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Wireline Services Catalog

The services in this catalog are grouped according to their applications.


A brief description of each service and its measurement and
mechanical specifications are included. For more information on
designing a logging program to meet your specific needs, contact
your Schlumberger representative.

Entering the catalog will take you to the table of contents.


From the table of contents, you may access any of the catalog
items by clicking its entry. You may also browse the PDF normally.

Enter catalog here.

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Schlumberger 2004
Schlumberger
225 Schlumberger Drive
Sugar Land, Texas 77478
Produced by Schlumberger Educational Services.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced,
stored in a retrieval system, or transcribed in any form or
by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photo-
copying and recording, without prior written permission
of the publisher.
FE_03_008_0

An asterisk (*) is used throughout this document to denote a mark of Schlumberger.


PatchFlexis a joint mark of Schlumberger and Drillflex.
Q-Land, Q-Marine, Q-Seabed, and TRISOR are marks of WesternGeco.
HFVS and ITAGA are trademarks of ExxonMobil Corporation.
Contents

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Quality, Health, Safety, and Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Quality, Health, Safety, and Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
QHSE Management System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Radiation safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Explosives safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Pressure control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Surface Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
MAXIS* Multitask Acquisition and Imaging System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Data Delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
InterACT* real-time monitoring and data delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Data utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Telemetry systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Field Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Optimum Service Land Carrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
High-Mobility Land Carrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
MAXIS Express* Medium Service Land Carrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Blue Streak* Shallow Well Perforating Truck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Offshore Skid Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
High-Efficiency Logging and Perforating unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Auxiliary winch drum attachment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Conveyance Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
LWF* logging while fishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
TLC* Tough Logging Conditions system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Coiled tubing logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Depth measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Hostile Environment Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Hostile Environment Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Strengthening cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Improving surface equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Enhancing telemetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Broadening tool capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Looking toward the future . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Logging Platforms and Suites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Platform Express* Integrated Wireline Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Xtreme* HPHT Logging Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
IPL* Integrated Porosity Lithology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
SlimAccess* Logging for Slim and Complex Geometry Boreholes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

Wireline Services Catalog Contents iii


SlimXtreme* Slimhole HPHT Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
PS Platform* Production Services Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
PL Flagship* Production Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
ABC* Analysis Behind Casing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Resistivity Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
AIT* Array Induction Imager Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
AIT Array Induction Imager Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Platform Express Array Induction Imager Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Slim Array Induction Imager Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Hostile Environment Induction Imager Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
SlimXtreme Array Induction Imager Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Laterolog Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
ARI* Azimuthal Resistivity Imager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
HRLA* High-Resolution Laterolog Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
High-Resolution Azimuthal Laterolog Sonde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Microresistivity Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
MicroSFL* Spherically Focused Resistivity tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Micro-Cylindrically Focused Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Powered Caliper Device with microlog tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
CHFR-Plus* Cased Hole Formation Resistivity Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Nuclear Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Gamma Ray Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Spectral Gamma Ray Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
NGS* Natural Gamma Ray Spectrometry tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Hostile Environment Natural Gamma Ray Sonde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
ECS* Elemental Capture Spectroscopy Sonde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Neutron Porosity Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
CNL* Compensated Neutron Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Slim Compensated Neutron Porosity Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Highly Integrated Gamma Ray Neutron Sonde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
SlimXtreme Compensated Neutron Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Array Porosity Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
APS* Accelerator Porosity Sonde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Hostile Environment Accelerator Porosity Sonde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
RST* and RSTPro* Reservoir Saturation Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Density Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Three-Detector Lithology Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Litho-Density Sonde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Hostile Environment Lithology Density Sonde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Slim Array Litho-Density* Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
SlimXtreme Litho-Density Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
CMR-Plus* Combinable Magnetic Resonance Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
MRX* Magnetic Resonance eXpert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Acoustic Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Monopole Acoustic Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Digital Sonic Logging Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Slim Array Sonic Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
DSI* Dipole Shear Sonic Imager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

iv Wireline Services Catalog


Dipmeter and Imaging Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
FMI* Fullbore Formation MicroImager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
UBI* Ultrasonic Borehole Imager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
OBMI* Oil-Base MicroImager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
OBDT* Oil-Base Dipmeter Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Drilling and Directional Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
GPIT* General Purpose Inclinometry Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Seismic Imaging Tools and Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Seismic Imaging Tools and Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
CSI* Combinable Seismic Imager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Q-Borehole* Multicomponent Borehole Seismic Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
VSI* Versatile Seismic Imager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
SWINGS* seismic navigation and positioning system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
TRISOR seismic source control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Q-Borehole Simultaneous Surface and Borehole Seismic Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Marine Seismic Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Land Seismic Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Formation Testing and Sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
MDT* Modular Formation Dynamics Tester . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Advanced MDT Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Dual-Packer Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Dual-Probe Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Flow-Control Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Pumpout Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
LFA* Live Fluid Analyzer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
CFA* Composition Fluid Analyzer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
MDT Low-Shock Sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
MDT Multisample Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
SRFT* Slimhole Repeat Formation Tester . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
CHDT* Cased Hole Dynamics Tester . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Mechanical Sidewall Coring Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
CST* Chronological Sample Taker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Well Integrity Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Cement Bond Logging Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Slim Array Sonic Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
SlimXtreme Sonic Logging Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Cement bond log from Digital Sonic Logging Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Cement bond log from Hostile Environment Sonic Logging Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Slim Cement Mapping Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
USI* UltraSonic Imager Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Corrosion Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
UCI* Ultrasonic Casing Imager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
CPET* Corrosion Protection Evaluation Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
METT* Multifrequency Electromagnetic Thickness Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
PS Platform Multifinger Imaging Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Production Logging Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
PS Platform Production Services Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
RSTPro Reservoir Saturation Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
WFL* Water Flow Log from the RSTPro Reservoir Saturation Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
RSTPro tool with silica activation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149

Contents v
CPLT* Combinable Production Logging Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Combinable Gamma Ray Sonde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Phase Velocity Sonde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
FloView* Holdup Measurement Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Multiple-Isotope Spectroscopy Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Perforating Services and Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Perforating Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Casing collar locator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
UPCT* Universal Perforating and Correlation Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
PGGT* Powered Gun Gamma Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
WPP* Wireline Perforating Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Wireline Oriented Perforating Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Through-Tubing Perforating Positioning Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Magnetic Positioning Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Spring Positioning Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Wireline Perforating Anchor Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Perforating Explosives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Detonation Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
S.A.F.E.* Slapper-Actuated Firing Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Secure* detonator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Gun Systems and Charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Capsule gun systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Enerjet* expendable strip gun system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Pivot Gun* gun system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
PowerSpiral* spiral-phased perforating system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
CERAMICA* perforating charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Carrier gun systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
HEGS* High-Efficiency Gun System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Casing gun systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
HSD* High Shot Density gun systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
PURE* Perforating for Ultimate Reservoir Exploitation System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Casing and Tubing Cutters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Tubing Punchers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Plugs and Packers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Casing Packer Setting Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Gauge Ring and Junk Basket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
PatchFlex Through-Tubing Casing Patch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
PosiSet* Mechanical Plug-Back Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
Auxiliary Measurements and Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
Caliper Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
MaxTRAC* Production Services Tractor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
Auxiliary Compression Tension Sub . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
Environmental Measurement Sonde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
FPIT* Free-Point Indicator Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
CERT* Correlated Electromagnetic Retrieval Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Wireline Crossover Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Large Openhole Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196

vi Wireline Services Catalog


Introduction
Introduction

During the early 1900s Conrad and product line structure. This organiza- measurements that until recently were
Marcel Schlumberger experimented tion not only ensures that technology available only in openhole environ-
with surface electrical measurements from different product groups can be ments. This technology opens new
as a way of defining the Earths subsur- integrated by experts and delivered to avenues for the evaluation of bypassed
face structure. In 1927 they performed provide seamless solutions to the oil pay, reservoir monitoring, or contin-
their experiment in an oil well in and gas industry but also enhances the gency logging under difficult condi-
France for the Pechelbronn Oil development of innovative solutions. tions.
Company. No one can deprecate the impor- Production logging, cement and
The result was the first electrical tance of timely information. This is corrosion evaluation, and nuclear
log, and it showed conclusively that especially true in the oil and gas indus- measurements made after casing
geologic formations penetrated by the try, where critical decisions hinge has been set are increasingly used
drill could be identified by electrical upon the availability of data. Data to identify problems and monitor
measurements. The electric log gave acquired by Schlumberger can now be well performance. The comprehensive
eyes to the oil finders, who previously made available to operators in real Schlumberger line of production ser-
could rely only on drill cuttings and time by using satellite communication vices is engineered for safety, reliabil-
core samples. networks. Decisions made on the basis ity, and performance. New perforation
In the years since that historic of these data can be implemented systems have also been developed with
event in France, Schlumberger has quickly and efficiently. a focus on maximizing production.
become an international company As well geometries become increas- The services in this catalog are
offering services for petroleum explo- ingly complex, new techniques of con- grouped according to their applications.
ration, development, and production veyance of logging tools are needed. A brief description of each service and
with seismic surveys, drilling, mea- Most of the logging tools in use today its measurement and mechanical speci-
surement-while-drilling, wireline log- can be conveyed on drillpipe, coiled fications are included. For more infor-
ging, well testing, cementing and tubing, or wireline tractors to address mation on designing a logging program
stimulation, and the design and instal- a wide range of well conditions. to meet your specific needs, contact
lation of production systems and com- Oilfields around the world are your Schlumberger representative.
ponents. aging, driving an increasing need to
Today Schlumberger is organized as evaluate old wells. Schlumberger pro-
an integrated Oilfield Services com- vides state-of-the-art formation evalua-
pany while maintaining its traditional tion services in cased wells, including

Wireline Services Catalog Introduction 3


Quality, Health,
Safety, and
Environment
Quality, Health, Safety,
and Environment
To ensure that quality, health, safety The QHSE Management System Radiation safety
(including security), and environmen- includes eight interrelated compo- When handling radioactive materials,
tal (QHSE) considerations remain a nents, monitored to ensure day-to-day Schlumberger personnel follow strict
top priority, Schlumberger has adopted conformance with standards, cor- rules that meet or exceed the require-
the QHSE Management System. We are rected when necessary, and continu- ments of government regulatory agen-
committed to proactively integrating ously improved: cies. Training, policies, procedures,
the following QHSE objectives into Commitment and leadership equipment testing, and internal audits
Schlumberger operations worldwide: strong, visible management com- are all parts of our program to ensure
Ensure the quality of our products mitment, leadership, and personal radiation safety. In addition, electrical
and services. involvement in QHSE, including neutron source accelerators are pro-
provision of necessary resources gressively replacing some chemical
Protect the health, safety and prop-
erty of our employees, clients, con- Policies and objectivesto define neutron sources.
tractors, and third parties. standards and QHSE performance
targets for all levels of the organiza- Explosives safety
Protect the environment in the
tion
communities where we work and Through a continual training program,
Organization and resourcesorga-
live. Schlumberger personnel develop a
nizational structure and necessary respect for explosives and thorough
resources for achieving QHSE objec- knowledge of explosives handling. The
QHSE Management System tives risks related to hazardous explosive
The QHSE Management System Contractor and supplier manage- materials have been well controlled for
defines the Schlumberger operating mentmechanisms to ensure that many years, and each year technology
principles with regard to product and products and services provided by developments further reduce these
service quality, protection of health suppliers and contractors meet risks. For example, S.A.F.E.* Slapper-
and safety, and protection of the envi- applicable QHSE standards Actuated Firing Equipment and
ronment. As an integral part of their Risk managementcontinual eval- Secure* detonators are replacing
everyday work, all Schlumberger uation process to identify hazards, explosive firing devices that are sensi-
employees share and practice the assess risks, and determine appro- tive to radio signals and stray voltage.
QHSE principles. priate means of prevention and mit- When explosives are handled,
A foundation of the QHSE system is igation Schlumberger personnel use field-
the belief that all losses of people, Design and planningapplication proven safety devices such as key-con-
property, and process are preventable. of QHSE principles to the design, trolled safety switches, stray voltage
By applying QHSE principles, we strive development, and delivery of grounding straps, and rig-to-wellhead
to attain a zero-defect culture that Schlumberger Oilfield Services voltage monitors. Stringent wellsite
eliminates all accidents, process products and services procedures provide backup controls.
losses, harmful emissions, health-
Implementation and monitoring
related incidents, and security lapses.
mechanisms to ensure activities
conform to defined standards and to
promote continuous improvement
Assessment and continuous improve-
mentaudits and reviews to verify
the effectiveness of the QHSE
Management System.

Wireline Services Catalog Quality, Health, Safety, and Environment 7


Pressure control Environment
The Schlumberger dynamic wellhead Schlumberger wireline operations use
control system is designed to handle very few toxic materials, which mini-
the pressures that occur during wire- mizes the potential impact on the
line operations. environment. Continuous monitoring
The top-rated equipment has through the QHSE Management System
a working pressure of 15,000 psi ensures environmental compliance
[103 MPa] and a test rating of and protection.
22,500 psi [155 MPa]. Safety features
include a hydraulically operated pack-
ing gland at the top of the lubricator
and hydraulically actuated blowout
preventers. All pressure equipment is
pressure tested and certified on a reg-
ular basis.
Personnel who perform ultrahigh-
pressure operations receive special
training and certification. All equip-
ment is field tested to expected pres-
sures after installation on the wellhead
and before operations begin.

8 Wireline Services Catalog


Surface Systems
MAXIS Multitask Acquisition
and Imaging System
All Schlumberger logging units are The MCM receives and records a The MAXIS system integrates a set
equipped with the MAXIS* Multitask complex array of data from the down- of software programs on PC-based net-
Acquisition and Imaging System. The hole tools, performs quality checks, worked computers, acquisition inter-
Modular Configuration MAXIS (MCM) and processes and displays the infor- face that is Transmission Control
is the latest generation of MAXIS mation on high-resolution color screen Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
development. This modular personal displays as well as hard-copy color based, special tool power control unit,
computer (PC) based platform makes prints in real time for immediate deci- high-resolution color screens, state-
extensive use of commercially avail- sion-making. Multitasking capability of-the-art color printers, and communi-
able hardware and operating systems enables the performance of various cation system. In combination with
to provide improved flexibility in tasks simultaneously to further InterACT* real-time monitoring and
deploying applications. The MCM is increase wellsite efficiency. data delivery, the MAXIS system can
configurable from a minimum of an securely deliver real-time log data
office print server to high-end explo- from remote sites using existing com-
ration units. munication channels.

Wireline Services Catalog Surface Systems 11


Data Delivery

Schlumberger recognizes that the data data can be automatically and continu- superior transfer process means that
gathered in the field must be trans- ously delivered to and viewed on the InterACT technology can be used even
ferred to the end users as reliably and users desktop computer. Data can also in areas with unsophisticated commu-
as quickly as possible. To this end, be viewed on pocket PCs. nication links.
Schlumberger has a proven global data The wellsite engineer simply InterACT delivery uses best-in-class
delivery network that securely, reli- uploads graphical or digital data to security standards for both hardware
ably, and efficiently transfers data the InterACT Web site for remote and software. All data transfer uses
from remote sites. Data can be trans- users to view or analyze in real time. 128-bit Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
mitted from the wellsite and forwarded Formats supported include Digital Log encryption. The system meets industry
via e-mail, facsimile, and File Transfer Information Standard (DLIS), LOG security standards, minimizing the risk
Protocol (FTP). Schlumberger InterACT ASCII Standard (LAS), and American of data disclosure. If an intranet-only
service furthers real-time data accessi- Standard Code for Information Inter- solution is preferred, Schlumberger
bility from a Web browser. The InterACT change (ASCII) for digital data and can install and maintain the system in
system supports Picture Description System (PDS), the clients office.
Tagged Image File Format (TIFF), or The same process used for internal
transfer of real-time wireline, drill-
any other file type for graphical data. team members easily controls partner
ing, and fracturing data
The embedded log graphics viewer pro- access to data. Because the data reside
secure, managed sharing of project vides options to view and manipulate centrally in the system database, there
data with third parties and wireline data. For example, wireline is no need for continual updates and
partners and drilling data can be viewed con- distribution. Partners access specified
all project data gathered in one currently on the same log presenta- data at the operators discretion.
location, regardless of who tion.
produced them. During operations such as reservoir
sampling, experts at different loca- Data utilities
tions can collaborate on data viewed or The Log Data Toolbox* suite of data
InterACT real-time monitoring interpreted in real time for immediate utilities enables clients to view or
and data delivery decision-making on critical issues. manipulate data on their own PCs. The
InterACT real-time monitoring and The most difficult part of data graphics utilities are for viewing and
data delivery service is a user-friendly, exchange is sending data from a manipulating PDS and TIFF files. The
intuitive system that requires no remote site. Because local telecommu- data utilities are used to manipulate,
installation of specialized software. nication systems in some areas can be verify, reformat, or view Log Infor-
From a connection to either the unreliable, Schlumberger uses propri- mation Standard (LIS), DLIS, LAS,
Internet or a local intranet, data are etary transfer protocols to ensure and ASCII data files. The Log Data
downloaded to a desktop computer or robust data transfer. Encrypted data Toolbox suite is provided at no cost
viewed using interactive, customizable are compressed for efficiency, and to all Schlumberger clients at
graphics viewers on a PC. Real-time automatic link recovery is available if http://interact.slb.com.
telecommunications breaks occur. This

12 Wireline Services Catalog


Telemetry systems form to meet the increased data rate CTS supports a 100-kbps uplink data
The telemetry system provides the required on a monocable for produc- rate. It can operate on either alternat-
interface through which data are deliv- tion logging. ing or direct current (AC or DC) with
ered from the downhole toolstring to DTS supports high-data-rate logging hepta-cable or coaxial cable.
the surface data acquisition and pro- tools. The telemetry uses sophisticated MTS is a single-channel QAM link in
cessing system. The Digital Telemetry modem technology to overcome the which the tool message frames are
System (DTS) uses a fast tool bus bandwidth restrictions of the wireline encapsulated into a new cable proto-
(FTB) in downhole tools. This system is logging cable. The quadrature ampli- col. An adaptive QAM uplink channel is
used in all new-generation imaging tude modulation (QAM) technique used to deliver data to the surface sys-
tools. The legacy Cable Telemetry enables data transmission that fully tem from the PS Platform system. The
System (CTS) uses a digital tool bus uses the cable bandwidth. DTS also downlink is a single biphase channel
(DTB) in downhole tools. The new uses two cable transmission modes to used to send tool commands.
Monocable Telemetry System (MTS) double the uplink channel capacity.
has been specially developed for the The T5 and T7 modes are used simulta-
PS Platform* production services plat- neously to produce an effective
throughput rate of 500 kbps or greater.

Telemetry Cartridge Mechanical Specifications


Digital Telemetry Digital Telemetry Slim Telemetry SlimXtreme* Telemetry Xtreme* Hostile Tool Communication Slim Tool Hostile Environment
Cartridge (DTC-H) Cartridge (DTC-A) and Gamma Ray and Gamma Ray Environment Cartridge (TCC-B) Communication Tool Communication
Cartridge (STGC) Cartridge (QTGC) Integrated Telemetry Cartridge Cartridge (HTCC-A)
and Gamma Ray (MTCC-A)
Cartridge (HTGC)

Temperature rating 302F [150C] 350F [177C] 302F [150C] 500F [260C] 500F [260C] 392F [200C] 392F [200C] 500F [260C]
Pressure rating 25,000 psi [172 MPa] 25,000 psi [172 MPa] 14,000 psi [97 MPa] 30,000 psi [207 MPa] 25,000 psi [172 MPa] 25,000 psi [172 MPa] 25,000 psi [172 MPa] 25,000 psi [172 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 43 8 in. [11.11 cm] 43 8 in. [11.11 cm] 31 2 in. [8.89 cm] 3 7 8 in. [9.84 cm] 434 in. [12.07 cm] 438 in. [11.11 cm] 334 in. [9.53 cm] 438 in. [11.11 cm]
Borehole sizemax. No limit No limit No limit No limit No limit No limit No limit No limit
Outer diameter 3.375 in. [8.57 cm] 3.375 in. [8.57 cm] 2.5 in. [6.35 cm] 3 in. [7.62 cm] 3.75 in. [9.53 cm] 3.375 in. [8.57 cm] 2.75 in. [6.99 cm] 3.5 in. [8.89 cm]
Length 3 ft [0.9 m] 9 ft [2.7 m] 7.64 ft [2.33 m] 10.67 ft [3.25 m] 10.67 ft [3.25 m] 3 ft [0.9 m] 4.17 ft [1.27 m] 5.5 ft [1.7 m]
Weight 48 lbm [22 kg] 121 lbm [55 kg] 71.3 lbm [32 kg] 265 lbm [120 kg] 265 lbm [120 kg] 51 lbm [23 kg] 54 lbm [24 kg] 92 lbm [42 kg]

Surface Systems 13
Field Units

Optimum Service Land Carrier Mechanical Specifications


The Optimum Service Land Carrier OSLC
(OSLC) is used to perform open- or
Length 28.3 ft [8.6 m]
cased hole logging operations. The
Width 10.3 ft [3.1 m] (including side mirrors)
design emphasis for this integrated,
Height 12.8 ft [3.9 m]
full-service logging carrier minimizes
the overall size of the truck but still Weight 48,200 lbm [21,863 kg] with 52-in. [1.32-m] drum
and 24,000-ft [7,300-m] 7-46 cable
provides full cable capacity by allowing
Large winch drum cable capacity
the use of existing large-capacity
WDR-57 52-in. [1.32-m] split drum 20,000-ft [6,096-m] 7-46 and 18,000-ft [5,486-m] 2-23 cable
winch drum reels (WDRs). The result-
WDR-30 30,000-ft [9,144-m] 7-46 cable
ing unit efficiently performs full-ser-
Small winch drum cable capacity
vice operations from an
intermediate-size vehicle. The OSLC WDR-61 24,000-ft [7,300-m] 2-32 cable
also has excellent off-road capabilities Cable speed
through its 64 drive configuration. Large drum 70 to 43,000 ft/hr [21 to 13,100 m/h]
at full drum, continuously variable
The cabin layout has both the winch
Small drum 70 to 60,000 ft/hr [21 to 18,290 m/h]
operator and engineer facing the rig. at full drum, continuously variable

High-Mobility Land Carrier


The High-Mobility Land Carrier Mechanical Specifications
(HMLC) operates in desert and HMLC-AA
extreme off-road conditions that Length 27.9 ft [8.5 m]
require a 44 chassis. The HMLC has
Width 9.31 ft [2.84 m]
an operational capacity similar to that
Height 12.37 ft [3.77 m]
of the MAXIS Express* onshore well-
Weight Gross vehicle weight (GVW): 40,500 lbm [18,370 kg]
site surface instrumentation because it
Winch drum cable capacity
uses the same winch drum and winch
drive arrangement. WDR-56 18,400-ft [5,608-km] 7-39 LXS cable
Cable speed 100 to 100,000 ft/hr [30.5 to 30,480 m/h]

MAXIS Express Medium


Service Land Carrier Mechanical Specifications
The MAXIS Express Medium Service MSLC-BA
Land Carrier (MSLC) is an integrated
mobile logging truck built on a 42 Length 25.3 ft [7.7 m]
chassis. The MSLC is suited for both Width 10.3 ft [3.1 m] (including side mirrors)
open- and cased hole services. The dri- Height 12.4 ft [3.78 m] (to top of the exhaust stack)
ving cab and logging cabin layouts are Weight GVW: 33,850 lbm [15,354 kg]
similar to those of the OSLC, with both Load capacity Front axle: 13,850 lbm [6,282 kg]
Rear axle: 20,000 lbm [9,072 kg]
the winch operator and engineer fac-
ing the rig. Winch drum cable capacity
WDR-56 direct-drive drum 13,000-ft [3,962-m] 7-46 cable
with disk brake 18,400-ft [5,608-m] 7-39 LXS cable
Blue Streak Shallow Well 16,100-ft [4,907-m] 7-42 P cable
Perforating Truck Cable speed 100 to 100,000 ft/hr [30.5 to 30,480 m/h]

The Blue Streak* Shallow Well Perfo-


rating Truck (SWPT) is specifically
designed for completion work on wells

14 Wireline Services Catalog


shallower than 14,000 ft [4,200 m] Mechanical Specifications
deep. This mobile unit for oil and
gas exploration supports the MAXIS SWPT-EAA Standard Without Mast
SWPT-EAB Standard with Mast
acquisition system. The SWPT is well SWPT-EBA 4 4 Without Mast
suited for multiple shallow-well com- SWPT-EBB 4 4 with Mast
pletion projects where a mast is Length SWPT-EAA and SWPT-EBA: 23 ft [7.0 m]
required (45-ft [13.7-m] maximum). SWPT-EAB and SWPT-EBB: 29 ft [8.8 m]
Rig-up is a quick and simple two- Width 8.1 ft [2.5 m]
person operation. Height SWPT-EAA: 9.2 ft [2.8 m] (without mast)
SWPT-EAB and SWPT-EBA: 10 ft [3.1 m] (mast not deployed)
SWPT-EBB: 10.8 ft [3.3 m] (mast not deployed)
Offshore Skid Unit 45 ft [13.7 m] (mast extended)
The Offshore Skid Unit (OSU) is a Weight GVW (max.): 31,000 lbm [14,100 kg]
skid-type data acquisition unit. It is Winch drum cable capacity 19,000-ft [5,790-m] 0.22-in. [0.56-cm] diameter cable
17,000-ft [5,181-m] 0.23-in. [0.58-cm] diameter cable
designed for operation on offshore 14,000-ft [4,270-m] 0.25-in. [0.63-cm] diameter cable
drilling rigs from either a stationary 8,500-ft [2,590-m] 0.32-in. [0.81-cm] diameter cable
mounting or an oscillation track, for 5,800-ft [1,770-m] 0.39-in. [0.99-cm] diameter cable
locations close to the wellhead or mul- Cable speed 2,000 to 70,000 ft/hr [610 to 21,340 m/h]
tiple-slot platforms. The cab is
ergonomically designed to house both
the MAXIS acquisition system and the Mechanical Specifications
winch control system for tripping the OSU
logging tools in and out of the well. The
Main Skid and Cab Engine Skid
optimized inside layout provides a
comfortable office work environment Length 18 ft [5.5 m] (to front of main drum) 7.5 ft [2.3 m]
in conformance with high safety stan- 21.83 ft [6.65 m] (to front of WDA)
dards. The standard OSU has a diesel- Width 7.85 ft [2.39 m] 2 ft [0.6 m]
powered hydraulic system. Variations Height 7.73 ft [2.36 m] (from bottom 8.42 ft [2.57 m] (from bottom
of skid to top of cab) of skid to top of exhaust)
in design make the OSU readily adapt- 8.8 ft [2.7 m] (from bottom of skid
able to specific environments and to top of air conditioner unit)
client needs. An electric winch model Weight 18,900 lbm [8,573 kg] 4,300 lbm [1,950 kg]
with zero emissions is available for WDA: 5,500 lbm [2,495 kg]
operations with high environmental with 30,000-ft [9,144-m] 1-22 cable
Cable drum: 10,800 lbm [4,899 kg]
sensitivity or in extremely cold cli- for 48-in. [1.22-m] winch drum
mates. The unit may be equipped with with 24,000-ft [7,315-m] 7-46 cable
an auxiliary winch drum attachment Winch drum cable capacity WDA: 30,000-ft [9,144-m] 1-22 cable
for monocable or coaxial cable opera- 48-in. [1.22-m] winch drum: 24,000-ft
tion without the need to change drums. [7,315-m] 7-46 cable
Either a diesel-driven or Electro- Cable speed 100 to 45,000 ft/hr [30 to 13,720 m/h]
hydraulic Prime Mover Skid (EHPA)
can be supplied.
Mechanical Specifications

High-Efficiency Logging HELP Unit


and Perforating unit Pressure rating 5,000 to 15,000 psi [24.5 to 103 MPa]
Wellsite efficiency, cost, and space lim- Length 91 in. or 7.58 ft [2.31 m]
itations are prime considerations for Width 84 in. or 7 ft [2.13 m]
perforating or servicing wells in the Height 118 in. or 9.83 ft [3.0 m]
offshore environment. The High- Weight 5,000 lbm
Efficiency Logging and Perforating Lift capacity 10,000 lbm [44,480 N]
(HELP) unit provides high-efficiency Electric line capacity 24,000-ft [7315-m] 1-23 cable
perforating and mechanical services 15,000-ft [4572-m] 1-32 cable
from a compact, portable skid. The Cable speed 80 to 50,000 ft/h [24.4 to 15,240 m/h]
(enhanced slow-speed logging)
self-contained HELP system requires
only two operators. Cable tension Limiting the system avoids unplanned pull-offs
Additional person required for pressures between 10,000 and 15,000 psi [69 and 103 MPa].

Surface Systems 15
Auxiliary winch drum attachment
Wireline completion operations are
usually performed under pressure,
which requires a small-size cable.
The auxiliary WDA is equipped with
30,000 ft [9,144 m] of 1-22 or 2-23 cable
or with 21,800 ft [6,645 m] of 1-32 or
2-32 cable for attachment to the log-
ging unit. This arrangement supports
monocable operation without the need
to change drums. The logging unit and
WDA are usually separated for trans-
port or repair.

16 Wireline Services Catalog


Conveyance Systems

LWF logging while fishing Once the tool is freed, TLC*-style signals to the tool and to receive data
LWF* logging-while-fishing technology logging is conducted to continue the from the toolstring. The mechanical
saves time and reduces cost by recording of continuous or stationary properties of the coiled tubing are
enabling the resumption of logging logs. used to convey the wireline tools in the
operations during fishing. In most wellbore. In certain applications fluid
cases, the LWF technique eliminates or gas can be simultaneously pumped
TLC Tough Logging through the coiled tubing while
the conditioning trip required before Conditions system
relogging because the fishing job is logging.
converted to a drillpipe-assisted log The TLC Tough Logging Conditions sys-
that completes the original descent in tem (TLCS) makes it possible to deploy
tools for wireline logging in highly devi- Depth measurement
the wellbore.
ated or horizontal wells and also in Depth measurement is critical for
LWF technology can be used with
hostile environments and deep wells. wireline operations. An Integrated
most stuck wireline tools. LWF opera-
Wireline tools are mechanically con- Depth Wheel (IDW) provides cali-
tions begin by preparing the wireline
nected beneath the drillpipe using the brated absolute depth measurement.
for cut-and-thread fishing. The con-
Downhole Wet Connector Head (DWCH) Other downhole measurements are
nected rope sockets on the cable ends
and run in to a predetermined latch valuable, but they must be secured at
are housed in a load-bearing protective
point. The Pump-Down Wet Connector the most precise point possible below
torpedo to reestablish both the
Head (PWCH) is then threaded the Earths surface. Decision-makers
mechanical connection and electrical
through the CSES and pumped down to rely on precise depths for mapping
communication with the stuck tool-
latch in the DWCH to provide an elec- geologic intervals, designing comple-
string. The tool overshot and drillpipe
trical connection. The CSES provides tion procedures, and conducting other
are threaded over the cable until the
a complete cable seal up to 5000-psi related operational and financial pro-
placement depth is reached for the
[34-MPa] differential pressure. All cedures. If the depth measurement
Cable Side Entry Sub (CSES).
tools are rated to 20,000 psi [138 MPa]. is incorrect, incorrect geologic and
The CSES is placed to provide an
TLCS enables conducting opera- economic decisions could result.
overlapping, continuous log, with the
tions in otherwise impossible condi- Another important input is the ten-
maximum continuous log interval
tions. A key component of TLCS jobs sion measurement, which not only is
equal to the distance between the cas-
is thorough prejob planning that essential for a safe and successful log-
ing shoe and rig floor. The wireline
accounts for tool compressional and ging operation, but is also used to cor-
passes through the CSES to the outside
tensile strengths (especially for induc- rect for cable stretch. The IDW
of the drillpipe to prevent wireline
tion and sonic tools), hole and casing receives cable motion and magnetic
damage during logging. A downhole
sizes, drillpipe internal diameter and mark information from the depth
cable-severing device is also installed
conditions, and well conditions. encoder, and cable tension informa-
to allow retrieval of the wireline if the
tion is received from the cable tension
drillpipe becomes stuck while logging.
device. As a secondary (nonmanda-
The fishing tools on the rig floor are Coiled tubing logging tory) standard, the depth/tension sub-
then removed from the wireline, and Coiled tubing logging (CTL) is used to system can initiate commands that
the tool is repowered to prepare for deploy wireline logging tools in holes cause a magnetic mark to be placed on
engagement of the overshot and tool. where they cannot naturally be the cable at predefined intervals (typi-
The speed of the operation now deployed on their own. These condi- cally 100 ft if depth is being recorded
increases because tripping drillpipe is tions include deviated wells with sig- in feet or 50 m if depth is being
quicker than threading cable through nificant drag or where descent is not recorded in meters) of cable move-
drillpipe. When the stuck tool is easy. Operations are essentially the ment. These marks can be read by the
reached, engagement is less likely to same, with the cable permanently con- system during logging to aid the preci-
damage the tool because the reestab- nected to the toolstring at all time. sion of the depth measurement.
lished electrical communication This is accomplished by installing an
allows monitoring tension at the tool in electric line inside the coiled tubing to
addition to the usual drillers method. transmit electrical power and control

Surface Systems 17
The fastest wheel algorithm of the The depth subsystem does not main- lower limits of the safety zones are
IDW prevents one of the leading causes tain a single depth measurement that called setpoints and are provided for
of large depth errors, which is encoder is changed by the fastest wheel; it four conditions:
wheel slippage. The depth subsystem maintains separate measurements low tension
collects cable movement information derived from each encoders motion high tension
from two encoders. The fastest wheel and picks the more advanced one. The
top of well
algorithm compares the depth mea- depth value that is presented is an
surements derived from the encoders. encoder-derived measurement that bottom of well.
If they are significantly different, the has been corrected for wheel error and
Winch operation is shut down auto-
probable amount of slip is calculated, slippage.
matically when any of the limits estab-
and this amount is added to the slower The depth/tension subsystem fea-
lished by these setpoints are exceeded.
wheels depth reading to compensate tures alarms and winch shutdown
for the slippage. The corrected depth is for specified safe operating zones of
then calculated. tension and depth. The upper and

18 Wireline Services Catalog


Hostile
Environment
Logging
Hostile Environment Logging

Formation evaluation technology is put heavy to be practical for deep logging The dual-drum capstan is a pulley-
to the test when logging deep wells. jobs. Therefore, a new design and high- type conveyance system that decreases
As wells get deeper, the pressure and tensile-strength materials were com- the cable tension before it is spooled
temperature rise, which increases the bined to improve the cables strength onto the storage drum. Full integration
risks associated with their evaluation. member, its armor package. of capstan control with the storage
Wells with static bottomhole tempera- The core of the cable carries power drum provides ease of operation and
tures greater than 302F [150C], down to the tool and data back up to enables the winch operator to focus
bottomhole pressures higher than the acquisition system. When the cable on the well conditions. Positioned
20,000 psi [138 MPa], or both condi- is under high tension, its core is sub- between the storage drum and the
tions are generally regarded as high- ject to tremendous pressure from the lower sheave, the dual-drum system
pressure, high-temperature (HPHT). armor package. A redesigned core was can relieve 20,000 lbf [88,960 N] or
However, despite the increased risks also necessary to prevent it from being more of tension at logging speeds in
and costs of HPHT operations, the crushed by high tension. excess of 20,000 ft/hr [6,100 m/h].
number of deep and ultradeep wells After extensive testing and design
drilled continues to grow worldwide. qualification, the new cables enable
The challenges that the depths, pres- Schlumberger to safely and efficiently Enhancing telemetry
sures, and temperatures of these wells log ultradeep wells on wireline. The The extra-long cables required for
present to formation evaluation tech- efficiency gains resulting from wireline ultradeep well logging must be capable
nology are met by the following signif- logging of ultradeep wells translate of transmitting sufficient power down-
icant technological developments in to significant cost savings for the hole to run high-power, complex tool-
conveyance and logging tool design. operator. strings while transmitting large
amounts of data uphole to the surface.
Unfortunately, standard logging telem-
Strengthening cables Improving surface equipment etry systems have proved to be unreli-
When ultradeep wells are logged their Improving surface equipment ratings able at extreme depths. When long
extreme depths limit the current wire- also was necessary for safe ultradeep cables are run in deep wells, nonlinear
line conveyance technology because of wireline logging. During any logging effects such as temperature, cable ten-
the high surface tension that results operation, the cable experiences the sion, and geometry reduce the amount
from increased drag and the weight of highest tension at the surface. Han- of power that can be transmitted
the logging cable itself. Deploying log- dling high tension in a safe, efficient downhole. These effects also change
ging tools on drillpipe using the TLC manner is especially critical to the suc- the cable transmission characteristics,
Tough Logging Conditions conveyance cess of an ultradeep logging job. causing unreliable telemetry perfor-
system can overcome these limita- Surface equipment must be able to mance.
tions, but TLC operations are slow and withstand high tension and pass cur- Analysis of the telemetry problems
much more costly because of the rent certification requirements such and the application of modern digital
reduced efficiency associated with as Det Norske Veritas (DNV). signal processing have resulted in the
tripping drillpipe. Storing cable under high tension development of telemetry systems that
To solve the ultradeep well can result in electrical core failure as compensate for the signal distortion
dilemma, a stronger yet lighter weight well as catastrophic storage drum fail- that occurs on long cables lowered into
cable had to be developed. It would ure. Tension relief systems must be a well. Improvements to the downhole
have to support its own weight as well employed to reduce the extreme ten- power supply now enable running
as that of the logging tools it conveyed sion at the surface before the cable can numerous complex tool combinations.
and also overcome the high drag asso- be safely spooled onto a storage drum. As a result, many recent deep well log-
ciated with deep wells. Traditional Of the several types of systems avail- ging jobs have been successfully run
materials and manufacturing methods able, the dual-drum capstan is pre- using 36,000-ft [11,000-m] cables to
could not produce sufficiently strong ferred for its operational simplicity produce excellent results and data
cables, because they would be too and reliability. quality.

Wireline Services Catalog Hostile Environment Logging 21


Broadening tool capabilities Using a Dewar flask provides one Specially designed seals are neces-
As a growing percentage of the total solution for HPHT logging tools that sary for HPHT fluid sampling. The use
wells drilled, HPHT wells require eval- contain modern electronics. The flask of advanced seal technology to avoid
uation tools that usually must exceed insulates the electronics from high the loss of seal integrity is crucial for
the limits of previous standard pres- borehole temperatures and also the safe return of samples to the sur-
sure and temperature criteria. The increases the pressure ratings for log- face without compromising the quality
typical 20,000-psi pressure limit of ging tools. Although it is relatively of reservoir fluid samples at near-reser-
standard logging tools is usually sur- simple to flask cartridge electronics, voir conditions for subsequent labora-
passed as well depths exceed 20,000 ft the sensors and electronics in the tory analysis. On one descent into a
[6,100 m]. High pressures and temper- sonde must be able to withstand the well, the MDT* Modular Formation
atures both affect logging tool sensor full temperature and pressure ranges Dynamics Tester can acquire multiple
response. Extreme HPHT conditions of the well. samples of formation fluids and pres-
can have different effects on each of The Xtreme and SlimXtreme logging sure measurements at hydrostatic
the many different sensors in a tool- platforms incorporate technological pressures to 25,000 psi and bottomhole
string. Each sensor must be modified developments that meet the chal- temperatures to 400F [204C].
for increased pressure and tempera- lenges of HPHT logging. The sensors The MDT tool can also be used to
ture limits and improved capabilities. and sondes of the strings are designed monitor the level of filtrate contamina-
In many cases, the logging tool to provide quad-combo measurements tion while formation fluids are pumped
sonde is compensated for pressure, but that are identical in quality and stan- out of the formation and into the bore-
its electronics are not. The sonde con- dards to those of the Platform Express* hole. Software continuously monitors
tains the sensors along with minimal suite but from extreme well environ- the level of contamination to predict
electronics and other hardware com- ments. The Xtreme platform operates how long formation fluids must be
ponents for obtaining the downhole in boreholes from 578 to 20 in. [14.92 pumped into the borehole before the
formation measurements. Electronics to 50.8 cm] at 500F [260C] and desired level of contamination is
that are contained in cartridges pro- 25,000 psi [172 MPa]. The SlimXtreme reached. This information is used to
vide sonde control and power for the platform operates in boreholes from optimize the sampling program in real
sensors. The cartridge electronics also 378 to 9 in. [9.84 to 22.86 cm] at 500F time, which saves rig time.
digitize the data received from the sen- and 30,000 psi [207 MPa].
sors for transmission uphole to the sur- The shock and vibration specifica-
tions of the Xtreme and SlimXtreme Looking toward the future
face. Elastomer seals protect both the
logging platforms are identical to those Wireline conveyance and formation
sensors and electronics in the car-
of the Platform Express platform for measurement technologies are contin-
tridges from crushing pressures. Just
enhanced reliability in extreme envi- ually developed to meet the challenges
a small leak in one of the many seals
ronments. Conveyance is on the TLC of deep, HPHT environments. Another
of a modern logging string can flood
system or in combination with various deep well issue is smaller borehole
the entire string and prevent it from
knuckle joints and centralizers sizes, which commonly are less than
operating.
depending on the borehole conditions. the published minimum size for some
Extreme bottomhole temperatures
Sidewall coring tools and fluid sam- downhole tools. The slimhole design of
also challenge the electronic compo-
pling and pressure testing tools have the SlimXtreme well logging platform
nents used in the design of logging
also been modified for HPHT opera- provides the latest formation evalua-
tools. As the temperature increases,
tions. High pressures and tempera- tion technology for small-diameter
the life expectancy of the electronic
tures greatly increase the challenges ultradeep boreholes while exceeding
components reduces exponentially.
associated with formation coring and the HPHT rating of the Xtreme plat-
Temperature increases that occur
fluid sampling because these special- form. Numerous formation measure-
inside a logging tool originate from two
ized tools require more electronics ments are integrated in the 3-in.
sources: heat flow from the outside
exposure to wellbore temperatures and [7.62-cm] diameter tool string for run-
environment and heat generated inter-
pressures. Their many moving parts ning in ultradeep wells with diameters
nally from power consumption. During
also must operate over wide ranges of as small as 378 in. [9.84 cm]. The
the last decade, reduced demand for
pressure and temperature. Additional SlimXtreme platform provides real-
high-temperature electronics has vir-
safety concerns are involved when han- time wellsite answers based on high-
tually eliminated 350F [177C] inte-
dling highly pressurized fluid sample quality data similar to those of standard
grated circuits as an option for logging
chambers at the surface. logging tools.
tool design. As a result, most new log-
ging tools are now rated to 302F.

22 Wireline Services Catalog


Logging Platforms
and Suites
Platform Express
Integrated Wireline Logging
Platform Express integrated wireline Numerous innovative features are
logging technology is a revolutionary integrated in the Platform Express
milestone in wireline logging. Com- toolstring. The specially designed TLD
pared with the traditional triple- skid reduces hole rugosity effects
combo, Platform Express logging is through improved pad application. HGNS
faster and more cost effective because The integrated hardware and software
it requires significantly less time from of the sensors improves system relia-
rig-up to delivery of the final answer. bility. The real-time speed correction
The Platform Express equipment is provided by the single-axis accelerom-
less than half the length of the triple- eter for sensor measurements enables
comborequiring less ratholeand accurate depth matching of all sen-
it weighs about half as much. By using sors even if the tool cannot move
integrated sensors and innovative smoothly while recording data. The
technology to improve pad contact, resistivity, density, and microresis-
the Platform Express platform deliv- tivity measurements are high reso-
ers high-resolution imaging measure- lution. Logging speed is 3,600 ft/hr
ments that are depth matched and [1,097 m/h], which is twice the speed
speed corrected in real time. at which a standard triple-combo is
The Platform Express toolstring run.
includes either the AIT* Array
Induction Imager Tool or High-
Resolution Azimuthal Laterolog Sonde Applications
(HALS) as the resistivity tool. The Reservoir delineation
Three-Detector Lithology Density Hydrocarbon saturation HRMS
(TLD) tool and Micro-Cylindrically determination and imaging
Focused Log (MCFL) are housed in Movable-hydrocarbon
the High-Resolution Mechanical Sonde determination
(HRMS) powered caliper. Above the
HRMS are a compensated thermal
Location of porous and permeable
neutron and gamma ray in the Highly zones
Integrated Gamma Ray Neutron Sonde Gas detection
(HGNS) and a single-axis acceler- Porosity analysis
ometer. Lithology determination
Well-to-well correlation
Thin-bed analysis
HALS AIT

Wireline Services Catalog Logging Platforms and Suites 25


Measurement Specifications
Platform Express Toolstring
Output HGNS: Gamma ray, neutron porosity, tool acceleration
HRMS: Bulk density, photoelectric factor (PEF), borehole caliper, microresistivity
HALS: Laterolog resistivity, spontaneous potential (SP), mud resistivity (Rm)
AIT: Induction resistivity, SP, Rm
Logging speed 3,600 ft/hr [1,097 m/h]
Mud weight or type limitations None
Combinability Bottom-only toolstring, combinable with most tools above
Special applications Good-quality data in sticky or rugose holes
Measurement close to the bottom of the well

Platform Express Component Specifications


HGNS HRMS HALS AIT-H and AIT-M
Output Gamma ray, Bulk density, PEF, Laterolog, Induction resistivity,
neutron porosity, borehole caliper, resistivity, Rm SP, Rm
tool acceleration microresistivity
Range of measurement Gamma ray: 0 to 1,000 gAPI Bulk density: 1.04 to 3.3 g/cm3 0.2 to 40,000 ohm-m 0.1 to 2000 ohm-m
Neutron porosity: 0 to 60 p.u. PEF: 0.9 to 10
Caliper: 22 in. [55.88 cm]
Vertical resolution Gamma ray: 12 in. [30.48 cm] Bulk density: 18 in. [45.72 cm] Standard resolution: 1, 2, and 4 ft
Porosity: 12 in. [30.48 cm] in 6-in. [15.24-cm] borehole 18 in. [45.72 cm] [0.30, 0.61, and 1.22 m]
High resolution:
8 in. [20.32 cm]
in 6-in. [15.24-cm]
borehole
Accuracy Gamma ray: 5% Bulk density: 0.01 g/cm3 (accuracy), 1 to 2,000 ohm-m: 5% Resistivities: 0.75 ms/m
Porosity: 0 to 20 p.u. = 1 p.u. 0.025 g/cm3 (repeatability) (conductivity) or 2%
30 p.u. = 2 p.u. Caliper: 0.1 in. [0.25 cm] (accuracy), (whichever is greater)
45 p.u. = 6 p.u. 0.05 in. [0.127 cm] (repeatability)
Depth of investigation Gamma ray: 24 in. [61.0 cm] Density: 5 in. [12.70 cm] 32 in. [81 cm] (varies AO/AT/AF10: 10 in. [25.40 cm]
Porosity: ~9 in. [~23 cm] with formation and AO/AT/AF20: 20 in. [50.80 cm]
(varies with hydrogen mud resistivities) AO/AT/AF30: 30 in. [76.20 cm]
index of formation) AO/AT/AF60: 60 in. [152.40 cm]
AO/AT/AF90: 90 in. [228.60 cm]
Outer diameter 3.375 in. [8.57 cm] 4.77 in. [12.11 cm] 3.625 in. [9.21 cm] 3.875 in. [9.84 cm]
Length 10.85 ft [3.31 m] 12.3 ft [3.75 m] 16 ft [4.88 m] 16 ft [4.88 m]
Weight 171.7 lbm [78 kg] 313 lbm [142 kg] 221 lbm [100 kg] AIT-H: 255 lbm [116 kg]
AIT-M: 282 lbm [128 kg]
AO = 1-ft [0.30-m] vertical resolution, AT = 2-ft [0.61-m] vertical resolution, AF = 4-ft [1.22-m] vertical resolution

26 Wireline Services Catalog


Xtreme HPHT
Logging Platform
The Xtreme logging platform provides Hostile Environment Lithology
measurements for formation evalua- Density Sonde (HLDS) measures
tion in high-pressure and high- formation bulk density and photo-
temperature, hostile environments electric factor using full spectral
through the use of rugged, reliable data from a two-detector array. HTGC
sensors that deliver high-quality data. Hostile Environment Sonic Logging HNGS
Rated to 500F [260C] and 25,000 psi Tool (HSLT) delivers robust forma-
[172 MPa], sensors featuring the lat- tion borehole-compensated (BHC) HAPS
est technology are integrated into one or depth-derived borehole compen-
wireline string that can log wells as sated (DDBHC) slowness with full
deep as 30,000 ft [9,144 m]. A full waveform recording. It also pro-
range of tool accessories, set of com- vides cement bond and Variable
prehensive measurements, and Density* logs in cased holes.
Xtreme job planner software further Hostile Environment Induction
facilitate the measurement of critical
Imager Tool (HIT) provides the
formation evaluation data in challeng-
same high-quality resistivity mea-
ing logging environments.
surements as the standard AIT
The Xtreme system consists of the
tool. Real-time measurement of
following components:
mud resistivity complements the
Hostile Environment Integrated computation of tool standoff for
Telemetry and Gamma Ray Cart- precise borehole environmental
ridge (HTGC) includes an acceler- correction.
ometer cartridge that supports
real-time speed correction for all HLDS
Xtreme measurements and moni- Applications
tors the bottomhole temperature. In situ formation resistivity (Rt)
Hostile Environment Natural with array induction
Gamma Ray Sonde (HNGS) pro- Formation evaluation and lithology
vides measurements of total gam- identification
ma ray, gamma ray corrected for Borehole geometry
uranium, as well as individual con-
centrations of thorium, uranium,
High wellbore pressures and
and potassium in the formation. temperatures HSLT
Hostile Environment Accelerator
Porosity Sonde (HAPS) uses a neu-
tron generator to provide neutron
porosity with environmentally cor-
rected formation capture cross
section for clay indication, grain-
size estimation, and salinity com-
putation.
HIT

Logging Platforms and Suites 27


Mechanical Specifications
HTGC HNGS HAPS HLDS HSLT HIT
Temperature rating 500F [260C] 500F [260C] 500F [260C] 500F [260C] 500F [260C] 500F [260C]
Pressure rating 25,000 psi [172 MPa] 25,000 psi [172 MPa] 25,000 psi [172 MPa] 25,000 psi [172 MPa] 25,000 psi [172 MPa 25,000 psi [172 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 434 in. [12.07 cm] 4 34 in. [12.07 cm] 5 78 in. [14.92 cm] 412 in. [11.43 cm] 434 in. [12.07 cm] 478 in. [12.38 cm]
Borehole sizemax. No limit No limit 21 in. [53.34 cm] 20 in. [50.8 cm] 20 in. [50.8 cm] 20 in. [50.8 cm]
Outer diameter 3.75 in. [9.53 cm] 3.75 in. [9.53 cm] 4 in. [10.16 cm] 3.5 in. [8.89 cm] 3.875 in. [9.84 cm] 3.875 in. [9.84 cm]
Length 10.67 ft [3.25 m] 11.7 ft [3.57 m] 16 ft [4.88 m] 12.58 ft [3.83 m] 25.5 ft [7.77 m] 29.2 ft [8.90 m]
Weight 265 lbm [120 kg] 276 lbm [125 kg] 400 lbm [181 lbm] 402 lbm [182 kg] 440 lbm [199 kg] 625 lbm [283 kg]
Tension 50,000 lbf [222,410 N] 50,000 lbf [22,410 N] 50,000 lbf [22,410 N] 30,000 lbf [133,450 N] 29,700 lbf [132,110 N] 20,000 lbf [88,960 N]
Compression 20,000 lbf [88,960 N] 23,000 lbf [102,310 N] 15,000 lbf [66,720 N] 5,000 lbf [22,240 N] BHC HSLS-W sonde: 6,000 lbf [26,690 N]
2,870 lbf [12,770 N]
DDBHC HSLS-Z sonde:
1,650 lbf [7,340 N]
Holding time at 500F 12 hr 10 hr 4 hr 5 hr 5 hr 12 hr
Makeup length
BHC sonde

In logging conditions with tool powered

Hostile Environment Accelerator Porosity Sonde Measurement Specifications


HAPS
Output Neutron porosity, formation sigma, tool standoff
Logging speed Standard: 1,800 ft/hr [549 m/h]
High speed: 3,600 ft/hr [1097 m/h]
Range of measurement Neutron porosity: 0 to 60 p.u.
Vertical resolution 14 in. [35.56 cm]
Tool standoff: not applicable
Accuracy <7 p.u.: 0.5 p.u.
7 to 30 p.u.: 7%
30 to 60 p.u.: 10%
Sigma: 1 cu [0.1/m]
Depth of investigation 7 in. [17.78 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations None
Special applications H2S service

Hostile Environment Lithology Density Sonde Measurement Specifications


HLDS
Output Formation density, PEF, caliper
Logging speed Standard: 1,800 ft/hr [549 m/h]
High speed: 3,600 ft/hr [1,097 m/h]
Range of measurement Density: 2 to 3 g/cm3
Porosity: 0 to 60 p.u.
PEF: 1 to 6
Caliper: 16 in. [40.64 cm]
Vertical resolution Density, porosity, and PEF: 15 in. [38.10 cm]
Accuracy Density: 0.01 g/cm3
PEF: 6%
Caliper: 0.25 in. [0.64 cm]
Depth of investigation Density, porosity, and PEF: 6 in. [15.24 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations Density and PEF sensitive to barite
Special applications H2S service

28 Wireline Services Catalog


Hostile Environment Sonic Logging Tool Measurement Specifications
HSLT
Output Compressional integral traveltime (Dt)
Logging speed 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h]
Range of measurement 40 to 180 ms/ft [131 to 590 ms/m]
Vertical resolution 12 in. [30.48 cm]
Accuracy 2 ms/ft [6.6 ms/m]
Depth of investigation 3 in. [7.62 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations None
Special applications H2S service

Hostile Environment Induction Imager Tool Measurement Specifications


HIT
Output 10-, 20-, 30-, 60-, and 90-in. [25.40-, 50.80-, 76.20-, 152.40-,
and 228.60-cm] resistivity
Logging speed 3,600 ft/hr [1,097 m/h]
Resistivity 0.1 to 2000 ohm-m
Vertical resolution 1, 2, and 4 ft [0.30, 0.61, and 1.22 m]
Accuracy 0.75 mS/m or 2% (whichever is greater)
Depth of investigation AHT10: 10 in. [25.40 cm]
AHT20: 20 in. [50.80 cm]
AHT30: 30 in. [76.20 cm]
AHT60: 60 in. [152.40 cm]
AHT90: 90 in. [228.60 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations Some salt-saturated muds may be outside the induction
tool operating range
Special applications H2S service

Logging Platforms and Suites 29


IPL Integrated
Porosity Lithology
The IPL* Integrated Porosity as lithology and salinity. Five detec-
Lithology tool (IPLT) is a nuclear tors provide information for poros-
measurement string. It provides an ity evaluation, gas detection, shale
integrated measurement of various evaluation, improvement of verti-
petrophysical parameters of the for- cal resolution, and borehole cor-
mation, such as neutron porosity, bulk rection. The measurements can be
density, photoelectric factor, and performed in both cased and open-
gamma ray as well as gamma ray com- holes.
ponents. With recent enhancements Litho-Density* Sonde (LDS) mea-
made to the acquisition electronics, sures formation bulk density and
the individual components of the tool- photoelectric factor. The gamma
string can also be run stand-alone. ray source and two detectors are
The integrated string comprises the pad mounted. Magnetic shielding
following sensors: and high-speed electronics ensure
Hostile Environment Natural excellent measurement stability.
Gamma Ray Sonde (HNGS) fea- The LDS records the full-pulse-
tures a set of detectors with height gamma ray spectra from
increased sensitivity that provides both detectors and processes them
a better statistical response to the into windows. Bulk density and
formation gamma rays. The result photoelectric cross section are
is improved spectral analysis over derived conventionally from the
that of previous tools. The improve- windows counts with enhanced
ment in measurement also results quality control.
from the use of two detectors
instead of one. The HNGS can log
at a faster speed than other tools Applications
that measure formation natural Evaluation of formation porosity
gamma ray emissions. Its 500F and lithology
[260C] temperature rating makes Evaluation of formation bulk den-
it suitable for operations in hot sity and photoelectric factor
borehole environments. Determination of total formation
APS* Accelerator Porosity Sonde gamma ray and uranium-corrected
uses an electronic neutron source gamma ray
instead of a chemical source. The Gas identification
large yield of the neutron source
enables the use of epithermal
Formation sigma
neutron detection and borehole
shielding. As a result, porosity mea-
surement is affected only mini-
mally by the borehole environment
and formation characteristics, such

30 Wireline Services Catalog


Measurement Specifications
IPLT
Output Formation bulk density, PEF, gamma ray, porosity, caliper
Logging speed Min. 1,800 ft/hr [549 m/h]
Range of measurement See measurement specifications for individual tools
Vertical resolution See measurement specifications for individual tools
Accuracy See measurement specifications for individual tools
Depth of investigation See measurement specifications for individual tools
Mud type or weight limitations HNGS: In potassium chloride (KCl) mud, the KCl content must
be known. Density and PEF readings are affected by barite.
Special applications H2S service

Mechanical Specifications
IPLT
Temperature rating 350F [177C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 6 in. [15.24 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 21 in. [53.34 cm]
Outer diameter 4.5 in. [11.43 cm]
Length 40.5 ft [12.34 m]
Weight 845 lbm [383 kg]

IPL Component Mechanical Specifications


HNGS APS Sonde LDS
Temperature rating 500F [260C] 350F [177C] 350F [177C]
Pressure rating 25,000 psi [172 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 4 34 in. [12.07 cm] 4 58 in. [11.75 cm] 5 12 in. [13.97 cm]
Borehole sizemax. No limit 21 in. [53.34 cm] 21 in. [53.34 cm]
Outer diameter 3.75 in. [9.53 cm] 3.625 in. [9.40 cm] 4.5 in. [11.43 cm]
Length 11.7 ft [3.57 m] 13 ft [3.96 m] 11 ft [3.35 m]
Weight 276 lbm [125 kg] 222 lbm [101 kg] 292 lbm [132 kg]
Tension 50,000 lbf [222,410 N] 50,000 lbf [222,410 N] 30,000 lbf [133,450 N]
Compression 23,000 lbf [102,310 N] 23,000 lbf [102,310 N] 5,000 lbf [22,240 N]

Logging Platforms and Suites 31


SlimAccess Logging for Slim
and Complex Geometry Boreholes
The SlimAccess* logging platform pro- Slim Array Induction Imager Tool
vides a complete formation evaluation (SAIT) provides the same high-
solution in slim boreholes with com- quality resistivity measurements as
STGC plex trajectory. Its flexibility ensures the standard AIT tool. Real-time
logging performance in reentry, multi- measurement of mud resistivity
lateral, and extended-reach wells. The complements the computation of
212-in. [6.35-cm] diameter SlimAccess tool standoff for precise borehole
toolstring provides array induction environmental correction.
resistivity, array sonic, array density,
compensated neutron, and gamma ray
measurements with data accuracy Applications
SCNT
and reliability similar to those of stan- Quad-combo formation
dard tools in borehole sizes as small evaluation in
as 3 12 in. [8.89 cm] and in wellbores Slimhole wells
with medium to high dogleg severity.
All recorded data are corrected both Multilateral wells
for irregular tool motion and environ- Extended-reach wells
SLDT
mental effects. Reentry wells
The SlimAccess system consists of
the following component tools:
Contingency through-drillpipe
logging
Slim Telemetry Gamma Ray Underbalanced through-tubing
Cartridge (STGC) includes an logging
accelerometer cartridge that sup-
ports real-time speed correction
Coiled tubing and drillpipe-
for all SlimAccess measurements. conveyed logging
Slim Compensated Neutron Tool
(SCNT) provides neutron porosity
measurement and is completely char-
SSLT acterized for different lithologies.
Slim Array Sonic Tool (SSLT) pro-
vides a high-resolution slowness
measurement and also Cement
Bond Log (CBL) and Variable
Density log (VDL) measurements
in cased hole.
Slim Array Litho-Density Tool
(SLDT) is equipped with a pow-
ered caliper sonde, provides a
SAIT robust density measurement from
three detectors, and also measures
the photoelectric factor.

32 Wireline Services Catalog


Mechanical Specifications
STGC SCNT SSLT SLDT SAIT
Temperature rating 302F [150C] 302F [150C] 302F [150C] 302F [150C] 302F [150C]
Pressure rating 14,000 psi [97 MPa] 14,000 psi [97 MPa] 14,000 psi [97 MPa] 14,000 psi [97 MPa] 14,000 psi [97 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 3 12 in. [8.89 cm] 3 34 in. [9.53 cm] 3 12 in. [8.89 cm] 3 12 in. [8.89 cm] 4 in. [10.16 cm]
Borehole sizemax. No limit 12 in. [30.48 cm] 8 in. [20.32 cm] 9 in. [22.86 cm] 9 in. [22.86 cm]
Outer diameter 2.5 in. [6.35 cm] 2.75 in. [6.99 cm] 2.5 in. [6.35 cm] 2.5 in. [6.35 cm] 2.75 in. [6.99 cm]
with 0.25-in. [0.64-cm]
standoff
Length 7.64 ft [2.33 m] 18.4 ft [5.61 m] 23.1 ft [7.04 m] 14.9 ft [4.54 m] 23.6 ft [7.19 m]
Weight 71 lbm [32 kg] 254 lbm [115 kg] 232 lbm [105 kg] 159 lbm [72 kg] 238 lbm [108 kg]
Tension 50,000 lbf [222,410 N] 68,000 lbf [302,480 N] 13,000 lbf [57,830 N] 50,000 lbf [222,410 N] 20,000 lbf [88,960 N]
Compression 17,000 lbf [75,620 N] 9,600 lbf [42,700 N] 4,400 lbf [19,570 N] 14,000 lbf [62,270 N] 3,300 lbf [14,680 N]
Special applications H2S service H2S service H2S service H2S service H2S service
Total SlimAccess string length: 104.25 ft [31.77 m]
Total SlimAccess string weight: 1,027 lbm [466 kg]

Logging Platforms and Suites 33


SlimXtreme Slimhole
HPHT Service
The SlimXtreme slimhole HPHT well SlimXtreme Sonic Logging Tool
logging platform provides reliable for- (QSLT) is a monopole tool that
mation evaluation data in hostile uses a digital algorithm for detect-
drilling environments. The integra- ing first arrival to deliver robust
tion of durable sensors rated to high BHC formation slowness (3 to 5 ft
pressures and temperatures, slimhole [0.91 to 1.52 m] or 5 to 7 ft [1.52 to
design, and a full range of accessories 2.13 m]). CBL, attenuation, and
results in high-quality data for real- Variable Density cement bond
time wellsite answers. The advanced quality logs can be recorded to
engineering of the 3-in. [7.62-cm] evaluate cemented casing. The
packaged SlimXtreme profile com- CBL features a 1-ft [30-cm]
bines AIT resistivity, digital borehole- receiver measurement for cement
compensated sonic, bulk density, bond evaluation in extremely fast
thermal neutron porosity, and gamma formations.
ray tools for one trip into the bore- SlimXtreme Litho-Density Tool
hole. High-speed logging is at 3,600 (QLDT) measures formation den-
ft/hr [1,097 m/h], with standard mode sity and photoelectric factor using
at 1,800 ft/hr [549 m/h]. The compo- full spectral data from a three-
nent tools use advanced wireline digi- detector array. The QLDT controls
tal telemetry rated to the same the electronics of a bowspring-type
pressure and temperature as the com- caliper (QSCS), which provides
plete SlimXtreme platform and capa- eccentralization force as well as a
ble of data transmission through caliper measurement in both up
wireline cables as long as 36,000 ft and down logging directions.
[10,970 m]. SlimXtreme Compensated Neutron
SlimXtreme Array Induction Porosity Tool (QCNT) delivers the
Imager Tool (QAIT) has five depths same high-quality, environmentally
of investigation, and its three verti- corrected porosity data as those
cal resolution measurements are of from the traditional CNL* Com-
the same high quality as those pensated Neutron Log.
recorded with conventional AIT SlimXtreme Telemetry and Gamma
tools. The tool output is fully cor- Ray Cartridge (QTGC) includes an
rected for borehole and environ- integrated accelerometer to pro-
mental effects, so the computed vide real-time speed correction
values of water resistivity and satu- for all SlimXtreme measurements.
ration, invasion profile, and true The cartridge also performs real-
and invaded zone resistivities pro- time monitoring of the mud tem-
vide a good characterization of the perature.
reservoir. Real-time measurement
of mud resistivity complements the
computation of tool standoff for
precise borehole environmental
correction.

34 Wireline Services Catalog


Applications
Quad-combo formation evaluation in
Slimhole wells
Extreme pressure and tempera-
ture environments
Multilateral wells
Extended-reach wells
Reentry wells
Contingency through-drillpipe (min-
imum 3.5-in. [8.89-cm] inner diame-
ter [ID]) logging
Drillpipe-conveyed logging

Mechanical Specifications
QAIT QSLT QLDT QCNT QTGC
Temperature rating 500F [260C] 500F [260C] 500F [260C] 500F [260C] 500F [260C]
Pressure rating 30,000 psi [207 MPa] 30,000 psi [207 MPa] 30,000 psi [207 MPa] 30,000 psi [207 MPa] 30,000 psi [207 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 3 78 in. [9.84 cm] 3 78 in. [10.16 cm] 3 78 in. [9.84 cm] 3 78 in. [9.84 cm] 3 78 in. [9.84 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 20 in. [50.80 cm] 8 in. [20.32 cm] 9 in. [22.86 cm] 10 in. [25.40 cm] No limit
Outer diameter 3 in. [7.62 cm] 3 in. [7.62 cm] 3 in. [7.62 cm] 3 in. [7.62 cm] 3 in. [7.62 cm]
Length 30.8 ft [9.39 m] 23 ft [7.01 m] 14.7 ft [4.48 m] 11.9 ft [3.63 m] 10.67 ft [3.25 m]
with inline centralizer:
29.9 ft [9.11 m]
Weight 499 lbm [226 kg] 270 lbm [122 kg] 253 lbm [115 kg] 191 lbm [87 kg] 180 lbm [82 kg]
Holding time at 500F [260C] 8 hr 5 hr 5 hr 8 hr 8 hr
In logging conditions with tool powered

Logging Platforms and Suites 35


PS Platform Production
Services Platform
The PS Platform* integrated produc- Additional services can be com- Memory logging is conducted by
tion services platform performs in bined with the PS Platform toolstring: including a battery package to store
vertical, horizontal, or any angle of data in memory downhole
PS Platform Inline Spinner (PILS)
borehole deviation to provide three- Typical PS Platform production log-
can be used in high-flow-rate envi-
phase flow profiles and production ging strings are configured for the well
ronments to determine fluid velocity.
monitoring or diagnostic information. position and number of production
Measurement capability is in both real- PS Platform UNIGAGE* Carrier phases:
time and memory modes. Sonde (PUCS) is run if data from
two pressure gauges (Sapphire and Vertical well configuration
The following tools and their mea-
surements constitute the PS Platform quartz gauges) are required. Single- or two-phase production
basic string: GHOST* Gas Holdup Optical Sensor or single-phase injection: Basic
Tool uses optical sensing technology toolstring with optional PGMS
Platform Basic Measurement Sonde
to directly detect and quantify gas Three-phase production: Basic
(PBMS) houses the gamma ray and
in multiphase flows. toolstring with GHOST tool and
casing collar locator (CCL) for cor-
FloView Plus* holdup measurement PGMS
relation and also measures pressure
(with either a Sapphire* or quartz tool is an imaging tool that helps High-angle or horizontal well con-
pressure gauge) and temperature. identify the flow regime and mea- figuration
sures holdup.
Flow-Caliper Imaging Sonde Single-phase production: Basic
(PFCS) measures the average fluid RSTPro* Reservoir Saturation Tool toolstring
velocity, water and hydrocarbon provides sigma, carbon/oxygen (C/O)
Two- or three-phase production:
holdups, and bubble counts from ratio, water flow, three-phase
Basic toolstring with FloView
four independent probes. It also holdup, and spectrometry logging.
or GHOST tool
provides dual-axis (x-y) caliper mea- SCMT* Slim Cement Mapping Tool
surements and relative-bearing is a 11116-in. [4.29-cm] sonic tool
measurements. The bubble count that produces an eight-segment Applications
image is used to identify the first cement map and conventional 3-ft
fluid entry. [0.91-m] CBL and 5-ft [1.52-m]
Three-phase production logging
Gradiomanometer* Sonde (PGMS) Variable Density log displays. Vertical and deviated wells
measures the average density of the PS Platform Multifinger Imaging Well monitoring during perforating
wellbore fluid, from which the Tool (PMIT) makes internal casing operations (memory mode)
water, oil, and gas holdups are or tubing condition measurements Formation stimulation evaluation
derived. Accelerometer measure- from multiple caliper measure- Depth correlation
ments provide deviation correction ments around the casing or tubing.
for the measured fluid density.
Reservoir and production
monitoring
Transient analysis
Short periods of multiple-layer
testing

36 Wireline Services Catalog


PBMS

PGMS

PUCS-A

CCL-N GHOST-A

PMIT-A
PILS-A

RST-A

FloView and
FloView Plus

PFCS

SCMT-BB

Logging Platforms and Suites 37


Measurement Specifications
PBMS PFCS PGMS GHOST Tool RSTPro Tool SCMT Tool
Output Gamma ray, CCL, pressure Fluid velocity, caliper Fluid density Gas holdup, bubble size, Sigma, porosity, C/O ratio, CBL amplitude, Variable
(Sapphire or quartz gauge), caliper, relative bearing spectrometry, WFL* Water Density log, cement map
temperature, relative bearing, Flow Log, three-phase holdup
tool acceleration
Logging speed Depends on the application Variable Depends on the application Depends on the application Depends on the application 1,800 ft/hr [549 m/h]
Range of measurement Sapphire gauge: 1 to 10,000 psi Spinner: 0.5 to 200 rps 0 to 2.0 g/cm3 Gas holdup: 0 to 100% Sigma: 0 to 60 c.u. [0 to 6.0/m] VDL window length: 1200 ms
[6,895 Pa to 69 MPa] Caliper: 2 to 11 in. [5.08 to Caliper: 2 to 9 in. [5.08 to 22.86 cm] Capture mode: 0 to 60% Firing center accuracy: 20 kHz
Quartz gauge: 15 to 15,000 psi 27.94 cm] (diameter) (uncorrected)
[0.1 to 103 MPa]
Temperature: 13 to 302F
[25 to 150C]
Vertical resolution Point of measurement Point of measurement 15 in. [38.10 cm] Point of measurement 15 in. [38.10 cm] CBL: 3 ft [0.91 m]
VDL: 5 ft [1.52 m]
Cement map: 2 ft [0.61 m]
Accuracy Sapphire gauge: 6 psi Caliper: 0.2 in. [5.1 mm] 0.04 g/cm3 (accuracy), Gas holdup between 2% and Based on formation, casing, CBL: 2% (repeatability)
[41,370 Pa] (accuracy), (accuracy), 0.04 in. [1.0 mm] 0.002 g/cm3 (resolution) 98%: 1% (otherwise without and borehole characteristics
0.1 psi [689 Pa] (resolution) on diameter (resolution) probe protector: 5%, with
Quartz gauge: (1 psi [6,894 Pa] probe protector: 7%)
+ 0.01% of full scale) (accuracy), Caliper: 0.20 in. [5.1 mm]
0.01 psi [69 Pa] (resolution)
Temperature: 1.8F [1C] (accuracy),
0.01F [0.018C] (resolution)
Depth of investigation Borehole Borehole Borehole Borehole 10 in. [25.40 cm] CBL and cement map:
Casing to cement bond
Mud type or weight limitations None None Measurement not valid None None None
in horizontal wells
Special applications Exceeds National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) standards for H2S resistance

Mechanical Specifications
PBMS PFCS PGMS GHOST Tool RSTPro Tool SCMT Tool
Temperature rating 302F [150C] 302F [150C] 302F [150C] 302F [150C] 302F [150C] 302F [150C]
Pressure rating 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 10,000 psi [69 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 2 38 in. [6.03 cm] 2 38 in. [6.03 cm] 2 38 in. [6.03 cm] 2 in. [5.08 cm] RST-C: 1 1316 in. [4.60 cm] 2 38 in. [6.03 cm]
RST-D: 2 78 in. [7.30 cm]
Borehole sizemax. No limit 11 in. [27.94 cm] No limit 9 in. [22.86 cm] RST-C: 7 58 in. [19.37 cm] 7 in. [17.78 cm]
RST-D: 9 58 in. [24.45 cm]
Outer diameter 1.6875 in. [4.29 cm] 1.6875 in. [4.29 cm] 1.6875 in. [4.29 cm] 1.71 in. [4.34 cm] RST-C: 1.71 in. [4.34 cm] 1.6875 in. [4.29 cm]
RST-D: 2.51 in. [6.37 cm]
Length 8.27 ft [2.52 m] 5.14 ft [1.57 m] 4.8 ft [1.46 m] 7.1 ft [2.16 m] RST-C: 23.0 ft [7.01 m] 11 ft [3.35 m]
RST-D: 22.2 ft [6.77 m]
Weight 38.3 lbm [17.4 kg] 19.7 lbm [8.9 kg] 29.5 lbm [13.4 kg] 28.4 lbm [12.9 kg] RST-C: 101 lbm [46 kg] 50 lbm [23 kg]
RST-D: 208 lbm [94 kg]
For high-temperature applications, see Production Logging Services chapter.
Minimum tubing size

38 Wireline Services Catalog


PL Flagship
Production Logging
PL Flagship* advanced well flow diag- FloView Plus imaging tool records
nosis service is a unique integrated holdup images and bubble velocity.
approach for the evaluation of hori- Tracer Ejector Tool (TET) ejects a Gamma ray
zontal wells. Stratified flow, downflow, nonradioactive marker for phase
water sumps, oil and gas traps, and velocity measurement in conjunc-
three-phase flow are all concerns in tion with the RST tool.
horizontal wells. Imaging tools are PFCS measures the area of the
necessary to identify multiphase flow
borehole in an openhole comple-
regimes. Sensors must measure phase
tion for computing accurate fluid
velocities and detailed holdups across
volumes downhole and also mea-
the flow. No single technique can pro-
sures the total fluid velocity.
vide a robust interpretation in these
wells, and further complications are Deployment of the PL Flagship
posed by uncemented completions, toolstring in highly deviated or hori-
annular flow, and failed packers. zontal wells requires a coiled tubing
PL Flagship production logging has the system or a tractor for conveyance.
capability to address all these issues. RST
The PL Flagship system consists of
the following components: Applications
CPLT* Combinable Production Conclusive identification of water,
Logging Tool provides the pressure oil, and gas entry points
and temperature measurements Accurate two- and three-phase flow
required to convert surface mea- profile determination
surements of oil, gas, or both to Production logging answers in hor-
downhole conditions. izontal, deviated, and vertical wells FloView Plus
Combinable Gamma Ray Sonde Measurement of downhole oil, gas,
(CGRS) makes gamma ray mea- and water holdups
surements for correlation to open-
hole logs on the same well or
Measurement of individual-phase
surrounding wells. velocities
RST* Reservoir Saturation Tool
Quantitative production logging FloView

measures the three-phase holdup and evaluation in horizontal wells


and provides water flow and phase Quantitative area measurement of
velocity logs. openhole completions
Manometer

Thermometer

Tracer Ejector Tool

Fluid velocity
Fullbore spinner

Logging Platforms and Suites 39


Mechanical Specifications
CPLT Tool CGRS RST Tool FloView Plus Tool TET PFCS
Temperature rating 350F [177C] 350F [177C] 302F [150C] 302F [150C] 302F [150C] 302F [150C]
With flask: With flask:
400F [204C] 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 15,000 psi [103 MPa]
With flask:
20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 2 18 in. [5.40 cm] 11316 in. [4.61 cm] 11316 in. [4.60 cm] 2 in. [5.08 cm] 11316 in. [4.60 cm] 11316 in. [4.60 cm]
Borehole sizemax. No limit No limit 7 58 in. [19.37 cm] 9 in. [22.86 cm] 9 in. [22.86 cm] 11 in. [27.94 cm]
Outer diameter 1.6875 in. [4.29 cm] 1.6875 in. [4.29 cm] 1.71 in. [4.34 cm] 1.6875 in. [4.29 cm] 1.6875 in. [4.29 cm] 11116 in. [4.29 cm]
With rollers: 2 18 in. [5.4 cm]
Length 2.9 ft [0.88 m] 3.2 ft [0.97 m] 23.0 ft [7.01 m] 12.9 ft [3.93 m] 6.75 ft [2.06 m] 5.14 ft [1.57 m]
Weight 11 lbm [5 kg] 16 lbm [7 kg] 101 lbm [46 kg] 58 lbm [26 kg] 16 lbm [7 kg] 19.7 lbm [8.9 kg]

40 Wireline Services Catalog


ABC Analysis Behind Casing

Since first logging an openhole well


in 1927, Schlumberger has used
advanced technology to acquire
essential reservoir data. Today the
same high-quality formation evalua-
tion measurements can be made in
cased holes. ABC* Analysis Behind
Casing services satisfy three primary
requirements for operators:
Obtaining essential well log data
under any conditionsIf the well
DSI transmitter and
being drilled has, or is expected to isolation joint
have, hole stability problems, the
operators may prefer to case the
well as soon as it is drilled.
Formation evaluation, which until
recently could be performed only
in openhole, can now be performed
in cased hole.
Finding and evaluating bypassed
payLarge amounts of bypassed
hydrocarbons exist in old wells. It
is considerably more cost effective,
and often more environmentally
friendly, to explore for those hid- RST-A
den hydrocarbons in old wells
rather than to drill new wells.
Optimizing reservoir manage-
mentFormation evaluation mea-
surements made in representative CHFR
old wells in a reservoir, whether
one time or a time-lapse series, can
greatly assist efficient manage-
ment of the reservoir.
ABC evaluation of formation petro-
physical properties such as formation
density, porosity, and acoustic proper-
ties in cased wells is even more signif-
icant in wells for which primary
evaluation data were lost, of poor qual-
ity, or never acquired. In old wells, an
operator may want to reevaluate the
formation with measurements that
were unavailable at the time the well
was drilled. ABC services enable
applying the latest formation evalua-
tion technology in wells that were CHDT

Logging Platforms and Suites 41


drilled decades ago. It is no longer nec- CHFP* Cased Hole Formation CHDT* Cased Hole Dynamics Tester
essary to drill new wells in existing Porosity service makes accurate for- is used to determine formation pres-
fields solely for the purpose of data mation porosity and sigma measure- sure in old or new cased wells. It
gathering. ments in cased wells. The CHFP also provides efficient, cost-effec-
ABC services do not end with opti- measurement, based on an elec- tive fluid sampling without the
mal data acquisition. The data are tronic neutron source instead of a inherent risks of standard sampling
processed and interpreted to provide a chemical source, uses borehole techniques. The innovative CHDT
total solution for efficient operations, shielding and focusing to obtain tool seals against the casing and
enhanced production, and extension of porosity measurements that are uses a flexible drill shaft to pene-
the economic life of an asset. ABC affected only minimally by borehole trate through the casing and
services can provide comprehensive environment, casing standoff, and cement into the formation. The use
formation evaluation under most con- formation characteristics such as of explosives is eliminated. Down-
ditions. Because they are a suite of ser- lithology and salinity. hole sensors measure formation
vices rather than a single platform, CNL Compensated Neutron Log has pressure, pressure transients, and
measurements can be chosen on the traditionally been run as a porosity formation fluid resistivity. Com-
basis of objectives, type of formation, indicator in cased wells. Although it bining the CHDT tool with various
type of completion, borehole environ- provides a good estimation of forma- modules of the MDT Modular
ment, lithology, reservoir dynamics, tion porosity in most conditions, the Formation Dynamics Tester enables
and the availability of primary evalua- unfocused nature of the CNL log enhanced fluid identification, con-
tion data. does not allow correction for envi- tamination monitoring, and high-
ABC components are as follows: ronmental effects, such as thickness quality sampling. After all mea-
of casing and cement, or effects surements and samples have been
CHFR-Plus* Cased Hole Formation
resulting from the position of the taken, the tool inserts a corrosion-
Resistivity tool makes direct, deep-
tool and casing in the borehole. resistant metal plug into the hole
reading formation resistivity mea-
For the highest possible accuracy, drilled in the casing, thereby pre-
surements through casing and
CHFP service is the measurement serving casing integrity and elimi-
cement. The concept of measuring
of choice. nating the need for costly repair
resistivity through casing is not new,
procedures. Oil and gas companies
but recent breakthroughs in down- CHFD* Cased Hole Formation
can use this technology to identify
hole electronics and electrode Density service makes accurate for-
zones with bypassed hydrocarbons
design have made these challenging mation density measurements in
and to monitor the depletion of
measurements possible. Now the cased wells. A chemical gamma ray
reservoirs, effectiveness of water or
same basic measurements can be source and three-detector measure-
gas injection, and changes in fluid
compared for open- and cased ment system are used to make mea-
contacts.
holes, thereby eliminating the surements in a wide range of casing
errors caused by comparing differ- and borehole sizes. The density
ent types of measurements. measurement made by the three- Applications
RSTPro Reservoir Saturation Tool detector system is corrected for cas-
ing and cement thickness.
Evaluation of bypassed pay
makes both formation sigma and
C/O ratio measurements. In forma- DSI* Dipole Shear Sonic Imager,
Evaluation of old wells with new
tions with high-salinity formation now coupled with the BestDT* auto- measurements
water, the sigma measurement has mated sonic waveform processing Reevaluation of existing fields
been used for several decades to for best slowness, provides accurate Primary formation evaluation
determine the saturations. Now the formation compressional and shear in cased wells
C/O ratio measurement can accu- slowness measurements in cased Complement to logging-while-
rately evaluate formation water wells. BestDT processing is based drilling (LWD) data
saturation in moderate- to high- on optimally designed frequency fil-
porosity formations. Time-lapse ters and advanced signal process-
Alternative to openhole data acqui-
measurements of formation water ing. This method significantly sition under difficult well conditions
saturation can be used to monitor attenuates casing arrivals to facili- Evaluation of wells drilled
the performance of a well or reser- tate the clean extraction of forma- with casing
voir over time. tion slowness. Reservoir monitoring
Fluid contact movement, saturation
and pressure changes, and deple-
tion and injection profiles

42 Wireline Services Catalog


Measurement Specifications
CHFR-Plus Tool RSTPro Tool CHFP Service CHFD Service DSI Tool CHDT Tool
Output Formation resistivity Inelastic and capture yields Neutron porosity, Bulk density Compressional and shear Dt, Formation pressure, fluid
of various elements, C/O ratio, formation sigma waveforms, Variable Density mobility, formation fluid samples
formation capture cross section waveforms
(sigma), neutron porosity
Logging speed Stationary: ~1 min/station Inelastic mode: 100 ft/hr [30.5 m/h] 900 ft/hr [274 m/h] 900 ft/hr [274 m/h] 1,800 ft/hr [549 m/h] Stationary
Effective logging speed: (formation dependent)
240 ft/hr [73 m/h] Capture mode: 600 ft/hr [183 m/h]
Sigma mode: 1,800 ft/hr [549 m/h]
Range of measurement 1 to 100 ohm-m Porosity: 0 to 60 p.u. Porosity: 0 to 60 p.u. 2 to 3 g/cm3 Standard shear slowness: 0 to 20,000 psi
700 ms/ft [2,296 ms/m] [0 to 138 MPa]
Max. slowness (S-DSI):
1,200 ms/ft 3,937 ms/m]
Vertical resolution 4 ft [1.22 m] 15 in. [38.10 cm] 14 in. [35.56 cm] 18 in. [45.72 cm] 3.5-ft [1.1-m] processing Point measurement
resolution for 6-in. [15-cm]
sampling rate
Accuracy 10% Based on hydrogen index Porosity: <7 p.u. = 1 p.u. 0.05 g/cm3 Dt : 2 ms/ft [6.6 ms/m] CQG* gauge: (2 psi [13,789 Pa]
of formation 7 to 30 p.u. = 10% + 0.01% of reading) (accuracy),
30 to 60 p.u. = 15% 0.1 psi [689 Pa] (resolution)
Sigma: 1 cu [0.1/m]
Depth of investigation Similar to deep laterolog, 10 in. [20.54 cm] 7 in. [17.78 cm] 5 in. [12.70 cm] 9 in. [22.86 cm] Drilled depth: 6 in. [15.24 cm]
up to 32 ft [9.75 m], depending
on environment
Mud type or weight limitations None None None Cement thickness None None
< 1.75 in. [4.44 cm]
Combinability Gamma ray, CCL Combinable with tools using Combinable with Combinable with Combinable with Combinable with most toolstrings,
the PS Platform telemetry most toolstrings most toolstrings most tools another CHDT tool, MDT modules
system, CPLT tool, CGRS
Special applications H2S service H2S service
Stations are recorded every 4 ft [1.22 m]. Two resistivity measurements, 2 ft [0.61 m] apart, are made simultaneously at each station.
Measurements above 100 ohm-m may be possible based on environment.

Mechanical Specifications
CHFR-Plus Tool RSTPro Tool CHFP Service CHFD Service DSI Tool CHDT Tool
Temperature rating 302F [150C] 302F [150C] 350F [177C] 257F [125C] 350F [177C] 350F [177C]
With flask:
400F [204C]
Pressure rating 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
With flask: 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Casing sizemin. 4 12 in. [11.43 cm] 2 38 in. [6.03 cm] 5 in. [12.70 cm] 6 58
in. [16.83 cm] 5 in. [12.70 cm] 5 12 in. [13.97 cm]
Casing sizemax. 9 58 in. [24.45 cm] 9 58 in. [24.45 cm] 13 38 in. [33.97 cm] 1338 in. [33.97 cm] 13 38 in. [33.97 cm] 9 58 in. [24.45 cm]
Outer diameter 3.375 in. [8.57 cm] RST-C: 1.71 in. [4.34 cm] 3.625 in. [9.21 cm] 4.77 in. [12.11 cm] 3.625 in. [9.21 cm] 4.25 in. [10.80 cm]
RST-D: 2.51 in. [6.37 cm]

Logging Platforms and Suites 43


Resistivity Logging
AIT Array Induction
Imager Tools
Induction logging tools accurately depth of investigation of the mea-
measure open borehole formation sured signal concurrent with reducing
conductivity as a function of both well the vertical resolution from 4 to 2 ft
depth and radius into the formation at [1.22 to 0.61 m] and to 1 ft [0.30 m] in
different borehole conditions and smooth wellbores.
environments. Various tools cater to
special operating environments,
including slim wells and hostile, Platform Express Array
HPHT environments.
Wireline array induction tools use
Induction Imager Tool
an array induction coil that operates The AIT-H tool is designed expressly
at multiple frequencies. Software for the Platform Express logging suite.
focusing of the received signals gener- It is approximately one-half the length
ates a series of resistivity logs with of the AIT-B and AIT-C tools, yet pro-
different depths of investigation. vides the same high-quality measure-
Multichannel signal processing pro- ment. The tool is used primarily in
vides robust, stable tool responses standard logging conditions of pres-
with enhanced radial and vertical sure to 15,000 psi [103 MPa] and tem-
resolution and correction for environ- perature to 257F [125C]. The more
mental effects. Quantitative two-di- recent AIT-M tool provides the same
mensional (2D) imaging of formation measurements with a temperature
resistivity is possible because of the rating of 302F [150C].
large number of measurements made.
The images represent bedding and
invasion features clearly and quanti- Slim Array Induction
tatively. Advanced invasion descrip- Imager Tool
tion parameters are used to describe
Slim wellbores require tools that are
the presence of transition zones and
smaller than standard logging tools.
annuli. The quantitative information
In addition to its reduced diameter for
about invasion can be converted to a
use with the SlimAccess platform, the
2D image of water saturation Sw,
SAIT is designed to handle severe
which can be plotted in color at the
doglegs.
wellsite.
SAIT

AIT Array Induction Hostile Environment


Imager Tool Induction Imager Tool
The HIT is a component of the Xtreme
The standard AIT-B and AIT-C tools
platform for logging hostile environ-
are used in moderate-environment
ment wells. Even under severe tem-
wellbore conditions to measure the
perature and pressure conditions, the
true resistivity of geologic formations.
induction measurement quality
AIT measurement of conductivity as a
matches that of the standard AIT
function of both depth and distance
tools.
from the borehole has revolutionized
induction logging by increasing the
QAIT AIT-C AIT-BA

Wireline Services Catalog Resistivity Logging 47


SlimXtreme Array Applications
Induction Imager Tool Reservoir delineation
The QAIT tool is used with the Determination of Rt
SlimXtreme platform to log slim well- Determination of Sw
bores under severe environmental Hydrocarbon identification
conditions. The slim tool diameter is and imaging
also useful for logging through severe
doglegs.
Determination of movable
hydrocarbons
Invasion profiling
Thin-bed analysis

Measurement Specifications
AIT-B and AIT-C AIT-H and AIT-M SAIT HIT QAIT
Output 10-, 20-, 30-, 60-, and 90-in. [25.40-, 50.80-, 76.20-, 152.40-, and 228.60-cm] deep induction resistivities, SP, Rm
Logging speed 3,600 ft/hr [1,097 m/h]
Range of measurement 0.1 to 2,000 ohm-m
Vertical resolution 1, 2, and 4 ft [0.30, 0.61, and 1.22 m]
Accuracy Resistivities: 0.75 ms/m (conductivity) or 2% (whichever is greater)
Depth of investigation AO/AT/AF10: 10 in. [25.40 cm]
AO/AT/AF20: 20 in. [50.80 cm]
AO/AT/AF30: 30 in. [76.20 cm]
AO/AT/AF60: 60 in. [152.40 cm]
AO/AT/AF90: 90 in. [228.60 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations Salt-saturated muds are usually outside the operating range of induction tools.
Combinability Combinable with most services Platform Express platform SlimAccess platform Xtreme platform SlimXtreme platform
Special applications Slim wellbores High temperature Slim wellbores
Severe doglegs H2S service High pressure
H2S service and temperature
AO = 1-ft [0.30-m] vertical resolution, AT = 2-ft [0.61-m] vertical resolution, AF = 4-ft [1.22-m] vertical resolution

Mechanical Specifications
AIT-B and AIT-C AIT-H AIT-M SAIT HIT QAIT
Temperature rating 350F [177C] 257F [125C] 302F [150C] 302F [150C] 500F [260C] 500F [260C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 14,000 psi [97 MPa] 25,000 psi [172 MPa] 30,000 psi [207 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 434 in. [12.07 cm] 434 in. [12.07 cm] 434 in. [12.07 cm] 4 in. [10.16 cm] 4 78 in. [12.38 cm] 3 78 in. [9.84 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 20 in. [50.80 cm] 20 in. [50.80 cm] 20 in. [50.80 cm] 9 in. [22.86 cm] 20 in. [50.80 cm] 20 in. [50.80 cm]
Outer diameter 3.875 in. [9.84 cm] 3.875 in. [9.84 cm] 3.875 in. [9.84 cm] 2.75 in. [6.99 cm] with 3.875 in. [9.84 cm] 3 in. [7.62 cm]
0.25-in. [0.64-cm] standoff
Length 33.5 ft [10.21 m] 16 ft [4.88 m] 16 ft [4.88 m] 23.6 ft [7.19 m] 29.2 ft [8.90 m] 30.8 ft [9.39 m]
Weight 575 lbm [261 kg] 255 lbm [116 kg] 282 lbm [128 kg] 238 lbm [108 kg] 625 lbm [283 kg] 499 lbm [226 kg]
Tension 16,500 lbf [73,400 N] 20,000 lbf [88,960 N] 20,000 lbf [88,960 N] 20,000 lbf [88,960 N] 20,000 lbf [88,960 N] 20,000 lbf [88,960 N]
Compression 2,300 lbf [10,230 N] 6,000 lbf[26,690 N] 6,000 lbf[26,690 N] 3,300 lbf [14,680 N] 6,000 lbf [26,690 N] 2,000 lbf [8,900 N]
Without SP sub

48 Wireline Services Catalog


Laterolog Tools

ARI Azimuthal Applications


Resistivity Imager Determination of Rt
The ARI* Azimuthal Resistivity Imager Deviated and horizontal
combines standard laterolog measure- well evaluation
ments with a 12-channel azimuthal Thin-bed analysis
resistivity image and a high-resolution Rt measurements free of Grningen
deep resistivity measurement. The effects
resistivity image has 100% borehole
coverage and complements high-reso-
Short-radius wells
lution borehole images from the FMI*
Fullbore Formation MicroImager by
differentiating between natural deep High-Resolution Azimuthal
fractures and shallow, drilling-induced Laterolog Sonde
cracks. Azimuthal resistivity measure-
ments also enable the detection of The HALS component of the Platform
nearby conductive beds in horizontal Express system uses a central
wells. azimuthal array of electrodes to pro-
duce deep and shallow resistivity
images and an image of the electrical
Applications standoff. A computed focusing scheme
Determination of Rt increases the accuracy of the mea-
Deviated and horizontal well surement and enables the simultane-
evaluation ous computation of standard and
high-resolution curves by changing HALS
Azimuthal resistivity evaluation the focusing conditions.

Applications
HRLA High-Resolution Determination of Rt
Laterolog Array Resistivity logs and azimuthal
The HRLA* High-Resolution Laterolog images with 1-ft [0.30-m]
Array provides five independent, vertical resolution
actively focused, depth- and resolution-
matched measurements that can
Thin-bed analysis
resolve the true formation resistivity in Fracture identification and HRLA
thinly bedded and deeply invaded for- characterization
mations. Unprecedented combinability Deviated and horizontal well
results from the through-wired tool evaluation
design. The absence of a current return Grningen-corrected resistivity
at surface as well as no required use of
a bridle greatly improves wellsite effi-
Evaluation of heterogeneous
ciency. reservoirs
Borehole profiling
Invasion characterization for
permeability indication
Identification of fluid contacts ARI

Resistivity Logging 49
Measurement Specifications
ARI Tool HRLA Tool HALS
Output Deep laterolog, shallow Deep laterolog, shallow High-resolution deep laterolog,
laterolog, high-resolution laterolog, high-resolution high-resolution shallow laterolog,
deep laterolog, Grningen resistivity, diameter of resistivity images, mud resistivity
laterolog, azimuthal resistivity, invasion, resistivity images,
resistivity images mud resistivity
Logging speed 1,800 ft/hr [549 m/h] 3,600 ft/hr [1,097 m/h] 3,600 ft/hr [1,097 m/h]
Range of measurement 0.2 to 100,000 ohm-m Rm = 1 ohm-m: 0.2 to 0.2 to 40,000 ohm-m
100,000 ohm-m
Rm = 0.02 ohm-m: 0.2 to
20,000 ohm-m
Vertical resolution Deep and shallow laterolog: 12 in. [30.48 cm] Standard resolution: 18 in. [45.72 cm]
29-in. [73.66-cm] beam width in 6-in. [15.24-cm] borehole
High-resolution laterolog: High resolution: 8 in. [20.32 cm]
8-in. [20.32-cm] beam width in 6-in. [15.24-cm] borehole
Accuracy 1 to 2,000 ohm-m: 5% 1 to 2,000 ohm-m: 5% 1 to 2,000 ohm-m: 5%
2,000 to 5,000 ohm-m: 10% 2,000 to 5,000 ohm-m: 10%
5,000 to 100,000 ohm-m: 20% 5,000 to 100,000 ohm-m: 20%
Depth of investigation 40 in. [101.6 cm] (varies with 50 in. [127.0 cm] 32 in. [81.3 cm] (varies with formation
formation and mud resistivities) and mud resistivities)
Mud type or weight limitations Rm < 5 ohm-m Conductive mud systems only Conductive mud systems only
Combinability Combinable with most tools Combinable with most tools Bottom component of
Platform Express system
HRLA performance specifications are for 8-in. [20.32-cm] borehole.
Median response at 10:1 contrast of true to invaded zone resistivity

Mechanical Specifications
ARI Tool HRLA Tool HALS
Temperature rating 350F [177C] 302F [150C] 257F [125C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 10,000 psi [69 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 4 12 in. [11.43 cm] 5 in. [12.70 cm] 5 12 in. [13.97 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 21 in. [53.34 cm] 16 in. [40.64 cm] 16 in. [40.64 cm]
Outer diameter 3 58 in. [9.21 cm] 3 58 in. [9.21 cm] 3 58 in. [9.21 cm]
7 14 in. [18.41 cm]
Length 33.25 ft [10.13 m] 24.1 ft [7.34 m] 16 ft [4.88 m]
Weight 579 lbm [263 kg] 394 lbm [179 kg] 221 lbm [100 kg]
Tension 3,000 lbf [13,345 N] 30,000 lbf [133,450 N] 20,000 lbf [88,960 N]
Compression 2,000 lbf [8,900 N] With fin standoff: 3,600 lbf [16,010 N] 2,400 lbf [10,675 N]
With rigid centralizers: 7,800 lbf [34,700 N] With four rigid centralizers:
9,400 lbf [41,810 N]
ARI tool is available in two sizes to fit different borehole sizes.

50 Wireline Services Catalog


Microresistivity Tools

Microresistivity tools measure the investigation also makes the measure-


resistivity of the invaded zone Rxo. ment insensitive to mudcake up to
Micro-normal and -inverse measure- 0.4 in. [1 cm] thick, and correction
ments are made for permeability can be made for thicker mudcake. The
indication. measurement of mudcake thickness
is input to quality control processes
for the TLD and other tools sensitive
MicroSFL Spherically to standoff.
Focused Resistivity tool
The MicroSFL* Spherically Focused
Resistivity Tool (MSFL) achieves the
Powered Caliper Device
very shallow depth of investigation with microlog tool
necessary to measure formation resis- The Powered Caliper Device (PCD)
tivity close to the borehole wall with microlog tool consists of a
through its electrode spacing arrange- hydraulic sonde containing two
ment in combination with control of caliper arms and a microlog pad. The
the bucking current. The MicroSFL microlog pad is mounted on the larger
tool also provides an indication of the caliper arm, which eccenters the tool.
mudcake thickness hmc and a real- The smaller caliper arm is mounted
time synthetic microlog generated opposite the large arm and is used as
from the micro-normal (MNOR) and a borehole rugosity indicator. The
micro-inverse (MINV) measurements. microlog micro-normal and micro-
inverse measurements are used to
indicate permeability.
Micro-Cylindrically MCFL
Focused Log Applications
The Micro-Cylindrically Focused Log Rxo measurement
(MCFL) and Three-Detector Lith- Invasion correction of deep MSFL
ology Density (TLD) tools are colo- resistivity measurements
cated on the Platform Express system.
The MCFL consists of a narrow, wear-
Detection of permeable zones
resistant metallic pad and provides Quantitative estimate of water
three basic measurements: Rxo, hmc, saturation in the flushed zone
and the mudcake resistivity Rmc. (Sxo) (moveable oil)
The MCFL has several advantages Evaluation of sand-shale
PCD
over previous devices for measuring laminations (sand count)
invaded zone resistivity. The MCFL Measurement of hole diameter
uses a dual-focusing method to create
cylindrical equipotential surfaces that
Indication of hole rugosity
are the optimal shape for the cylindri-
cal borehole and mudcake and make
the tool insensitive to variations in
mudcake thickness and borehole
geometry. The 3-in. [7.62-cm] depth of

Resistivity Logging 51
Measurement Specifications
MicroSFL Tool MCFL PCD with Microlog
Output Resistivity of the invaded zone Resistivity of the invaded zone Micro-normal, micro-inverse,
two calipers (single axis)
Logging speed 1,800 ft/hr [549 m/h] 3,600 ft/hr [1097 m/h] 3,600 ft/hr [1097 m/h]
Range of measurement 0.2 to 1,000 ohm-m 0.2 to 2,000 ohm-m Short arm: 1.25 in. [3.18 cm]
Hole diameter: 22 in. [55.9 cm]
Vertical resolution 2 to 3 in. [5.08 to 7.67 cm] 0.70 in. [1.78 cm] Micro-normal: 2 in. [5.08 cm]
Micro-inverse: 1 in. [2.54 cm]
Accuracy 2 ohm-m 5% Caliper: 0.2 in. [0.51 cm]
Depth of investigation 0.7 in. [1.78 cm] 3.0 in. [7.62 cm] Micro-normal: ~1.5 in. [~3.8 cm]
Micro-inverse: ~0.5 in. [~1.3 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations Oil-base mud Oil-base mud Oil-base mud
Combinability Combinable with most tools Housed with the TLD in the High- Combinable with most tools
Resolution Mechanical Sonde of the
Platform Express system
Special applications Provides eccentric positioning
for other services that require it

Mechanical Specifications
MicroSFL Tool MCFL PCD with Microlog
Temperature rating 350F [177C] 302F [150C] 350F [177C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 5 12 in. [13.97 cm] Without bow spring: 515 in. [13.21 cm] Without microlog pad: 612 in. [16.51 cm]
With bow spring: 6 in. [15.24 cm] With microlog pad: 7 in. [22.23 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 1712 in. [44.45 cm] 16 in. [40.64 cm] 22 in. [55.88 cm]
Outer diameter Caliper closed: 4.625 in. [11.75 cm] Without pad: 3.375 in. [8.57 cm]
4.77 in. [12.11 cm] With slim pad: 5 in. [12.70 cm]
With standard pad: 6.25 in. [15.87 cm]
Length 12.3 ft [3.75 m] 10.85 ft [3.31 m] 17.25 ft [5.26 m]
Weight 313 lbm [142 kg] 171.7 lbm [78 kg] 345 lbm [156 kg]
Tension 40,000 lbf [177,930 N] 50,000 lbf [222,410 N] 40,000 lbf [177,930 N]
Compression 5,000 lbf [22,240 N] 8800 lbf [39,140 N] 5,000 lbf [22,240 N]

52 Wireline Services Catalog


CHFR-Plus Cased Hole
Formation Resistivity Tool
The CHFR-Plus Cased Hole Formation Applications
Resistivity tool measures the resistiv- Resistivity measurement behind
ity of the formation behind casing. casing in new or old wells
The tool injects current into the cas-
ing, where it flows both upward and
Reservoir monitoring
downward before returning to the sur- Location of bypassed hydrocarbons
face along a path similar to that Determination of residual oil
employed by openhole laterolog tools. saturation
Most of the current remains in the Contingency logging in wells
casing, but a very small portion where openhole logs could not
escapes to the formation. Electrodes be run
on the tool measure the potential dif-
ference created by the leaked current,
Primary evaluation where open-
which is proportional to the formation hole logging is not possible
conductivity.
Typical formation resistivity values
are about 109 times the resistivity
value of the steel casing. The mea-
surement current escaping to the for-
mation causes a voltage drop in the
casing segment. Because the resis-
tance of casing is a few tens of micro-
ohms and the leaked current is
typically on the order of few milli-
amperes, the potential difference
measured by the CHFR-Plus tool is in
nanovolts.

Mechanical Specifications
CHFR-Plus Tool
Temperature rating 302F [150C]
Pressure rating 15,000 psi [103 MPa]
Casing sizemin. 412 in. [11.43 cm]
Casing sizemax. 9 58 in. [24.45 cm]
Outer diameter 3.375 in. [8.57 cm]
Length 48 ft [14.63 m]
Weight 683 lbm [310 kg]

Resistivity Logging 53
Nuclear
Measurements
Gamma Ray Tools

Gamma ray tools record naturally


occurring gamma rays in the forma-
tions adjacent to the wellbore. This
nuclear measurement indicates the
radioactive content of the formations.
Effective in any environment, gamma
ray tools are the standard device used
for the correlation of logs in cased and
openholes.

Applications
Depth determination
Depth correlation within the well CGRS
and between wells
Lithology identification
Qualitative evaluation of shaliness
Qualitative evaluation of radioac-
tive mineral deposits
Cased hole perforating depth
control SGT-N
Positioning for openhole sampling
tools

STGC-A

HTGC
HGNS

QTGC

Wireline Services Catalog Nuclear Measurements 57


Measurement Specifications
Highly Integrated Hostile Environment Scintillation Gamma Slim Telemetry and SlimXtreme Telemetry Combinable Gamma
Gamma Neutron Telemetry and Gamma Ray Tool (SGT) Gamma Ray Cartridge and Gamma Ray Ray Sonde (CGRS)
Sonde (HGNS) Ray Cartridge (HTGC) (STGC) Cartridge (QTGC)
Output Formation gamma ray Formation gamma ray Formation gamma ray Formation gamma ray Formation gamma ray Gamma ray activity
Logging speed 3,600 ft/hr [1,097 m/h] 1,800 ft/hr [549 m/h] 3,600 ft/hr [1,097 m/h] 1,800 ft/hr [549 m/h] 1,800 ft/hr [549 m/h] Up to 3,600 ft/hr [1,097 m/h]
Range of measurement 0 to 1,000 gAPI 0 to 2,000 gAPI 0 to 2,000 gAPI 0 to 2,000 gAPI 0 to 2,000 gAPI 0 to 2,000 gAPI
Vertical resolution 12 in. [30.48 cm] 12 in. [30.48 cm] 12 in. [30.48 cm] 12 in. [30.48 cm] 12 in. [30.48 cm] 12 in. [30.48 cm]
Accuracy 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5%
Depth of investigation 24 in. [60.96 cm] 24 in. [60.96 cm] 24 in. [60.96 cm] 24 in. [60.96 cm] 24 in. [60.96 cm] 24 in. [60.96 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations None None None None None None
Combinability Part of Platform Combinable with Combinable with Combinable with Combinable with Combinable with CPLT
Express system most tools most tools most tools most tools tool, RSTPro tool
Special applications H2S service

Mechanical Specifications
HGNS HTGC SGT STGC QTGC CGRS
Temperature rating 302F [150C] 500F [260C] 350F [177C] 302F [150C] 500F [260C] 350F [177C]
Pressure rating 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 25,000 psi [172 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 14,000 psi [97 MPa] 30,000 psi [207 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 412 in. [11.43 cm] 4 34 in. [12.07 cm] 4 78 in. [12.38 cm] 3 12 in. [8.89 cm] 3 78 in. [9.84 cm] 11316-in. [4.61-cm]
seating nipple
Borehole sizemax. No limit for gamma No limit No limit No limit No limit No limit
ray measurement
Outer diameter 3.375 in. [8.57 cm] 3.75 in. [9.53 cm] 3.375 in. [8.57 cm] 2.5 in. [6.35 cm] 3.0 in. [7.62 cm] 11116 in. [4.29 cm]
Length 10.85 ft [3.31 m] 10.7 ft [3.26 m] 5.5 ft [1.68 m] 7.64 ft [2.33 m] 10.67 ft [3.25 m] 3.2 ft [0.97 m]
Weight 171.7 lbm [78 kg] 265 lbm [120 kg] 83 lbm [38 kg] 71 lbm [32 kg] 180 lbm [82 kg] 16 lbm [7 kg]
Tension 50,000 lbf [222,410 N] 50,000 lbf [222,410 N] 50,000 lbf [222,410 N] 50,000 lbf [222,410 N] 50,000 lbf [222,410 N] 10,000 lbf [44,480 N]
Compression 37,000 lbf [164,580 N] 20,000 lbf [88,960 N] 23,000 lbf [103,210 N] 17,000 lbf [75,620 N] 20,000 lbf [88,960 N] 1,000 lbf [4,450 N]

58 Wireline Services Catalog


Spectral Gamma
Ray Tools
Spectral gamma ray tools provide Hostile Environment Natural
insight into the mineral composition Gamma Ray Sonde
of formations. The total gamma ray
spectra measured is resolved into the The increased sensitivity of the HNGS
three most common components of set of detectors improves the tools
naturally occurring radiation in sands statistical response to the formation
and shalespotassium, thorium, and gamma rays to produce a better spec-
uranium (K, Th, and U, respectively). tral analysis than that of previous
These data are used to distinguish tools. The improvement in measure-
important features of the clay or sand ment also results from the use of two
around the wellbore. The clay type detectors instead of one. The HNGS
can be determined, and sand can be can log at a faster speed than other
identified as radioactive. The deposi- tools that measure the formation nat-
tion of radioactive salts behind the ural gamma ray emissions. Its 500C
casing by the movement of water can [260C] temperature rating makes it
also be identified. suitable for operations in hot borehole
environments.

NGS Natural Gamma Ray Applications


Spectrometry tool Cation exchange capacity studies
The NGS* Natural Gamma Ray Reservoir delineation
Spectrometry tool uses five-window Detailed well-to-well correlation
spectroscopy to resolve the total Definition of facies and deposi-
gamma ray spectra into K, Th, and U
tional environment
curves. The standard gamma ray and
the gamma ray minus the uranium Igneous rock recognition
component are also presented. The Recognition of other radioactive
computed gamma ray or Th curve can materials
be used to evaluate the clay content Estimated uranium and potassium
where radioactive minerals are pre- potentials
sent. Lithologic analysis log input
HNGS

Nuclear Measurements 59
Measurement Specifications
NGS Tool HNGS
Output Gamma ray; corrected gamma ray for uranium; potassium, thorium, and uranium curves
Logging speed 1,800 ft/hr [549 m/h] 1,800 ft/hr [549 m/h]
Range of measurement 0 to 2,000 gAPI 0 to 2,000 gAPI
Vertical resolution 8 to 12 in. [20.32 to 30.48 cm] 8 to 12 in. [20.32 to 30.48 cm]
Accuracy K: 0.4% (accuracy), 0.25% (repeatability) K: 0.5% (accuracy), 0.14% (repeatability)
Th: 3.2 ppm (accuracy), 1.5 ppm (repeatability) Th: 2% (accuracy), 0.9 ppm (repeatability)
U: 2.3 ppm (accuracy), 0.9 ppm (repeatability) U: 2% (accuracy), 0.4 ppm (repeatability)
Depth of investigation 9.5 in. [24.13 cm] 9.5 in. [24.13 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations In KCl muds, KCl content must be known In KCl muds, KCl content must be known
Combinability Combinable with most tools Combinable with most tools

Mechanical Specifications
NGS Tool HNGS
Temperature rating 302F [150C] 500F [260C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 25,000 psi [172 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 412 in. [11.43 cm] 4 34 in. [12.07 cm]
Borehole sizemax. No limit No limit
Outer diameter NGT-C: 3 58 in. [9.21 cm] 3 34 in. [9.53 cm]
NGT-D: 378 in. [9.84 cm]
Length 8.6 ft [2.62 m] 11.7 ft [3.57 m]
Weight NGT-C: 165 lbm [75 kg] 276 lbm [125 kg]
NGT-D: 189 lbm [86 kg]
Tension 50,000 lbf [222,410 N] 50,000 lbf [222,410 N]
Compression 20,000 lbf [88,960 N] 23,000 lbf [102,310 N]

60 Wireline Services Catalog


ECS Elemental Capture
Spectroscopy Sonde
The ECS* Elemental Capture siderite
Spectroscopy sonde uses a standard coal
16-Ci [59.2 1010-Bq] americium
salt
beryllium (AmBe) neutron source
and a large bismuth germanate (BGO) matrix properties (from elements)
detector to measure relative elemental matrix grain density
yields based on neutron-induced cap-
matrix thermal and epithermal
ture gamma ray spectroscopy. The pri-
neutron
mary elements measured in both open
and cased holes are for the formation matrix sigma.
elements silicon (Si), iron (Fe), cal-
cium (Ca), sulfur (S), titanium (Ti),
gadolinium (Gd), chlorine (Cl), barium Applications
(Ba), and hydrogen (H). DecisionXpress* integrated petro-
Wellsite processing uses the 254- physical analysis
channel gamma ray energy spectrum Clay fraction independent of
to produce dry-weight elements, gamma ray, spontaneous potential,
lithology, and matrix properties. The and density neutron
first step involves spectral deconvolu- Carbonate, gypsum or anhydrite,
tion of the composite gamma ray energy QFM, pyrite, siderite, coal, and
spectrum by using a set of elemental salt fractions for complex-
standards to produce relative elemen- reservoir analysis
tal yields. The relative yields are then
converted to dry-weight elemental
Matrix density and matrix neutron
concentration logs for the elements values for more accurate porosity
Si, Fe, Ca, S, Ti, and Gd using an calculation
oxides closure method. Matrix prop- Sigma matrix for cased and open-
erties and quantitative dry-weight hole sigma saturation analysis
lithologies are then calculated from Mineralogy-based permeability
the dry-weight elemental fractions estimates
using the SpectroLith* empirical rela- Quantitative lithology for rock
tionships derived from an extensive properties modeling and pore
core chemistry and mineralogy data- pressure prediction from seismic
base. data
The SpectroLith outputs are
Geochemical stratigraphy
dry-weight lithology fractions (chemostratigraphy) for well-to-
(from elements) well correlation
total clay Enhanced completion and drilling
ECS
total carbonate fluid recommendations based on
anhydrite + gypsum from clay versus carbonate cementation
S and Ca Coalbed methane bed delineation,
QFM (quartz + feldspar + mica) producibility, and in situ reserves
estimation
pyrite

Nuclear Measurements 61
Measurement Specifications
ECS Sonde
Output Elemental yields, dry-weight elemental fractions,
dry-weight SpectroLith lithology, matrix properties
Logging speed 1,800 ft/hr [549 m/h]
Range of measurement 600 keV to 8 MeV
Vertical resolution 18 in. [45.72 cm]
Accuracy 2% coherence to standards computed
Depth of investigation 9 in. [22.86 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability Combinable with most tools
Special applications Automatic wellsite petrophysical interpretation
Elementalstatistical uncertainty at nominal conditions (1,800-ft/hr logging speed, resolution degradation factor of 5, 16,000-cps count rate,
and closure normalization factor of 3): Si 2.16%, Ca 2.19%, Fe 0.36%, S 1.04%, Ti 0.10%, and Gd 3.48 ppm.

Mechanical Specifications
ECS Sonde
Temperature rating 350F [177C]
500F [260C] (internal flask, CO2 cooling)
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
High-pressure housing: 25,000 psi [172 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 6 12 in. [16.51 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 20 in. [50.80 cm]
Outer diameter 5.0 in. [12.70 cm]
High-pressure housing: 5.5 in. [13.97 cm]
Length 10.15 ft [3.09 m]
Weight 305 lbm [138 kg]
Tension 50,000 lbf [222,410 N]
Compression 20,000 lbf [88, 960 N]

62 Wireline Services Catalog


Neutron Porosity Tools

Compensated neutron tools measure mal neutron porosity based on the


the hydrogen index of downhole for- same neutron interactions as the
mations. The measurements are con- standard CNT.
verted to porosity values, which in
combination with density tool mea-
surements provide an indication of Highly Integrated Gamma
lithology and gas in zones of interest.
Some compensated neutron tools pro-
Ray Neutron Sonde
vide thermal and epithermal mea- The Highly Integrated Gamma Ray
surements. Thermal measurements Neutron Sonde (HGNS) is the compo-
require a liquid-filled borehole. nent of the Platform Express tool-
Epithermal measurements can be string that measures neutron porosity.
made in air- or gas-filled boreholes. The HGNS contains sensors for neu-
tron porosity determination and
makes gamma ray and tool accelera- CNT HGNS
tion measurements. Starting from the
CNL Compensated same neutron porosity measurement
Neutron Log principle as for the standard CNT, the
The CNL Compensated Neutron Log HGNS applies speed correction to the
tool (CNT) contains a radioactive measurements, which also benefit
source that bombards the formation from the enhanced reliability charac-
with fast neutrons. The neutrons are teristics of the Platform Express sys-
slowed, primarily by hydrogen atoms tem.
in the formation. Detectors count the
slowed neutrons deflected back to the
tool. Because the CNT responds pri- SlimXtreme Compensated
marily to the hydrogen content of the
formation, the measurements are
Neutron Tool
scaled in porosity units. Both epither- The SlimXtreme Compensated Neu-
mal (intermediate energy) neutrons tron Porosity Tool (QCNT) provides
and thermal (slow) neutrons can be the same high-quality, environmen-
measured depending on the detector tally corrected thermal neutron
design. The CNT-H uses two thermal porosity data as the standard CNT.
detectors to produce a borehole-com- The 3-in. [7.62-cm] diameter tool is
pensated thermal neutron measure- rated for up to 8 hr of continuous log-
ment. The DNL* Dual-Energy Neutron ging at 500F [260C] and 30,000 psi
Log (CNT-G) has two thermal and two [207 MPa].
epithermal detectors that make sepa-
rate energy measurements for gas Applications QCNT-A
detection and improved reservoir
description.
Porosity determination
Lithology identification
Gas detection
Slim Compensated Correlation in cased wells
Neutron Porosity Tool Option to pump slim tools down
The Slim Compensated Neutron Tool drillpipe CNT-D
(SCNT)
(SCNT) uses two thermal detectors to
measure borehole-compensated ther-

Nuclear Measurements 63
Measurement Specifications
CNT SCNT HGNS QCNT
Output Thermal neutron porosity Thermal neutron porosity Thermal neutron porosity Thermal neutron porosity
(uncorrected, environmentally (uncorrected, environmentally (uncorrected, environmentally (uncorrected, environmentally
corrected, or alpha processed) corrected, or alpha processed) corrected, or alpha processed), corrected, or alpha processed)
CNT-G: Epithermal neutron porosity formation gamma ray, tool acceleration
Logging speed Standard: 1,800 ft/hr [549 m/h] Full-resolution max.: 1,800 ft/hr [549 m/h] 3,600 ft/hr [1,097 m/h] 1,800 ft/hr [549 m/h]
High resolution: 900 ft/hr [274 m/h]
Range of measurement 0 to 60 p.u. [0 to 60% uncorrected porosity]
Vertical resolution 12 in. [30.48 cm] 12 in. [30.48 cm] 12 in. [30.48 cm] 12 in. [30.48 cm]
Accuracy 0 to 20 p.u.: 1 p.u. 0 to 20 p.u.: 1 p.u. 0 to 20 p.u.: 1 p.u. 0 to 20 p.u.: 1 p.u.
30 p.u.: 2 p.u. 30 p.u.: 2 p.u. 30 p.u.: 2 p.u. 30 p.u.: 2 p.u.
45 p.u. : 6 p.u. 45 p.u. : 6 p.u. 45 p.u. : 6 p.u. 45 p.u. : 6 p.u.
Depth of investigation ~ 9 in. [~23 cm] (varies with hydrogen index of formation)
Mud type or weight limitations Thermal measurements not possible in air- or gas-filled wellbores
Combinability Combinable with most tools Combinable with most tools Part of Platform Express system Combinable with most tools
Special applications Slim wellbores Slim wellbores
Short-radius wells Short-radius wells
Tubing-conveyed logging Tubing-conveyed logging
On tractor On tractor

Mechanical Specifications
CNT SCNT HGNS QCNT
Temperature rating 400F [204C] 302F [150C] 302F [150C] 500F [260C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 14,000 psi [97 MPa] 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 30,000 psi [207 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 4 34 in. [12.07 cm] 3 34 in. [9.53 cm] 412 in. [11.43 cm] 3 78 in. [9.84 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 20 in. [50.80 cm] 12 in. [30.48 cm] 16 in. [40.64 cm] 10 in. [25.40 cm]
Outer diameter Without bow spring eccentralizer: 2.75 in. [6.99 cm] 3.375 in. [9.53 cm] 3 in. [7.62 cm]
3.375 in. [9.53 cm]
Length 7.25 ft [2.21 m] 18.4 ft [5.61 m] 10.85 ft [3.31 m] 11.9 ft [3.63 m]
Weight 120 lbm [54 kg] 254 lbm [115 kg] 171.7 lbm [78 kg] 191 lbm [87 kg]
Tension 50,000 lbf [222,410 N] 68,000 lbf [302,480 N] 50,000 lbf [222,410 N] 50,000 lbf [222,410 N]
Compression 23,000 lbf [102,310 N] 9,600 lbf [42,700 N] 37,000 lbf [164,580 N] 15,000 lbf [66,720 N]

64 Wireline Services Catalog


Array Porosity
Measurements
APS Accelerator Hostile Environment
Porosity Sonde Accelerator Porosity Sonde
The APS Accelerator Porosity Sonde The Hostile Environment Accelerator
uses an electronic neutron source Porosity Sonde (HAPS) is a compo-
instead of a chemical source. The nent of the Xtreme platform. It pro-
large yield of the neutron source vides an APS measurement in high-
enables the use of epithermal neutron pressure, high-temperature environ-
detection and borehole shielding. As a ments. The installation of a conven-
result, the porosity measurements are tional APS cartridge inside a thermal
affected only minimally by the bore- Dewar flask makes HAPS operations
hole environment and formation char- possible at bottomhole temperatures
acteristics, such as lithology and up to 500F [260C].
salinity. Five detectors provide infor-
mation for porosity evaluation, gas
detection, shale evaluation, improve- Applications
ment of the vertical resolution, and Formation evaluation behind
borehole correction. The measure- casing
ments can be performed in both cased Accurate neutron porosity mea-
and openholes. surement in environments with
thermal neutron absorbers
Accurate hydrogen index
estimation
Clay analysis
Gas detection

APS

Nuclear Measurements 65
Measurement Specifications
APS Sonde HAPS
Output Neutron porosity index, formation sigma Neutron porosity index, formation sigma
Logging speed Standard: 1,800 ft/hr [549 m/h] Standard: 1,800 ft/hr [549 m/h]
High resolution: 900 ft/hr [274 m/h] High resolution: 900 ft/hr [274 m/h]
High speed: 3,600 ft/hr [1,097 m/h] High speed: 3,600 ft/hr [1,097 m/h]
Range of measurement Porosity: 0 to 60 p.u. [0 to 60% uncorrected porosity] Porosity: 0 to 60 p.u. [0 to 60% uncorrected porosity]
Vertical resolution 14 in. [35.56 cm] 14 in. [35.56 cm]
Accuracy <7 p.u.: 0.5 p.u. <7 p.u.: 0.5 p.u.
7 to 30 p.u.: 7% 7 to 30 p.u.: 7%
30 to 60 p.u.: 10% 30 to 60 p.u.: 10%
Sigma: 1 c.u. [0.1/m] Sigma: 1 c.u. [0.1/m]
Depth of investigation 7 in. [17.78 cm] 7 in. [17.78 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations None None
Combinability Combinable with most services Combinable with most services
If combined with ECS sonde, If combined with ECS sonde,
the APS sonde must be run below it the APS sonde must be run below it

Mechanical Specifications
APS Sonde HAPS
Temperature rating 350F [177C] 500F [260C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 25,000 psi [172 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 4 58 in. [11.75 cm] 5 78 in. [14.92 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 21 in. [53.34 cm] 21 in. [53.34 cm]
Outer diameter 3.625 in. [9.21 cm] Without bow spring: 4 in. [10.16 cm]
Length 13 ft [3.96 m] 16 ft [4.88 m]
Weight 222 lbm [101 kg] 400 lbm [181 kg]
Tension 50,000 lbf [22,410 N] 50,000 lbf [22,410 N]
Compression 23,000 lbf [102,310 N] 15,000 lbf [66,720 N]

66 Wireline Services Catalog


RST and RSTPro
Reservoir Saturation Tools
The unique dual-detector spectrome- Applications
try system of the through-tubing RST Formation evaluation behind
and RSTPro Reservoir Saturation casing
Tools enables the recording of carbon
and oxygen and Dual-Burst* Thermal
Sigma, porosity, and carbon/oxy-
Decay Time measurements during the gen measurement in one trip in
same trip in the well. The carbon/oxy- the wellbore
gen (C/O) ratio is used to determine Water saturation evaluation in old
the formation oil saturation indepen- wells where modern openhole logs
dent of the formation water salinity. have not been run
This calculation is particularly help- Measurement of water velocity
ful if the water salinity is low or inside casing, irrespective of well-
unknown. If the salinity of the forma- bore angle (production logging)
tion water is high, the Dual-Burst Measurement of near-wellbore
Thermal Decay Time measurement is water velocity outside the casing
used. A combination of both measure- (remedial applications)
ments can be used to detect and
quantify the presence of injection
Formation oil volume from C/O
water of a different salinity from that ratio, independent of formation
of the connate water. water salinity
RST tools (RST-A and RST-B) are Flowing wells (in combination
used with PL Flagship advanced well with an external borehole holdup
flow diagnosis service. RSTPro tools sensor)
(RST-C and RST-D) are used with the Capture yields (H, Cl, Ca, Si, Fe, S,
PS Platform production services. Gd, and Mg)
Both the RST and RSTPro tools are Inelastic yields (C, O, Si, Ca,
available in two sizes to address a and Fe)
range of casing sizes and applica-
tions and the issues associated with
Three-phase borehole holdup
wellbores under static or flowing con- PVL* Phase Velocity Log
ditions: 1.71-in. [4.34-cm] RST-A and Borehole salinity
RST-C and 2.51-in. [6.37-cm] SpectroLith lithology indicators
RST-B and RST-D tools. The RST-B
and RST-D tools have the added
advantage of shielded detectors; the
near detector is shielded from the
formation and the far detector is
shielded from the borehole.

1.71-in. 2.51-in.
RST-A and RST-C RST-B and RST-D

Nuclear Measurements 67
Measurement Specifications
RST and RSTPro Tools
Output Inelastic and capture yields of various elements, carbon/oxygen ratio, formation capture
cross section (sigma), porosity, borehole holdup, water velocity, phase velocity,
SpectroLith processing
Logging speed Inelastic mode: 100 ft/hr [30 m/h] (formation dependent)
Capture mode: 600 ft/hr [183 m/h] (formation and salinity dependent)
RST sigma mode: 1,800 ft/hr [549 m/h]
RSTPro sigma mode: 3,600 ft/hr [1,097 m/h]
Range of measurement Porosity: 0 to 60 p.u.
Vertical resolution 15 in. [38.10 cm]
Accuracy Based on hydrogen index of formation
Depth of investigation 10 in. [20.54 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability RST tool: Combinable with the PL Flagship system and CPLT
RSTPro tool: Combinable with tools that use the PS Platform telemetry system and CGRS
See Tool Planner application for advice on logging speed

Mechanical Specifications
RST-A and RST-C RST-B and RST-D
Temperature rating 302F [150C] 302F [150C]
With flask: 400F [204C]
Pressure rating 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 15,000 psi [103 MPa]
With flask:
20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 11316 in. [4.60 cm] 2 78 in. [7.30 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 7 58 in. [19.37 cm] 9 58 in. [24.45 cm]
Outer diameter 1.71 in. [4.34 cm] 2.51 in. [6.37 cm]
Length 23.0 ft [7.01 m] 22.2 ft [6.76 m]
Weight 101 lbm [46 kg] 208 lbm [94 kg]
Tension 10,000 lbf [44,480 N] 10,000 lbf [44,480 N]
Compression 1,000 lbf [4,450 N] 1,000 lbf [4,450 N]

68 Wireline Services Catalog


Density Tools

Density tools provide measurements


of formation density, formation photo-
electric factor, and borehole diameter.
The density data are used to calculate
porosity and determine the lithology.
The combination of density and CNT
data is used to indicate the presence
of gas.

Three-Detector Lithology
Density
The high-resolution measurements of
the Platform Express system include
the Three-Detector Lithology Density
(TLD) tool, which is housed in the
High-Resolution Mechanical Sonde
(HRMS). The TLD measures forma-
tion density and formation photo-
electric factor. Part of the TLD
measurement is called a backscatter
density measurement because it uses
a third detector located close to the
source. Mudcake density, mudcake
photoelectric factor, and mudcake
thickness are computed using a recur-
sive inversion scheme that is based
on a large set of data points. This
approach provides compensated den-
sity and photoelectric factor in non-
barite mud and compensated density
in barite mud.
LDS-C

HRMS

HLDS

QLDT-B

SLDT-A

Nuclear Measurements 69
Litho-Density Sonde Slim Array Litho-Density Tool Applications
The Litho-Density Sonde (LDS) com- The component tools of the SlimAccess Porosity determination
ponent of the IPL Integrated Porosity system are adapted for slim and com- Lithology analysis and identification
Logging toolstring (IPLT) measures plex trajectory wells. The Slim Array of minerals
the formation bulk density and photo- Litho-Density Tool (SLDT) is a three- Gas detection
electric factor. It has a pad with a detector, mandrel-design Litho-Density
gamma ray source and two detectors. tool. The extra third detector is placed
Hydrocarbon density determination
Magnetic shielding and high-speed between the long-spacing and short- Shaly sand interpretation
electronics ensure excellent measure- spacing detectors. A powered caliper Rock mechanical properties
ment stability. The LDS records the ensures proper decentralization of the calculations
full-pulse-height gamma ray spectra tool and provides a borehole diameter Determination of overburden
from both detectors and processes measurement. The bulk density mea- pressure
them into windows. Bulk density and surement is a three-detector measure-
photoelectric cross section are derived ment. A density quality factor mea-
Synthetic seismogram for correla-
conventionally from the windows surement replaces the conventional tion with seismic
counts with enhanced quality control. Delta Rho for monitoring measure-
ment consistency. Other measure-
ments include the photoelectric
Hostile Environment factor and compensation for tool
standoff.
Lithology Density Sonde
The Hostile Environment Lithology
Density Sonde (HLDS) is a component
of the Xtreme HPHT logging platform.
SlimXtreme Litho-Density
Its design and operation are similar to Tool
those of the LDS but adapted for hos- The SlimXtreme Litho-Density Tool
tile environment logging. It is rated to (QLDT) is designed for operation in
a temperature of 500F [260C] and slim and hostile environments with
pressure of 25,000 psi [172 MPa]. The temperature and pressure ratings of
HLDS uses a pad-mounted gamma ray 500F and 30,000 psi [207 MPa], res-
source and two detectors to make three pectively. It measures density and pho-
primary measurements: formation den- toelectric factor using full spectral
sity, long- and short-spacing photo- data from a three-detector array. The
electric factor, and hole diameter. formation density is determined using
an extended spine-and-ribs algorithm.

70 Wireline Services Catalog


Measurement Specifications
TLD LDS HLDS SLDT QLDT
Output Bulk density, porosity, PEF, caliper Bulk density, porosity, PEF, caliper Bulk density, porosity, PEF, caliper Bulk density, porosity, PEF Bulk density, porosity, PEF
Logging speed Standard: 3,600 ft/hr [1,097 m/h] Standard: 1,800 ft/hr [549 m/h) Standard: 1,800 ft/hr [549 m/h] 1,800 ft/hr [549 m/h] 1,800 ft/hr [549 m/h]
High resolution: 1,800 ft/hr [549 m/h] High resolution: 900 ft/hr [274 m/h] High resolution: 900 ft/hr [274 m/h]
High speed: 3,600 ft/hr [1,097 m/h] High speed: 3,600 ft/hr [1,097 m/h]
Range of measurement Bulk density: 1.04 to 3.3 g/cm3 Bulk density: 1.3 to 3.05 g/cm3 Bulk density: 2 to 3 g/cm3 Bulk density: 1.3 to 3.05 g/cm3 Bulk density: 1.3 to 3.05 g/cm3
PEF: 0.9 to 10 PEF: 1 to 6 PEF: 1 to 6 PEF: 1 to 6.2 PEF: 1 to 6
Caliper: 22 in. [55.88 cm] Caliper: 16 in. [40.64 cm] Caliper: 16 in. [40.64 cm] Caliper: 3 to 9 in. [7.62 to 22.86 cm] Caliper: 9.5 in. [24.13 cm]
Vertical resolution Density: 18 in. [45.72 cm] Density: 15 in. [38.10 cm] Density: 15 in. [38.10 cm] Density: 15 in. [38.10 cm] Density: 15 in. [38.10 cm]
Accuracy Bulk density: 0.01 g/cm3 (accuracy), Bulk density: 0.01 g/cm3 (accuracy), Bulk density: 0.01 g/cm3 (accuracy), Bulk density: 0.01 g/cm3 (accuracy), Bulk density: 0.015 g/cm3 (accuracy),
0.025 g/cm3 (repeatability) 0.014 g/cm3 (repeatability) 0.014 g/cm3 (repeatability) 0.014 g/cm3 (repeatability), 0.014 g/cm3 (repeatability),
Caliper: 0.1 in. [0.25 cm] (accuracy), Caliper: 0.25 in. [0.64 cm] (accuracy), Caliper: 0.25 in. [0.64 cm] (accuracy), Caliper: 0.1 in. [0.25 cm] (accuracy), Caliper: 0.1 in. [0.25 cm] (accuracy),
0.05 in. [0.127 cm] (repeatability) 0.05 in. [0.127 cm] (repeatability) 0.05 in. [0.127 cm] (repeatability) 0.05 in. [0.127 cm] (repeatability) 0.05 in. [0.127 cm] (repeatability)
Depth of investigation 5 in. [12.70 cm] 4 in. [10.16 cm] 4 in. [10.16 cm] 4 in. [10.16 cm] 4 in. [10.16 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations Sensitive to barite Sensitive to barite Sensitive to barite Sensitive to barite Sensitive to barite
Combinability Part of Platform Express system, Combinable with most tools Combinable with most tools Part of SlimAccess system Part of SlimXtreme system,
combinable with most tools combinable with most tools
Special applications Spectral processing of formation HPHT Slim wellbores HPHT
gamma ray measurement Spectral processing of formation Short-radius wells Slim wellbores
gamma ray measurement Tubing-conveyed logging Short-radius wells
On tractor Tubing-conveyed logging
On tractor
At 1,800 ft/hr [549 m/h] in nonbarite mud
Average values (depth of investigation depends on density)

Mechanical Specifications
TLD LDS HLDS SLDT QLDT
Temperature rating 257F [125C] 350F [177C] 500F [260C] 302F [150C] 500F [260C]
350F [177C]
Pressure rating 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 25,000 psi [172 MPa] 14,000 psi [97 MPa] 30,000 psi [207 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 6 in. [15.24 cm] 512 in. [13.97 cm] 4 12 in. [11.43 cm] 3 12 in. [8.89 cm] 3 78 in. [9.84 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 22 in. [55.88 cm] 21 in. [53.34 cm] 18 in. [45.72 cm] 9 in. [22.86 cm] 9 in. [22.86 cm]
Outer diameter 4.77 in. [12.11 cm] 4.5 in. [11.43 cm] 3.5 in. [8.89 cm] 2.5 in. [6.35 cm] 3 in. [7.62 cm]
Length 12.26 ft [3.74 m] 11 ft [3.35 m] 12.58 ft [3.83 m] 14.9 ft [4.54 m] 14.7 ft [4.48 m]
Weight 314 lbm [142 kg] 292 lbm [132 kg] 402 lbm [182 kg] 159 lbm [72 kg] 253 lbm [115 kg]
Tension 50,000 lbf [222,410 N] 30,000 lbf [133,450 N] 30,000 lbf [133,450 N] 50,000 lbf [222,410 N] 50,000 lbm [222,410 N]
Compression Without stiffener and locked 5,000 lbf [22,240 N] 5,000 lbf [22,240 N] 14,000 lbf [62,270 N] 17,000 lbf [75,620 N]
flex head: 4,400 lbf [19,570 N]
With stiffener and locked
flex head: 8,000 lbf [35,590 N]

Nuclear Measurements 71
Nuclear
Magnetic
Resonance
Logging
CMR-Plus Combinable
Magnetic Resonance Tool
The CMR-Plus* Combinable Magnetic Applications
Resonance tool with high-logging- Lithology-independent porosity for
speed capability makes nuclear storage quantification
magnetic resonance (NMR) measure-
ments of the buildup and decay of the
Pore-size distribution for reservoir
polarization of hydrogen nuclei (pro- rock quality
tons) in the liquids contained in the Bound- and free-fluid volume indi-
pore space of rock formations. One cators of reservoir producibility
primary measurement of the CMR- Identification of thin, permeable
Plus tool is the total formation poros- beds in laminated reservoirs
ity. Borehole NMR measurement is Hydrocarbon identification, espe-
unaffected by solid materials, so the cially in low-contrast, low-resistiv-
measurement is not sensitive to ity pay zones
matrix type and therefore lithology
independent. The total porosity can
Determination of hydrocarbon pore
be partitioned into the spectrum of volume for reserve calculations
pore sizes present, which provides Improved irreducible water satura-
information on the irreducible water tion estimates for reducing or elim-
saturation. Permeability can be esti- inating water production
mated from the free-fluid to bound- Comparison with neutron, density,
fluid ratio and the shape of the and MDT data for porosity, lithol-
pore-size distribution. NMR measure- ogy, and fluid determination
ment is also useful for fluid identifica- Critical information for setting
tion because it is a hydrogen index pipe, determining coring and test-
measurement, and various fluids have ing needs, and optimizing comple-
different hydrogen index values as tion and fracture programs
well as polarization characteristics.
NMR data can be processed to yield
Integrated solutions of CMR-Plus
formation fluid properties such as gas logging, PowerSTIM* well opti-
and oil saturation and oil viscosity. mization service, and FracCADE*
fracturing design and evaluation
software, combining petrophysical
expertise and reservoir knowledge
with completion design, execution,
and evaluation
Salt-saturated muds, deviated and
horizontal holes, large (no limit)
and small (to 5 78-in. [14.92-cm])
boreholes
Increased efficiency of formation
testing program in combination
with MDT tool

Wireline Services Catalog Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Logging 75


Measurement Specifications
CMR-Plus Tool
Output Transverse relaxation time (T2 ) distribution, total porosity, free- and bound-fluid volumes, permeability
determined with Schlumberger-Doll Research (SDR) and Timur-Coates equations, capillary bound
porosity, small-pore bound porosity, quality control curves and flags
MRF* Magnetic Resonance Fluid station log: Saturation; oil, gas, and water volumes; oil viscosity;
water and oil T2 distributions; hydrocarbon-corrected permeability; oil and water log-mean T2
distributions
Logging speed Bound-fluid mode: 3,600 ft/hr [1,097 m/h]
Short time constant for the polarizing process (T1) environment: 2,400 ft/hr [731 m/h]
Long T1 environment: 800 ft/hr [244 m/h]
Range of measurement Porosity: 0 to 100 p.u.
Minimum echo spacing: 200 ms
T2 distribution: 0.3 ms to 3.0 s
Nominal raw signal-to-noise ratio: 32 dB
Vertical resolution Static: 6-in. [15.24-cm] measurement aperture
Dynamic (high-resolution mode): 9 in. [22.86 cm], three-level averaging
Dynamic (standard mode): 18-in. [45.72-cm] vertical resolution, three-level averaging
Dynamic (fast mode): 30-in. [76.20-cm] vertical resolution, three-level averaging
Accuracy Total CMR porosity standard deviation: 1.0 p.u. at 75F [24C], three-level averaging
CMR free-fluid porosity standard deviation: 0.5 p.u. at 75F [24C], three-level averaging
Depth of investigation Blind zone (2.5% point): 0.50 in. [1.27 cm]
Median (50% point): 1.12 in. [2.84 cm]
Maximum (95% point): 1.50 in. [3.81 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability Combinable with most tools
Special applications MRF station logging

Mechanical Specifications
CMR-Plus Tool
Temperature rating 350F [177C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
High-pressure version: 25,000 psi [172 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. Without integral bow spring: 5 78 in. [14.92 cm]
With integral bow spring: 7 78 in. [20.00 cm]
Borehole sizemax. No limit, but must be eccentered
Outer diameter Without bow spring: 5.3 in. [13.46 cm]
With bow spring: 6.6 in. [16.76 cm]
Length 15.6 ft [4.75 m]
Weight Without bow spring: 374 lbm [170 kg]
With bow spring: 413 lbm [187 kg]
Tension 50,000 lbf [222,410 N]
Compression 50,000 lbf [222,410 N]

76 Wireline Services Catalog


MRX Magnetic Resonance eXpert

The MRX* Magnetic Resonance advanced fluids characterization,


eXpert is the next-generation wireline especially in the challenging environ-
NMR logging tool. The MRX tool uses ments of low-resistivity, low-contrast
simultaneous, multifrequency mea- pay and hydrocarbon-bearing fresh-
surements in a gradient-field design water formations, where traditional
to perform multiple-depth investiga- log analysis often fails. MRX fluid
tions in a single pass. The depths of characterization is available far in
investigation (DOIs), ranging from 1.5 advance of conventional analysis for
to 4 in. [3.81 to 10.16 cm], are main- use in optimizing fluid sampling pro-
tained for the tools main and high- grams.
resolution antennae, regardless of
hole size or geometry, well deviation,
temperature, or mud type. The result- Applications
ing measurement sequence provides a Radial profiling of fluid volumes
continuous profile of the reservoir flu- and saturations for the characteri-
ids for detailed formation evaluation: zation of hydrocarbons and detec-
tion of formation damage
oil and water saturation
Direct hydrocarbon characteriza-
total and effective porosity tion independent of formation
bulk volume irreducible water water resistivity and in low-resistiv-
T2, T1, and diffusion distributions ity, low-contrast pay and thin beds
hydrocarbon-corrected Formation evaluation in rugose
Timur-Coates permeability boreholes or in the presence of
diffusion-T2 fluid maps thick mudcake
Thin-bed evaluation with high-ver-
Because the DOIs of the MRX tool tical-resolution measurements
are deeper than those of other NMR
logging tools, measurements such as
Continuous oil viscosity measure-
pore-size distribution and permeabil- ment for perforation and comple-
ity are possible beyond the zone of for- tion design
mation damage. Evaluation insights Determination of fluid storage vol-
from comparison of the multiple DOI ume based on lithology-indepen-
profiles include the detection of fines dent porosity
invasion, observation of gas effects, Quantification of pay through oil,
and the discrimination of native oil. gas, and water saturations
The combination of diffusion editing Oil mobility determination based
acquisition methods and MRF on in situ oil viscosity
Magnetic Resonance Fluid character-
ization with the continuous data pro-
Residual oil saturation in water-
file collected by MRX logging provides base muds and residual water satu-
ration in oil-base muds

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Logging 77


Measurement Specifications
MRX Tool
Output T1,T2, and diffusion distributions, total porosity, bound-fluid volumes,
hydrocarbon-corrected permeability, pore-size distribution
Continuous fluid characterization: Quantitative oil, water, and gas saturation, oil viscosity
Logging speed Bound-fluid logging: 3,600 ft/hr [1,097 m/h]
Basic NMR profiling: 1,800 ft/hr [549 m/h]
T2 radial profiling: 900 ft/hr [274 m/h]
High-resolution logging: 400 ft/hr [122 m/h]
T1 radial profiling: 300 ft/hr [91 m/h]
Saturation profiling: 250 ft/hr [76 m/h]
Range of measurement Porosity: 0 to 100 p.u.
Minimum echo spacing: 0.45 ms
T2 distribution: 0.4 ms to 3.0 s
T1 distribution: 0.5 ms to 9.0 s
Vertical resolution Main antenna: 18 in. [45.72 cm]
High-resolution antenna: 7.5 in [19.05 cm]
Accuracy Total NMR porosity: 1-p.u. standard deviation, three-level averaging at 75F [24C]
NMR free-fluid porosity: 0.5-p.u. standard deviation, three-level averaging at 75F [24C]
Depth of investigation Main antenna: 1.5, 1.9, 2.3, 2.7, and 4.0 in. [3.81, 4.83, 5.84, 6.86, and 10.16 cm]
High-resolution antennae: 1.25 in. [3.17 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations Mud resistivity less than 0.05 ohm-m may require special procedures
Combinability Combinable with most services, run sequentially
Special applications Rugose boreholes
Thick mudcake
Minimum values

Mechanical Specifications
MRX Tool
Temperature rating 302F [150C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 578 in. [14.92 cm] (good borehole conditions)
Borehole sizemax. No limit, but must be eccentered
Outer diameter Cartridge: 4.75 in. [12.07 cm]
Sonde: 5 in. [12.70 cm]
Length 32.7 ft [9.97 m]
Weight 1,200 lbm [544 kg]
Tension 50,000 lbf [222,410 N]
Compression 50,000 lbf [222,410 N]

78 Wireline Services Catalog


Acoustic Logging
Monopole Acoustic Tools

Acoustic, or sonic, tools provide a mea- Slim Array Sonic Tool


surement of the formation integral The SlimAccess toolstring addresses
travel time (Dt) in a variety of envi- the growth and challenges of slimhole
ronments. Acoustic logs recognize sec- drilling activity, especially reentry and
ondary, or vugular, porosity in hard- coiled tubing drilling. The monopole
rock sediments. Acoustic tools can be Slim Array Sonic Tool (SSLT) delivers
run in conjunction with density and a robust formation slowness using
compensated neutron tools in bad first-motion detection, borehole com-
borehole conditions to measure poros- pensation, and slowness-time-coher-
ity, and this third porosity is also used ence (STC) semblance techniques. A
to identify complex lithology. Certain 6-in. [15.24-cm] high-resolution mea-
sonic tools can measure shear Dt in surement identifies thin-bed slowness.
very slow formations. A tool extension provides a long-spac-
ing sonic measurement in unconsoli-
dated formations. Measurement of
Digital Sonic Logging Tool CBL amplitudes and VDL waveforms is
The Digital Sonic Logging Tool (DSLT) supported in cased wells. For high-
is made up with a Sonic Logging pressure and high-temperature appli-
Sonde (SLS) and the Digital Sonic cations, the same measurements are
Logging Cartridge (DSLC), which available from the SlimXtreme Sonic
uses the Digital Telemetry System, to Logging Tool (QSLT).
provide either compressional Dt mea-
surements or Cement Bond Log
(CBL) and Variable Density log (VDL)
Applications
measurements and digital waveform Formation porosity from compres-
recording and display. The conven- sional slowness
tional sonic measurements are bore- Shear slowness from STC for hard
hole-compensated (BHC) (3- to 5-ft rocks
[0.91- to 1.52-m]) transit time and Formation mechanical properties
long-spacing depth-derived BHC from shear slowness
(DDBHC) (8- to 12-ft [2.43- to 3.65-m]) Correlation to surface seismic data
transit time. These measurements are
with synthetic seismograms
made by combining an HSLS-W or
HSLS-Z sonde, respectively, with the Well placement with respect to cap
DSLC. For high-pressure and high- rock
temperature applications, the same mea- Sonic waveforms for fracture iden-
surements are available from the tification
Hostile Environment Sonic Logging CBL and VDL for cased hole
Tool (HSLT). cement evaluation

DSLT QSLT-A SLT-C

Wireline Services Catalog Acoustic Logging 81


Measurement Specifications
DSLT and HSLT with BHC or DDBHC Sonde SSLT and QSLT
Output All sondes: Compressional Dt Compressional and shear Dt, porosity, waveforms
SLS-C, SLS-D, and SLS-E: and Variable Density waveforms
3-ft [0.91-m] CBL, Variable Density waveforms
Logging speed 3,600 ft/hr [1,097 m/h] 3,600 ft/hr [1,097 m/h]
Range of measurement 40 to 200 ms/ft [131 to 656 ms/m] 40 to 400 ms/ft [131 to 1,312 ms/m]
Vertical resolution
Compressional Dt 2 ft [0.61 m] Standard: 2 ft [0.61 m]
Short spacing: 6 in. [15.24 cm]
Shear Dt SLS-F 8 to 10 ft [2.43 to 3.05 m] or 10 to 12 ft 2 ft [0.61 m]
[3.05 to 3.66 m]: 2 ft [0.61 m]
Cement bond log Amplitude (mV): 3 ft [0.91 m] Amplitude (mV): 3 ft [0.91 m]
Variable Density log: 5 ft [1.52 m] Variable Density log: 5 ft [1.52 m]
Accuracy Dt : 2 ms/ft [6.6 ms/m] Dt : 2 ms/ft [6.6 ms/m]
Depth of investigation 3 in. [7.62 cm] 3 in. [7.62 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations None None
Combinability Combinable with most services Combinable with most services
Special applications Run on wireline, drillpipe conveyed, or coiled tubing conveyed

Mechanical Specifications
DSLT HSLT SSLT QSLT
Temperature rating 302F [150C] 500F [260C] 302F [150C] 500F [260C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 25,000 psi [172 MPa] 14,000 psi [97 MPa] 30,000 psi [207 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 4 58 in. [11.75 cm] 4 34 in. [12.07 cm] 3 12 in. [8.89 cm] 4 in. [10.16 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 18 in. [45.72 cm] 18 in. [45.72 cm] 8 in. [20.32 cm] 8 in. [20.32 cm]
Outer diameter 3 58 in. [9.21 cm] 3 78 in. [9.84 cm] 212 in. [6.35 cm] 3 in. [7.62 cm]
Length SLS-D: 18.73 ft [5.71 m] With HSLS-W sonde: 23.1 ft [7.04 m] 23 ft [7.01 m]
SLS-F: 23.81 ft [7.26 m] 25.5 ft [7.77 m] With inline centralizer:
29.9 ft [9.11 m]
Weight SLS-D: 273 lbm [124 kg] With HSLS-W sonde: 232 lbm [105 kg] 270 lbm [122 kg]
SLS-F: 353 lbm [160 kg] 440 lbm [199 kg]
Tension 29,700 lbf [132,110 N] 29,700 lbf [132,110 N] 13,000 lbf [57,830 N] 13,000 lbf [57,830 N]
Compression 1,650 lbf [7,340 N] With HSLS-W sonde: 4,400 lbf [19,570 N] 4,400 lbf [19,570 N]
2,870 lbf [12,770 N]
With HSLS-Z sonde:
1,650 lbf [7,340 N]

82 Wireline Services Catalog


DSI Dipole Shear
Sonic Imager
The DSI Dipole Shear Sonic Imager dipole transmitters. Summing the
combines monopole and dipole sonic signals recorded by one pair of
acquisition capabilities. The transmit- hydrophones provides the monopole
ter section contains a piezoelectric waveform, whereas differentiating
monopole transmitter and two elec- them cancels the monopole signal and
trodynamic dipole transmitters per- provides the dipole waveform. When
pendicular to each other. An electric a dipole transmitter is fired, the
pulse at sonic frequencies is applied hydrophone pair diagonally in line
to the monopole transmitter to excite with the transmitter is used. Four sets
compressional- and shear-wave propa- of eight waveforms can be acquired
gation in the formation. For Stoneley from the four basic operating modes
wave acquisition a specific low-fre- fired in sequence.
quency pulse is used. The dipole A special dipole mode enables
transmitters are also driven at low fre- recording both the inline and cross-
quency to excite the flexural wave line (perpendicular) waveforms for Isolation joint
around the borehole. each dipole mode. This mode, called
The tool is made up of three sec- both cross receivers (BCR), is used for
tionsacquisition cartridge, receiver anisotropy evaluation.
section, and transmitter section. An The optional S-DSI modification to
isolation joint is placed between the the DSI tool uses a special slow sleeve
transmitter and receiver sections to to extend the slowness measurement
prevent direct flexural wave transmis- to 1,200 ms/ft [3,937 ms/m] from the
sion through the tool body. standard 700 ms/ft [2,296 ms/m].
The receiver section has an array As part of ABC Analysis Behind
of eight receiver stations spaced 6 in. Casing suite of services, the DSI tool
[15.24 cm] apart and 9 ft [2.74 m] from can also provide a measurement of
the monopole transmitter, 11 ft [3.35 m] slowness behind the casing by using
from the upper dipole transmitter, and recently developed acquisition strate-
11.5 ft [3.50 m] from the lower dipole gies and BestDT automated sonic
transmitter. Each receiver station con- waveform processing.
sists of two pairs of wideband-piezo-
electric hydrophones aligned with the

Transmitter

Receiver section
and cartridge

Acoustic Logging 83
Applications Measurement Specifications
Geophysics DSI Tool
Velocity calibration, time/depth Output Compressional and shear Dt , waveforms,
conversion Variable Density waveforms
Synthetic seismograms Logging speed Max.: 3,600 ft/hr [1,097 m/h]
Amplitude variation with offset Range of measurement Standard shear slowness: 700 ms/ft [2,297 ms/m]
S-DSI max. slowness: 1,200 ms/ft [3,937 ms/m]
(AVO) calibration
Vertical resolution 3.5-ft [1.07-m] processing resolution for 6-in. [15.24-cm]
Shear seismic interpretation sampling rate
Anisotropy Accuracy Dt : 2 ms/ft [6.56 ms/m]
Depth of investigation 9 in. [22.86 cm]
Petrophysics Mud type or weight limitations None
Porosity estimation (also in cased Combinability Fully combinable with other tools
hole) Special applications
Actual
Lithology and clay identification acquisition speed depends on the number of acquisition modes used and the data sampling rate.

Gas identification
Stoneley wave measurement Mechanical Specifications
Fracture evaluation DSI Tool
Permeability (mobility) Temperature rating 350F [177C]
Geomechanics Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 4 34 in. [12.07 cm]
Pore pressure
Borehole sizemax. 21 in. [53.34 cm]
Wellbore stability Outer diameter 3 58 in. [9.21 cm]
Hydrofracture design Length 51 ft [15.54 m] (including isolation joint)
Sand strength Weight 900 lbm [408 kg]
Tension 5,000 lbf [22,240 N]
Sonic imaging 3,500 lbf [15,570 N]
Sonic imaging with borehole acous- Compression 1,550 lbf [6,890 N]
S-DSI: 1,000 lbf [4,450 N]
tic reflection survey (BARS)
Very long spacing tool
(using spacers)
Reflection analysis
Highly dipping beds
Horizontal wells
(apparent dip > 45)
Well placement with respect
to cap rock

84 Wireline Services Catalog


Dipmeter and
Imaging Services
FMI Fullbore
Formation MicroImager
The FMI Fullbore Formation Micro- The combination of measuring but-
Imager provides an electrical bore- ton diameter, pad design, and high-
hole image generated from up to speed telemetry system produces a
192 microresistivity measurements. vertical and azimuthal resolution of
Special focusing circuitry ensures 0.2 in. [0.51 cm] for the FMI tool. This
that the measuring currents are means that the dimensions of a fea-
forced into the formation, where they ture larger than 0.2 in. can be esti-
modulate in amplitude with the for- mated from the image. The size of
mation conductivities to produce low- features smaller than 0.2 in. is esti-
frequency signals rich in petrophysical mated by quantifying the current flow
and lithological information and a to the electrode. Fine details such as
high-resolution component that pro- 0.002-in. [0.051-mm] wide fractures
vides the microscale information used filled with conductive fluids are visi-
for imaging and dip interpretation. ble in FMI images.
Image calibration is achieved through The answers provided by the FMI
calibration with low-frequency, deeper tool help in understanding the reser-
resistivity measurements available voir structure, identify and evaluate
from the tool signal or input from sedimentary features and fractures,
other resistivity measurements, such visualize rock texture, and comple-
as from the AIT Array Induction ment coring programs. FMI data are
Imager Tool or ARI Azimuthal Resist- increasingly used for geomechanical
ivity Imager. Image normalization fur- analysis of the reservoir. Drilling-
ther increases the completeness and induced features such as breakouts
reliability of this versatile tool for geo- are readily identified. In combination
logical and reservoir characterization. with stress field analysis, FMI infor-
mation is used to control wellbore sta-
bility problems by guiding design of
the mud program.

Wireline Services Catalog Dipmeter and Imaging Services 87


Applications Rock texture Geomechanics
Structural geology Qualitative vertical grain-size Identification and analysis of
Structural dips, even in fractured profile drilling-induced features
and conglomeratic formations Determination of carbonate Calibration data for Mechanical
Detection and determination texture Earth Model (MEM)
of faults Detection and evaluation Mud weight selection
of secondary porosity
Sedimentary features Reservoir characterization
Detection and evaluation workflow
Determination of sedimentary of fracture systems
dips Deterministic modeling of reser-
Paleocurrent directions Complement to coring and forma- voir bodies
tion tester programs Guidance for the distribution of
Definition and characterization
of sedimentary bodies and their Depth matching and orientation stochastically modeled reservoir
boundaries for whole cores bodies
Recognition of anisotropy, Reservoir description for inter- Realistic population of reservoir
permeability barriers, and vals not cored bodies with petrophysical para-
permeability paths Information about the reservoir meters
Recognition and evaluation of before core analysis is available
thinly bedded reservoirs Depth matching for sidewall core
samples and MDT probe settings

Measurement Specifications
FMI Tool
Output Formation dip, borehole images
Logging speed Image mode: 1,800 ft/hr [549 m/h]
Dipmeter mode: 3,600 ft/hr [1,097 m/h]
Range of measurement Sampling rate: 0.1 in. [0.25 cm]
Borehole coverage: 80% in 8-in. [20.32-cm] borehole
Vertical resolution Spatial resolution: 0.2 in. [0.51 cm]
Vertical resolution: 0.2 in. [0.51 cm]
Accuracy Caliper: 0.2 in. [0.51 cm]
Deviation: 0.2
Azimuth: 2
Depth of investigation 1 in. [2.54 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations Water-base mud (max. mud resistivity = 50 ohm-m)
Combinability Bottom-only tool, combinable with most tools
Special applications Horizontal wells

Mechanical Specifications
FMI Tool
Maximum temperature 350F [177C]
Maximum pressure 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 5 78 in. [14.92 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 21 in. [53.34 cm]
Outer diameter 5 in. [12.70 cm]
Length 24.42 ft [7.44 m]
Weight 433.7 lbm [197 kg]
Tension 12,000 lbf [53,380 N]
Compression 8,000 lbf [35,580 N]
In good hole conditions

88 Wireline Services Catalog


UBI Ultrasonic
Borehole Imager
The UBI* Ultrasonic Borehole Imager The UBI tool is relatively insensi-
produces high-resolution acoustic tive to eccentralizationup to 0.25 in.
images of the wellbore in water-base [0.63 cm]and provides clean images
or oil-base mud. The images are used that are easy to interpret, even in
to identify dipping beds, fractures, highly deviated wells. Processing soft-
and other features intersecting the ware available both in MAXIS surface
borehole. Critical information on units and at Data and Consulting
borehole stability and breakouts can Services Centers further enhances
be derived from the accurate borehole UBI images by correcting amplitude
cross section measured by the tool. and transit-time information for the
The UBI tool has a transducer that effects of logging speed variations and
is mounted on an Ultrasonic Rotating tool eccentering and by applying noise
Sub (USRS). The transducer emits filtering. The images are oriented with
ultrasonic pulses and measures the inclinometer data from the combin-
transit time and amplitude of the able GPIT* General Purpose Inclin-
resulting echo. The transducer assem- ometry Tool and then enhanced by
bly is available in a variety of sizes to dynamic normalization for easy visual
match the complete range of normal interpretation.
openhole sizes. The transducer sub-
assembly is also selected to optimize
the distance traveled by the ultra- Applications
sonic pulse in the borehole fluid, Fracture identification including
which reduces attenuation in heavy drilling-induced fractures
fluids and maintains a good signal-to- Differentiation of closed and open
noise ratio. fractures (in combination with the
OBMI* Oil-Base MicroImager)
Borehole profiling and calculation
of cement volume
Stress analysis and borehole
stability studies
Mud weight selection
Structural and bedding analysis

Interchangeable
rotating subs

Dipmeter and Imaging Services 89


Measurement Specifications
UBI Tool
Output Borehole images, amplitude and transit time in analog and
digital imagery
Logging speed 425 to 2125 ft/hr [130 to 648 m/h] (depends on desired resolution)
Range of measurement 4 78 to 12 78 in. [12.38 to 32.70 cm]
Vertical resolution 0.2 in. [0.51 cm] at 500 kHz
0.4 in. [1.02 cm] at 250 kHz
0.6 in. [1.52 cm] at 250 kHz
1.0 in. [2.54 cm] at 250 kHz
Azimuthal sampling: 2.0 or 2.6
Accuracy Borehole radius: 0.12 in. [3 mm] (absolute)
Resolution: 0.003 in. [0.075 mm] at 500 kHz
Depth of investigation Borehole wall
Mud type or weight limitations High mud weights (> 15 ppg) can cause significant
signal attenuation.
Combinability Bottom-only tool, combinable with most tools
Special applications H2S service

Mechanical Specifications
UBI Tool
Temperature rating 350F [177C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 4 78 in. [12.38 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 12 78 in. [32.70 cm]
Outer diameter Without sub: 3.375 in. [8.57 cm]
Length 21 ft [6.40 m]
Weight 377.6 lbm [171 kg] (with 7-in. [17.78-cm] USRS-B sub)
Tension 40,000 lbf [177,930 N]
Compression 11,000 lbf [48,930 N]

90 Wireline Services Catalog


OBMI Oil-Base
MicroImager
The OBMI Oil-Base MicroImager tool Applications
extends microresistivity imaging to Structural analysis
the environment of nonconductive,
invert-emulsion mud systems. The Structural dip determination
increasing use of oil- and synthetic- Fracture and fault detection
base mud systems to limit drilling Stratigraphic analysis
risks and improve efficiency poses
many challenges for formation imag- Characterization of sedimen-
ing. Even a thin film of nonconductive tary deposits
mud is essentially an opaque curtain, Stratigraphic dip determination
preventing conventional microresis- Thin-bed detection
tivity imagers from measuring the
formation. The presence of non-
Core analysis
conductive mudcake or mud filtrate Depth matching
further complicates the situation. The Orientation
OBMI tool meets these challenges by Missed interval coverage
integrating unique technology with
simple resistivity logging principles to Compartmentalization and
produce an image that enables virtual permeability analyses
visualization of the reservoir. High-resolution net pay count
The OBMI tool is the only tool in Sample and formation test
the industry capable of providing positioning
direct, high-resolution measurement
of the flushed zone resistivity Rxo. The
Detection of drilling-induced
short-normal resistivity principle features
employed is inherently quantitative Detection and measurement
and does not require calibration with of features too small for
another log. Petrophysicists fre- conventional logs
quently use the OBMI Rxo measure- Detection of anisotropic features
ment to discriminate sand and shale Differentiation of structural
beds as thin as 1.2 in. [3.05 cm]. and stratigraphic features
Geologists use the OBMI image to rec-
ognize bedding and other sedimentary
Flexibility in choosing mud
features as small as 0.4 in. [1.02 cm], systems
the tool measurement aperture. Open Quantitative measurement
and closed fractures smaller than of invaded zone resistivity
0.4 in. have also been successfully
imaged.
The OBMI2* Integrated Dual Oil-
Base MicroImagers uses two OBMI
sondes at a 45 offset to double the
hole coverage.
High-pressure, high-temperature
and slim-hole versions of the OBMI
tool are available on a limited basis.

Dipmeter and Imaging Services 91


Measurement Specifications
OBMI Tool
Output High-resolution, oriented formation images, dual-axis caliper
Logging speed 3,600 ft/hr [1,097 m/h]
Range of measurement 32% coverage in 8-in. [20.32-cm] borehole
Vertical resolution 0.4-in. [1.02-cm] nominal image resolution
1.2-in. [3.05-cm] petrophysical resolution
Accuracy 20%
Depth of investigation 3.5 in. [8.89 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations Operates in any oil-, diesel-, or synthetic-base mud
Combinability Top and bottom combinable
Slim OBMI and OBMI2 tools: bottom-only
Special applications Wireline or TLC Tough Logging Conditions system

Mechanical Specifications
OBMI Tool
Temperature rating 320F [160C]
350F [177C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
25,000 psi [173 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. Standard: 7 in. [17.78 cm]
Slim OBMT-E: 6 in. [15.24 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 16 in. [40.64 cm]
Caliper: 1712 in. [44.45 cm]
Outer diameter Standard: 5.75 in. [14.60 cm]
Slim OBMT-E: 5.25 in. [13.33 cm]
Length 17 ft [5.18 m]
Weight 310 lbm [137 kg]
Tension 12,000 lbf [53,380 N]
Compression Standard: 12,000 lbf [53,380 N]
Slim OBMT-E: 8,000 lbf [35,590 N]
Limited availability

92 Wireline Services Catalog


OBDT Oil-Base
Dipmeter Tool
The OBDT* Oil-Base Dipmeter Tool Applications
uses four microinduction sensors to Determination of structural dip in
measure the variation of formation wells with nonconductive mud
conductivity. The combination of a
three-axis accelerometer and three-
Input to stratigraphic analysis for
axis magnetometer precisely mea- wells with nonconductive mud
sures borehole drift and tool attitude. Borehole geometry
Dip processing eliminates tool veloc-
ity fluctuations, and application of the
induction measurement principle
avoids the erratic influence of non-
conductive mud on the injection of
current into the formation. The log
can be recorded in a single pass to
save rig time. Wellsite processing pro-
vides formation dip, hole diameter,
and inclinometer data. Structural and
stratigraphic information are avail-
able through processing.

Dipmeter and Imaging Services 93


Measurement Specifications
OBDT Tool
Output Formation dip, hole deviation, hole direction, dual-axis caliper
Logging speed 1,800 ft/hr [549 m/h]
Range of measurement 6 to 21 in. [15.24 to 53.34 cm]
Vertical resolution 1.2 to 2.0 in. [3.05 to 5.08 cm] (based on resistivity contrast)
Accuracy Caliper: 0.2 in. [0.51 cm]
Deviation: 0.2
Azimuth: 2
Depth of investigation 0.4 in. [1.02 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability Top and bottom combinable with most tools

Mechanical Specifications
OBDT Tool
Temperature rating 350F [177C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 6 in. [15.24 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 21 in. [53.34 cm]
Outer diameter 4.5 in. [11.43 cm]
Length 21.92 ft [6.68 m]
Weight 392 lbm [178 kg]
Tension 12,000 lbf [53,380 N]
Compression 12,000 lbf [53,380 N]

94 Wireline Services Catalog


Drilling and
Directional
Services
GPIT General Purpose
Inclinometry Tool
The GPIT General-Purpose Inclin- Applications
ometry Tool provides inclinometer Borehole azimuth
measurements. Tool orientation is
defined by three parameters: tool
Borehole deviation
deviation, tool azimuth, and relative Borehole relative bearing
bearing. The GPIT tool uses both a Tool azimuth information
three-axis inclinometer and a three- Deviation and direction of uncased
axis magnetometer to make mea- wellbores for plotting
surements for determining these
parameters.
Direction and orientation mea-
The basic principle of downhole surements for various dipmeters
inclinometer measurements is to Orientation of USI* UltraSonic
define accurately the tool system axis Imager tool images with respect
with respect to the Earths gravity (G) to the wellbore
and magnetic field (F). Because both
vectors are well defined within the
Earth system, a relation can be estab-
lished between the tool and Earth sys-
tems. The magnetometer determines
Fx, Fy, and Fz, and the inclinometer
determines Ax, Ay, and Az for the
acceleration due to G. The MAXIS
Multitask Acquisition and Imaging
System computes deviation, azimuth,
and relative bearing from these
values.
When the GPIT tool is used in an
open wellbore, the tools above and
below it must have nonmagnetic hous-
ings. In cased hole the tool can be
used only for deviation and relative
bearing measurements.

Wireline Services Catalog Drilling and Directional Services 97


Measurement Specifications
GPIT Tool
Output Borehole azimuth, deviation and relative bearing, tool azimuth
Logging speed 3,600 ft/hr [1,097 m/h]
Range of measurement 0 to 360
Vertical resolution 6 in. [15.24 cm]
Accuracy Azimuth: 2
Deviation: 2
Depth of investigation Not applicable
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability Combinable with most services, anywhere in the logging string
(tools immediately above and below must have nonmagnetic housings)
Special applications H2S service

Mechanical Specifications
GPIT Tool
Temperature rating 350F [177C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 4 58 in. [11.75 cm]
Borehole sizemax. No limit
Outer diameter 3.625 in. [9.21 cm]
Length 4 ft [1.22 m]
Weight 55 lbm [25 kg]
Tension 50,000 lbf [222,410 N]
Compression 16,700 lbf [74,280 N]

98 Wireline Services Catalog


Seismic Imaging
Tools and Services
Seismic Imaging
Tools and Services
Seismic imaging tools are used to ponents from the heavy tool body dur-
complement and refine surface seis- ing seismic acquisition. The small size
mic Earth models. As such they are and low mass of the sensor module
crucial to the delineation, discovery, and the strong anchoring force of the
quantification, and monitoring of a tool ensure optimum acoustic cou-
reservoir through its entire lifecycle. pling, even in soft formations, which
Schlumberger provides tools to gather guarantees the high quality of the
the high-quality data required for geo- recorded seismic data. The CSI tool is
physical analysis. self-combinable using stiff or flexible
interconnects, and it is also fully com-
binable with other logging tools.
CSI Combinable Deployment can be on wireline, TLC
Tough Logging Conditions system, or
Seismic Imager wireline tractor.
The CSI* Combinable Seismic Imager
is a three-axis borehole seismic acqui-
sition tool for open- and cased hole Applications
applications. The CSI tool is designed Time-depth determination
to physically isolate the sensor com- Vertical seismic profiles (VSPs)

Measurement Specifications
CSI Tool
Output Seismic waveform produced by acoustic
reflections from bed boundaries
Logging speed Stationary
Seismic waveform recording: 1-, 2-, or 4-ms output
sampling rate
Array capability Up to 4 tools
Sensor package
Length 24.4 in. [61.98 cm]
Weight 19.9 lbm [9 kg]
Sensor Geophone Accelerometer (GAC-A)
Sensitivity >0.5 V/g 5%
Sensor natural frequency 25 Hz
Flat bandwidth in acceleration: 2 to 200 Hz
Dynamic range 90 dB
Distortion <60 dB
Digitization 16 bit
Combinability Combinable with most tools
Special applications Conveyance on wireline, TLC system, or tractor

Wireline Services Catalog Seismic Imaging Tools and Services 101


Mechanical Specifications
CSI Tool
Temperature rating 350F [177C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]

Borehole sizemin. 4.9 in. [12.45 cm]


Borehole sizemax. 19 in. [48.26 cm]
With extension: 22 in. [55.88 cm]
Outer diameter 4 58 in. [11.75 cm]
Without standoff: 4 in. [10.16 cm]
Length 17.8 ft [5.42 m]
Weight 271 lbm [123 kg]
Tension 50,000 lbf [222,240 N]
Compression 4,400 lbf [19,570 N]

Coupling
Anchoring force 630 lbf [2,800 N] in 5-in. [12.70-cm] hole
719 lbf [3,200 N] in 10-in. [25.40-cm] hole
1,124 lbf [5,000 N] in 19-in. [28.26-cm] hole
Sensor package coupling force 240 lbf [1,067 N]
Coupling force/sensor weight ratio 10:1

102 Wireline Services Catalog


Q-Borehole Multicomponent
Borehole Seismic Tool
The Q-Borehole* integrated borehole The operating efficiency of the VSI
seismic system optimizes all aspects tool is enhanced by
of borehole seismic services, during rapid mechanical deployment
wireline operations and while drilling.
very little time between stations
short shot-cycle time during remote
VSI Versatile source surveys (walkaway, offset
VSP)
Seismic Imager
real-time quality control and data
The VSI* Versatile Seismic Imager
processing.
uses Q-Technology* three-axis single-
sensor seismic hardware and software
and advanced wireline telemetry for Applications
efficient data delivery from the bore-
hole to the surface. Each sensor pack-
Integrated processing for interpre-
age delivers high-fidelity wavefields tation of borehole and surface
through the use of three-axis geo- seismic data
phone accelerometers, which are Images for reservoir definition
acoustically isolated from the main Images ahead of the bit
body of the tool. The number of sen- Three-dimensional (3D) VSPs
sors, intersensor spacing, connection
type (either stiff or flexible), and tool
Pore pressure predictions
diameter are field configurable to Planning for well placement
ensure the maximum versatility of the Simultaneous surface and bore-
array. The VSI design focus on data hole seismic recording for high-
fidelity and quick adaptation to definition images
changing survey needs avoids the Shear wave processing and analysis
compromise in data quality that typi-
cally results from efficiency limita-
HFM* Hydraulic Fracture
tions. The result is sharper, more Monitoring for microseismic
accurate images and reduced operat- monitoring during hydraulic
ing logistics, which are fundamental fracturing
elements for achieving complex surveys
in a cost-effective manner and with
timely delivery of answer products.

Seismic Imaging Tools and Services 103


Measurement Specifications
VSI Tool
Output Seismic waveform produced by acoustic
reflections from bed boundaries
Logging speed Stationary
Seismic waveform recording: 1-, 2-, or 4-ms
output sampling rate
Array capability Up to 20 shuttles
Sensor package
Length 11.4 in. [28.96 cm]
Weight 6.4 lbm [2.9 kg]
Sensor Geophone Accelerometer (GAC-D)
Sensitivity >0.5 V/g 5%
Sensor natural frequency 25 Hz
Flat bandwidth in acceleration: 2 to 200 Hz
Dynamic range >105 dB at 36-dB gain
Distortion <90 dB
Digitization 24-bit analog-to-digital converter
Combinability Bottom-only combinable
Special applications Conveyance on wireline, TLC system, tractor,
or through drillpipe

Mechanical Specifications
VSI Tool
Temperature rating 350F [177C]
Pressure rating Standard: 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
High pressure: 25,000 psi [172 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 3 in. [7.62 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 22 in. [55.88 cm]
Outer diameter Standard: 3 38 in. [8.57 cm]
Slim: 212 in. [6.35 cm]
Length Up to 1,040 ft [317 m] for 20 shuttles
Weight Up to 2,200 lbm [998 kg]
Tension 18,000 lbf [80,070 N]
Compression Standard: 5,000 lbf [22,240 N]
With stiffener: 10,000 lbf [44,480N]
Coupling
Anchoring force 246 lbf [1,170 N] in 3-in. [7.62-cm] hole
214 lbf [915 N] in 6-in. [15.24-cm] hole
255 lbf [1,130 N] in 1214-in. [31.75-cm] hole
160 lbf [951 N] in 17-in. [43.18-cm] hole
Sensor package coupling force 64 lbf [285 N]
Coupling force/sensor weight ratio 10:1

104 Wireline Services Catalog


SWINGS seismic
navigation and
positioning system
The SWINGS* seismic navigation and
positioning system is used to accu-
rately deploy seismic source equip-
ment and control source vessel
position. It is compatible with the
integrated Q-Borehole seismic sys-
tem. SWINGS system capabilities
include borehole seismic configura-
tions encompassing complex 3D VSP
geometries and seismic measurement
while drilling to optimize borehole seis-
mic operations while providing a con-
sistently high level of service quality.
The SWINGS system continually
relays source position, fix quality, and
other data to the rigside logging unit,
where they are displayed graphically.
The submeter accuracy of the global
positioning system (GPS) provides
source determination within 10 to 16 ft
[3 to 5 m]. The source position is
passed to the MAXIS Multitask
Acquisition and Imaging System at
every shot for immediate recording
with the seismic trace headers to
eliminate any delay in merging navi-
gation and seismic data.
Specifications of this portable and
robust system include
twin internal 12-channel GPS
receivers
pressure transducer interface for
gun pressure monitoring
ultrahigh-frequency (UHF)
telemetry link
dedicated display at the helm.

Application
Accurate source deployment and
positioning for all borehole seismic
surveys

Seismic Imaging Tools and Services 105


TRISOR seismic ventional umbilicals. The direct inter-
source control face to the VSI acquisition software
allows monitoring surface and down-
The TRISOR source controller for the hole operations from one integrated
Q-Borehole system was developed from QC panel, which eliminates shot num-
the industry-leading WesternGeco ber mismatches and ensures accurate
TRISOR marine seismic source con- recording and reporting of source posi-
troller to provide the same stable, tioning and downhole data.
noise-free digital signatures with TRISOR gun synchronization accu-
advanced source control and quality racy is typically 0.1 ms. Continuous
control (QC). The TRISOR controller monitoring of the TRISOR QC data sig-
delivers the clean, consistent signals nificantly reduces the possibility of
necessary for advanced borehole seis- continuing a survey if there is an equip-
mic applications, and the consistent ment malfunction. Safety is also intrin-
signals also enable fast autotuning for sic to TRISOR operations because guns
more efficient operations and more cannot be fired while out of the water,
powerful source strength. In-sea elec- and the controller defaults to auto-
tronics control each gun and are con- matic power-down mode if the cable
nected by a ruggedized ethernet cable becomes disconnected or leakage is
for digital communication with the VSI detected.
surface acquisition system. This config- Other innovative TRISOR features
uration avoids the corruption that may are as follows:
occur to analog signals carried on con-
Depth sensor at sourceThe
source depth is logged with each
Measurement Specifications shot, but if the measured source
depth is not in a specified range,
TRISOR In-Sea Source Controller
the source is prevented from firing.
Gun time break (TB) sensor 12-bit resolution at 0.1-ms sampling
Gain: 24 to 24 dB
Pressure sensor at sourceThe
NFH 16-bit resolution at 0.25-ms sampling
source pressure is logged with each
Gain: 24 to 24 dB shot. The pressure sensor prevents
Depth sensor 12-bit with one sample per shot source signature variations caused
Accuracy: 1.5% by variations of source pressure.
Pressure sensor 12-bit with one sample per shot Calibrated near-field hydrophone
Accuracy: 2% (NFH)The integrated NFH pro-
Auxiliary measurements Electronics current, temperature, pressure, humidity vides a superior signal compared
with conventional hydrophones
for significantly improved source-
Mechanical Specifications signature deconvolution.
TRISOR In-Sea Source Controller
Temperature rating Operating: 5 to 131F [15 to 55C] Applications
Storage: 40 to 158F [40 to 70C]
Max. recommended operating 33 ft [10 m]
Borehole seismic applications that
depth below sea level require a high-quality, consistent
source signature with calibrated
amplitude
Shot-by-shot source signature
deconvolution
Effective Q-factor derivation from
source to downhole sensor by using
the near-field signature to generate
calibrated far-field signature

106 Wireline Services Catalog


Q-Borehole Simultaneous Applications
Surface and Borehole Borehole calibration of surface
Seismic Services seismic
Dedicated Q-Borehole synchroniza-
Optimized reconciliation of log
tion equipment enables conducting with borehole and surface
simultaneous surface and borehole seismic data
seismic acquisition with WesternGeco Merged navigation records and
Q-Land, Q-Marine, and Q-Seabed consistency of seismic source and
services. The VSI Vertical Seismic wavelet between borehole and sur-
Imager is integrally controlled by the face seismic data for enhanced and
surface acquisition process to provide faster processing and interpretation
a transparent acquisition process and Borehole data to optimize surface
eliminate the need for additional sur- seismic acquisition through
vey time. The result is high-resolution tuning
seismic data around the well.

Seismic Imaging Tools and Services 107


Marine Seismic Sources

Schlumberger offers a range of stan-


dard marine seismic sources of differ-
ent strengths. Standardization results
in predictable and consistent source
output. The high-resolution far-field
signatures of all standard seismic
sources are fully characterized, includ-
ing SEG-Y formatting for survey design.
Spectral outputs are also character-
ized for deployment depth, operating
pressure, and air gun chamber size
changes. Characterization tables are
used to match the source to the survey
type for optimal results.

Applications
VSP surveys: zero offset, vertical
incidence, offset, walkaway
Subsalt imaging
Shallow-water surveys
Deepwater and deep wells
Calibration for complex surveys:
anisotropy, amplitude variation
with offset (AVO), subsalt imaging
Seismic Source Recommendations Repeatability and wavelet match-
Borehole Seismic Survey Type Recommended Seismic Source ing for time-lapse surveys
Checkshot Single gun
Checkshot in deep well Two- or three-gun cluster
Vertical seismic profile Two- or three-gun cluster
Deep-well VSP Six- or eight-gun array
VSP for deep subsalt imaging Dual six- or eight-gun arrays
Offset or walkaway VSP Dual six- or eight-gun arrays or seismic source boat

Seismic Source Specifications


Source Source Capacity Firing Pressure Zero-Peak Peak-Peak Primary to
Depth (ft [m]) (in.3 [cm3]) (psi [MPa]) Amplitude Amplitude Bubble Ratio
(bar-m) (bar-m)
Single gun 5 [1.52 m] 150 [2,459] 2,000 [14] 3.0 5.3 4.4
Two-gun cluster 3 [0.91 m] 300 [4,917] 2,000 [14] 5.2 9.2 7.5
Three-gun cluster 5 [1.52 m] 450 [7, 375] 2,000 [14] 6.7 12.2 12.2
ITAGA array 3 [0.91 m] 760 [12,456] 2,000 [14] 12.5 22.6 16.4
Magnum* air gun array 3 [0.91 m] 1,200 [19,668] 2,000 [14] 15.5 26.4 16.8

108 Wireline Services Catalog


Land Seismic Sources

Schlumberger provides land borehole


seismic sources suitable for all types of
terrain.
In open terrain, the vibrator source
provides the best productivity in shots
per hour, particularly when the HFVS
High Fidelity Vibratory Seismic tech-
nique is used. The frequency range and
strength can be controlled to meet sur-
vey requirements.
In difficult or wet terrain where
access by vibrator vehicles is
restricted, the buried air gun, posi-
tioned below the weathered zone,
provides a safe, consistent broad band-
width source that is ideal for zero- and
fixed-offset survey geometries. The
slim housing provides ease of hole
drilling, deployment, and retrieval.
Dynamite is a lightweight, high-band-
width source that is ideal for moving
source geometries such as walkaway
lines in difficult or wet terrain.

Applications
Fixed and moving source geome-
tries for VSP surveys
Sources for all types of terrain

Seismic Imaging Tools and Services 109


Formation
Testing and
Sampling
MDT Modular Formation
Dynamics Tester
The MDT Modular Reservoir Dynamics Single-Probe Module (MRPS) con-
Tester measures reservoir pressure sists of the probe assembly (i.e.,
quickly and accurately, collects repre- packer and telescoping backup pis-
sentative fluid samples from multiple tons), pressure gauges, fluid resis-
layers, and provides permeability and tivity and temperature sensors, and
anisotropy data through a variety of 20-cm3 [0.005-gal] pretest chamber.
interval pressure transient tests. The The MRPS contains both a strain
MDT tool can also be used to conduct a gauge and the accurate, high-reso-
mini-frac test to obtain the minimum lution, quick-response CQG Crystal
in situ horizontal stress in several lay- Quartz Gauge. The volume, rate,
ers. Its modular design and combin- and drawdown of the pretest cham- MPRC
ability with almost all Schlumberger ber can be controlled from the sur-
measurement systems make the MDT face and adjusted depending on the
tool readily customizable to meet spe- formation characteristics.
cific objectives. The MDT platform con- Modular Sample Chambers (MRSC)
tinues to evolve, incorporating newly module is available in three sizes: 1,
available measurement technologies 2.75, and 6 gal [3.8, 10.4, and 22.7 L].
to always feature state-of-the art down- The 1- and 2.75-gal chambers are
hole devices for reservoir evaluation available in H2S and standard ser-
and management needs. vice versions. Large stock-tank oil
The basic MDT modules are as samples can be acquired by extend-
follows: ing the 6-gal chamber in 6-gal incre-
Electronic Power Module (MRPC) ments by adding FLS* Formation
converts power from the surface to Logging Service cylinders from the
power for the tool modules. RFT* Repeat Formation Tester.
Hydraulic Power Module (MRHY) MRPS
contains an electric motor and Applications
pump to provide hydraulic power
for setting and retracting the single-
Formation pressure measurement
and dual-probe modules. The MRHY and fluid gradient estimation
has an accumulator that enables Formation fluid sampling and down-
automatic retraction of the probes hole fluid analysis
if electric power fails, which pre- Pretest drawdown mobility values
vents potential stuck tool situa- (permeability/viscosity)
tions. Permeability and permeability
anisotropy determination away
from the well
MRHY
In situ stress determination

MRSC

Wireline Services Catalog Formation Testing and Sampling 113


Standard MDT Tool Measurement Specifications
Accuracy Resolution Range
Logging speed Stationary Stationary Stationary
Strain gauge 10 psi [68,947 Pa] 0.1 psi [689 Pa] 0 to 10,000 psi [0 to 69 MPa]
20 psi [137,895 Pa] 0.2 psi [1,379 Pa] 0 to 20,000 psi [0 to 138 MPa]
CQG gauge (2 psi [13,789 Pa] 0.01 psi [69 Pa] 750 to 15,000 psi [5 to 103 MPa]
+ 0.01% of reading) 0.01 psi [69 Pa] 0 to 25,000 psi [0 to 172 MPa]
(4.0 psi [27,579 Pa]
+ 0.012% of reading)
Resistivity 5% of reading 0.001 ohm-m 0.01 to 20 ohm-m
Flowline temperature 1.0F [0.5C] 1.0F [0.5C] 67 to 392F [55 to 200C]
30,000-psi [207-MPa] strain gauge is available on request.
There are several versions of the CQG gauge. The CQG-C and CQG-G gauges are rated to 15,000 psi [103 MPa] and 350F [177C].
The HCQG-A gauge is rated to 25,000 psi [172 MPa] and 350F. A 30,000-psi [207-MPa] quartz gauge is available on request.
The 2- and 4-psi accuracy claims include calibration fitting error, hysteresis, repeatability, and some allowance for sensor aging; the corresponding percentages

of the pressure readings account for the incertitude of the calibration equipment.

Basic MDT Modules Mechanical Specifications


MRPC MRHY MRSC MRPS
Temperature rating 392F [200C] 392F [200C] 392F [200C] 392F [200C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 5 58 in. [14.29 cm] 5 58 in. [14.29 cm] 5 58 in. [14.29 cm] Standard: 5 58 in. [14.29 cm]
Large-hole kit: 8 12 in. [21.59 cm]
Super-large-hole kit: 1112 in. [29.21 cm]
Borehole sizemax. No limit No limit No limit Standard: 14 in. [35.56 cm]
Large-hole kit: 19 in. [48.26 cm]
Super-large-hole kit: 22 in. [55.88 cm]
Outer diameter 4.75 in. [12.07 cm] 4.75 in. [12.07 cm] 4.75 in. [12.07 cm] Standard: 4.75 in. [12.07 cm]
Large-hole kit: 7.5 in. [19.05 cm]
Super-large-hole kit: 10.5 in.
Length 4.98 ft [1.52 m] 8.42 ft [2.57 m] 8.04 ft [2.45 m] 6.25 ft [1.91 m]
Weight 160 lbm [73 kg] 275 lbm [125 kg] 225 lbm [102 kg] 200 lbm [91 kg]
Tension 160,000 lbf [711,710 N] 160,000 lbf [711,710 N] 160,000 lbf [711,710 N] 160,000 lbf [711,710 N]
Compression 85,000 lbf [378,100 N] 85,000 lbf [378,100 N] 85,000 lbf [378,100 N] 85,000 lbf [378,100 N]
H2S service Yes Yes Yes Yes
Excludingthe quartz gauge, the pressure and temperature ratings of the MRPS are 20,000 psi [138 MPa] and 293F [200C], respectively.
These ratings can reduce the dependence on using a quartz gauge, of which there are several versions with various pressure and temperature ratings.
At
15,000 psi [103 MPa] and 320F [160C]. These ratings apply to all MDT modules except the Dual-Packer Module (MPRA). The compressive load is a function of temperature and pressure.

114 Wireline Services Catalog


High-Pressure MDT Modules Mechanical Specifications


MRPC MRHY MRSC MRPS
Temperature rating 350F [177C] 350F [177C] 350F [177C] 350F [177C]
Pressure rating 25,000 psi [172 MPa] 25,000 psi [172 MPa] 25,000 psi [172 MPa] 25,000 psi [172 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 5 58 in. [14.29 cm] 5 58 in. [14.29 cm] 5 58 in. [14.29 cm] Standard: 5 58 in. [14.29 cm]
Large-hole kit: 8 12 in. [21.59 cm]
Super-large-hole kit: 1112 in. [29.21 cm]
Borehole sizemax. No limit No limit No limit Standard: 14 in. [35.56 cm]
Large-hole kit: 19 in. [48.26 cm]
Super-large-hole kit: 22 in. [55.88 cm]]
Outer diameter 5 in. [12.70 cm] 5 in. [12.70 cm] 5 in. [12.70 cm] Standard: 4.75 in. [12.07 cm]
Large-hole kit: 7.5 in. [19.05 cm]
Super-large-hole kit: 10.5 in. [26.67 cm]
Length 4.98 ft [1.52 m] 8.42 ft [2.57 m] 8.04 ft [2.45 m] 6.25 ft [1.91 m]
Weight 160 lbm [73 kg] 275 lbm [125 kg] 225 lbm [102 kg] 200 lbm [91 kg]
Tension 160,000 lbf [711,710 N] 160,000 lbf [711,710 N] 160,000 lbf [711,710 N] 160,000 lbf [711,710 N]
Compression 85,000 lbf [378,100 N] 85,000 lbf [378,100 N] 85,000 lbf [378,100 N] 85,000 lbf [378,100 N]
H2S service Yes Yes Yes Yes
Using the HCQG-A gauge, rated to 25,000 psi [172 MPa] and 350F [177C].
30,000-psi [207-MPa] versions of the MRPC, MRHY, and MRPS are available on request.
At 15,000 psi [103 MPa] and 320F [160C]. These ratings apply to all MDT modules except the MPRA. The compressive load is a function of temperature and pressure.

Formation Testing and Sampling 115


Advanced MDT Modules

Dual-Packer Module the larger flowing area. In finely lami-


The Dual-Packer Module (MRPA) con- nated formations, the MRPA can be
sists of two inflatable packer elements used to straddle permeable streaks
that seal against the borehole wall to that would be difficult to locate with a
isolate an interval of the borehole. probe. In fractured formations, the
The Pumpout Module is required to MRPA can usually seal the interval
inflate the packers with wellbore whereas a probe could not.
fluid. The length of the test interval For pressure transient testing, fol-
(i.e., the distance between the pack- lowing a large-volume flow from the
ers) is 3.2 ft [0.98 m] and can be formation, the resulting pressure
extended by 2, 5, or 8 ft [0.61, 1.52, or buildup has a radius of investigation
2.44 m]. For the 3.2-ft interval, the of 50 to 80 ft [15 to 24 m]. Similar to a
area of the isolated interval of the small-scale drillstem test (DST), this
borehole is about 3,000 times larger type of testing offers advantages over
than the area of the borehole wall iso- conventional DST tests. It is environ-
lated by an MDT probe. For fluid sam- mentally friendly because no fluids
pling, the large area results in flowing flow to the surface, and it is cost effec-
pressures that are only slightly below tive because many zones can be tested
the reservoir pressure, which avoids in a short time.
phase separation even for pressure- The MRPA can be used to create a
sensitive fluids such as gas conden- micro-hydraulic fracture that can be
sates or volatile oils. In low-perme- pressure tested to determine the min-
ability formations, high drawdown imum in situ stress magnitude. The
usually occurs with the probe, fracture is created by pumping well-
whereas the fluid can be withdrawn bore fluid into the interval between
from the formation using the MRPA the inflatable packer elements.
with minimum pressure drop through

Mechanical Specifications
MRPA
Temperature rating Water-base mud: 320F [160C]
Oil-base mud: 257F [125C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 6 in. [15.24 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 14 in. [35.56 cm]
Outer diameter 5 to 10 in. [12.70 to 25.40 cm]
The dual-packer module is available in two versions: the standard module and the large-diameter module. The standard module must be
used when element sizes less than 6 34 in. [17.15 cm] are required and no interval spacers can be used. The large-diameter module must
be used for the 10-in. [25.40-cm] diameter elements and in cases when interval spacers are required. The smallest element size for the
large-diameter version is 6 34 in.
There is a wide range of inflatable packer element sizes. Which size is used depends upon the hole size. The smallest inflatable element

has a 5-in. [12.70-cm] diameter for use in holes no smaller than 6 in. [15.24 cm]. The largest inflatable element has a 10-in. [25.40-cm]
diameter, is designed specifically for use with 1214-in. [31.11-cm] bits, and can seal in holes with a diameter up to 14 in. [35.56 cm].

116 Wireline Services Catalog


Dual-Probe Module For a layer less than 2 ft [0.61 m]
In combination with the MRPS, the thick, the combination of the dual-
Dual-Probe Module (MRDP) provides probe and single-probe modules can
measurements for determining both straddle the layer to determine if the
the vertical and horizontal mobility layer is a pressure barrier.
unaffected by near-wellbore perme-
ability alterations. Analysis of a pre-
test pressure transient from only a
single probe cannot separate vertical
from horizontal mobility, nor can it
avoid the effects of near-wellbore
alteration.

Mechanical Specifications
MRDP
Temperature rating 392F [200C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 7 58 in. [19.37 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 1314 in. [33.65 cm]
Outer diameter 6 in. [15.24 cm]
Length 6.75 ft [2.06 m]
MRDP-BA, MRDP-BB, MRDP-BC,
and MRDP-BX: 8.6 ft [2.62 m]
Weight 298 lbm [135 kg]
Tension 160,000 lbf [711,710 N]
Compression 85,000 lbf [378,100 N]
H2S service Yes
At
15,000 psi [103 MPa] and 320F [160C]. These ratings apply to all MDT modules except the MPRA.
The compressive load is a function of temperature and pressure.

Formation Testing and Sampling 117


Flow-Control Module withdrawal is measured. The total vol-
The Flow-Control Module (MRFC) is ume of withdrawn fluid is limited to 1 L
used to control the withdrawal of fluid [0.26 gal], which is 50 times the vol-
from the formation for specific pres- ume of the pretest chamber in the
sure transient tests that are typically MRPS. Following withdrawal of a 1-L
done in combination with an MRPS- volume, the module can be emptied
MRDP configuration. The withdrawal and used for repeated withdrawals.
of fluid can be accomplished at a The module can be used to provide an
selected rate or pressure that does not extended pretest volume when com-
have to be constant. The rate of fluid bined with the single probe.

Mechanical Specifications
MRFC
Temperature rating 392F [200C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 5 58 in. [14.29 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 22 in. [55.88 cm]
Outer diameter 4.75 in. [12.07 cm]
Length 7.58 ft [2.31 m]
Weight 250 lbm [113 kg]
Tension 160,000 lbf [711,710 N]
Compression 85,000 lbf [378,100 N]
H2S service Yes
At
15,000 psi [103 MPa] and 320F [160C]. These ratings apply to all MDT modules except the MPRA.
The compressive load is a function of temperature and pressure.

118 Wireline Services Catalog


Pumpout Module percentage of drilling fluid filtrate
The Pumpout Module (MRPO) is used contamination is achieved. The LFA
to flow fluids from the reservoir at a module is used to measure the level
controlled flowing pressure. Pressure of filtrate contamination. The fluid is
control is required to avoid the sepa- then diverted to a sample chamber,
ration of phases (i.e., gas or solids sep- where it is preserved for later analy-
arating from oil, or liquid condensing sis.
from gas). Representative fluid sam- The fluid exits the MRPO at a pres-
ples require a single-phase fluid. sure equalized to the wellbore hydro-
Pressure control is accomplished static pressure. The rate at which the
by varying the duty cycle (i.e., motor fluid flows depends upon the differ-
voltage) or motor speed. The engineer ence between the wellbore pressure
changes the duty cycle or motor speed and the flowing pressure. At differen-
until the flowing pressure, as mea- tial pressures above several thousand
sured by the pressure gauge (located pounds per square inch [several tens
where the fluid enters the tool), is of megapascals], the flow rates are as
safely above the pressure at which the low as 0.5 L/min [0.13 gal/min]. At dif-
phases separate. The LFA* Live Fluid ferential pressures as low as a few
Analyzer, CFA* Composition Fluid Anal- hundred pounds per square inch [1 to
yzer, or both these modules are used in 2 MPa], the flow rates are as high as
combination with the MRPO to detect 2 L/min [0.5 gal/min]. The maximum
phase separation. differential pressure is 3,500 psi
Fluid is withdrawn from the forma- [24 MPa] for the standard displace-
tion and pumped into the wellbore ment unit and 5,500 psi [38 MPa] for
fluid system until an acceptably low the high-pressure displacement unit.

Mechanical Specifications
MRPO
Temperature rating 392F [200C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 5 58 in. [14.29 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 22 in. [55.88 cm]
Outer diameter 4.75 in. [12.07 cm]
Length 10.63 ft [3.24 m]
Weight 340 lbm [154 kg]
Tension 160,000 lbf [711,710 N]
Compression 85,000 lbf [378,100 N]
H2S service Yes
25,000-psi
[172-MPa] and 30,000 psi [207-MPa] versions are available upon request.
At
15,000 psi [103 MPa] and 320F [160C]. These ratings apply to all MDT modules except the MPRA.
The compressive load is a function of temperature and pressure.

Formation Testing and Sampling 119


LFA Live Fluid Analyzer near-infrared wavelengths is used to
Both the MRPO and LFA Live-Fluid determine the percentage of oil-base
Analyzer are required in the MDT tool- mud filtrate in oil. The LFA module
string for fluid sampling. The LFA mod- also measures methane content and
ule measures the percentage of drilling hydrocarbon content. From the ratio of
fluid filtrate mixed with the formation the two, the gas/oil ratio (GOR) is cal-
fluid as a function of time. This mea- culated using a measurement made on
surement is the basis for making real- oil above the bubblepoint.
time decisions on when to stop In addition to measuring contami-
discarding the fluid to the wellbore and nation, the LFA module detects the
capture the sample in a chamber. The presence of gas if the flowing pressure
filtrate percentage is determined with is below the bubblepoint. The engineer
a 10-channel optical spectrometer. is alerted to slow the pumping rate to
Specific near-infrared wavelengths are raise the pressure above the bubble-
used to determine the percentage of point to avoid phase separation. The
water-base filtrate in oil or of oil-base presence of a distinct gas phase is
filtrate in water. A range of visible and detected with an optical refractometer.

Mechanical Specifications
LFA Live-Fluid Analyzer
Temperature rating 350F [177C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 5 58 in. [14.29 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 22 in. [55.88 cm]
Outer diameter 4.75 in. [12.07 cm]
Length 6.17 ft [1.88 m]
Weight 187 lbm [85 kg]
H2S service Yes
25,000-psi [172-MPa] and 30,000-psi [207-MPa] versions are available upon request.

120 Wireline Services Catalog


CFA Composition Computation of the GOR or its
Fluid Analyzer inverse, the condensate/gas ratio(CGR),
of the flowline fluid extends the
The recent addition of the CFA mod- range of GOR measurement to about
ule to the MDT suite samples and per- 30,000 scf/STB from the LFA maxi-
forms real-time compositional analysis mum GOR of 2,500.
of retrograde gases, condensates, and In a hydrocarbon-bearing forma-
volatile oils. The module has two tion the CFA analyzer is used to char-
detectors, a fluorescence device and acterize the fluid with respect to
an optical spectrometer. If liquids depth. The CFA compositional analy-
drop out from the gas phase, the dew sis at various depths provides compo-
that forms can be detected by an sitional grading within the oil column
increase in the fluorescence level. The below the gas zone. This information
fluorescence detector ensures that is valuable for reservoir engineers but
the sample is above the dewpoint and was previously difficult to obtain.
in single-phase condition for gas sam- The CFA analyzer can be used in
pling. The optical spectrometer is combination with the LFA analyzer to
based on principles similar to those provide a total of 20 optical channels
of the LFA analyzer. However, the downhole for real-time assurance of
spread of the optical density channels single-phase conditions, detection of
enables the tool to measure the opti- contamination, and measurement of
cal density at the peaks corresponding composition.
to methane (C1), ethane to pentane
group (C2 to C5), heavier hydrocarbon
molecules (C6+), carbon dioxide, and
water to quantitatively measure their
downhole concentrations.

Mechanical Specifications
CFA Analyzer
Temperature rating 350F [177C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 5 58 in. [14.29 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 22 in. [55.88 cm]
Outer diameter 4.75 in. [12.07 cm]
Length 5.1 ft [1.55 m]
With handling caps: 6.6 ft [2.01 m]
Weight 161 lbm [73 kg]
H2S service Yes
25,000-psi [172-MPa] and 30,000-psi [207-MPa] versions are available upon request.

Formation Testing and Sampling 121


MDT Low-Shock Sampling

The successful collection of represen- pumped from the formation to the innovative technique, low-shock sam-
tative pressure-volume-temperature wellbore, the valve at the top is closed pling minimizes pressure disruption.
(PVT) samples requires low filtrate and the piston is positioned at the top Previous methods of sampling did
contamination and flowing pressure of the cylinder. Beneath the piston in not employ an opening at the bottom of
above the pressure at which the phases the cylinder is water. Because there is the chamber. Before sampling, the
separate. Fluid is pumped from the for- an opening at the bottom, the water internal pressure was close to the
mation to the wellbore until the LFA pressure in the cylinder is equal to the atmospheric pressure. When the valve
Live Fluid Analyzer indicates that both wellbore hydrostatic pressure. Sample at the top of the cylinder was opened, a
conditions are met. Low-shock sam- capture begins by opening the valve at sudden pressure reduction occurred.
pling refers to capturing the fluid in the top and pumping fluid into the bot- The reduction was typically sufficiently
the sample chamber or sample bottle tle rather than to the wellbore. The large to induce phase separation,
without disrupting the flowing pres- entering fluid pushes the piston down resulting in an unrepresentative sam-
sure. and causes the water to exit to the ple. It could even cause a shock so large
Sample chambers and bottles con- wellbore. Because the pump is pushing that the formation would collapse,
sist of a cylinder with a valve at the top fluid to the wellbore, there is no resulting in a loss of seal and the entry
and opening at the bottom and contain change in the flowing pressure follow- of drilling fluid to the tool.
a sliding piston. While the fluid is ing opening of the valve. With this

122 Wireline Services Catalog


MDT Multisample Module

The MDT Multisample Module (MRMS) transportable and therefore must be


can retrieve six representative forma- transferred at the wellsite. Heating to
tion fluid samples on a single trip into the reservoir temperature is required
the well. Two types of sample bottles for revaporizing condensed liquids in
can be used in the MRMS: gas condensate samples, and heating
to 180F [82C] is required for recom-
Multisample Production Sample
bining wax precipitants.
Receptacle (MPSR)
The SPMC maintains the sample
Single-Phase Multisample Module pressure at or above the reservoir
(SPMC). pressure despite the reduction in tem-
The MRMS may be fitted with any perature at the surface. The SPMC
combination of MPSR and SPMC bot- must be used to prevent asphaltene
tles. A maximum of five MRMS mod- solids from precipitating in oil sam-
ules (i.e., a total of 30 bottles) can be ples because the precipitation of
combined in one toolstring. asphaltenes can be irreversible. The
The MPSR bottle has a 450-cm3 opening pressure on MPSR samples is
[0.12-gal] volume and is approved for much lower than the reservoir pres-
transport by the U.S. Department of sure because of the reduction in tem-
Transportation (DOT). It can be perature at the surface. Gas, liquid,
heated to 200F [93C] for recombin- and solid phases separate within the
ing the sample but is not suitable for MPSR bottle, and the sample cannot
long-term storage. The SPMC has a be validated, transferred, or analyzed
250-cm3 [0.07-gal] volume and can be until it has been recombined.
heated to 400F [204C]. It is not DOT

Mechanical Specifications
MRMS
Temperature rating 392F [200C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 5 58 in. [14.29 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 22 in. [55.88 cm]
Outer diameter 5 in. [12.70 cm] (max.)
Length 13.19 ft [4.02 m]
Weight 465 lbm [211 kg] (max.)
Tension 160,000 lbf [711,710 N]
Compression 85,000 lbf [378,100 N]
At 15,000 psi [103 MPa] and 320F [160C]. These ratings apply to all MDT modules except the Dual-Packer Module (MPRA).
The compressive load is a function of temperature and pressure.

Formation Testing and Sampling 123


SRFT Slimhole Repeat
Formation Tester
The SRFT* Slimhole Repeat Form- Sample chambers are available in
ation Testerwith a 3 38-in. [8.57-cm] two sizes: 450 cm3 [0.12 gal] and 238 gal
outer diameter (OD)brings wire- [9 L]. An optional water cushion is
line formation tester services to small- used to reduce the shock resulting
diameter boreholes. It can also be run from pressure drawdown when a sam-
in wells where conventional tools ple chamber is opened for sampling.
cannot operate because of abrupt
changes in angle, swelling formations,
hole restrictions, and other drilling Applications
problems. Formation pressure measurement
The SRFT tool can be repeatedly in slim holes, short-radius horizon-
set and retracted during a single trip tal wells, and unstable or restricted
in the well. The CQG Crystal Quartz wells
Gauge is used to provide quick, accu- Fluid sampling in slim holes, short-
rate pressure measurements. One seg- radius horizontal wells, and unsta-
regated sample can be recovered in a ble or restricted wells
sample bottle that is DOT approved
for transport. Alternatively, two fluid
samples can be recovered from two
different depths.

Measurement Specifications
SRFT Tool
Output Pressure measurement, fluid samples
Logging speed Stationary measurements
Range of measurement 0 to 20,000 psi [0 to 138 MPa] at up to 350F [177C]
Accuracy CQG gauge:
Accuracy: (2 psi [13,789 Pa] + 0.01% of reading)
Resolution: 0.003 psi [21 Pa]
Strain gauge: 5,000-, 10,000-, and 20,000-psi
[34-, 69-, and 138-MPa] ranges
Accuracy: 0.1% of full scale
Resolution: 0.001% of full scale
Special applications Slim or restricted holes

124 Wireline Services Catalog


Mechanical Specifications
SRFT Tool
Standard Probe and Piston Telescoping Pistons (SRTP) Large-Hole Kit (SRLH)
Temperature rating 350F [177C] 350F [177C] 350F [177C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 4.125 in. [10.48 cm] 4.8 in. [12.19 cm] 6.5 in. [16.51 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 6.3 in. [16.00 cm] 7.8 in. [19.81 cm] 9.8 in. [24.89 cm]
Outer diameter Fully retracted: 3.375 in. [8.57 cm] Fully retracted: 3.375 in. [8.57 cm] Fully retracted: 4.5 in. [11.43 cm]
Fully extended: 6.5 in. [16.51 cm] Fully extended: 8.0 in. [20.32 cm] Fully extended: 10.0 in. [25.40 cm]
Length 22.23 ft [6.77 m] 22.23 ft [6.77 m] 22.23 ft [6.77 m]
Weight 455 lbm [206 kg] 455 lbm [206 kg] 455 lbm [206 kg]
Tension 35,000 lbf [155,690 N] 35,000 lbf [155,690 N] 35,000 lbf [155,690 N]
Compression 3,900 lbf [17,350 N] 3,900 lbf [17,350 N] 3,900 lbf [17,350 N]
Minimum borehole size is dependent on the borehole conditions and whether the SRFT tool is run on cable or pipe.
If an SRFT tool with telescoping pistons is set in a hole smaller than recommended, the larger section of the telescoping pistons will touch the borehole. Standoffs should be used in this case.

Sample Chamber Specifications


SRSU-AA with MPSR-BA SRSC-AA Water Cushion (SRSW-AA)
Capacity 450 cm3 [0.12 gal] 2.375 gal [9.0 L] 2.375 gal [9.0 L]
Temperature rating 350F [177C] 350F [177C] 350F [177C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Outer diameter 3.375 in. [8.57 cm] 3.375 in. [8.57 cm] 3.375 in. [8.57 cm]
Length 4.45 ft [1.36 m] 9.31 ft [2.84 m] 9.11 ft [2.78 m]
Weight 106 lbm [48 kg] 97 lbm [44 kg] 91 lbm [41 kg]
Special applications DOT-approved MPSR H2S service H2S service
H2S service Optional water cushion for SRSC-AA
PVT samples
The SRSU is only the carrier and also provides water cushion for the MPSR.
Rated to 20,000 psi [138 MPa] for both internal and external pressure.
The SRSW filled with water weighs 111 lbm [50 kg].

Formation Testing and Sampling 125


CHDT Cased Hole
Dynamics Tester
The technologically advanced CHDT fluid identification, and contamina-
Cased Hole Dynamics Tester, a compo- tion monitoring, which were previ-
nent of the ABC Analysis Behind ously possible only for openhole
Casing suite of services, makes multi- applications. In combination with the
ple pressure measurements and col- other through-casing formation evalu-
lects fluid samples from behind a ation tools in the ABC services
cased wellbore. Developed with sup- suiteCHFR-Plus Cased Hole Form-
port from the Gas Technology Insti- ation Resistivity tool, RSTPro Reser-
tute (GTI), the CHDT tool has the voir Saturation tool, CHFD Cased Hole
unique ability to drill through a cased Formation Density service, CHFP
borehole and into the formation, Cased Hole Formation Porosity ser-
acquire multiple pressure measure- vice, and DSI Dipole Shear Sonic
ments, recover high-quality fluid sam- Imagerthe CHDT tool delivers com-
ples, and then plug the hole made in prehensive reservoir analysis behind
the casing to restore pressure casing.
integrityin a single trip. The restor-
ation of pressure integrity saves the
costs associated with conventional Applications
plug-setting runs, cement-squeeze Evaluation of old wells for bypas-
operations, pressure tests, and scraper sed hydrocarbons
runs as well as the rig costs associated Development of critical economic
with these operations. data for well evaluation
The tool seals against the casing Reduced risk alternative to open-
and uses a flexible drill shaft to pene- hole formation testing under diffi-
trate both the casing and cement and cult conditions
into the formation. As the drill pene-
trates the target, the integrated
Pressure monitoring during water,
instrument package simultaneously steam, and CO2 injection
monitors pressure, fluid resistivity, Identification of collector zones in
and drilling parameters. This addi- gas storage wells
tional information about the casing/ Stress testing and leakoff evalua-
cement/formation interfaces enables tion in cased holes
real-time quality control of the opera- Production and injection through
tion. known-diameter drillholes
The CHDT tool is combinable with
MDT modules in 6 58-in. [16.83-cm]
and larger casing. The module combi-
nations are used to perform high-qual-
ity single-phase sampling, enhanced

126 Wireline Services Catalog


Measurement Specifications
CHDT Tool
Output Behind-casing pressure measurement, PVT and conventional fluid samples, fluid mobility
Logging speed Stationary
Accuracy CQG gauge: (2 psi [13,789 Pa] + 0.01% of reading) (accuracy), 0.1 psi [689 Pa] (resolution)
Depth of drillhole 6 in. [152 mm] (max. from casing)
Drillhole diameter 0.281 in. [7.137 mm]
Pretest volume 6.1 in.3 [100 cm3]
Limitations Max. casing thickness: 0.5 in. [1.27 cm]
Combinability MDT modules, another CHDT tool, most other tools
Special applications Up to six holes drilled and plugged per run
H2S service
Fluid identification (resistivity and LFA Live Fluid Analyzer)
Combinable with MDT modules in 6 58-in. [16.83-cm] and larger casing
Formation and casing dependent

Mechanical Specifications
CHDT Tool
Temperature rating 350F [177C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Max. underbalance: 4,000 psi [27 MPa]
Plug rating: 10,000 psi [69 MPa] (bi-directional)
Casing sizemin. 5 12 in. [13.97 cm]
Casing sizemax. 9 58 in. [24.45 cm]
Outside diameter 4.25 in. [10.79 cm]
Length Pressure measurement only: 34.1 ft [10.4 m]
Optional sample chamber: 9.7 ft [2.96 m]
Weight Depends on configuration
Tension Depends on configuration
Compression Depends on configuration

Formation Testing and Sampling 127


Mechanical Sidewall
Coring Tool
The standard configuration of the for accurate, real-time depth control
rotary Mechanical Sidewall Coring of the coring points.
Tool (MSCT) recovers 50 core sam-
ples. Optional configurations for
recovering 75 core or 20 core-catcher Applications
(dictated by core-catcher capacity) Lithology analysis
samples are available. Each sample is Secondary porosity analysis
isolated for positive identification, Porosity and permeability
and a summary output at surface lists determination
all samples with the exact depth and
time that each was taken.
Confirmation of hydrocarbon shows
The real-time display at the logging Determination of clay content
unit confirms proper tool operation Determination of grain density
and sample acquisition. The MSCT is Lithology determination
run in combination with a gamma ray
tool to correlate with openhole logs
Detection of fracture occurrence

Measurement Specifications
MSCT
Output Sidewall core samples
Logging speed Stationary
Coring time (avg): 3 to 5 min per core
Range of measurement Core size: 2 in. [50.8 mm] long 0.92 in.
[23.4 mm] diameter
Depth of core sample Core length: 1.5 or 1.75 in. [38.1 or 44.4 mm]
Mud type or weight limitations None
Special applications
The MCFU-AA is used for 50 cores per descent and the MCCU is used for 20 cores per descent.

Mechanical Specifications
MSCT
Temperature rating 350F [177C]
Pressure rating Standard: 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
High pressure: 25,000 psi [172 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 614 in. [15.87 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 19 in. [48.26 cm]
Outer diameter 5 38 in. [13.65 cm]
Length 31.29 ft [9.54 m]
Weight 750 lbm [340 kg]
Tension 22,900 lbf [101,860 N]
Compression 12,500 lbf [55,600 N]
The MSCT-A can be run at 400F [204C] with a Dewar flask (UDFH-KF). Successful jobs have also been performed at 425F [218C].
With the standoffs removed, the MSCT can be stripped down to 5 in. [12.70 cm] and run in 5 78-in. [14.92-cm] holes.
The sonde weighs 580 lbm [263 kg].

128 Wireline Services Catalog


CST Chronological
Sample Taker
The CST* Chronological Sample Taker The CST guns vary in the number
can collect up to 90 core samples in of bullets per gun. Bullet designs are
one trip using a series of core recovery available for optimum core recovery in
bullets. This percussion-type gun is various ranges of formation consolida-
accurately depth positioned by using tion. The recovered samples are usu-
an SP or gamma ray log. A surface- ally large enough for conducting core
controlled, electrically ignited powder analysis.
charge fires a hollow cylindrical bullet
into the formation at each sample
depth. Each bullet is attached by two Applications
retaining wires to the gun; these are Porosity measurement
used to retrieve the bullet and core. Permeability estimate
The wires have a breaking strength of Lithology identification
approximately 1,800 lbf [8,000 N] to
release the gun from the core bullet,
Grain size, density, and shape
which prevents a stuck core resulting indication
in a stuck CST tool. Hydrocarbon identification
Oil, gas, and water volume
estimates

Measurement Specifications
CST Tool
Output Sidewall cores
Logging speed Stationary
Mud type or weight limitations Hydrostatic pressure and formation characteristics determine
charge selection
Combinability Usually run with PGGT* Powered Gun Gamma Ray Tool
for correlation
Up to 3 guns can be used to collect a maximum of 90 core samples
Special applications H2S service

Mechanical Specifications
CST Tool
Temperature rating Explosive charges: 280F [138C] for 1 hr or 450F
[232C] for 1 hr
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 418 in. [10.48 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 25 in. [63.50 cm]
Outer diameter 3 38 to 5.25 in. [8.57 to 13.33 cm]
Length 6.83 to 17.08 ft [2.08 to 5.21 m]
Weight 125 to 406 lbm [57 to 184 kg]
Tension 50,000 lbf [222,410 N]
Compression 23,000 lbf [102,310 N]
Depends on the gun, see CST Sample Gun Specifications

Formation Testing and Sampling 129


CST Sample Gun Specifications
CST-AA CST-BA CST-C CST-DA CST-G CST-G60N CST-G60P CST-G60Y
Core samples 30 30 30 30 30 60 60 60
Temperature rating 450F [232C] 450F [232C] 450F [232C] 450F [232C] 280F [138C] 280F [138C] 280F [138C] 280F [138C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 8 12 in. [21.59 cm] 8 12 in. [21.59 cm] 8 12 in. [21.59 cm] 8 12 in. [21.59 cm] 512 in. [13.97 cm] 512 in. [13.97 cm] 512 in. [13.97 cm] 618 in. [15.55 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 25 in. [63.50 cm] 25 in. [63.50 cm] 25 in. [63.50 cm] 25 in. [63.50 cm] 1212 in. [31.75 cm] 1212 in. [31.75 cm] 1212 in. [31.75 cm] 1212 in. [31.75 cm]
Outer diameter 514 in. [13.33 cm] 412 in. [11.43 cm] 514 in. [13.33 cm] 412 in. [11.43 cm] 4 in. [10.16 cm] 4 in. [10.16 cm] 4 in. [10.16 cm] 4 38 in. [11.11 cm]
Length 9.08 ft [2.77 m] 7.92 ft [2.41 m] 7.86 ft [2.39 m] 11.42 ft [3.48 m] 9.50 ft [2.89 m] 17.08 ft [5.21 m] 17.08 ft [5.21 m] 16.71 ft [5.09 m]
Weight 262 lbm [119 kg] 229 lbm [104 kg] 200 lbm [91 kg] 326 lbm [148 kg] 175 lbm [79 kg] 308 lbm [140 kg] 308 lbm [140 kg] 308 lbm [140 kg]

CST Sample Gun Specifications


CST-GY CST-J CST-U CST-V CST-W CST-Y CST-Z
Core samples 30 25 24 21 12 21 30
Temperature rating 280F [138C] 450F [232C] 450F [232C] 450F [232C] 450F [232C] 450F [232C] 450F [232C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 618 in. [15.56 cm] 418 in. [10.46 cm] 512 in. [13.97 cm] 512 in. [13.97 cm] 4 34 in. [12.07 cm] 512 in. [13.97 cm] 8 12 in. [21.59 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 1212 in. [31.75 cm] 10 in. [25.40 cm] 1212 in. [31.75 cm] 1212 in. [31.75 cm] 1212 in. [31.75 cm] 1212 in. [31.75 cm] 25 in. [63.50 cm]
Outer diameter 4 38 in. [11.11 cm] 338 in. [8.57 cm] 4 38 in. [11.11 cm] 4 38 in. [11.11 cm] 4 38 in. [11.11 cm] 4 38 in. [11.11 cm] 514 in. [13.33 cm]
Length 9.50 ft [2.89 m] 12.92 ft [3.93 m] 6.83 ft [2.08 m] 7.60 ft [2.32 m] 8.08 ft [2.46 m] 7.60 ft [2.32 m] 11.42 ft [3.48 m]
Weight 175 lbm [79 kg] 187 lbm [85 kg] 125 lbm [57 kg] 168 lbm [76 kg] 148 lbm [67 kg] 168 lbm [76 kg] 406 lbm [184 kg]

130 Wireline Services Catalog


Well Integrity
Evaluation
Cement Bond Logging Tools

Cement bond tools measure the bond Slim Array Sonic Tool
between the casing and the cement The Slim Array Sonic Tool (SSLT) is a
placed in the annulus between the digital sonic tool that provides con-
casing and the wellbore. The mea- ventional openhole sonic measure-
surement is made by using acoustic ments, standard CBL amplitude and
sonic and ultrasonic tools. In the case Variable Density log (VDL), and atten-
of sonic tools, the measurement is uation measurements, which are less
usually displayed on a cement bond affected by borehole environmental
log (CBL) in millivolt units, decibel conditions. The SSLT can also make
attenuation, or both. Reduction of the a short-spacing (1-ft [0.30-m]) CBL
reading in millivolts or increase of the measurements for cement evaluation
decibel attenuation is an indication of in fast formations. The two transmit-
better-quality bonding of the cement ters and six receivers of the SSLT
behind the casing to the casing wall. sonde have transmitterreceiver
Factors that affect the quality of the spacings of 1, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, and 5 ft
cement bonding are [0.30, 0.91, 1.07, 1.22, 1.37, and 1.52 m]
cement job design and execution to compute the following:
as well as effective mud removal standard 3-ft CBL and 5-ft VDL
compressive strength of the cement measurements
in place borehole-compensated (BHC)
temperature and pressure changes attenuation from the 3.5- and
applied to the casing after 4.5-ft spacing receivers
cementing near-pseudoattenuation from
epoxy resin applied to the outer the 3-ft spacing receivers
wall of the casing. short-spacing attenuation from
the 1-ft spacing receiver for cement
bond measurement in fast forma-
tions that may affect the standard
3-ft spacing.

DSLT

SSLT QSLT
SCMT

HSLT

Wireline Services Catalog Well Integrity Evaluation 133


SlimXtreme Sonic Cement bond log from through most tubings to evaluate the
Logging Tool Hostile Environment casing below. In new wells the SCMT is
an excellent tool for evaluating casing
The SlimXtreme Sonic Logging Tool Sonic Logging Tool that is 7 58 in. [19.36 cm] or less.
(QSLT) provides the same measure- The Hostile Environment Sonic Logging The SCMT features a single trans-
ments as the SSLT of the cement bond Tool (HSLT) provides the same mea- mitter, two receivers spaced at 3 and
amplitude, attenuation, and Variable surements of the cement bond ampli- 5 ft from the transmitter, and eight seg-
Density display for evaluation of the tude and Variable Density display for mented receivers 2 ft [0.61 m] from the
cement bond quality of a cemented evaluation of the cement bond quality transmitter. The output of the near
casing in high-pressure and high-tem- of a cemented casing string as the (3-ft) receiver is used for CBL and
perature environments. SSLT in high-pressure and high-tem- transit-time measurement. The output
perature environments. of the far (5-ft) receiver is used for the
VDL measurement. The eight seg-
Cement bond log from Digital mented receivers generate a radial
Sonic Logging Tool Slim Cement Mapping Tool image of the cement bond variation.
The Digital Sonic Logging Tool (DSLT) The Slim Cement Mapping Tool
uses the Sonic Logging Sonde (SLS) to (SCMT) is a through-tubing cement Applications
measure the cement bond amplitude evaluation tool combinable with the Evaluation of cement quality
and provide a Variable Density display PS Platform production logging service
for evaluation of the cement bond for a variety of well diagnostics. It
Determination of zone isolation
quality of a cemented casing string. comes in two sizes: 11116 in. [4.29 cm] Location of cement top
Variable Density or x-y waveform dis- for the standard (302F [150C]) tem-
play of the sonic signal is presented in perature rating and 2116 in. [5.24 cm]
conjunction with the bond index and with a 392F [200C] temperature rat-
amplitude signal. The DSLT is also ing. The SCMT is suitable for running
used in the open borehole environment workover operations and in new wells.
for conventional sonic measurements SCMT operations provide a clear
of BHC (3- to 5-ft) transit time and long- advantage in workover wells because
spacing depth-derived BHC (DDBHC) there is no need to pull tubing above
(9- to 11-ft [2.74 to 3.35-m]) transit the zone of interest for cement evalua-
time. tion. The SCMT is capable of running

Measurement Specifications
SSLT QSLT DSLT HSLT SCMT-C and SCMT-H
Output 3-ft [0.91-m] CBL and attenuation, 3-ft [0.91-m] CBL and attenuation, 3-ft [0.91-m] amplitude CBL 3-ft [0.91-m] amplitude CBL, 5-ft [1.52-m] 3-ft [0.91-m] amplitude CBL, 5-ft [1.52-m]
1-ft [0.30-m] attenuation, 5-ft [1.52-m] 1-ft [0.30-m] attenuation, 5-ft [1.52-m] With SLS-C and SLS-D: 5-ft [1.52-m] Variable Density log Variable Density log,
Variable Density log Variable Density log Variable Density log cement bond variation map
Logging speed 3,600 ft/hr [1,097 m/h] 3,600 ft/hr [1,097 m/h] 3,600 ft/hr [1,097 m/h] 3,600 ft/hr [1,097 m/h] 1,800 ft/hr [549 m/h]
Vertical resolution Near attenuation: 1 ft [0.30 m] Near attenuation: 1 ft [0.30 m] CBL: 3 ft [0.91 m] CBL: 3 ft [0.91 m] CBL: 3 ft [0.91 m]
CBL: 3 ft [0.91 m] CBL: 3 ft [0.91 m] VDL: 5 ft [1.52 m] VDL: 5 ft [1.52 m] VDL: 5 ft [1.52 m]
VDL: 5 ft [1.52 m] VDL: 5 ft [1.52 m] Cement bond variation map: 2 ft [0.61 m]
Depth of investigation CBL: Casing and cement interface CBL: Casing and cement interface CBL: Casing and cement interface CBL: Casing and cement interface CBL: Casing and cement interface
VDL: Depends on bonding and formation VDL: Depends on bonding and formation VDL: Depends on bonding and formation VDL: Depends on bonding and formation VDL: Depends on bonding and formation
Mud type or weight limitations None None None None None
Combinability Part of SlimAccess system Part of SlimXtreme system Combinable with most tools Part of Xtreme system, Combinable with PS Platform system
combinable with most tools
Special applications Logging through drillpipe, Logging through drillpipe, Logging through drillpipe, tubing,
tubing, and in small casing tubing, and in small casing and in small casing
Fast formations Fast formations Fast formations

Mechanical Specifications
SSLT QSLT DSLT HSLT SCMT-C and SCMT-H
Temperature rating 302F [150C] 500F [260C] 302F [150C] 500F [260C] SCMT-C: 302F [150C]
SCMT-H: 392F [200C]
Pressure rating 14,000 psi [97 MPa] 30,000 psi [207 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 25,000 psi [172 MPa] 15,000 psi [104 MPa]
Casing sizemin. 312 in. [8.89 cm] 412 in. [11.43 cm] 512 in. [13.97 cm] 512 in. [13.97 cm] SCMT-C: 2 38 in. [6.03 cm]
SCMT-H: 2 78 in. [7.30 cm]
Casing sizemax. 8 58 in. [21.91 cm] 8 58 in. [21.91 cm] 13 38 in. [33.97 cm] 13 38 in. [33.97 cm] 7 58 in. [19.37 cm]
Outer diameter 2.5 in. [6.35 cm] 3 in. [7.62 cm] 3.625 in. [9.21 cm] 3.875 in. [9.84 cm] SCMT-C: 11116 in. [4.29 cm]
SCMT-H: 2.06 in. [5.23 cm]
Length 23.1 ft [7.04 m] Without inline centralizer: 23 ft [7.00 m] With SLS-E: 20.63 ft [6.29 m] 25.5 ft [7.77 m] SCMT-C: 23.45 ft [7.14 m]
With inline centralizer: 29.9 ft [9.11 m] With SLS-F: 23.81 ft [7.26 m] SCMT-H: 28.85 ft [8.79 m]
Weight 232 lbm [105 kg] 270 lbm [122 kg] With SLS-E: 313 lbm [142 kg] 440 lbm [199 kg] SCMT-C: 100 lbm [45 kg]
With SLS-F: 353 lbm [160 kg] SCMT-H: 162 lbm [73 kg]
Tension 13,000 lbf [57,830 N] 13,000 lbf [57,830 N] 29,700 lbf [132,110 N] 20,000 lbf [88,960 N] 5,900 lbf [26,240 N]
Compression 4,400 lbf [19,570 N] 4,400 lbf [19,570 N] 2,870 lbf [12,270 N] 6,000 lbf [26,690 N] 150 lbf [670 N]
In air

134 Wireline Services Catalog


USI UltraSonic Imager Tool Applications
The USI UltraSonic Imager tool Cement evaluation
(USIT) uses a single transducer Casing inspection
mounted on an Ultrasonic Rotating Corrosion detection and
Sub (USRS) on the bottom of the tool. monitoring
The transmitter emits ultrasonic
pulses between 200 and 700 kHz and Detection of internal and exter-
measures the received ultrasonic nal damage or deformation
waveforms reflected from the internal Casing thickness analysis for
and external casing interfaces. The collapse and burst pressure
rate of decay of the waveforms calculations
received indicates the quality of the
cement bond at the cement/casing
interface, and the resonant frequency
of the casing provides the casing wall
thickness required for pipe inspec-
tion. Because the transducer is
mounted on the rotating sub, the
entire circumference of the casing is
scanned. This 360 data coverage
enables the evaluation of the quality
of the cement bond as well as the
determination of the internal and
external casing condition. The very
high angular and vertical resolutions
can detect channels as narrow as
1.2 in. [3.05 cm]. Cement bond, thick-
ness, internal and external radii, and
self-explanatory maps are generated
in real time at the wellsite.

Well Integrity Evaluation 135


Measurement Specifications
USIT
Output Acoustic impedance, cement bonding to casing, internal radius, casing thickness
Logging speed 1,800 ft/hr [549 m/h]
Range of measurement Acoustic impedance: 0 to 10 MRayl [0 to 10 MPa.s/m]
Vertical resolution Standard: 6 in. [15.24 cm]
Accuracy Less than 3.3 MRayl: 0.5 MRayl
Depth of investigation Casing-to-cement interface
Mud type or weight limitations Water-base mud: Up to 15.9 lbm/gal
Oil-base mud: Up to 11.2 lbm/gal
Combinability Bottom only tool, combinable with most tools
Special applications Identification and orientation of narrow channels
Exact value depends on the type of mud system and casing size.

Mechanical Specifications
USIT
Temperature rating 350F [177C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Casing sizemin. 412 in. [11.43 cm]
Casing sizemax. 13 38 in. [33.97 cm]
Outer diameter 3 38 in. [8.57 cm]
Length 19.75 ft [6.02 m]
Weight 333 lbm [151 kg]
Tension 40,000 lbf [177,930 N]
Compression 4,000 lbf [17,790 N]
Excluding the rotating sub

USIT Rotating Sub Mechanical Specifications


USRS-AB USRS-A USRS-B USRS-C USRS-D
Outer diameter 3.41 in. [8.66 cm] 3.58 in. [9.09 cm] 4.625 in. [11.75 cm] 6.625 in. [16.83 cm] 8.625 in. [21.91 cm]
Length 9.8 in. [24.89 cm] 9.92 in. [25.20 cm] 9.8 in. [24.89 cm] 8.3 in. [21.08 cm] 8.3 in. [21.08 cm]
Weight 7.7 lbm [3.5 kg] 7.7 lbm [3.5 kg] 10.6 lbm [4.8 Kg] 15.0 lbm [6.8 kg] 18.3 lbm [8.3 kg]

136 Wireline Services Catalog


Corrosion Monitoring

UCI Ultrasonic Casing Imager Applications


The UCI* Ultrasonic Corrosion Imager Casing integrity evaluation
is an evolution of the USI UltraSonic Identification, location, and quan-
Imager. The UCI tool provides all the tification of casing corrosion
answers required to locate, identify, Estimated damage to casing
and quantify casing damage or corro- caused by milling, fishing, or plas-
sion. The design is specifically engi- tic deformation
neered for high-azimuthal-resolution
images and detailed examination of
Internal and external metal loss
both the inner and outer surfaces of Internal and external scale buildup
casing ranging from 412 to 13 38 in. Location and identification of per-
[11.43 to 33.97 cm]. The result is forated intervals
improved echo detection, even in out- Identification of casing holes
of-shape casing and on rough surfaces.
Full azimuthal coverage with a
Identification of casing profile and
2-MHz focused ultrasonic transducer weight changes
is used to analyze the reflections. Identification of centralizers and
Signal arrivals are analyzed to provide other casing anomalies
the casing thickness and surface con-
dition images, and even small defects
on both internal and external casing
surfaces are quantified. An improved
centralization system ensures proper
centralization even in horizontal
wells, and eccentering effects are
reduced through wellsite signal cor-
rection.

Well Integrity Evaluation 137


Measurement Specifications
UCI Tool
Output Amplitude image, casing thickness image, internal radius image, fluid velocity
Logging speed 3,000 ft/hr [914 m/h]
High resolution: 400 ft/hr [122 m/h]
Range of measurement Min. casing thickness:
In water = 0.15 in. [0.38 cm]
In attenuated fluids, including oil-base mud = 0.2 in. [0.51 cm]
Vertical resolution High resolution: 0.2 in. [0.51 cm]
High speed (3,000 ft/hr]: 1.5 in. [3.81 cm]
Accuracy Ratio of internal radius to thickness: 0.04 in. [1 mm]
Casing thickness: 4%
Depth of investigation Thickness of casing
Mud type or weight limitations Oil-base mud: No solids
Water-base mud: Solids content < 5% and mud density less than 1.9 g/cm3 [15.9 lbm/gal]
Combinability Bottom-only tool, combinable with most tools
Special applications H2S service

Mechanical Specifications
UCI Tool
Temperature rating 350F [177C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Casing sizemin. 412 in. [11.43 cm]
Casing sizemax. 13 38 in. [33.97 cm]
Outer diameter USRS-AB: 3.41 in. [8.66 cm]
USRS-A: 3.56 in. [9.04 cm]
USRS-B: 4.65 in. [11.81 cm]
USRS-C: 6.69 in. [16.99 cm]
USRS-D: 8.66 in. [22.00 cm]
Length Without sub: 19.73 ft [6.01 m]
Weight Without sub: 333 lbm [151 kg]
Tension 40,000 lbf [177,930 N]
Compression 4,000 lbf [17,790 N]
Minimum and maximum casing sizes depend on the sub used.

138 Wireline Services Catalog


CPET Corrosion Protection and displacing the wellbore fluid with
Evaluation Tool oilsteps that are usually necessary
before other evaluation tools can be
The CPET* Corrosion Protection run, along with the rig downtime
Evaluation Tool provides critical infor- involved with these preparations. The
mation for cost-effective cathodic pro- CPET tool also saves rig time during
tection programs. CPET analysis the survey itself, with its fast thermal
features state-of-the-art accuracy and stabilization and hydraulic operation.
reliability. The resulting log describes The real-time results are used to
how well the cathodic protection is identify remedial adjustments to the
performing and advises whether new cathodic protection program and to
wells need cathodic protection. confirm the programs effectiveness
Accurate measurement of the cas- while the tool is in the wellbore.
ing potential requires good contact
between the tool and the casing. To
meet this requirement, the CPET tool Applications
has four sets of electrodes and per- Corrosion control
forms in any wellbore fluid. This Cathodic protection
advanced design eliminates the
expense of acid washing the casing

Measurement Specifications
CPET Tool
Output Axial current, radial current density, potential
difference, casing thickness, corrosion rate
Logging speed 1,500 ft/hr [457 m/h] (6-ft [1.8-m] stations)
Vertical resolution 10- to 25-ft [3- to 7.6-m] typical electrode spacing:
Data recorded every 50 or 100 ft [15 or 30 m]
Accuracy Potential difference: 1 mV
Depth of investigation Casing thickness
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability Combinable with most tools
Special applications H2S service

Mechanical Specifications
CPET Tool
Temperature rating 350F [177C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Casing sizemin. 412 in. [11.43 cm]
Casing sizemax. 10 34 in. [27.30 cm]
Outer diameter 3 38 in. [8.57 cm]
Length 30.58 ft [9.32 m]
Weight 533 lbm [242 kg]
Fishing neck outer diameter = 3.375 in. [8.57 cm]

Well Integrity Evaluation 139


METT Multifrequency Applications
Electromagnetic Thickness Location of corrosion damage in
Tool single or multiple strings
The METT* Multifrequency Electro-
Estimation of life remaining in
magnetic Thickness Tool uses non- casing
destructive, noncontact induction Evaluation of anticorrosion
methods to detect metal loss and systems
changes in casing geometry, regardless
of the fluid type inside the casing. The
METT tool is typically used to detect
large-scale corrosion or splits, and it
can also be used to detect metal loss in
the outer casing of multiple casing
strings.
A coil centered in the borehole gen-
erates an alternating magnetic field
that interacts with the casing; a second
coil measures the phase shift. These
electromagnetic measurements, made
at multiple frequencies, are related to
the casing wall thickness, inner diame-
ter, and permeability or conductivity.
Each parameter is averaged around
the pipe circumference.

Measurement Specifications
METT Tool
Output Casing wall thickness, internal diameter of casing,
casing electromagnetic properties
Logging speed 1,800 ft/hr [549 m/h]
Range of measurement Electromagnetic phase system operating frequency:
40 and 10 dB
Accuracy Internal diameter: 0.025 in. [0.635 mm]
Low-frequency phase: 1.5
Depth of investigation Up to 10 34-in. [27.30-cm] casing
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability Combinable with most services
Special applications H2S service
Multiple casing strings

Mechanical Specifications
METT Tool with Slim Sonde METT Tool with Large Sonde
Temperature rating 350F [177C] 350F [177C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Casing sizemin. 412 in. [11.43 cm] 7 in. [17.78 cm]
Casing sizemax. 7 in. [17.78 cm] 10 34 in. [27.30 cm]
Outer diameter 2 34 in. [6.99 cm] 412 in. [11.43 cm]
Length 27.83 ft [8.48 m] 29.58 ft [9.01 m]
Weight 294 lbm [133 kg] 399 lbm [181 kg]

140 Wireline Services Catalog


PS Platform Multifinger
Imaging Tool
The PS Platform Multifinger Imaging
Tool (PMIT) is a multifinger caliper
tool that makes highly accurate radial
measurements of the internal diame-
ter of tubing and casing strings. The
tool is available in three sizes to
address a wide range of through-tub-
ing and casing size applications.
The tool deploys an array of hard-
surfaced fingers, which accurately
monitor the inner pipe wall.
Eccentricity effects are minimized by
equal azimuthal spacing of the fingers
and a special processing algorithm,
and the PMIT-B tool incorporates
powerful motorized centralizers to
ensure effective centering force even
in highly deviated intervals. The incli-
nometer in the tool provides informa-
tion on well deviation and tool
rotation. The PMIT-C tool can be fitted
with special extended fingers for log-
ging large-diameter boreholes.

Applications
Identification and quantification
of corrosion damage
Identification of scale, wax, and
solids accumulation
Monitoring of anticorrosion
systems
Location of mechanical damage
Evaluation of corrosion increase
through periodic logs
Determination of absolute ID

PMIT-C

PMIT-B
PMIT-A

Well Integrity Evaluation 141


Measurement Specifications
PMIT-A PMIT-B PMIT-C
Output Internal casing image Internal casing image Internal casing image
from multiple inside from multiple inside from multiple inside
diameter measurements diameter measurements diameter measurements
Logging speed Standard: 1,800 ft/hr [549 m/h] Standard: 1,800 ft/hr [549 m/h] Standard: 1,800 ft/hr [549 m/h]
Max.: 6,000 ft/hr [1,829 m/h] Max.: 6,000 ft/hr [1,829 m/h] Max.: 6,000 ft/hr [1,829 m/h]
Vertical resolution 0.11 in. [0.28 cm] at 2,160 ft/hr [658 m/h] 0.11 in. [0.28 cm] at 1,600 ft/hr [488 m] Dependent on logging speed
Accuracy Relative bearing: 5 at up to 70 deviation Relative bearing: 5 at up to 70 deviation Accuracy: 0.05 in. [12.7 mm]
Radial resolution: 0.005 in. [0.127 mm] Radial resolution: 0.005 in. [0.127 mm] (extended fingers)
Radial resolution: 0.007 in. [0.178 mm]
(standard fingers)
0.009 in. [0.229 mm]
(extended fingers)
Depth of investigation Casing inside surface Casing inside surface Casing inside surface
Mud type or weight None None None
limitations
Combinability Combinable with the Combinable with the Combinable with the
PS Platform system PS Platform system PS Platform system
Bottom-only tool
Extra centralizers required for
casing larger than 958 in. [24.45 cm]
Special applications H2S service H2S service H2S service

Mechanical Specifications
PMIT-A PMIT-B PMIT-C
Temperature rating 302F [150C] 302F [150C] 302F [150C]
Pressure rating 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 15,000 psi [103 MPa]
20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Casing and tubing 134 in. [4.44 cm] 3 in. [7.62 cm] Standard fingers: 512 in. [13.97 cm]
sizemin. Extended fingers: 658 in. [16.83 cm]
Casing and tubing 412 in. [11.43 cm] 71 2 in. [19.05 cm] Standard fingers: 9 58 in. [24.45 cm]
sizemax. Extended fingers: 13 38 in. [33.97 cm]
Outer diameter 11116 in. [1.6875 cm] 2.75 in. [6.99 cm] Standard fingers: 4 in. [10.16 cm]
Extended fingers: 5.5 in. [13.97 cm]
Fingers 24 40 60
Length 7.62 ft [2.32 m] (without centralizers) 8.86 ft [2.70 m] 6.73 ft [2.05 m] (without power
Required mechanical supply adapter)
centralizer: 2.37 ft [0.72 m]
Weight 36.4 lbm [16 kg] 87.4 lbm [40 kg] 113 lbm [51 kg] (without
Required mechanical power supply adapter)
centralizer: 12 lbm [5 kg]

142 Wireline Services Catalog


Production
Logging
Services
PS Platform Production
Services Platform
The PS Platform integrated produc- (only 1.3 ft [40 cm] from the bot-
tion services platform performs in tom of the toolstring) enables
vertical, horizontal, or any angle of accurate measurement even when
borehole deviation to provide three- logging wells with a small sump.
phase flow profiles and production The PFCS is also self-centering and
monitoring or diagnostic information. has several spinner and caliper set-
Measurement capability is in both tings that are easily changed at the
real-time and memory modes. wellsite to adapt to the range of
Memory PS Platform service uses tubular and hole sizes to be tra-
many of the same downhole tools and versed during a survey. The tips
sensors as the PS Platform system to of the centralizer and caliper arm
acquire measurements for memory can be equipped with either skids
operations. In the PS Platform mem- or rollers for smooth conveyance
ory configuration, a memory module in both open- and cased holes.
PBMS
and battery replace the internal sur- Spinner blades are available in
face-readout telemetry cartridge in different sizes to log the normal
the Platform Basic Measurement range of casing and borehole sizes.
Sonde (PBMS). The conversion does The centralizer and caliper arm PGMS
not increase the length of the tool- provides an x-y measurement of
string, and the flexibility provided by casing, tubing, or openhole diame-
the sensor and tool combinations is ter with a resolution of 0.04 in.
maintained regardless of the mode of [1.0 mm]. This level of sensitivity
conveyance. enables the examination of corro-
Three-phase flow profiles and sion or defects such as splits or
reservoir monitoring information are separation in tubing and casing PILS-A
provided by the following sensors in with one trip into the wellbore.
the PS Platform toolstring: Gradiomanometer Sonde (PGMS)
PBMS houses the gamma ray and measures the average density of
casing collar locator for correlation the wellbore fluid, from which the
and also measures well pressure water, oil, and gas holdups are
and temperature. derived. An accelerometer mea-
surement provides deviation cor-
Flow-Caliper Imaging Sonde
rection for the measured fluid
(PFCS) measures the average fluid
density.
velocity, water and hydrocarbon
holdups, and bubble counts from GHOST Gas Holdup Optical Sensor FloView and
Tool uses four optical probes to FloView Plus
four independent electrical probes.
The bubble count image is used to measure gas and liquid holdups.
identify the first fluid entry. This The certainty of the three-phase
extremely compact sondemea- flow rate determination and accu-
suring only 5.2 ft [1.58 m] long racy of the final calculation are
provides an integrated set of ensured by the clear discrimina-
measurements for flow rate evalua- tion between liquid and gas that
tion. The position of the sensors GHOST measurements provide.
GHOST-A

PFCS

Wireline Services Catalog Production Logging Services 145


FloView* holdup measurement tool FloView Plus holdup measurement PS Platform Inline Spinner (PILS)
incorporates four electrical probes adds a FloView tool with the electri- is an optional component for mea-
that can be used to measure water cal probes angularly offset with suring bi-directional fluid velocity
and hydrocarbon holdups and bub- respect to the primary FloView tool inside the tubing or as a backup
ble counts in conjunction with the in the PS Platform toolstring. The spinner, normally in higher flow
PFCS electrical probes for greater FloView Plus combination of two rates.
borehole coverage. This additional FloView tools provides even better PS Platform UNIGAGE Carrier
information is especially useful in radial resolution that is particularly Sonde (PUCS) provides an optional
horizontal wells, where flow profiles useful in horizontal or highly devi- high-resolution pressure measure-
are essential for insight on the sur- ated wells where segregated flow is ment. This additional measurement
face production. suspected.

Measurement Specifications
PS Platform System
Output Flow rate, fluid density, pressure, temperature, water holdup, gas holdup,
caliper, relative bearing, tool acceleration
With SCMT: CBL, VDL, surface-readout radial cement map
Logging speed Stationary to variable based on the application
Range of measurement See individual sensor listing
Accuracy See individual sensor listing
Depth of investigation Borehole measurements
Mud type or weight limitations Relatively clean fluids
Combinability Combinable with SCMT tool and PS Platform Multifinger Imaging Tool (PMIT)
Special applications Conveyance on drillpipe, tubing, coiled tubing, or slickline

Mechanical Specifications
PS Platform System
Temperature rating 302F [150C]
PILS: 350F [177C]
High-temperature and memory (only PBMS, PFCS, and PGMS sensors): 374F [190C]
High-temperature and surface readout (only PBMS, PFCS, and PGMS sensors): 392F [200C]
Pressure rating 15,000 psi [103 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 2 38 in. [6.03 cm]
Borehole sizemax. PFCS caliper: 11 in. [27.94 cm]
Other sensors: No limit
Outer diameter Without rollers: 1.6875 in. [4.29 cm]
With rollers: 2.125 in. [5.40 cm]
High temperature: 2.06 in. [5.23 cm]
Length PBMS: 8.27 ft [2.52 m]
PFCS: 5.14 ft [1.57 m]
PGMS: 4.8 ft [1.46 m]
GHOST tool: 7.1 ft [2.16 m]
FloView tool: 6.8 ft [2.07 m]
PILS: 3.1 ft [0.94 m]
UNIGAGE carrier: 4.2 ft [1.28 m]
Weight PBMS: 38.3 lbm [17.4 kg]
PFCS: 19.7 lbm [9.0 kg]
PGMS: 29.5 lbm [13.4 kg]
GHOST tool: 57.7 lbm [26.2 kg]
FloView tool: 16 lbm [7.3 kg]
PILS: 12.5 lbm [5.7 kg]
UNIGAGE carrier: 33 lbm [15 kg]
High-temperature tools include the High-Temperature Basic Measurement Sonde (HBMS) and the High-Temperature Gradio Flowmeter tool (HGFT).
These two components provide the same measurements as the PBMS, PGMS, and PFCS.
Min. tubing size

The high-temperature tool (including all sensors) has a length of 23.94 ft [7.30 m] and a weight of 190.2 lbm [86.3 kg].

146 Wireline Services Catalog


capability is typically used to make Applications Depth correlation
transient measurements for reser- Three-phase production logging Reservoir and production
voir characterization and monitor- monitoring
ing. Vertical, deviated, and horizontal
wells Time-lapse monitoring
SCMT Slim Cement Mapping Tool
Combined with perforating for Transient analysis
can be run in conjunction with the
PS Platform system for cement immediate flow rate analysis Short periods of multilayer testing
bond and Variable Density logs in Memory mode at wellsites with Cement bond evaluation
casing. A radial cement map is also tight logistics
available in surface-readout mode. Stimulation evaluation
Multirate production logging

PS Platform Component Measurement Specifications


PBMS PFCS PGMS GHOST Tool
Output Pressure (Sapphire or quartz gauge), Fluid velocity, water holdup, Fluid density, Gas holdup, relative bearing,
temperature, gamma ray, CCL relative bearing, x-y dual caliper acceleration, deviation average caliper
Logging speed Based on application Based on application Based on application Based on application
Range of measurement Sapphire gauge: 1 to 10,000 psi Spinner: 0.5 to 200 rps 0 to 2.0 g/cm3 Gas holdup: 0 to 100%
[6,895 Pa to 69 MPa] Caliper: 2 to 11 in. [5.08 to 27.94 cm] Caliper: 2 to 9 in. [5.08 to 22.86 cm]
Quartz gauge: 15 to 15,000 psi (diameter)
[0.1 to 103 MPa]
Temperature: 13 to 302F
[25 to 150C]
Vertical resolution Point of measurement Point of measurement 15 in. [38.10 cm] Point of measurement
Accuracy Sapphire gauge: 6 psi Water holdup (Hw): 5%, 0.04 g/cm3 (accuracy), Gas holdup: 5%
[41,370 Pa] (accuracy), 2% for Hw > 90%, 0.002 g/cm3 (resolution) without probe protector,
0.1 psi [689 Pa] (resolution) 10% in oil-continuous phase 7% with probe protector,
Quartz gauge: 1 psi [6,894 Pa] Relative bearing: 6 1% for 2% < gas holdup (Hg) < 98%
0.01% of full scale (accuracy), Caliper: 0.2 in. [5.1 mm] (accuracy) Relative bearing: 6
0.01 psi [69 Pa] (resolution) Caliper: 0.25 in. [6.3 mm]
Temperature: 1.8F [1C] (accuracy),
0.01F [0.018C] (resolution)
Combinability Combinable with SCMT tool and PMIT
Special applications Exceeds NACE MR 01 75 standard for H2S resistance

PS Platform Component Measurement Specifications


FloView Tool PILS UNIGAGE Carrier
Output Water holdup, relative bearing, Fluid velocity Pressure (quartz crystal gauge)
average caliper
Logging Speed Based on application Based on application Based on application
Range of measurement Caliper: 2 to 9 in. [5.08 to 22.86 cm] Spinner: 0.5 to 100 rps 15 to 15,000 psi [0.1 to 103 MPa]
Accuracy Water holdup: 5%, 1 psi [6,894 Pa] 0.01% full scale (accuracy),
2% for Hw > 90%, 0.01 psi [69 MPa] (resolution)
10% in oil-continuous phase
Relative bearing: 6
Caliper: 0.25 in. [6.3 mm]
Combinability Combinable with SCMT tool and PMIT
Special applications Exceeds NACE MR 01 75 standard for H2S resistance

Production Logging Services 147


RSTPro Reservoir
Saturation Tool
The RSPPro Reservoir Saturation Tool The RSTPro tool can be configured
is compatible with the surface-readout for WFL measurement of both upward
version of the PS Platform production and downward flow, inside casing and
logging system. Only the production behind pipe. This adaptability enables
logging capabilities of the RSTPro tool the diagnosis of any flow condition.
are discussed in this section. The tool measures the phase velocity
The primary use of the RSTPro tool of water. In a producing well it mea-
is formation evaluation behind casing. sures the velocity of water indepen-
The RSTPro tool provides measure- dent of other produced fluids;
ments of the formation capture cross however, the accuracy of the water
section (sigma), porosity, and carbon velocity measurement is decreased if
and oxygen in one trip in the wellbore. the ratio of the volume of water to
This data combination is useful for other produced fluids is low. The
water saturation evaluation in old phase velocity inside casing can be
wells in which modern openhole logs converted to a quantitative measure-
have not been run. ment of production or injection (i.e.,
barrels per day or cubic meters per
day).
WFL Water Flow Log
from the RSTPro Reservoir Applications
Saturation Tool Detection and quantification of
The WFL Water Flow Log is used to water flowing in cement channels
locate and evaluate axial water migra- Identification of water flow in the
tion behind pipe, measure the velocity annulus between tubing and casing
of water flow in both production wells Independent measurement of
and water injection wells, and collect water velocity in casing
critical data on internal or behind-
pipe crossflow between zones.

Measurement Specifications
RSTPro Tool for WFL Water Flow Log
Output Velocity of water flowing inside the borehole or
outside the casing
Logging speed Stationary measurements
Range of measurement 3 to 210 ft/min [0.9 to 64 m/min] for 4.9-in. [12.45-cm] ID casing
Vertical resolution Depends on water velocity
Accuracy 5%
Depth of investigation For flow behind casing: 6 in. [15.24 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability Combinable with additional gamma ray sensor,
PS Platform tools (only surface readout), and CPLT tool
Special applications Inverted RSTPro tool measures downward flow inside the
RST-A borehole or outside the casing
H2S service

148 Wireline Services Catalog


RSTPro tool with ment to identify the location of gravel- Applications
silica activation pack sand behind the screen. If holes or Proper placement of gravel-pack
gaps are found in the pack placement, a sand
The RSTPro Reservoir Saturation Tool remedy can be applied inexpensively
with silica activation can be run with during this phase of the completion. If
Identification of holes or gaps in
the surface-readout version of the the gravel-pack sand was not placed the sand pack
PS Platform system to provide infor- behind the screen to the proper height, Efficient pack correction
mation for evaluating the quality of the job can continue until it is. A sec-
gravel-pack placement before placing ond pass of the RSTPro tool with silica
the well on production. The gamma ray activation can then verify proper place-
detectors use the nuclear reaction ment for a successful job.
response of silica to neutron bombard-

Measurement Specifications
RSTPro Tool with Silica Activation
Output Silica-activated gamma ray curve, images of sand placement and deficiencies
Logging speed 1,800 ft/hr [549 m/h]
Vertical resolution ~15 in. [~38 cm]
Depth of investigation ~10 in. [~25 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability Combinable with PS Platform (only surface readout), CPLT tool, gamma ray
Special applications H2S service

Mechanical Specifications
RST-C RST-D
Temperature rating 302F [150C] 302F [150C]
With flask: 400F [204C] With flask: 400F [204C]
Pressure rating 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 15,000 psi [103 MPa]
With flask: 20,000 psi [138 MPa] With flask: 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 11316 in. [4.60 cm] 3 in. [7.62 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 7 58 in. [19.37 cm] 9 58 in. [24.45 cm]
Outer diameter 1.71 in. [4.34 cm] 2.51 in. [6.37 cm]
Length 23.0 ft [7.01 m] 22.2 ft [6.76 m]
Weight 101 lbm [46 kg] 208 lbm [94 kg]
Tension 10,000 lbf [44,480 N] 10,000 lbf [44,480 N]
Compression 1,000 lbf [4,450 N] 1,000 lbf [4,450 N]

Production Logging Services 149


CPLT Combinable Production
Logging Tool
The CPLT Combinable Production when the CPLT toolstring is run in
Logging Tool provides a production openhole. Other uses of the CPLT tool
profile for a producing wellbore. The include monitoring the profile of
profile includes measurements of the injection fluids into an injection well
flow rate, fluid density, temperature, and determining the existence of fluid
and in situ pressure in the wellbore. channeling behind casing.
A three-arm caliper can be included

Measurement Specifications
CPLT Tool
Output Flow rate, fluid density, temperature, pressure, caliper
Logging speed Stationary to variable based on application
Range of measurement Spinner: 0.5 to 100 rps
Density: 0 to 2 g/cm3
Temperature: 13 to 350F [25 to 177C]
Pressure: 0 to 10,000 psi [0 to 69 MPa]
Caliper: 2 to 18 in. [5.08 to 45.72 cm]
Vertical resolution Spinner, temperature, pressure, and caliper:
Point of measurement
Density: 15 in. [38.10 cm]
Accuracy Spinner: 0.1 rps
Density: 0.04 g/cm3 (accuracy), 0.004 g/cm3 (resolution)
Temperature: 1.8F [1C] (accuracy), 0.011F [0.006C]
(resolution)
Pressure: 10 psi [0.07 MPa] (accuracy), 0.1 psi [689 Pa]
(resolution)
Depth of investigation Borehole measurement only
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability Combinable with most production logging services
Special applications H2S service

Mechanical Specifications
CPLT Tool
Temperature rating 350F [177C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 12532-in. [4.52-cm] seating nipple
Borehole sizemax. 18 in. [45.72 cm]
Outer diameter With Continuous Flowmeter Sonde CFS-H: 11116 in. [4.29 cm]
With CFS-J: 2 18 in. [5.40 cm]
With CFS-K: 2 78 in. [7.30 cm]
Length Basic tool body: 15.2 ft [4.6 m]
Weight Basic tool body: 75 lbm [34 kg]
Tension 10,000 lbf [44,480 N]
Compression 1,000 lbf [4,450 N]

150 Wireline Services Catalog


Combinable
Gamma Ray Sonde
The Combinable Gamma Ray Sonde
(CGRS) performs both through-tubing
and -casing gamma ray correlation.
The result is accurate positioning of
various production logging tools on
depth with openhole logs. The CGRS
is also used as a third gamma ray
detector in combination with the
RSTPro tool to detect high-velocity
water movement.

Application
Accurate depth correlation

Measurement Specifications
CGRS
Output Gamma ray activity
Logging speed Up to 3,600 ft/hr [1,097 m/h]
Range of measurement 0 to 2000 gAPI
Vertical resolution 12 in. [30.48 cm]
Accuracy 5%
Depth of investigation 24 in. [60.96 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability Combinable with CPLT tool, RSTPro tool
Special applications H2S service

Mechanical Specifications
CGRS
Temperature rating 350F [177C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 11316 in. [4.60 cm]
Borehole sizemax. No limit
Outer diameter 1.6875 in. [4.29 cm]
Length 3.2 ft [0.97 m]
Weight 16 lbm [7 kg]
Tension 10,000 lbf [44,480 N]
Compression 1,000 lbf [4,450 N]

Production Logging Services 151


Phase Velocity Sonde

The Phase Velocity Sonde (PVS) is a velocity is determined from the ejec-
production logging tool used in con- tion-to-detector distance and travel
junction with the RST Reservoir time. These data are essential for
Saturation Tool to measure the velocity determination of the volume of water,
of two separate phases (water and oil) oil, or both fluids flowing in the well-
in a flowing horizontal or highly devi- bore. This provides a basis for deter-
ated well. A chemical marker with a mining the flowing profile of a well at
high thermal neutron absorption cross downhole conditions in comparison
section (sigma) that is miscible only with individual-fluid production at sur-
with the phase of interest is injected face conditions. The PVS main module
into the borehole. The passage of the can be combined with an auxiliary
marker downstream is detected by the module to provide an additional chem-
borehole sigma measurement of the ical marker reservoir for long jobs.
RST tool. The PVS is capable of mea-
suring upflow or downflow depending
on where it is placed in the toolstring Application
with respect to the RST tool. The fluid Downhole phase velocity
measurement

Measurement Specifications
PVS
Output Phase velocity
Logging speed Stationary
Range of measurement Phase velocity: 4 to 500 ft/min [1.2 to 152 m/min]
Vertical resolution Depends on ejectordetector spacing
Accuracy 5%
Depth of investigation Borehole
Mud type or weight limitations Produced or injected fluids
Combinability PS Platform system (only surface readout)

152 Wireline Services Catalog


Mechanical Specifications
PVS
Temperature rating 302F [150C]
Pressure rating 5,000, 10,000, or 15,000 psi [34, 69, or 103 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 2 38 in. [6.03 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 9 in. [22.86 cm]
Outer diameter 1.6875 in. [4.29 cm]
Length Main and auxiliary modules: 22.39 ft [6.82 m]
Main module: 12.9 ft [3.93 m]
Optional auxiliary module: 9.44 ft [2.88 m]
Weight Main module: 57.7 lbm [26.2 kg]
Auxiliary module: 45.5 lbm [20.6 kg]
Tension 5,000-psi [34-MPa] rating: 12,650 lbf [56,270 N]
10,000-psi [69-MPa] rating: 19,350 lbf [86,070 N]
15,000-psi [103-MPa] rating: 26,000 lbf [115,650 N]
Compression 1,000 lbf [4,450 N]
Marker fluid ejection Reservoir volume: 400 cm3 (main), 400 cm3 (auxiliary)
Ejection volume: 10 cm3 1 cm3 (standard),
15 cm3 1.5 cm3 (optional)
Ejection duration: 250 ms (max.)
Ejection recycle time for metering piston: ~1 min
Min. tubing size

Production Logging Services 153


FloView Holdup Measurement Tool

The FloView tool is used to determine Applications


the percentage of the heavy phase, Accurate water holdup
normally water, in the flow stream
downhole. The tool also measures the
First oil-entry detection
bubble count of the light phase, either From bubble count
gas or oil, in the flow stream. This Works at high water cut
measurement is used to calculate the
velocity of the light phase, if in bubble
First water-entry detection for
form, at the point of measurement water shutoff (at low water cut)
(i.e., the intrinsic velocity) and is Caliper measurement
independent of the velocity measured Differentiation of fresh and
by propeller flowmeters. injected waters

Measurement Specifications
FloView Tool
Output Bubble count, water holdup, caliper
Logging speed Stationary to variable based on application
Range of measurement Caliper: 2 to 9 in. [5.08 to 22.86 cm]
Vertical resolution Point of measurement
Accuracy Water holdup (Hw ): 5% (2% for Hw > 90%)
Relative oil flow rate: 20%
Depth of investigation Borehole measurement
Mud type or weight limitations Min. salinity of all wellbore fluids:
2,000 ppm [2,000 106] at 77F [25C]
1,000 ppm [2,000 106] at 212F [100C]
700 ppm [2,000 106] at 302F [150C]
Combinability Gamma ray, CPLT tool
Special applications H2S service
Valid for bubble size greater than 0.08 in. [2 mm] and deviation less then 30

Mechanical Specifications
FloView Tool
Temperature rating 302F [150C]
Pressure rating DEFT-A and DEFT-AB: 15,000 psi [103 MPa]
DEFT-B: 10,000 psi [69 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 2 in. [5.08 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 9 in. [22.86 cm]
Outer diameter 1.6875 in. [4.29 cm]
Length DEFT-A and DEFT-AB: 6.75 ft [2.06 m]
DEFT-B: 6.08 ft [1.85 m]
Weight 16 lbm [7 kg]
Tension 10,000 lbf [44,480 N]
Compression 1,000 lbf [4,450 N]

154 Wireline Services Catalog


Multiple-Isotope
Spectroscopy Tool
The Multi-Isotope Spectroscopy Tool can be tagged with different isotopes.
(MIST) discriminates between isotopes An important example is formation
that emit gamma rays to provide a clear fracture evaluation. If the pad fluid
analysis of multistage stimulation at and each proppant stage are tagged
the wellsite. The tool detects gamma with different isotopes, a single wire-
ray energies through 14 energy win- line run can log both the extent of the
dows that range from 180 to 3,000 keV. fracture and the degree of proppant
The related counts and energy levels placement. The real-time availability
are integrated by the wellsite computer of the MIST log at the wellsite means
and used to identify the source isotope. that the evaluation is conducted
Isotope identification by the MIST log immediately.
is virtually immediate. Using labora-
tory-derived standard spectra, the
detector also discriminates between Applications
isotopes in the formation and isotopes Single-pass analysis of multiple
in the wellbore. fracture jobs
Because the MIST tool discrimi- Background-corrected analysis of
nates between radioisotopes, it is multiple fracture jobs
used to track downhole processes that

Measurement Specifications
MIST
Output Elemental spectra from individual tracer isotopes
Logging speed 1,800 ft/hr [549 m/h]
Vertical resolution 6 in. [15.24 cm]
Depth of investigation 6 in. [15.24 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability Gamma ray, CCL, CPLT tool

Measurement Specifications
MIST-A MIST-B
Temperature rating 350F [177C] 350F [177C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 2 34 in. [6.98 cm] 3 in. [7.62 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 12 in. [30.48 cm] 12 in. [30.48 cm]
Outer diameter 11116 in. [4.29 cm] 2 in. [5.08 cm]
Length 14.3 ft [4.36 m] 14.3 ft [4.36 m]
Weight 60 lbm [27 kg] 60 lbm [27 kg]
Tension 10,000 lbf [44,480 N] 10,000 lbf [44,480 N]
Compression 1,000 lbf [4,450 N] 1,000 lbf [4,450 N]

Production Logging Services 155


Perforating
Services and
Accessories
Perforating Accessories

Casing collar locator pulse that is recorded in conjunction


The casing collar locator (CCL) is the with the gamma ray. The dual record-
universal positioning device used to ing establishes the position of the cas-
correlate between cased hole services ing collar with reference to the casing
(e.g., gamma rayCCL to perforat- gamma ray log to the SP or gamma ray
ingCCL or other cased hole services of an openhole log.
that do not necessarily require a CCL tools are available in a wide
gamma ray for correlation). The CCL range of sizes and specifications to
run in combination with a cased hole address different casing and tubing
gamma ray establishes the link sizes, well pressure and temperature
between the openhole gamma ray conditions, and logging cables as well
measurement and the cased hole cas- as combinability with other services.
ing collar locator.
The magnetic field of the perma- Application
nent magnets in the CCL tool becomes Correlation of cased hole logs
distorted as the device passes a casing to perforating or other cased hole
collar. The distortion is amplified services
within the tool and sent up hole as a

Measurement Specifications
CCL
Output Casing and tubing collar location
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability Requires monocable, coaxial cable, or hepta-cable
Combinable with perforating guns of different sizes,
plug and packer setting tools, cutters, punchers,
cased hole logging tools
Special applications H2S service

Mechanical Specifications CCL-AG


CCL
Temperature rating 500F [260C]
Pressure rating 25,000 psi [172 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 112 in. [3.81 cm]
Borehole sizemax. No limit
Outer diameter 1.375 to 3.375 in. [3.49 to 8.57 cm]
Length 1.48 to 3.5 ft [0.45 to 1.07 m]
Weight 6 to 81.5 lbm [2.7 kg to 37 kg]

Wireline Services Catalog Perforating Services and Accessories 159


UPCT Universal Perforating Applications
and Correlation Tool Gamma rayCCL correlation
The UPCT* Universal Perforating and During perforating runs for
Correlation Tool is a gamma rayCCL single-trip efficiency
depth correlation tool for perforating Through tubing
operations shooting any type of deto- In tubing and casing
nator, including radio frequency
(RF-) safe detonator systems on both At extreme depth and tempera-
polarities (addressable switch). The ture conditions
depth correlation provided by the 11116-
in. [4.29-cm] UPCT tool enables pre-
cise positioning of perforating guns
and other through-tubing explosive
devices. The rugged design and robust
electronics of the UPCT tool enable
running it on the same string as the
perforating guns without requiring a
shock absorber sub.
Gamma
ray detector

Measurement Specifications
UPCT Tool
Output Casing and tubing collar location
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability Combinable with all detonator types and perforating
guns without requiring a shock absorber sub
Special applications H2S service
Shock qualified to 5,000-g pyro

Mechanical Specifications
UPCT Tool
Temperature rating 13 to 350F [25C to 177C]
1-hr excursion: 400F [204C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 134 in. [4.44 cm]
CCL
Borehole sizemax. No limit
Outer diameter 1.6875 in. [4.29 cm]
Length Without gun: 4.5 ft [1.37 m]
Weight 25 lbm [11.3 kg]

UPCT

160 Wireline Services Catalog


PGGT Powered Gun Applications
Gamma Tool Accurate positioning of tubing-
The PGGT Powered Gun Gamma Tool conveyed perforating (TCP) guns
records naturally occurring gamma Correlation of perforating guns,
rays in the formations near the well- plugs, and packers in wells without
bore. This nuclear measurement indi- previously recorded cased hole logs
cates the radioactive content of the Correlation of perforating guns,
formations. Effective in any environ- plugs, and packers in wells with
ment, the PGGT tool is the standard uniform casing joints
device for the correlation of cased hole Correlation of plugs and packers in
logs with openhole logs. Perforating large casing sizes, which may cause
guns, tubing punchers, plugs and pack- the collar locator to be centralized
ers, and core guns can be correlated by and ineffective
using gamma ray, CCL, or both tech-
niques simultaneously.
Added assurance for correlating
critical perforating or plug and
packer jobs
Reliable openhole gamma ray
correlation for core guns
Correlation services in casing
where CCL signals cannot be
detected

Measurement Specifications
PGGT Tool
Output Natural occurring gamma ray, casing collar locator
Logging speed 1,800 ft/hr [549 m/h]
Range of measurement 0 to 1,000 gAPI
Vertical resolution 12 in. [30.48 cm]
Accuracy 5%
Depth of investigation 24 in. [60.96 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability PGGT-B and PGGT-D: CST Chronological Sample Taker,
casing guns, plugs, packers
PGGT-A and PGGT-C: Through-tubing guns
Special applications H2S service

Mechanical Specifications
PGGT-A and PGGT-C PGGT-B PGGT-D
Temperature rating 350F [177C] 500F [260C] 350F [177C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
27,500 psi [190 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 11316 in. [4.60 cm] 2 12 in. [6.35 cm] 418 in. [10.47 cm]
Borehole sizemax. No limit No limit No limit
Outer diameter 1.6875 in. [4.29 cm] 20,000-psi rating: 3.375 in. [8.57 cm]
2.125 in. [5.40 cm]
27,500-psi rating:
2.25 in. [5.71 cm]
Length 6.42 ft [1.96 m] 8.17 ft [2.49 m] 5.83 ft [1.78 m]
Weight 37 lbm [17 kg] 58 lbm [26 kg] 97 lbm [44 kg]

Perforating Services and Accessories 161


WPP Wireline Perforating perforation and production access to
Platform reservoirs that would otherwise require
a costly and time-consuming workover.
The WPP* Wireline Perforating Platform Borehole temperature and pressure
integrates a rugged arsenal of sensors data can be acquired by the WPP plat-
and actuators for optimizing well pro- form before, during, and after perforat-
ductivity while perforating. Use of the ing. Interpretation of these real-time
WPP platform maximizes flexibility in data can provide a good indication of
positioning perforating guns and the formation pressure and reservoir
enables real-time monitoring of parameters (permeability and skin
results. Safer, more reliable perforat- effect) to guide operations. Data acqui-
ing results from the systems intelli- sition is not interrupted by detonator
gent control of the downhole power initiation. Up to 20 guns can be con-
supply. nected to the bottom of the tool for
WPP oriented perforating service selective firing through the use of
provides single-trip conveyance and addressable switch technology.
orientation of perforating guns on wire-
line, coiled tubing, or a tractor system
through tubing into vertical or deviated Applications
wells. The WPP motor system rotates Hydraulic fracturing
the guns into firing position relative to Sand prevention
the preferred fracture plane to opti-
mize hydraulic fracturing operations. Multiple completion string
The completion imaging configura- detection
tion of the WPP platform is used to Establishment of over- or underbal-
shoot through a tubing string in a mul- ance before perforating
tiple completion without hitting paral- Temperature survey
lel strings. The mapper tools multiple Measurement of formation pressure
completion string detection and selec- buildup or drawdown
tive shooting of multiple guns provides

162 Wireline Services Catalog


Measurement Specifications
WPP Platform
Output Casing and tubing collar location, inclination or relative bearing,
orientation of perforating guns, downhole shot indication
Optional: gamma ray, borehole temperature, borehole pressure,
completion imaging
Logging speed Stationary measurement
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability Combinable with PS Platform telemetry

Mechanical Specifications
WPP Platform
Temperature rating 302F [150C]
Pressure rating 15,000 psi [103 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 1.75 in. [4.44 cm]
Borehole sizemax. No limit
Outer diameter 1.6875 in. [4.29 cm]
With gyroscope carrier: 1.75 in. [4.44 cm]
Length Oriented perforating: 24.0 ft [7.31 m] (not including gun and gamma ray tool)
Completion mapper: 22.0 ft [6.70 m] (not including gamma ray tool)
Pressure and temperature measurement: 15.0 ft [4.57 m]
(not including gun and gamma ray tool)
Weight WPP platform: 166.3 lbm [75.4 kg]
Oriented perforating: 159.3 lbm [72.2 kg]
Completion mapper: 140.3 lbm [63.6 kg]
Pressure and temperature measurement: 85 lbm [38 kg]
Tension Perforating and imaging: 14,200 lbf [63,160 N]
Measurement: 39,000 lbf [173,480 N]

Perforating Services and Accessories 163


Wireline Oriented needs less breakout pressure. This
Perforating Tool results in lower surface pressures and
the pumping fluid can be more viscous.
The gyroscope-oriented Wireline Oriented It also helps prevent sand production
Perforating Tool (WOPT) is used for by creating less turbulent flow along
wireline-conveyed, azimuth-oriented the perforated tunnels.
perforating in near-vertical wells. The
WOPT enables perforating the pre-
ferred facture plane (PFP), which Applications
improves hydraulic fracture treat- Fracture plane perforating
ments as well as assists sanding pre- Minimized fracture pressure
vention in weak but consolidated
formations. From the perspective of
Minimized sand production
rock mechanics, a fracture propagates Directional cement squeeze
in the direction of the maximum hori- Setting whipstocks
zontal stress regardless of perforation Perforating adjacent well (from
orientation, which causes the fracture relief well) for well control
fluid to travel around the casing and
before it flows into the direction of
Oriented core sampling with the
propagation. Perforating in the direc- CST Chronological Sample Taker
tion of the maximum shear stress plane Relief well perforating
(i.e., the PFP) allows the fracture fluid
to flow directly into the fracture propa-
gation. By orienting the perforations
toward the PFP, the fracturing job

Measurement Specifications
WOPT
Output Azimuthal perforating direction
Logging speed Stationary
Range of measurement Indexing at 5 increments
Accuracy 3
Depth of investigation Borehole positioning device
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability 318-, 3 38-, 312-, 3.67-, 4-, 412-, 4.72-, and 5-in.
[7.93-, 8.57-, 8.89-, 9.32-, 10.16-, 11.43-, 11.99-,
and 12.70-cm] HSD* High Shot Density gun systems

Mechanical Specifications
WOPT
Temperature rating 350F [177C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 4 in. [10.16 cm]
Borehole sizemax. No limit
Outer diameter 3.375 in. [8.57 cm]
Length Variable based on configuration
Weight Variable based on configuration

164 Wireline Services Catalog


Through-Tubing Perforating
Positioning Devices
Through-tubing perforating position- Applications
ing devices are used to position Increased well productivity
through-tubing perforating guns below
the end of the tubing in the casing
Maximum casing hole size
across a zone of interest. Maximum formation penetration

Magnetic Positioning Spring Positioning Device


Device The Spring Positioning Device (SPD)
The Magnetic Positioning Device forces the through-tubing gun to the
(MPD) has a strong permanent mag- casing wall in vertical wells. The loca-
net oriented in the same plane as the tion of the spring on the opposite side
zero-phased tubing gun. In a vertical of the gun charges (zero phasing)
wellbore, the magnet positions the maximizes the casing hole size and
gun charges to the face of the casing formation penetration.
wall. This position produces maximum
hole size and formation penetration. Applications
In deviated wells the magnet positions
the charges to the low side of the Increased well productivity
wellbore to prevent orientation of the Maximum casing hole size
gun to the high side of the casing. MPD
Maximum formation penetration
High-side (across-casing) perforating
severely restricts the hole size in the
casing and formation penetration.

Mechanical Specifications
MPD SPD
Temperature rating 500F [260C] 500F [260C]
Pressure rating 25,000 psi [172 MPa] 25,000 psi [172 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 11316 in. [4.60 cm] 11316 in. [4.60 cm]
Borehole sizemax. No limit 7 in. [17.78 cm]
Outer diameter 1.375 to 2 in. [3.49 to 5.08 cm] 1.6875 to 2.875 in. [4.29 to 7.30 cm]
Length 1.46 to 1.77 ft [0.44 to 0.54 m] 2.36 to 3.3 ft [0.72 to 1.00 m]
Weight 7 to 22 lbm [3 to 10 kg] 10 to 32 lbm [4.5 to 14 kg]

SPD-A

Perforating Services and Accessories 165


Wireline Perforating
Anchor Tool
The Wireline Perforating Anchor Tool The tool is designed to work in 278-
(WPAT) is used for perforating mono- and 312-in. [7.30- and 8.89-cm] casing.
bore wells under very high under- The anchoring mechanism withstands
balance pressure. This method of force to 17,000 lbf [75,620 N] in an
anchoring wireline-conveyed guns is a upward or downward direction. The
practical, reliable, and economical high rate of flow during perforation
technique for completing monobore cleanup causes the holding capacity
wells. The WPAT makes perforating to increase as the amount of force act-
with very high underbalance possible ing on the gun string increases. The
by eliminating gun movement during WPAT prevents the guns from jump-
perforating. Higher underbalance ing, which in turn helps to prevent
improves perforation cleanup, result- inadvertent breaking of the wireline
ing in greater well productivity. cable head weakpoint.
The WPAT positively anchors guns
from below by using three circumfer-
entially distributed slips. With an elec- Applications
trical command from the surface, the Underbalanced perforation
slips are anchored in the casing before in small casing sizes
the gun is fired. The profile of the slips Memory gauges run below perfo-
is carefully crafted to prevent both rating guns for the determination
movement when set and damage to of crossflow or depletion
the tubing. After a preprogrammed Enhanced cleanup because the
time interval, which can be from 5 min well can be flowed immediately
to 1 hr, the slips are automatically after perforating underbalanced
released and retracted.

Mechanical Specifications
WPAT-A WPAT-B
Temperature rating 400F [204C] 400F [204C]
Pressure rating 10,000 psi [69 MPa] 10,000 psi [69 MPa]
Casing sizemax. ID 2.58 in. [6.55 cm] 3.04 in. [7.72 cm]
Casing sizeOD 2 78 in. [7.30 cm] 3.5 in. [8.89 cm]
Outer diameter 2.125 in. [5.39 cm] 2.6 in. [6.60 cm]
Length 9.2 ft [2.80 m] 9.3 ft [2.83 m]
Weight 86 lbm [239 kg] 96 lbm [43 kg]

166 Wireline Services Catalog


Perforating Explosives

The explosives used for well perforat- Explosives Time and Temperature Ratings
ing are designed mainly for different
Explosive 1 hr 100 hr 200 hr 400 hr
ranges of well temperatures. Cyclo-
trimethylene trinitramine (RDX) RDX 340F [171C] 240F [115C] 225F [107C] 210F [99C]
explosives are used for standard appli- HMX 400F [204C] 300F [149C] 285F [140C] 270F [132C]
cations, whereas hexanitrostilbene HTX* 500F [260C] 410F [210C] 390F [199C] 370F [188C]
(HNS) explosives may be used in envi- HNS 500F [260C] 460F [238C] 440F [227C] 420F [215C]
ronments up to 500F [260C]. The
temperature rating of an explosive is
also dependent on the time of expo-
sure to that temperature. Explosives
must be selected on the basis of the
well temperature and the expected
duration of exposure.

Time-Temperature Guidelines for Selection of Explosives in Hollow Carrier Guns


600

500 260

HNS
400 200
Temperature HTX Temperature
(F) (C)
300 HMX 150

200 RDX 100

100
1 10 100 1,000
Time (hr)
90 days
Note: Contact your Schlumberger representative for high-temperature and long-duration operations
(shaded area on the figure). Exceeding the temperature rating leads to reduced performance followed
by burning (all explosives) and possible autodetonation (RDS and HMX explosives).

Perforating Services and Accessories 167


Detonation Systems

The majority of wireline-conveyed per- S.A.F.E. Slapper-Actuated Secure detonator


forating operations are performed Firing Equipment The Secure detonator is the third gen-
using standard detonators that employ eration of S.A.F.E. initiators. It per-
primary high explosives. This situation The S.A.F.E. detonating system is
immune to electric potential differences forms the duties of a conventional
necessitates following rigorous safety detonator without adding the safety
policies and procedures to ensure that created by RF radiation, impressed cur-
rent for cathodic protection, electric concerns, cost, and inconvenience of
stray electrical effects caused by radio shutting down RF transmitters, turn-
signals, electric arc welding opera- welding, high-tension power lines, and
inductive coupling from large induction ing off cathodic protection, and post-
tions, or cathodic protection systems poning welding operations.
do not accidentally set off the detona- motors such as topdrives on drilling rigs.
S.A.F.E technology eliminates the need Through its use of EFI technology,
tor. In environments where it is not the Secure detonator is one of the
feasible to eliminate all sources of to shut down radio communication and
other vital rig equipment during perfo- safest detonators in the industry. Its
interference, detonation systems that inherent safety results from the spe-
incorporate additional safety features rating jobs.
The S.A.F.E. detonating mechanism cific high voltage and current pulse
are required. required for detonation. The power
is the exploding foil initiator (EFI),
which has proved resistant to stray threshold for the Secure EFI is 3 MW,
voltages because it requires a high cur- compared with 1 W for a typical stan-
rent for detonation. The S.A.F.E. system dard resistorized detonator and 2 W for
contains no primary high explosives. a semiconductor bridge detonator. No
When shooting power is applied, primary high explosives are used in the
a section of metal foil is instantly detonator. Nor does the Secure detona-
vaporized, which causes a neighboring tor use pyrotechnic materials, which
(secondary) high-explosives pellet to may burn to detonation if exposed to
detonate and shear a small aluminum fire.
flyer. The flyer travels across a fluid The Secure detonator requires no
desensitization gap in the EFI housing downhole cartridge to provide the elec-
and strikes a booster that initiates the tric pulse to initiate the firing
detonation of the gun. sequence. All electronics are fully
expendable and contained in the deto-
nator package for simple, reliable, and
flexible operation.

168 Wireline Services Catalog


Gun Systems and Charges

Modern perforating technology has Capsule gun systems


evolved from simple holes in the cas- Capsule guns are exposed gun sys-
ing to scientific, objective-oriented tems, with the explosives packed into
services adapted to achieve sophisti- pressure-tight capsules that are
cated and versatile completion exposed to the well environment.
designs. Perforating is now used to Capsule guns are typically used in
optimize permanent completions, through-tubing perforation applica-
temporary completions such as DSTs, tions.
and workovers. Along with services
such as hydraulic fracturing, sand
management, extended-reach and Enerjet expendable strip
horizontal wells, completion fluids gun system
engineering, and well testing, perfo- The Enerjet* expendable strip gun
rating has become indispensable for system provides deep penetrating
improving productivity. charges in either nonphased or vari-
Gun systems and charges must ous phasing configurations. The gun
meet the demand for the increased systems are available as retrievable or
hole size and penetration required to expendable and in sizes from 1.63 to
optimize productivity. The key to Pivot gun
2.5 in. [4.14 to 6.35 cm].
improved perforating performance is
synergy between the gun and charge
designs. Schlumberger provides a Pivot Gun gun system
wide range of perforating charges, gun The high-performance Pivot Gun wire-
systems, and detonating techniques to line through-tubing gun systems are
address a comprehensive range of ideal for workover reperforating or
applications. shooting past deep formation damage.
Gun and charge performance in The running-in-hole gun diameter
the downhole environment is critical is only 11116 in. [4.29 cm], but once
to the success of well completion. the gun is below the tubing, the
Schlumberger perforation equipment charges are rotated outward to pro-
is qualified to American Petroleum duce an effective gun diameter of
Institute (API) Recommended Prac- 3.79 in. [9.63 cm]. Penetration is
tice (RP) 43 Fifth Edition Section 1 or nearly 33 in. [0.83 m] with the
the more recently established indus- PowerPivot* charge. Both the carrier
try standards of API RP 19B Section 1. and charges break up after detonation.

Enerjet

Perforating Services and Accessories 169


An important Pivot Gun feature is able in 11116-, 218-, and 212-in. [4.29-, CERAMICA perforating charge
its Safe Arming/Deployment Verifi- 5.40-, and 6.35-cm] sizes. The techno- The 218-in. [5.40-cm] CERAMICA* per-
cation Circuit. This circuit prevents the logical breakthrough provided by the forating charge is a high-performance
gun from being armed and fired until PowerSpiral guns is a shock-absorbing capsule gun suitable for through-tub-
the charges are fully rotated outward material between the charges. This ing perforating. When fired, the entire
from the gun carrier by the deployment material attenuates shock waves dur- gun shatters into small pieces, which
head and rods. Another key feature is ing the detonation, which reduces reduces the risk of getting stuck after
that an unfired deployed gun can be charge-to-charge interference and also perforating. One part of the gun uses a
retrieved. The charges rotate back into minimizes shock waves in the wellbore. highly frangible material, which virtu-
the carrier as the gun enters the tubing This reduction is significant because it ally disappears upon explosive impact.
muleshoe (wireline reentry guide). increases the performance of shots
across the wellbore. With features
including multiple phasing, high shot Applications
PowerSpiral spiral-phased density, and use of PowerJet* deep Through-tubing perforation
perforating system penetrating shaped charges, the Deep penetration
The PowerSpiral* spiral-phased perfo- PowerSpiral system generates perfora-
rating system is a retrievable capsule tions capable of the highest well pro- Rigless perforation or reperforation
perforating gun designed for through- ductivity for its size.
tubing wireline operations. It is avail-

Capsule Gun Performance and Mechanical Data Summary

Gun Shot Phasing Charge API RP 43 Fifth Edition Section 1 or API 19B Section 1 Temperature Maximum Maximum Minimum Debris Fill Maximum
Designation Density () Rating for Explosive Pressure Restriction per Charge Gun Length
(spf) Penetration Entrance Area Open Internal Casing Casing 1 hr Load Rating (in.) in 412-, 5-, and (ft)
(in.) Hole to Flow Casing Burr Size Weight (F) (g) (psi) 7-in. Casing
(in.) (in.2/ft) Avg/Max. (in.) (lbm/ft)
(in.)

11116-in. Pivot Gun 4 180 11116-in. UCAP, RDX 27.8 0.38 0.05/0.08 412 11.6 330 22.0 12,000 1.78 0.85/0.48/0.33 15
11116-in. PowerPivot Gun 4 180 11116-in. PP, HMX 32.8 0.32 0.04/0.08 412 11.6 365 22.0 12,000 1.78 0.85/0.48/0.33 15

1.63-in. Retrievable Enerjet 4 0 1.63-in. EJ, RDX 18.0 0.28 0.03/0.05 412 11.6 330 8.0 20,000 1.71 0.13/0.08/0.06 50
1.63-in. Retrievable Enerjet 4 0 1.63-in. EJ, HMX 17.8 0.29 0.03/0.06 412 11.6 365 8.0 20,000 1.71 0.13/0.08/0.06 50
11116-in. Retrievable Power Enerjet 6 0 11116-in. PE, HMX 21.6 0.20 0.01/0.03 412 11.6 365 8.0 20,000 1.78 0.13/0.08/0.06 50
11116-in. Biphased Retrievable Power Enerjet 6 45 11116-in.Ph EJ, HMX 14.6 0.26 0.05/0.08 412 11.6 365 8.0 20,000 1.78 0.16/0.10/0.07 35
11116-in. PowerSpiral Enerjet 7.5 45 11116-in. PowerSpiral EJ, HMX 19.5 0.22 0.06/0.10 412 11.6 365 8.0 15,000 1.78 0.15/0.09/0.07 30

218-in. Retrievable Enerjet 4 0 218-in. EJ, RDX 21.9 0.31 0.02/0.03 512 17.0 330 14.0 20,000 2.25 0.16/0.10/0.07 50
218-in. Retrievable EnerjetExpress* 6 0 218-in. EJExpress, RDX 21.2 0.34 0.05/0.07 512 17.0 330 13.8 20,000 2.25 0.16/0.10/0.07 50
218-in. Retrievable EnerjetExpress 6 0 218-in. EJExpress, HMX 23.5 0.34 0.05/0.07 512 17.0 365 13.8 20,000 2.25 0.16/0.10/0.07 50
218-in. Retrievable Power Enerjet 6 0 218-in. PE, HMX 30.4 0.32 0.06/0.08 512 17.0 365 14.3 20,000 2.25 0.16/0.10/0.07 50
218-in. Retrievable Power Enerjet 6 0 218-in. PE, HTX 24.7 0.23 0.03/0.06 512 17.0 450 15.0 20,000 2.25 0.16/0.10/0.07 50
218-in. Biphased Retrievable Enerjet 6 45 218-in. Ph EJ III, RDX 22.9 0.29 0.04/0.11 512 17.0 330 14.0 15,000 2.25 0.19/0.13/0.08 35
218-in. PowerSpiral Enerjet 6 45 218-in. PowerSpiral EJ, HMX 27.2 0.32 0.08/0.11 512 17.0 365 14.5 15,000 2.25 0.18/0.12/0.07 30

218-in. Retrievable Big Hole 4 0 218-in. EJ BH, RDX 10.0 0.57 1.02 0.08/0.10 512 17.0 330 17.0 20,000 2.25 0.16/0.10/0.07 50
218-in. Retrievable Big Hole 4 0 218-in. EJ BH, HMX 10.5 0.51 0.82 0.05/0.07 512 17.0 365 17.0 20,000 2.25 0.16/0.10/0.08 50
218-in. Triphased Expendable Big Hole 6 0, 45 218-in. EJ BH, RDX 8.1 0.47 1.04 0.07/0.10 512 17.0 330 15.0 15,000 2.25 0.23/0.15/0.10 30

212-in. Expendable Power Enerjet 4 0 212-in. PE, HMX 34.8 0.28 0.04/0.06 7 32.0 365 27.0 15,000 2.62 0.44/0.37/0.21 30
212-in. PowerSpiral Enerjet 5 45 212-in. PowerSpiral EJ, HMX 36.6 0.39 0.07/0.11 512 17.0 365 25.6 15,000 2.62 0.88/0.59/0.38 30

Notes: Every attempt has been made to verify the accuracy of the data tabulated; contact your Schlumberger representative for further information.
Other shot densities and phasings are available; Schlumberger also custom designs perforation systems to meet specific needs.
Bold blue type identifies API 19B Registered Perforation Systems

170 Wireline Services Catalog


Carrier gun systems RDX deep penetrating charges to shoot Casing gun systems
Carrier gun systems are perforation sys- through formation damage. Fracture Casing guns are wireline-conveyed
tems in which the explosive charges are stimulation requires 120 or 60 phased reusable guns that can be used in most
housed in a hollow carrier and are not guns with big hole charges to produce operating environments. They are avail-
exposed to well fluids. Large charges, a large entrance hole. The 318-in. able in two sizes: 338 and 4 in. [8.57 and
which are deep penetrating, big hole, or HEGS gun is available in either phasing 10.16 cm]. The standard gun provides a
both, can be deployed in carrier gun for use with the 38C CleanPACK* RDX shot density of 4 spf and 90 phasing.
systems. These guns are typically wire- debris-free charges. The 338-in. casing guns are for use in
line conveyed and can be fired selec- The 4-in. HEGS guns are for use in 5- and 512-in. [12.70- and 13.97-cm] cas-
tively. Carrier guns are available as 512- to 7-in. [13.97- to 17.78-cm] casing. ing. The 4-in. casing guns are for use in
reusable casing guns, also known as Natural completions require the 41B 512-in. and larger casing.
Port Plug Guns (PPGs), or fully expend- HyperJet* SX1 deep penetrating Casing guns are usually conveyed by
able HEGS* guns. charges to shoot through formation wireline one at a time, but can be com-
damage. The standard gun has 4 shots bined and selectively fired using a spe-
per foot (spf) and 90 phasing. Fracture cial intercarrier and standard switch.
HEGS High-Efficiency Gun System stimulation requires 120 phased guns
HEGS High-Efficiency Gun Systems are with big hole charges to produce a large
designed for the low-pressure, low- entrance hole. Applications
temperature environment. These eco- HEGS guns are usually conveyed by Deep penetrating perforations
nomical wireline-conveyed perforating wireline one at a time, but they can be Big hole perforating
guns are available in two sizes: 318 and combined and selectively fired using a
4 in. [7.94 and 10.16 cm]. special intercarrier and standard
The 318-in. HEGS guns are for use in switch.
1
4 2-in. (11.43-cm] casing. Natural com-
pletions require the 34B HyperJet*

Carrier Gun Performance and Mechanical Data Summary

Gun Shot Phasing Charge API RP 43 Fifth Edition Section 1 or API 19B Section 1 Temperature Maximum Maximum Weight of Maximum Maximum
Designation Density () Rating for Explosive Pressure Loaded Gun Diameter Diameter
(spf) Penetration Entrance Area Open Burr Height Casing Casing 1 hr Load Rating in Air Including Burrs, Including Burrs,
(in.) Hole to Flow Avg/Max. Size Weight (F) (g) (psi) (lbm) Shot in Liquid Shot in Gas
(in.) (in.2/ft) (in.) (in.) (lbm/ft) (in.) (in.)

318-in. Select 1 0 33B HJ II, RDX 11.9 0.37 0.06/0.09 412 11.6 340 9.9 15,000 na
318-in. Select1 1 0 33J HJ II, RDX 17.0 0.27 0.02/0.05 512 17.0 340 9.9 15,000 na

338-in. Port Plug Gun 4 90 38B HJ II, RDX 21.5 0.35 0.05/0.08 412 11.6 340 15.0 25,000 300 (15 ft)
4-in. Port Plug Gun 4 90 41B HJ II, RDX 23.6 0.38 0.07/0.09 512 17.0 340 22.5 25,000 597 (20 ft)
4-in. Port Plug Gun 4 90 41B HJ II, HMX 27.6 0.37 0.07/0.09 512 17.0 400 22.5 25,000 597 (20 ft)
4-in. Port Plug Gun 4 90 41B UP, RDX 14.3 0.56 0.99 0.13/0.19 512 17.0 340 22.0 25,000 597 (20 ft)

318-in. HEGS 4 90 34B HJ, RDX 18.5 0.41 0.53 0.07/0.10 412 11.6 3402 16.1 6,200 340 (40 ft) 3.38 3.65
4-in. HEGS 4 90 41B HJ, SX1 21.7 0.42 0.53 0.06/0.10 512 17.0 210 22.0 4,000 520 (40 ft) 4.28 4.50
4-in. HEGS 4 90 43C HP, RDX 9.4 0.60 1.13 0.09/0.12 7 23.0 210 24.0 4,000 520 (40 ft) 4.28 4.50

Notes: Every attempt has been made to verify the accuracy of the data tabulated; contact your Schlumberger representative for further information.
Other shot densities and phasings are available; Schlumberger also custom designs perforation systems to meet specific needs.
na = not available
1 Unofficial API data
2 Temperature rating of 210F if plastic foam loading tube used

Perforating Services and Accessories 171


HSD High Shot Density available in all gun sizes provides the Applications
gun systems smallest vertical spacing between Deep penetrating perforations
shots and the optimum phasing pat-
HSD High Shot Density guns feature tern for maximizing productivity and
Big hole perforating
increased shot density, optimum phas- retaining casing strength. Shot spacing Sand control
ing patterns, and the largest high-per- can be varied on request. HSD perfor- Perforating for fracturing
formance charges available for natural, mance and efficiency are further
stimulated, or sand control comple- enhanced by the use of
tions. Available in sizes ranging from
1.56 to 7 in. [3.96 to 17.78 cm] for PowerJet shaped charges provide
application in all casing sizes, HSD superior penetration performance
guns use expendable, retrievable carri- while minimizing the amount of
ers, and they run on wireline, slickline, charge debris that exits the gun.
tubing, or coiled tubing. Multiple guns PowerFlow* shaped charges provide
can be aligned with alignment inter- slug-free large entrance hole perfor-
carriers. mance without a solid liner.
The high shot densities range from
4 spf for the 1.56-in. gun up to 27 spf for
the 7-in. guns. The helical shot pattern

172 Wireline Services Catalog


High Shot Density Perforating Systems Performance and Mechanical Data Summary

Perforating System Shot Phasing Charge API RP 43 Fifth Edition Section 1 or API 19B Section 1 Maximum Maximum Weight of Maximum Maximum
Designation Density () Explosive Pressure Loaded 20-ft Diameter Diameter
(spf) Penetration Entrance Area Open Burr Height Casing Casing Load Rating Gun in Air Including Burrs, Including Burrs,
(in.) Hole to Flow Avg/Max. Size Weight (g) (psi) (lbm) Shot in Liquid Shot in Gas
(in.) (in.2/ft) (in.) (in.) (lbm/ft) (in.) (in.)

1.56-in. HSD 6 60 PowerJet 1606, HMX 11.3 0.17 0.04/0.08 278 6.4 3.5 20,000 74 1.72 1.75

2-in. HSD 6 60 HyperJet 2006, RDX 9.6 0.33 0.05/0.08 312 9.2 6.5 20,000 119 2.16 2.21
2-in. HSD 6 60 UltraJet* 2006, HMX 14.7 0.28 0.04/0.07 312 9.2 6.5 20,000 119 2.16 2.21
2-in. HSD 6 60 PowerJet 2006, HMX 20.4 0.26 0.05/0.07 278 6.4 7.0 25,000 119 2.16 2.21
2-in. HSD 6 60 PowerJet 2006, HTX 14.1 0.21 0.02/0.05 278 6.4 8.0 20,000 119 2.16 2.21
2-in. HSD1 6 60 PowerJet 2006, HNS 15.3 0.22 0.03/0.05 278 6.4 8.0 20,000 119 2.16 2.21
2-in. HSD2 6 0/180 PowerJet 2006, HMX 17.9 0.20 na 278 6.4 6.5 20,000 119 na na
2-in. HSD 6 60 UltraPack* 2006, HMX 4.5 0.39 0.72 0.04/0.08 278 6.4 6.5 20,000 119 2.16 2.21
2-in. HSD 6 60 PowerFlow 2006, HMX 4.5 0.45 0.95 0.06/0.12 312 9.2 6.4 20,000 119 2.16 2.21

214-in. HSD 6 60 PowerJet 2306, HMX 22.8 0.27 0.05/0.10 412 11.6 8.5 20,000 136 2.46 2.48
214-in. HSD 6 60 PowerJet 2306, HTX 18.5 0.25 0.05/0.10 312 9.2 9.5 20,000 136 2.46 2.48
214-in. HSD 6 60 PowerJet 2306, HNS 15.7 0.27 0.06/0.09 312 9.2 9.5 20,000 136 2.46 2.48
214-in. HSD 6 60 PowerFlow 2306, HMX 4.8 0.52 1.27 0.07/0.11 312 9.2 8.7 25,000 136 2.46 2.48

212-in. HSD 6 60 HyperJet 2506, RDX 13.1 0.43 0.07/0.11 312 9.2 10.5 25,000 179 2.66 2.75
212-in. HSD 6 60 UltraJet 2506, HMX 16.6 0.32 0.09/0.11 312 9.2 10.5 25,000 179 2.66 2.75
212-in. HSD 6 60 PowerJet 2506, HMX 25.2 0.32 0.06/0.07 312 9.3 10.5 25,000 179 2.66 2.75
212-in. HSD 6 60 PowerJet 2506, HTX 18.3 0.33 0.05/0.08 312 9.2 13.5 25,000 179 2.66 2.75
212-in. HSD 6 60 PowerJet 2506, HNS 16.7 0.30 0.07/0.09 312 9.2 13.5 25,000 179 2.66 2.75
212-in. HSD1 6 60 PowerFlow 2506, HMX 4.8 0.66 2.05 0.06/0.11 312 9.2 10.5 25,000 185 2.66 2.75
212-in. HSD 6 60 31J CS, HMX 19.2 0.30 0.06/0.07 312 9.3 10.2 25,000 177 2.69
212-in. HSD 6 60 35B UP, RDX 5.8 0.62 1.81 0.06/0.12 312 9.2 10.5 25,000 185 2.80 2.80

278-in. HSD 6 60 HyperJet 2906, RDX 15.0 0.39 0.06/0.09 412 11.6 15.0 25,000 237 2.98 3.08
278-in. HSD 6 60 UltraJet 2906, HMX 22.1 0.36 0.07/0.09 412 11.6 15.0 25,000 237 2.98 3.08
278-in. HSD 6 60 PowerJet 2906, HMX 27.7 0.36 0.06/0.09 412 11.6 15.0 25,000 237 2.98 3.08
278-in. HSD 6 60 PowerJet 2906, HTX 19.8 0.31 0.06/0.09 412 11.6 19.5 25,000 237 2.96 3.08
278-in. HSD 6 60 PowerJet 2906, HNS 21.0 0.31 0.06/0.09 412 11.6 19.5 25,000 232 2.96 3.08
278-in. HSD2 4 0/180 PowerJet 2906, HMX 27.7 0.36 na 412 11.6 15.0 25,000 232 2.98 3.08
278-in. HSD2 6 60 34J CS, RDX 17.7 0.27 na 412 11.6 15.0 25,000 232 2.98 3.08
278-in. HSD 6 60 38C CP, RDX 8.4 0.62 1.81 0.09/0.13 412 11.6 15.0 25,000 232 3.09 3.20

318-in. HSD 10 135/45 PowerFlow 3412, HMX 4.7 0.67 3.7 0.09/0.14 5 15.0 14.2 20,000 286 3.34
318-in. HSD 10 135/45 38C UP, RDX 5.0 0.63 3.15 0.08/0.11 5 15.0 15.0 20,000 286 3.34
318-in. HSD 6 60 34JL UJ, HMX 24.0 0.41 0.07/0.11 412 11.6 22.7 20,000 na 3.57
318-in. HSD 5 0/180 34JL UJ, HMX 23.8 0.42 0.07/0.11 412 11.6 22.7 20,000 na 3.45
318-in. HVO 6 60 PowerFlow 3106, RDX 24.9 0.44 0.06/0.09 412 11.6 22.5 10,000 na 3.49 na

338-in. HSD3 6 60 HyperJet 3406, RDX 23.5 0.49 0.05/0.12 412 11.6 22.5 20,000 332 3.66
338-in. HSD3 6 60 UltraJet 3406, HMX 31.4 0.44 0.06/0.13 412 11.6 22.7 20,000 332 3.66
338-in. HSD3 6 60 PowerJet 3406, HMX 38.6 0.45 0.06/0.12 412 11.6 22.7 20,000 332 3.66
338-in. HSD3 6 60 PowerJet 3406, HTX 31.1 0.39 0.07/0.12 412 11.6 25.0 20,000 332 3.66
338-in. HSD3 6 60 PowerJet 3406, HNS 29.6 0.39 0.07/0.10 412 11.6 25.0 20,000 332 3.66
338-in. HSD3 12 135/45 PowerFlow 3412, HMX 4.5 0.64 4.48 0.07/0.10 512 17.0 14.2 20,000 325 3.52 3.58
338-in. HSD2,3 21 120/60 PowerJet 2006, HMX 16.2 0.18 na 512 17.0 6.5 10,000 na 3.60
338-in. HSD3 6 60 34B CS, RDX 18.5 0.31 0.04/0.08 412 11.6 21.7 20,000 327 3.56 3.77
338-in. HSD3 6 60 34B HJ II, RDX 21.9 0.40 0.05/0.09 412 11.6 20.5 20,000 332 3.61
338-in. HSD2,3 6 99 34B HJ II, RDX 20.2 0.38 na 512 17.0 20.5 20,000 332 3.61
338-in. HSD3 6 60 34JL UJ, HMX 28.9 0.37 0.06/0.09 412 11.6 22.7 20,000 332 3.61
338-in. OrientXact*,2 5 10 PowerJet OX 3505, HMX 37.7 0.34 0.06/0.07 512 17.0 22.5 20,000 na 3.77

312-in. OrientXact2 5 10 PowerJet OX 3505, HMX 40.7 0.37 0.05/0.09 512 17 22.7 20,000 na na na

3.67-in. HSD 5 60 37J CS, RDX 31.2 0.36 0.05/0.08 5 15.0 34.0 25,000 443 3.96 4.01
3.67-in. HSD2 5 60 37J CS, HMX 32.7 0.38 na 5 15.0 34.0 25,000 443 3.96

4-in. HSD2 5 0/180 PowerJet 4005, HMX 36.5 0.46 0.07/0.10 512 17.0 24.5 20,000 421 na

412-in. HSD4 5 72 HyperJet 4505, RDX 37.0 0.57 0.11/0.16 7 32.0 38.8 12,000 446 4.74
412-in. HSD4 5 72 UltraJet 4505, HMX 42.6 0.46 0.08/0.13 7 32.0 38.3 12,000 446 4.74
412-in. HSD4 5 72 PowerJet 4505, HMX 54.1 0.42 0.09/0.13 7 32.0 38.6 12,000 446 4.74
412-in. HSD2,4 4 0/180 PowerJet 4505, HMX 50.1 0.36 na 7 32.0 38.6 12,000 na na
412-in. HSD4 12 135/45 PowerJet 4512, HMX 30.2 0.34 0.07/0.12 7 32.0 22.0 12,000 501 4.91
412-in. HSD4 12 135/45 34B HJ II, RDX 17.9 0.39 0.07/0.11 7 32.0 20.5 12,000 501 4.77
412-in. HSD4 12 135/45 34JL UJ, HMX 28.6 0.34 0.06/0.11 7 32.0 22.7 12,000 501 4.77

458-in. HSD Bigshot 21*,5 21 120/60 PowerFlow 4621, RDX 5.9 0.83 11.3 0.13/0.24 7 32.0 19.0 15,000 604 4.82
458-in. HSD Bigshot 215 21 120/60 PowerFlow 4621, HMX 6.1 0.83 11.3 0.15/0.28 7 32.0 19.4 15,000 604 4.82
458-in. HSD Bigshot 215 21 120/60 PowerJet 4621, HMX 21.0 0.32 0.06/0.11 7 32.0 15.0 15,000 na na

4.72-in. HSD 12 135/45 34B CS, RDX 15.4 0.31 0.10/0.11 7 32.0 21.7 20,000 636 4.99
4.72-in. HSD 12 135/45 PowerJet 4512, HNS 22.8 0.31 0.06/0.11 7 32.0 22.5 20,000 na na
4.72-in. HSD 12 135/45 PowerJet 4512, HTX 23.5 0.31 0.08/0.11 7 32.0 22.5 20,000 na na
4.72-in. HSD 5 72 51J UJ, HNS 34.5 0.33 0.07/0.12 7 32.0 38.5 20,000 592 na

5-in. HSD 8 135/45 UltraJet 5008, RDX 20.2 0.54 0.11/0.22 7 32.0 24.0 10,000 na 5.19 5.22
5-in. HSD 8 135/45 PowerFlow 5008, RDX 5.8 0.98 6.05 0.11/0.22 7 32.0 30.0 10,000 na 5.19
5-in. HSD Bigshot 21 21 120/60 43CJ UP II, RDX 7.9 0.74 9.03 0.12/0.20 758 33.7 19.0 11,000 595 5.14
5-in. HSD2 8 0/180 UltraJet 5008, RDX 19.1 0.48 na 7 32.0 23.0 8,000 na na

5.85-in. HSD Bigshot 182,6 18 120/60 PowerFlow 5918, HMX 7.2 0.93 12.2 0.24/0.48 858 56.6 34.0 20,000 1,112 5.96

6.625-in. HSD Bigshot 18 18 120/60 PowerFlow 6618, HMX 6.8 0.91 11.7 0.13/0.24 958 47.0 34.0 20,000 1,310 6.73
6.625-in. HSD Bigshot 182,6 18 120/60 PowerFlow 6618, HMX 8.1 0.85 10.2 na 958 70.3 34.5 20,000 1,310 6.72

7-in. HSD 27 120/60 34JL UJ, HMX 26.0 0.27 0.05/0.11 958 47.0 22.7 10,000 na 7.50
7-in. HSD 12 135.45 51B HJ II, RDX 32.0 0.47 0.08/0.14 958 47.0 37.0 10,000 1,245 7.05
7-in. HSD 12 135.45 UltraJet 4505, HMX 39.9 0.45 0.08/0.16 958 47.0 38.3 10,000 1,245 7.05
7-in. HSD 14 140/20 58C UP, RDX 12.2 0.95 9.92 0.12/0.23 958 47.0 61.0 10,000 1,289 7.27
7-in. HSD 12 135.45 64C CP, RDX 10.1 1.13 11.41 0.10/0.22 958 47.0 59.0 10,000 1,231 7.75
7-in. HSD Bigshot 18 18 120/60 PowerFlow 7018, RDX 7.4 1.15 18.69 0.16/0.22 958 47.0 45.0 10,000 na 7.22
7-in. HSD Bigshot 18 18 120/60 PowerFlow 7018, HMX 7.1 1.14 18.53 0.13/0.21 958 47.0 49.5 10,000 na 7.13

Notes: Every attempt has been made to verify the accuracy of the data tabulated; contact your Schlumberger representative for further information.
Other shot densities and phasings are available; Schlumberger also custom designs perforation systems to meet specific needs.
na = not available
Bold blue type identifies API 19B Registered Perforation Systems.
1 Nonswell version available
2 Unofficial API data
3 Available in 338-, 312-, and 3.67-in. perforating systems
4 Available in 412-, 458-, 4.72-, and 5-in. perforating systems
5 Available in 458-, 4.72-, and 5-in. perforating systems
6 Q-125 casing

Perforating Services and Accessories 173


PURE Perforating for Ultimate
Reservoir Exploitation System
The job design basis of the PURE* either injection or production begins. Applications
Perforating for Ultimate Reservoir The resulting clean, permeable perfo- Perforated completions in consoli-
Exploitation produces clean perfora- rations enable better injectivity or pro- dated reservoirs with permeability
tions by ensuring control over the ductivity than in wells completed with greater than 0.5 mD or reservoir
amount of actual under- or overbal- traditional techniques. pressure greater than 1,200 psi
ance, which has a critical effect on the Gun systems and completion hard- [8,270 kPa].
perforation tunnels at the time of per- ware are specified in a PURE design.
forating. Whereas conventional perfo- The guns use premier Schlumberger
Operational efficiency through less
rating design fails to account for the perforating charge technology: underbalance required and reduced
dynamic period immediately following wellbore shock
PowerJet shaped charges provide Potential elimination of the need
detonation, the PURE method incorpo-
superior penetration performance for secondary perforation cleanup
rates consideration of the gun design
while minimizing the amount of operations
and completion characteristics unique
charge debris that exits the gun.
to the job to achieve and control the
desired condition of dynamic under- PowerFlow shaped charges provide
balance at the time the guns fire. slug-free large entrance hole perfor-
Dynamic underbalance cleans perfo- mance without a solid liner.
rations much more effectively than Additional PURE gun features are
conventional underbalanced or over- independent placement of the PURE
balanced perforating methods. The charge, flexible loading options, and
PURE design also accounts for impacts a size range from 2 to 7 in. [5.08 to
on perforation tunnel permeability 17.78 cm].
from the time of perforating until

4,000

3,000

2,000
Reservoir pressure
1,000
Differential Initial static underbalance
0 Undamaged rock
pressure (psi)
1,000

2,000

3,000
Dynamic underbalance
4,000
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
Time (s)

Crushed-zone damage

174 Wireline Services Catalog


Casing and Tubing Cutters

Cutters are used to sever tubing or cas- Chemical cutters burn the casing in a Applications
ing in a variety of circumstances. In flat plane perpendicular to the casing Tubing, casing, and drillpipe
new wells, casing may be retrieved wall. recovery
before a well is abandoned. In older Tubing, casing, drillpipe, and drill col-
wells, tubing is cut when it cannot be lar cutters are available for a wide range
Burr- and flare-free cutting with
pulled out of a production packer. The of specifications. For more information, chemical cutters
two types of cutters are jet and chemi- please contact your Schlumberger rep- Bomb for heavy drillpipe or casing
cal. Jet cutters cut the casing in a flat resentative.
plane perpendicular to the casing wall.

Perforating Services and Accessories 175


Tubing Punchers

Tubing punchers are used to punch Applications


holes in a tubing string to establish Pressure equalization between
pressure equalization or circulation tubing and annulus
between the tubing and the annulus.
Tubing punchers are selected for the
Establish circulation between
thickness of the inner tubing or casing tubing and annulus when sliding
string to avoid damage to the sur- sleeve not available or functional
rounding outer string.
Punchers for special applications,
such as chemical punchers, are also
available.

Tubing Punchers Mechanical Specifications


16DS 16CL 20ES 20DM 20DL
Temperature rating 500F [260C] for 1 hr 500F [260C] for 1 hr 500F [260C] for 1 hr 500F [260C] for 1 hr 500F [260C] for 1 hr
Pressure rating 25,000 psi [172 MPa] 25,000 psi [172 MPa] 25,000 psi [172 MPa] 25,000 psi [172 MPa] 25,000 psi [172 MPa]
Tubing sizemin. 2116 in. [5.24 cm] 2116 in. [5.24 cm] 238 in. [6.03 cm] 238 in. [6.03 cm] 238 in. [6.03 cm]
Tubing sizemax. No limit No limit No limit No limit No limit
Outer diameter 1.375 in. [3.49 cm] 1.375 in. [3.49 cm] 1.6875 in. [4.29 cm] 1.6875 in. [4.29 cm] 1.6875 in. [4.29 cm]
Explosive HNS HNS HNS HNS HNS
Tubing wall thicknessmin. 0.19 in. [4.8 mm] 0.375 in. [9.5 mm] 0.19 in. [4.8 mm] 0.375 in. [9.5 mm] 0.50 in. [12.7 mm]
Tubing wall thicknessmax. 0.375 in. [9.5 mm] 0.50 in. [12.7 mm] 0.375 in. [9.5 mm] 0.50 in. [12.7 mm] 0.58 in. [14.7 mm]
Max. penetration in outer string 0.10 in. [2.5 mm] 0.10 in. [2.5 mm] 0.10 in. [2.5 mm] 0.10 in. [2.5 mm] 0.10 in. [2.5 mm]

176 Wireline Services Catalog


Plugs and Packers
Casing Packer Setting Tool

The Casing Packer Setting Tool components coated in liquid


(CPST) provides a reliable method of nitride to improve life expectancy
deploying plugs and packers in the through greater surface hardness
wellbore during completion, isolation, and increased corrosion resistance
or abandonment. The CPST features with no surface buildup
pressure-balanced design (does no special alignment or orientation
not have to overcome well pressure of components required during
when setting) assembly or disassembly
only one igniter, which incorpo- efficient redressing at the wellsite.
rates a safety resistor for additional
safety
Application
spiral pins to prevent tool preset-
ting while running in the hole
Setting plugs and packers

Mechanical Specifications
CPST-AA CPST-CC CPST-BC
Temperature 400F [204C] 450F [232C] 400F [204C]
Pressure rating 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 15,000 psi [103 MPa]
Casing sizemin. 5 in. [12.70 cm] 412 in. [11.43 cm] 3 12 in. [8.89 cm]
Casing sizemax. 13 38 in. [33.97 cm] 5 12 in. [13.97 cm] 5 in. [12.70 cm]
Outer diameter 3.625 in. [9.21 cm] 2.75 in. [6.99 cm] 2.125 [5.40 cm]
Length 7.5 ft [2.29 m] 7.35 ft [2.24 m] 11.25 ft [3.43 m]
Weight 180 lbm [82 kg] 79.5 lbm [36 kg] 81.8 lbm [37 kg]
Bottom thread Sleeve: 312-in. Sleeve: 212-in. Sleeve: 2-in. [5.08-cm]
[8.89-cm] 6 Acme [6.35-cm] 6 Acme 10 Stub Acme
Mandrel: 2-in. Mandrel: 1-in. Mandrel: 1116-in.
[5.08-cm] 6 Acme [2.54-cm] 8 UN [4.29-cm] 16 UN

Wireline Services Catalog Plugs and Packers 179


Gauge Ring and
Junk Basket
The junk basket consists of a wireline The gauge ring is screwed on to the Applications
feeler and junk catcher. It is run with a mouth of the basket. This position Clear casing and tubing of debris
gauge ring to determine if the casing helps to seal the housing bottom as the
ID is sufficient to permit subsequent tool is pulled out of the wellbore. The
Prevent bridge plug or packer
passage of the completion string, ring size used depends on the casing sticking
plugs, packers, or other tools. The junk size and whether a bridge plug or Drift the casing ID to ensure the
basket also cleans the well of junk. packer is run. However, the gauge ring passage of tools and completion
The housing of the junk basket is OD is always chosen to be slightly equipment
fluted to allow wellbore fluid to enter larger than subsequent tool runs to
the bottom of the housing and exit ensure that the tools will pass through
through its side as the tool is run. the casing.

Mechanical Specifications
Gauge Ring and Junk Basket
Temperature rating 500F [260C]
Pressure rating 25,000 psi [172 MPa]
Casing sizemin. 412 in. [11.43 cm]
Casing sizemax. 13 38 in. [33.97 cm]
Outer diameter 3 to 4 in. [7.62 to 10.16 cm]
Length 5.83 ft [1.78 m]
Weight Variable
The OD of the junk basket depends on gauge ring used.

180 Wireline Services Catalog


PatchFlex Through-Tubing
Casing Patch
The PatchFlex through-tubing casing The PatchFlex assembly consists of process and ensure that all parts of the
patch uses innovative in situ polymer- an inflatable setting element (ISE) permanent sleeve are fully hardened.
ization technology for downhole reme- and a sleeve made of carbon fiber and After polymerization, the ISE is
dial applications. Run on electric thermosetting resins with a rubber deflated and recovered to the surface
wireline, this flexible composite cylin- outer skin to ensure sealing. When the with the running tools, leaving in place
der is inflated downhole to set flush PatchFlex assembly is in place, a pump a hard, pressure-resistant inner lining.
against the casing or tubing. After heat is activated in the downhole running
is applied to polymerize the resins, the tool and begins inflation of the ISE,
which in turn expands the sleeve. The Applications
running equipment is extracted to
leave a hard, pressure-resistant inner inflation can be initiated from either Isolating zones for water and gas
lining with excellent mechanical and top or bottom to anchor the PatchFlex shutoff
chemical properties. PatchFlex tech- assembly in place. As the inflation pro- Modifying injection profiles
nology is a simple, cost-effective solu- gresses, the fluid is gently displaced Repairing casing and tubing
tion, particularly suitable for sealing between pipe and PatchFlex sleeve to
ensure a proper seal as it conforms to
Sealing selected perforations
perforations to eliminate water and
gas production, selective perforation the shape of the pipe. A bypass running Sealing various completion compo-
profile modification, and zonal isola- through the middle of the ISE allows nents (e.g., leaking sliding sleeve,
tion. It is also an innovative method for crossflow up to 500 BFPD [79 m3/d] crossover)
repairing damaged tubing or casing during inflation. Electric current from
with minimal loss of diameter. the surface is then applied to a series
Operational flexibility ranges from run- of resistors in the ISE to heat the
ning through tubing or existing resins to polymerization temperature
patches to expand into casing to set- until they obtain the required mechan-
ting in highly corroded pipe without ical properties. The temperature is
causing further damage. controlled to verify the polymerization

Mechanical Specifications
PatchFlex Casing Patch
Temperature rating Running tool: 266F [130C]
Sleeve: 122 to 248F [50 to 120C]
Pressure rating Running tool: 9,000 psi [62 MPa]
Sleeve: >5,000 psi [34 MPa] (burst), 2,500 psi [17 MPa] (collapse)
Casing sizemin. 412 in. [11.43 cm]
Casing sizemax. 7 58 in. [19.37 cm]
Min. restriction 412- to 512-in. [11.43- to 13.97-cm] casing: 2.75 in. [6.99 cm]
7- to 7.625-in. [17.78- to 19.37-cm] casing: 3.31 in. [8.41 cm]
Sleeve length after setting 9.8 to 39.4 ft [2.99 to 12.0 m]
Sleeve thickness after setting Up to 0.6 in. [1.52 cm]
The PatchFlex unique solution is designed and optimized for the well environment. As a result, the length, diameter, and pressure rating
depend on the well conditions and job requirements.
Depends on required pressure rating

Plugs and Packers 181


PosiSet Mechanical
Plug-Back Tool
The PosiSet* mechanical plug-back PosiSet plugs can be set in open
tool (MPBT) is used in rigless hole, across perforations, and at gravel-
through-tubing recompletions. By pack screens.
using a mast or a crane, recomple- The Positive Displacement Dump
tions can be accomplished without Bailer is used to place the required
the cost of a workover rig. cement plug on top of the PosiSet
The PosiSet anchored elastomeric plug. Release of a weight bar displaces
plug is run through tubing and set in cement from the bailer sections. The
casing to plug off fluid flow in the cas- plug can be pressure tested 24 hr after
ing below the plug. The casing seal is the last bailer run, when the cement
similar to that produced by a cast-iron is at approximately 90% of its ultimate
plug, but instead of an explosive compressive strength. The tempera-
charge, a downhole electric motor ture rating of the Positive Displace-
within the MPBT Setting Unit (MPSU) ment Dump Bailer is 302F [150C].
is used to contract the elastomer seal-
ing assembly to form a firm seal
against the casing wall. The expansion Applications
ratio is typically 3:1. An anchoring sys- Seal off nonproductive zones
tem keeps the tool in place while Seal off water-producing zones
cement is placed on top of the plug to below productive zones
a height of 10 ft [3 m] or more to pro- Base for a sand plug
vide additional differential pressure.
The PosiSet plug is drillable. The
Low-pressure acid base plug
smallest plug can withstand 25,000-lbf Positive depth control plug
[111,205-N] force. The largest (9 58-in.
[24.45-cm] plug can withstand
90,000-lbf [400,340-N] force. If the
wellbore pressure at setting depth is
less than 1,000 psi [7 MPa], a special
tool is used to aid the setting process
of the PosiSet plug.

Mechanical Specifications
MPSU-BA MPSU-CA
Temperature rating 350F [177C] 350F [177C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 412 in. [11.43 cm] 412 in. [11.43 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 7 58 in. [19.37 cm] 9 58 in. [24.45 cm]
Outer diameter 1.71 in. [4.34 cm] 2.125 in. [5.40 cm]
Length 20.5 ft [6.25 m] 21 ft [6.40 m]
Weight 89 lbm [40 kg] 129 lbm [58 kg]

182 Wireline Services Catalog


PosiSet Plug Mechanical Specifications
412-in. [11.43-cm] Casing 5-in. [12.70-cm] Casing 512-in. [13.97-cm] Casing 7-in. [17.78-cm] Casing 7 58-in. [19.37-cm] Casing 9 58-in. [24.45-cm] Casing
Temperature rating 340F [171C] 340F [171C] 302F [150C] 340F [171C] 275F [135C] 275F [135C]
Differential pressure rating 1,000 psi [7 MPa] 1,000 psi [7 MPa] 500 psi [3 MPa] 1,500 psi [10 MPa] 1,000 psi [7 MPa] 500 psi [3 MPa]
Casing sizemin. ID 3 12 in. [8.89 cm] 4 in. [10.16 cm] 412 in. [11.43 cm] 5.88 in. [14.93 cm] 6 12 in. [16.51 cm] 8.43 in. [21.41 cm]
Casing sizemax. ID 4.02 in. [10.21 cm] 4.52 in. [11.48 cm] 5.02 in. [12.75 cm] 6.53 in. [16.59 cm] 7.02 in. [17.83 cm] 9.01 in. [22.88 cm]
Outer diameter 2.125 in. [5.40 cm] 1.6875 in. [4.29 cm] 1.6875 in. [4.29 cm] 2.125 in. [5.40 cm] 2.125 in. [5.40 cm] 2.625 in. [6.67 cm]
Setting time 17 min 17 min 60 min 60 min 60 min 90 min
Remarks Set using either the MPSU-BA or MPSU-CA Must be set using the MPSU-CA
Pressure ratings are for the PosiSet plugs only. The desired differential pressure rating is achieved by placing cement (usually 10 ft [3 m]) on top of the PosiSet plug.

Plugs and Packers 183


Auxiliary
Measurements
and Devices
Caliper Log

Caliper devices are integral to most axis but less than the long axis. The Applications
standard logging tools because mea- four-arm caliper measures both the Borehole diameter
surement of the borehole axis is an short and long axes of the hole and pro-
extremely useful parameter for envi- vides a more accurate value of bore-
Borehole shape
ronmental correction, quantitative hole volume. Single-arm calipers are Borehole volume
interpretation, and cement volume cal- typically part of most density and Environmental correction
culation. microresistivity tools; four-arm calipers to log output
Caliper logs are recorded from are part of most dipmeter tools. The
one-, three-, four-, or six-arm devices. If Mechanical Caliper Device (MCD) is a
the borehole is uniform and circular, three-arm caliper tool. The six-arm
all the calipers read the same value. In Environmental Measurement Sonde
an elliptical hole, the single-arm (EMS) caliper is described subse-
caliper generally lines up with the long quently in this chapter.
axis, and the three-arm caliper indi-
cates a diameter greater than the short

Measurement Specifications
One-Arm Caliper MCD Three-Arm Caliper Four-Arm Caliper
Output Borehole size Borehole size Borehole size in.
Logging speed Depends on toolstring Depends on toolstring Depends on toolstring
Range of measurement 4 to 22 in. [10.16 to 55.88 cm] 412 to 16 in. [11.43 to 40.64 cm] 4 to 22 in. [10.16 to 55.88 cm]
Vertical resolution 6 in. [15.24 cm] 6 in. [15.24 cm] 6 in. [15.24 cm]
Accuracy 0.25 in. [0.64 cm] 0.25 in. [0.64 cm] 0.20 in. [0.51 cm]
Depth of investigation Borehole Borehole Borehole
Mud type or weight limitations None None None
Combinability Combinable with most tools Combinable with most tools Combinable with most tools
Special applications H2S service H2S service H2S service

Mechanical Specifications
One-Arm Caliper MCD Three-Arm Caliper Four-Arm Caliper
Temperature rating 350F [177C] 350F [177C] 350F [177C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 4 in. [10.16 cm] 4 in. [10.16 cm] 4 in. [10.16 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 22 in. [55.88 cm] 16 in. [40.64 cm] 22 in. [55.88 cm]
Outer diameter Depends on toolstring 3.375 in. [8.57 cm] Depends on toolstring
Length Depends on toolstring 8 ft [2.44 m] Depends on toolstring
Weight Depends on toolstring 155 lbm [70 kg] Depends on toolstring
Tension Depends on toolstring 36,000 lbf [160,140 N] Depends on toolstring
Compression Depends on toolstring 9,900 lbf [44,040 N] Depends on toolstring
Calipers rated to 500F [260C] are available for high-temperature toolstrings.
Caliper extensions are available for larger borehole sizes.

Wireline Services Catalog Auxiliary Measurements and Devices 187


MaxTRAC Production
Services Tractor
The MaxTRAC* downhole well tractor direction of the cam, which causes the
system provides greater operational toolstring to move forward. This
flexibility as a conveyance technique action is synchronized with the other
for wireline tools by extending the sondes in the toolstring. The recipro-
range of production logging capabili- cating action of the sondes produces
ties in highly deviated and horizontal continuous motion of the conveyed
wells. Its inchworm grip design, high tools.
expansion ratio, and ability to com-
municate with the telemetry system of
the logging tools enables it to traverse Applications
a wide range of completions in both Conveyance of logging tools in
cased and openhole while also acquir- highly deviated and horizontal
ing production logging data. wells
The integral three-arm grip of the Conveyance of logging tools in per-
tractor runs it centralized. A mini- forated casing, slotted liners, and
mum of two MaxTRAC production ser- gravel-pack screens
vices tractor tool (PSTT) sondes must Conveyance of logging tools in
be run for standard operation. Up to in-gauge barefoot completions
four sondes can be combined for addi-
tional flexibility in difficult well condi-
Conveyance of perforating hard-
tions. The PSTT uses a spring-loaded ware that uses S.A.F.E. or Secure
cam to grip the casing in one direc- firing systems
tion. The sonde then pulls the grip
section backward against the locking

Measurement Specifications
PSTT-S
Output Downward motion of logging tools
Tractoring speed Standard with 500-lbm [227-kg] load:
1,800 ft/hr [549 m/h]
Max. with 300-lbm [136-kg] load: 2,500 ft/hr [762 m/h]
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability
Logging while tractoring Tools using PS Platform production logging system
telemetry such as the RSTPro and SCMT tools
No logging while tractoring Combinable with most other tools
Combinable with perforation services
Special applications Maximum dogleg severity: 45 per 100 ft [30 m]
in 7-in. [17.78-cm] casing
30 per 100 ft in 412-in. [11.43-cm] casing

188 Wireline Services Catalog


Mechanical Specifications
PSTT-S
Temperature rating 302F [150C]
Pressure rating 15,000 psi [103 MPa]
Casing sizemin. 238 in. [6.03 cm]
Casing sizemax. 958 in. [24.45 in]
Outer diameter 2.125 in. [5.40 cm]
Length Basic two-sonde tool: 32 ft [9.75 m]
Weight Basic two-sonde tool: 290 lbm [131 kg]
Max. pull 1,000 lbf [4,450 N] at 500 ft/hr [152 m/h] at 257F [125C]
750 lbf [3,340 N] at 500 ft/hr at 302F [150C]
Tension 13,000 lbf [57,830 N]
Compression 11,000 lbf [48,930 N]

Auxiliary Measurements and Devices 189


Auxiliary Compression
Tension Sub
The Auxiliary Compression Tension Applications
Sub (ACTS) measures the tension or Measurement of downhole tension
compression between the upper and applied to a logging toolstring
lower heads of the tool in conven-
tional wireline logging. When the log-
Measurement of compression
ging equipment is drillpipe conveyed, applied to tools during conveyance
ACTS monitoring of the downhole on TLC Tough Logging Conditions
compression force is critical for pre- system
venting damage to the logging tools. Determination of stuck cable
or toolstring
Two ACTS tools in a toolstring
to determine which part of the
toolstring is stuck
Determination of force on the cable
head weakpoint to prevent separa-
tion of the cable from the cable
head during cut-and-thread opera-
tions

Measurement Specifications
ACTS
Output Tension and compression forces
Logging speed No limit
Range of measurement 22,000 lbf [97,860 N]
Accuracy 3%
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability Combinable with most tools
Special applications H2S service

Mechanical Specifications
ACTS
Temperature rating 350F [177C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 4 in. [10.16 cm]
Borehole sizemax. No limit
Outer diameter 3.375 in. [8.57 cm]
Length 4 ft [1.22 m]
Weight 51 lbm [23 kg]
Tension 22,000 lbf [97,860 N]
Compression 22,500 lbf [100,080 N]

190 Wireline Services Catalog


Environmental
Measurement Sonde
The Environmental Measurement and more robust than conventionally
Sonde (EMS) significantly enhances acquired measurements, even under
the precision of the determination of adverse conditions. For example,
borehole shape. Six independent good-quality measurements can be
caliper measurements are made made with mudcake on the tool sur-
around the borehole to determine the face and in narrow boreholes.
true ovality of the borehole for stress Because the EMS is combinable
analysis studies. In addition, the EMS with all imaging tools (including the
obtains measurements of mud resis- new-generation AIT Array Induction
tivity, mud temperature, and accelera- Imager Tool, ARI Azimuthal Resistivity
tion along the tool axis to support Imager, and IPL Integrated Porosity
real-time borehole correction of a Lithology tool), environmentally cor-
range of downhole measurements. rected wellsite logs are produced with-
The six independent arms of the out an extra trip in the borehole.
EMS gauge the borehole cross section
with greater precision over a wider
range of hole sizes than conventional Applications
tools can. Six accurate oval-radius Borehole geometry evaluation
measurements are made, and an oval- Accurate determination of cement
ity algorithm provides detailed infor- volume
mation on the borehole geometry for Borehole stress analysis
more representative environmental
correction of imaging tool measure-
Mud resistivity measurement
ments, improved borehole stress Mud temperature and z-axis accel-
analysis, and more precise cement eration measurement
volume estimation. The measurement Environmental corrections for
is valid even if the tool is eccentered. other logging tools
The multiple voltage monitoring
electrodes of the EMS resistivity sen-
sor provide mud resistivity measure-
ments that are both more accurate

Auxiliary Measurements and Devices 191


Measurement Specifications
EMS
Output Mud resistivity, mud temperature, caliper
Logging speed 3,600 ft/hr [1,097 m/h]
Range of measurement Resistivity: 0.01 to 5.0 ohm-m
Temperature: 0 to 392F [0 to 200C]
Caliper: 30 in. [76.2 cm] (centered), 17 in. [43.18 cm] (eccentered)
Vertical resolution 6 in. [15.24 cm]
Accuracy Resistivity: 10% (from 0.02 to 0.5 ohm-m), 7% (from 0.5 to 5 ohm-m)
Temperature: 1.8F [1C] [1%] (accuracy), 0.18F [0.1C] (resolution)
Caliper: 0.1 in. [0.25 cm] (accuracy), 0.06 in. [0.15 cm] (resolution)
Accelerometer: 1.6 in./s2 [4 cm/s2] (accuracy), 0.4 in./s2 [1 cm/s2] (resolution)
Depth of investigation Borehole measurement only
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability Combinable with most tools

Mechanical Specifications
EMS
Temperature rating 350F [177C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 6 in. [15.24 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 30 in. [76.2 cm]
Outer diameter 3.375 in. [8.57 cm]
Length 14.23 ft [4.34 m]
Weight 297 lbm [135 kg]
Tension 50,000 lbf [224,110 N]
Compression 11,000 lbf [48,930 N]

192 Wireline Services Catalog


FPIT Free-Point
Indicator Tool
The FPIT* Free-Point Indicator Tool Applications
uses a stretch sensor and a torque Determination of the deepest free
sensor to accurately determine the point in a stuck string of pipe
free point in stuck drillpipe, drill col-
lars, tubing, or casing. Within the elas-
Backoff of stuck pipe
tic range of the pipe material, the free Determination of pipe tally
section of the pipe deforms linearly Effective operation from drillships
when the pipe is subjected to a pull or and semisubmersibles and in highly
torsion. The FPIT tool measures the deviated wells
stretch and torque over a fixed dis-
tance to calculate the amount of free
pipe according to the theoretical
deformation. The free portion is con-
veniently recovered after a backoff
shot is fired inside a tool joint that is
subjected to left-hand torque. The
backoff shot can be combined with
FPIT service or performed separately
after the free point is determined.

Measurement Specifications
FPIT Tool
Output Free pipe stretch and torque
Logging speed Stationary
Range of measurement Stretch: 0.12 to 3.6 in. per 1,000 ft [10 to 300 USTR]
Torque: 0.02 to 0.5 rev per 1,000 ft [0.02 to 0.5 c
per 305 m]
Vertical resolution 7.24 ft [2.21 m] (distance between anchors)
Accuracy 10% at 350F [177C]
Depth of investigation Not applicable
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability Backoff shot, casing collar locator
Special applications

Mechanical Specifications
FPIT Tool
Temperature rating 350F [177C]
Pressure rating 25,000 psi [172 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 112 in. [3.81 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 5 in. [12.70 cm]
Outer diameter 1.375 in. [3.49 cm]
Length 13.92 ft [4.24 m]
Weight 40.75 lbm [18 kg]
Foroperation in casing sizes up to 9 58 in. [24.45 cm], the tool OD is increased to 1.875 in. [4.76 cm],
for which the minimum hole size is 2 in. [5.08 cm].

Auxiliary Measurements and Devices 193


CERT Correlated
Electromagnetic Retrieval Tool
The CERT* Correlated Electromag- The tool is available in four sizes:
netic Retrieval Tool is a wireline elec- 11116, 218, 234, and 338 in. [4.29, 5.40,
tromagnetic fishing tool that retrieves 6.99, and 8.57 cm, respectively]. Collar
metallic junk in cased or open bore- locators and gamma ray devices pro-
holes. The CERT tool is 5 times more vide depth control. Nonmagnetic guide
powerful than a permanent magnet of shoes are available for 7-, 758-, and
the same size. 958-in. [17.78-, 19.37-, and 24.45-cm]
When the power is off, the CERT casings.
tool is nonmagnetic and can be trans-
ported by helicopter without causing
disruption of the navigational instru- Applications
ments. The power remains off until Openhole metal retrieval
the fishing depth is reached to pre- Cased hole metal retrieval
vent the collection of unwanted metal Open, cased, or tubing wellbore
and to maintain a clean fishing sur- environments
face. Once the CERT tool is activated,
surface meters reflect contact with
the fish and the progress of its return
the surface.

Measurement Specifications
CERT Tool
Output Surface indications of retrieval
Logging speed 4,000 ft/hr [1,219 m/h]
Range of measurement Lifting capacity up to 1,000 lbf [4,450 N]
(depends on area of contact with the fish)
Depth of investigation Borehole service only
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability Combinable with gamma ray and CCL tools
Special applications H2S service

Mechanical Specifications
CERT Tool
Temperature rating 350F [177C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 2 in. [5.08 cm]
Borehole sizemax. No limit
Outer diameter 11116, 218, 234, and 3 38 in. [4.29, 5.40, 6.99, and 8.57 cm]
Length 2.5 ft [0.76 m]
Weight 50 lbm [22.7 kg]
Ultimate tool size depends on the appropriate gauge rings for the hole size.

194 Wireline Services Catalog


Wireline Crossover Tool

The Wireline Crossover Tool (WXT) is large-tool combination may exceed the Applications
used to combine extremely large tool- power or telemetry capacity of the log- One WXT in a toolstring that con-
strings, otherwise incompatible tool ging cable, the WXT can power and sists of two separate tool sets, each
combinations, or both. Relays are used operate part of the toolstring. In all with its own telemetry
to switch power and telemetry lines operations, separate passes are made
between the upper and lower heads to to acquire data by the different tools in
Two WXTs in a large toolstring that
combine tools with different telemetry the combination. consists of three separate tool sets,
systems for the same trip into the well, each with its own telemetry
thereby reducing operating time. If a One WXT in a toolstring to disable
tools below the WXT; only one
telemetry system is used

Mechanical Specifications
WXT
Temperature rating 350F [177C]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 4 38 in. [11.11 cm]
Borehole sizemax. No limit
Outer diameter 3 38 in. [8.57 cm]
Length 2.0 ft [0.61 m]
Weight 32 lbm [14 kg]
Tension 100,000 lbf [444,820 N]
Compression 23,000 lbf [102,310 N]

Auxiliary Measurements and Devices 195


Large Openhole Logging

To meet the special challenges of large large-hole kit must be run with a Sampling: Large-hole kits are avail-
openhole logging, selected modified powered caliper, which acts as an able for the use of sampling tools in
tools are available. additional eccentralizer for the bow large holes. The MRLH-AA kit for
spring and shoes. The short arm of the MDT tool enables running the
Resistivity logging: For all resistivity
the powered caliper measures the MDT tool in holes as large as 19 in.
tools, borehole correction and reso-
standoff. [48.26 cm]. Shoe extenders for the
lution selection are important. The
Density logging: The large-hole kit Mechanical Sidewall Coring Tool
AIT borehole forward model is
enables density logging in borehole extend the range of coring opera-
based on a cylindrical borehole and
sizes from 16 to 30 in. [40.64 to tions to holes as large as 19 in.
depends on the measured values of
mud resistivity, formation resistivity, 76.20 cm]. Seismic logging: The large-hole kit
borehole diameter, and tool stand- Sonic logging: The large-hole kit for for the CSI Combinable Seismic
off. Large-hole kits consist of big sonic tools contains centralizers Imager increases the operating
standoffs and a special nonconduc- that are placed either above or range of the tool to 22 in. [55.88 cm],
tive bow spring to maintain a con- below the sonic transmitters or with a minimum borehole diameter
stant standoff throughout logging. receivers. Because the minimum of 7 in. [17.78 cm].
Neutron porosity logging: The large- OD for the fully compressed kit is
hole neutron logging kit for the 11 in. [27.94 cm], the sonic large-
Compensated Neutron Tool has hole kit should be used only in bore-
spring shoes and a custom bow holes larger than 14 in. [35.56 cm].
spring that fasten to the CNT. The

Borehole Size Specifications for Large-Hole Tool Kits


Borehole SizeMin. Borehole SizeMax.
Resistivity
Platform Express Array Induction Imager Tool (AIT-H) 912 in. [24.13 cm] 20 in. [50.80 cm]
Powered Caliper Device (PCD-B) 7 in. [17.78 cm] 25 in. [63.50 cm]
Neutron porosity
Platform Express Highly Integrated Gamma Ray Neutron Sonde (HGNS) 15 in. [38.10 cm] 22 in. [55.88 cm]
Compensated Neutron Tool (CNT-H) 14 in. [25.56 cm] 22 in. [55.88 cm]
Density
Litho-Density tool (LDT-D) 14 in. [25.56 cm] 30 in. [76.20 cm]
Platform Express High-Resolution Mechanical Sonde (HRMS) 16 in. [40.64 cm] 28 in. [71.12 cm]
Sonic
Digital Sonic Logging Tool (DSLT) 14 in. [35.56 cm] 30 in. [76.20 cm]
DSI Dipole Shear Sonic Imager 14 in. [35.56 cm] 20 in. [50.80 cm]
Sampling
MDT tool with MRLH-AA 712 in. [19.05 cm] 19 in. [48.26 cm]
MSCT with shoe extender 512 in. [13.97 cm] 19 in. [48.26 cm]
Seismic
CSI Combinable Seismic Imager 7 in. [17.78 cm] 22 in. [55.88 cm]

196 Wireline Services Catalog