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A. Effect and application of laws. (Art. 15 and 17)
(1-18 CC)
Case: Tanada vs. Tuvera

B. Human Relations. (Art. 19, 20, 21 and 26)

Case: Albenson Enterprise vs. CA

A. Civil Personality
i. Civil Personality
1. General Provisions (Art. 37, CC)
a. Juridical capacity
b. Capacity to act
bi. Restrictions on capacity to act (Art. 38)
bii. Circumstances modifying capacity to act (Art.
Cases: Standard Oil Co. vs. Arenas
Mercado vs. Espiritu
Bambalan vs. Maramba
Braganza vs. Villa Abrille
2. Natural Persons
a. Commencement of civil personality
(Art. 40, CC)
b. Extinguishment of civil personality (Art. 42, CC)
Survivorship (Art.43, CC)
Case: Geluz vs. CA,
3. Juridical Persons
a. Enumeration (Art. 44, CC)
b. Governing laws (Art. 45, 47, CC)
c. Rights and obligations (Art. 46, CC)
ii. Citizenship and Domicile
Case: Romualdez-Marcos v. COMELEC


A. The Family (Art. 15, 1987 Constitution)
B. Policy of protection and government support to
family. (Art. 2 Sec. 12, 1987 Constitution)
C. Equal Protection.
(Art. 2, Sec. 14: Article 2, Section 1, 1987 Constitution)
A. Definition and Nature of Marriage
C. (Art. 1, Family Code)
Breach of Promise to Marry (Arts. 19-21. 2176, CC)
Cases: Wassmer vs. Velez
Tanjanco vs. CA
De Jesus vs. Syquia
In Re Santiago
Selanova vs. Mendoza

B. Requisites of Marriage.
a. Essential (Art. 2)
i. Legal capacity: male and female
1. Persons who may contract marriage (Art. 5,
2. Impediments to contracting marriage (Art.
37, 38)
ii. Consent freely given
Case: People vs. Santiago, 61 Phil. 68
b. Formal (Art. 3)
i. Authority of solemnizing officer (Art. 7,
10, 31, 32, 35 (2)
Case: Navarro vs. Domagtoy, 129 SCRA 259
ii. License
1. General rule: required
a. Issuance (Art. 9, 24)
b. Marriages between Filipino citizens abroad (Art.
c. Contents of application (Art.11)
d. Documents required for issuance (Art.12)
e. Additional requirement if party previously married
(Art. 13)
f. Parental consent (Art. 14, 16)
g. Parental advice (Art. 15, 16)
h. Publication (Art. 17)
i. In case of alleged impediment (Art. 18)
j. Fees (Art.19)
k. Validity (Art.20)
l. Certificate of capacity (Art. 21)
Case: People vs. Janssen, 54 Phil 176
2. Marriages exempt from license requirement
a. In articulo mortis (Art. 27, 29, 30, 31, 32)
b. Remote locations (Art.28, 29, 30)
c. Among ethnic groups (Art.33)
d. Cohabitation for 5 years (Art.34)
Case: Cosca vs. Palaypayon, 237 SCRA
Manzano vs. Sanchez,
iii. Ceremony
1. Form (Art.6)
Note: Marriage certificate (Art. 22, 23)
2. Venue (Art. 8)
Cases: Martinez v. Tan, 12 Phil 731
Madrilejo v. De Leon, 55 Phil 1
Balogbog v. CA, 259 SCRA 269

D. Effect of non-compliance with requisites.

(Art. 4, Family Code)
a. Absence of an essential requisite: void
b. Absence of a formal requisite: void
Exception: good faith (Art. 35.2)
c. Defect in an essential requisite: voidable (Art.45)
d. Irregularity in a formal requisite:
Liablibility of person responsible for irregularity (Sec. 38,
Act No. 3613)
D. Presumption of Marriage. (Art. 220, CC; Sec. 3 (aa),
Rule 131, ROC)
Cases: Trinidad vs. CA, 289 SCRA 188
Vda. De Jacob v. CA, 312 SCRA 772*
E. Marriage solemnized outside the Philippines. (Art.
a. General rule: lex loci celebrationis
b. Exceptions: Minority, bigamy/polygamy, mistake of
psychological incapacity, incest, public policy, same sex
F. Divorce of a Filipino by an alien spouse. (Art. 26)
(see cases)
A. Void marriages
a. Grounds
I. Minority (Art.35.1)
II. No authority of solemnizing officer (Art.35.2)
Exception: good faith of one party
iii. No license (Art. 35.3)
Exception: marriages exempt from license requirement (Art. 27-34)
Cases: Republic vs. CA, 236 SCRA 257
Ninal Bayadog, supra
iv. Bigamous/polygamous (Art.35.4)
Exception: absence of prior spouse (Art.41)
Case: Republic vs. CA, supra
v. Mistake of identity (Art. 35.5)
vi. Non-compliance with recording requirements ( Art. 35.6, 40,52, 53)
vii. Psychological incapacity (Art.36)
Cases: (review cases)
viii. Incest (Art. 37)
ix. Public policy (Art. 38)
x. Catch-all: absence of any essential or formal requisite (Art.4)
b. Prescriptive period of action/defense for declaration of absolute nullity
(Art. 39 as amended by E.O 227 and by RA 8533)
c. Judicial declaration of nullity (Art. 40)
Cases: Domingo vs. CA 226 SCRA 572
Wiegel vs. Sempio-Diy 143 SCRA 499
Valdes vs. RTC, 260 SCRA 221
Nicdao Carino vs. Yee Carino, G.R. No. 132529
Mercado vs. Mercado, G.R. No. 137110

d. Bigamous marriage when prior spouse has been absent (Art.41)

i. General rule on bigamous marriages (Art. 35.4)
ii. Waiting period
iii. Waiting period under extraordinary circumstances (Art. 391, CC)
iv. Declaration of presumptive death
v. Reappearance of prior spouse (Art. 42)
vi. Effect of termination of subsequent marriage (Art. 43)
vii. Effect if both spouses of subsequent marriage in bad faith (Art.44)
Case: Nicdao Carino vs. Yee Carino, supra
Mercado vs. Mercado, supra
B. Voidable marriages
a. Grounds
i. No parental consent where required (Art. 45.1)
ii. Unsound mind (Art.45.2)
iii. Fraud (Art.45.3)
iv. Force, intimidation, undue influence (Art. 45.4)
v. Impotence (Art. 45.5)
Cases: Jimenez vs. Canizares
Menciano vs. San jose
Sarao vs. Guevara
vi. Serious incurable sexually transmissible disease (Art.45.6)
vii. Catch-all: Defect in any essential requisite (Art.4)
Cases: Aquino vs. Delizo, 109 Phil 21
Anaya vs. Palaroan, 36 SCRA 97
Buccat vs. Mangonon de Buccat, 72 Phil 19
Ruiz vs. Atienza 40 O.G. 1903
Ocampo vs. Florenciano, supra
Contreras vs. Macaraig, 33 SCRA 222
Somosa-Ramos vs. Vamenta, 46 SCRA 11
b. Persons entitled to file action for annulment (Art. 47)
c. Prescriptive periods (Art. 47)
d. Ratification (Art. 45.1, 45.2, 45.3)
C. Common provisions: Effects
a. Safeguards against collusion (Art. 48)
b. Support and custody during pendency of action (Art.49)
c. Application of Arts. 43.2, 43.3, 43.4, 43.5 and Art. 44 to marriages declared void ab ignition or annulled by final judgment under Art. 40 and 45
d. Delivery of presumptive legitimes (Art. 51)
e. Recording requirement (Art. 52)
f. Effects on children (Art. 54)
g. Name and surname (Art.371)