL

where possible, eliminating the block-to-block overhead of an interpreted simulation in

Normal Mode. Accelerator mode supports the debugger and profiler, but not runtime

diagnostics.

In Rapid Accelerator mode, Simulink compiles a standalone executable for the model,

which can run on a separate processing core. You can use Rapid Accelerator mode only

when the full model is capable of generating code, and this mode restricts interaction with

the model during simulations. For example, Rapid Accelerator mode does not support

debugging. As with Accelerator mode, it's best to use Rapid Accelerator mode when your

simulations take much more time than the one-time cost of compilation.

Learn more about how the acceleration modes work, choosing a simulation mode, and

comparing performance.

You can trade off compile-time speed for simulation speed by setting the compiler

optimization level. Compiler optimizations for accelerations are disabled by default.

Enabling them (Figure 2) will accelerate simulation runs but result in longer build times.

The speed and efficiency of the C compiler used for Accelerator and Rapid Accelerator

modes also affects the time required in the compile step.

Accelerator or Rapid Accelerator mode may not improve performance much in the

following situations:

Your model's algorithm is primarily contained in a few complex blocks, such as the

Fast Fourier Transform block or lookup tables. A small model may run slower in an

accelerator mode because native blocks are highly optimized. In contrast, a model with

many basic blocks is more likely to benefit from compilation.

Your model contains compiled code, such as code from S-functions, Stateflow blocks,

and MATLAB functions. Using the compilation step will not speed the model further.

Your model contains blocks that cannot be compiled, such as Interpreted MATLAB

Function blocks.

accelerator modes work only on the simulation phase of each run, they may not offer

much improvement if they require time-consuming initialization or termination phases. For

details, see the Accelerating the Initialization Phase section of this article.

Your system lacks sufficient memory. Memory issues can slow simulations, particularly

for large models running on 32-bit operating systems. You can monitor Simulink memory

usage with the sldiagnostics function. If you use a 32-bit Windows system, consider

using the Windows 3GB startup switch or switching to a 64-bit system.

You log large data sets. When logging large amounts of data (for example, in models

that include the Workspace I/O, To Workspace, To File, or Scope blocks), use decimation

or limit the logged output to the last part of the simulation. Avoid logging redundant data

(for example, log the time only once) and extraneous data (for example, log integer values

instead of doubles when feasible). To File blocks save data incrementally in an array

format, so use them for logging tasks when managing memory usage for long simulations

is a priority.

If the acceleration modes do not provide the simulation speed you require, use the

sldiagnostics function, Simulink Profiler, and Simulink Model Advisor to identify and

eliminate simulation bottlenecks. The sldiagnostics function examines your Simulink

model without running it and displays diagnostic information, including how many

instances of each block are in your model and how much time and memory compilation

requires.

As you review the results produced by sldiagnostics, note how many interpreted

MATLAB functions your model uses (Figure 3). Because data exchange between

MATLAB and Simulink passes through several software layers, Interpreted MATLAB

Function blocks usually slow simulations, particularly if the model needs many data

exchanges. Additionally, because interpreted MATLAB functions cannot be compiled,

Interpreted MATLAB Function blocks impede attempts to use an acceleration mode to

speed up simulations.

model uses three MATLAB Function blocks.

Simulink Profiler lets you quantify exactly how much time each phase of your simulation

takes and how much time each block takes to simulate (Figure 4). This procedure can

generate a great deal of data. To minimize the amount of data that you need to review,

focus on those methods that consume the most time and those that are most frequently

called.

To call a MATLAB function within your Simulink model, use a MATLAB Function block

instead of an Interpreted MATLAB Function block or a MATLAB S-function. (The MATLAB

Function block was previously called the Embedded MATLAB block, and the Interpreted

MATLAB Function block was previously called the MATLAB Function block.) The MATLAB

Function is the faster alternative. It supports the generation of embeddable C code, and

does not incur the data packaging overhead required by the Interpreted MATLAB Function

block. While the MATLAB Function block does not support all MATLAB functions, the

subset of the MATLAB language that it does support is extensive. By replacing your

interpreted MATLAB code with code that uses only this embeddable MATLAB subset, you

can significantly improve performance.

To quickly find all the Interpreted MATLAB Function blocks in your model, open Model

Explorer and search your model by Block Type, selecting MATLABFcn as the type.

Most of the techniques described so far require few, if any, changes to the model itself.

You can achieve additional performance improvements by applying techniques that

involve modifications to the model.

Large images and complex graphics take a long time to load and render. As a result,

masked blocks that contain images might make your model less responsive. To accelerate

the initialization phase of a simulation, remove complex drawings and images. If you don't

want to remove an image, you can still improve performance by replacing it with a smaller,

low-resolution version. To do this, use the Mask Editor and edit the icon drawing

commands to change the image that is loaded by the call to image().

When you update or open a model, Simulink runs the mask initialization code. If you have

complicated mask initialization commands that contain many calls to set_param, consider

consolidating consecutive calls to set_param()into a single call with multiple argument

pairs. This can reduce the overhead associated with these calls.

If you use MATLAB scripts to load and initialize data, you can often improve performance

by loading MAT-files instead. The drawback is that the data in a MAT-file is not in a

human-readable form, and can therefore be more difficult to work with than a script.

However, load typically initializes data much more quickly than the equivalent script.

Learn more about loading data from a MAT-file into your workspace.

Reducing Interactivity

In general, the more interactive the model, the longer it will take to simulate. The tips in

this section illustrate ways to improve performance by giving up some interactivity.

Enable inline parameters optimization. When you enable this optimization in the

Optimization pane of the Configuration Parameters dialog box, Simulink uses the

numerical values of model parameters instead of their symbolic names. This substitution

can improve performance by reducing the parameter tuning computations performed

during simulations.

Disable debugging diagnostics. Some enabled diagnostic features noticeably slow

simulations. You can disable them in the Diagnostics pane of the Configuration

Parameters dialog box.

Note: Running the array bounds exceeded and solver data inconsistency diagnostics can

cause a noticeable slowdown in model run-time performance.

Disable MATLAB debugging and use BLAS library support. After verifying that your

MATLAB code works correctly, disable debugging support. In the Simulation Target pane

of the Configuration Parameters dialog box, disable debugging/animation, overflow

detection, and echoing expressions without semicolons (Figure 5).

Configuration Parameters dialog box.

If your simulation involves low-level MATLAB matrix operations, enable the Basic Linear

Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) Library feature to make use of highly optimized external

linear algebra routines.

Learn more about speeding up simulation with the basic linear algebra subprograms

(BLAS) library.

Disable Stateflow animations. By default, Stateflow charts highlight the current active

states and animate the state transitions that take place as the model runs. This feature is

useful for debugging, but it slows the simulation. To accelerate simulations, either close all

Stateflow charts or disable the animation. Similarly, if you're using Simulink 3D

Animation, SimMechanics visualization, FlightGear, or another 3D animation package,

consider disabling the animation or reducing scene fidelity to improve performance.

Adjust viewer-specific parameters and manage viewers through enabled

subsystems. If your model contains a scope viewer that displays a large number of data

points and you can't eliminate the scope, try adjusting the viewer parameters to trade off

fidelity for rendering speed. Be aware, however, that by using decimation to reduce the

number of plotted data points, you risk missing short transients and other phenomena that

would be obvious with more data points. You can place viewers in enabled subsystems to

more precisely control which visualizations are enabled and when.

Learn more about how scope signal viewer parameter settings can affect performance.

Simplifying your model without sacrificing fidelity is an effective way to improve simulation

performance. Here are three ways to reduce model complexity.

Replace a subsystem with a lower-fidelity alternative. In many cases, you can simplify

your model by replacing a complex subsystem model with one of the following:

A linear or nonlinear dynamic model created from measured input-output data using

System Identification Toolbox

A high-fidelity, nonlinear statistical model created using Model-Based Calibration

Toolbox

A linear model created using Simulink Control Design

A lookup table

Learn more about working with lookup tables, optimizing breakpoint spacing in lookup

tables, and optimizing generated code for lookup table blocks.

You can maintain both representations of the subsystem in a library and use variant

subsystems to manage them.

Reduce the number of blocks. When you reduce the number of blocks in your model,

fewer blocks will need to be updated during simulations, leading to faster simulation runs.

Vectorization is one way to reduce your block count. For example, if you have several

parallel signals that undergo a similar set of computations, try combining them into a

vector and performing a single computation. Another way is to simply enable the Block

Reduction optimization in the Optimization > General section of the configuration

parameters.

Use frame-based processing. In frame-based processing, samples are processed in

batches instead of one at a time. If your model includes an analog-to-digital converter, for

example, you can collect the output samples in a buffer and process the buffer with a

single operation, such as a fast Fourier transform. Processing data in chunks in this way

reduces the number of times that blocks in your model must be invoked. In general,

scheduling overhead decreases as frame size increases. However, larger frames

consume more memory, and memory limitations can adversely affect the performance of

complex models. Experiment with different frame sizes to find one that maximizes the

performance benefit of frame-based processing without causing memory issues.

Simulink provides a comprehensive library of solvers, including fixed-step and variable-

step solvers to handle stiff and nonstiff systems. Each solver determines the time of the

next simulation step and applies a numerical method to solve ordinary differential

equations that represent the model. The solver you choose and the solver options you

specify will affect simulation speed.

Select a solver that matches the stiffness of your system. A stiff system has both

slowly and quickly varying continuous dynamics. Implicit solvers are specifically designed

for stiff problems, whereas explicit solvers are designed for nonstiff problems. Using

nonstiff solvers to solve stiff systems is inefficient and can lead to incorrect results. If a

nonstiff solver uses a very small step size to solve your model, it may be because you

have a stiff system.

Choose a variable-step or fixed-step solver based on your model's step size and

dynamics. Exercise caution when deciding whether to use a variable-step or fixed-step

solver; otherwise, your solver could take additional time steps to capture dynamics that are

not important to you, or it could perform unnecessary calculations to work out the next time

step.

In general, simulations run with variable-step solvers are faster than those run with fixed-

step solvers: You use fixed-step solvers when the step size is less than or equal to the

fundamental sample time of the model. With a variable-step solver, the step size can vary

because variable-step solvers dynamically adjust the step size. As a result, the step size

for some time steps is larger than the fundamental sample time, reducing the number of

steps required to complete the simulation.

As a rule, choose a fixed-step solver when the fundamental sample time of your model is

equal to one of the sample rates. Choose a variable-step solver to capture continuous

dynamics, or when the fundamental sample time of your model is less than the fastest

sample rate.

Decrease the solver order. Decreasing the solver order improves simulation speed

because it reduces the number of calculations that Simulink performs to determine state

outputs. Of course, the results become less accurate as the order of the solver decreases.

The goal is to choose the lowest solver order that will produce results that meet your

accuracy requirements.

Increase the solver step size or the error tolerance. Similarly, increasing the solver

step size or increasing the solver error tolerance usually increases simulation speed at the

expense of accuracy. Such changes should be made with care because they can cause

Simulink to miss potentially important dynamics during simulations.

Disable zero-crossing detection. Variable-step solvers dynamically adjust the step size,

increasing it when a variable changes slowly and decreasing it when a variable changes

rapidly. This behavior causes the solver to take many small steps in the vicinity of a

discontinuity because this is when a variable is rapidly changing. Accuracy improves, but it

often comes with long simulation times.

To avoid the small time steps and long simulations associated with these situations,

Simulink uses zero-crossing detection to accurately locate such discontinuities. For

systems that exhibit frequent fluctuation betweens modes of operationa phenomenon

known as chatteringthis zero-crossing detection can actually have the opposite effect

and slow simulations. In these situations, it may be possible to adjust zero-crossing

detection to improve performance.

Note: Zero-crossing detection can be enabled or disabled for specific blocks in the model.

You can improve performance by disabling zero-crossing detection for blocks that do not

affect the accuracy of the simulation.

Engineers typically simulate a Simulink model repeatedly for different inputs, boundary

conditions, and operating conditions. In many situations, these simulations share a

common startup phase in which the model transitions from its initial state to some other

state. An electric motor, for example, may be brought up to speed before various control

sequences are tested.

Using the Simulink SimState feature, you can save the simulation state at the end of the

startup phase and then restore it for use as the initial state for future simulations. This

technique does not improve simulation speed per se, but it can reduce total simulation

time for consecutive runs because the startup phase needs to be simulated only once.

Learn more about saving and restoring the simulation state as the SimState.

You can reduce the total amount of time it takes to run multiple independent simulations

by distributing simulation tasks among multiple processing cores with Simulink and

Parallel Computing Toolbox. You can further reduce overall simulation time by using

MATLAB Distributed Computing Server to run the simulations on a computer cluster.

Common use cases for running simulations in parallel include Monte Carlo analysis and

design optimization. For example, you might set up a Monte Carlo simulation in which you

vary the value of a parameter across a predetermined range. You can then perform

simulations for each parameter value independently and in parallel on multiple cores.

You can parallelize many of the tasks involved in design optimization, including estimating

model parameters from test data, tuning controller gains to achieve a desired response,

optimizing design parameters, performing sensitivity analysis, and performing robustness

analysis. The total simulation time decreases as the number of processors in use

increases (Figure 6).

time needed to complete iterations

sequentially over the time need to complete

them in parallel) as a function of the number

of workers used.

Often, you can convert a sequential algorithm to a parallel algorithm by simply changing a

for-loop to a parfor-loop. The parfor construct in Parallel Computing Toolbox is similar to

a standard for-loop. The key difference is that parfor distributes the computations

performed within the loop to worker processors.

Learn more about improving Simulink Design Optimization performance using parallel

computing.

Starting with Simulink R2012b, you can use the Performance Advisor to check for

conditions and configuration settings that might cause inefficient simulation performance

(Figure 7). The Performance Advisor analyzes the model and produces a report that lists

the suboptimal conditions or settings that it finds. It suggests better model configuration

settings where appropriate, and provides mechanisms for fixing issues automatically or

manually. The techniques recommended in this article, as well as other approaches, can

be automatically tested in the Performance Advisor.

To illustrate the relative effectiveness of these techniques on a realistic project, we

measured the simulation time performance improvement provided by applying some of the

changes suggested above to a model of an automatic transmission system (Figure 8).

Figure 8. Simulink model of an automatic

transmission system.

Simplified the graphics used in the model (changed the engine image file format from

TIF to JPG, removed the transmission image, simplified the car line art)

Loaded data via a MAT-file instead of a script in PreLoadFcn, and decimated logged

signal vehicle_speed by 10

Replaced Interpreted MATLAB Function blocks with MATLAB functions (This change

has the greatest single effect.)

Enabled the following optimizations: Block reduction, Implement logic signals as

Boolean (vs. double) data, and Inline parameters

Disabled expensive diagnostics that check for solver data inconsistency, division by

singular matrix, Inf or NaN block output, simulation range checking, and array bounds

exceeded

Removed Scopes and enabled optimizations for Accelerator mode

Replaced an ode3 fixed-step solver with an ode23 variable-step solver, and set max

step size to auto

These changes reduced simulation time from 9.06 seconds to 0.98 seconds! Using the

optimized model, we can now apply rapid acceleration and parallel simulation to compare

the performance of those techniques (Table 1).

Improved Model, Normal Mode, Parallel Simulation (6 local workers) 13.2 seconds

Improved Model, Rapid Accelerator Mode, Parallel Simulation (6 local workers) 8.58 seconds

Improved Model, Rapid Accelerator Mode, Parallel Simulation (12 local workers) 4.86 seconds

Table 1. Time for 50 iterations of each model for 1000 seconds of simulation time. System

used: Lenovo S20 with Intel Xeon W3690 (3.46 GHz, 12 MB cache), 24 GB DDR3 1333

MHz PC3-10600 SDRAM, Drive 1: 500 GB 7200 RPM, Drive 2: 160 GB SSD with TRIM

Support; MATLAB R2011b is installed on Drive 2.

92002v01

Products Used

MATLAB

Simulink

MATLAB Distributed Computing Server

Model-Based Calibration Toolbox

Parallel Computing Toolbox

Simulink Control Design

Simulink Design Optimization

Stateflow

System Identification Toolbox

Learn More

Five Resources for Simulation Performance

Tips for Simulation Performance

Speeding Up Simulink for Control System Applications 59:45

Speeding Up Simulink for Signal Processing Applications 60:47

mathworks.com

1994-2017 The MathWorks, Inc. MATLAB and Simulink are registered trademarks of The MathWorks, Inc. See

mathworks.com/trademarks for a list of additional trademarks. Other product or brand names may be trademarks or

registered trademarks of their respective holders.

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