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Calculating pH

To calculate the pH of an aqueous solution you need to know the concentration of the hydronium ion in moles per liter
(molarity). The pH is then calculated using the expression:

pH = - log [H3O+].

Example: Find the pH of a 0.0025 M HCl solution. The HCl is a strong acid and is 100% ionized in water. The hydronium ion
concentration is 0.0025 M. Thus:

pH = - log (0.0025) = - ( - 2.60) = 2.60


Calculating the Hydronium Ion Concentration from pH

The hydronium ion concentration can be found from the pH by the reverse of the mathematical operation employed to find the

[H3O+] = 10-pH or [H3O+] = antilog (- pH)

Example: What is the hydronium ion concentration in a solution that has a pH of 8.34?

8.34 = - log [H3O+]

- 8.34 = log [H3O+]
r[H3O+] = 10-8.34 = 4.57 x 10-9 M

On a calculator, calculate 10-8.34, or "inverse" log ( - 8.34).


Calculating pOH

To calculate the pOH of a solution you need to know the concentration of the hydroxide ion in moles per liter (molarity). The
pOH is then calculated using the expression:

pOH = - log [OH-]

Example: What is the pOH of a solution that has a hydroxide ion concentration of 4.82 x 10 -5 M?

pOH = - log [4.82 x 10-5] = - ( - 4.32) = 4.32


Calculating the Hydroxide Ion Concentration from pOH

The hydroxide ion concentration can be found from the pOH by the reverse mathematical operation employed to find the pOH.
[OH-] = 10-pOH or [OH-] = antilog ( - pOH)

Example: What is the hydroxide ion concentration in a solution that has a pOH of 5.70?

5.70 = - log [OH-]

-5.70 = log[OH-]
[OH-] = 10-5.70 = 2.00 x 10-6 M

On a calculator calculate 10-5.70, or "inverse" log (- 5.70).


Relationship Between pH and pOH

The pH and pOH of a water solution at 25oC are related by the following equation.

pH + pOH = 14

If either the pH or the pOH of a solution is known, the other can be quickly calculated.

Example: A solution has a pOH of 11.76. What is the pH of this solution?

pH = 14 - pOH = 14 - 11.76 = 2.24


A Memorable Event
A memorable event

Having the feeling of losing a loved one is something that everyone eventually

experiences. Losing my grandpa in a car accident is by far the most devastating

thing I had to learn to cope with. My grandpa and I were really close. We did
many things together until the day somebody decided to have a drink while

driving behind the wheel. Not only did the drunk driver pay dearly for his

senseless act. He also took my grandfathers life when he collided into the side of

his car.

Though my grandfathers death was five years ago, I still remember him. An

image of him is still locked in my mind, but my memories of him are faint. After

breakfast on Saturdays, we would play in the park and feed the ducks. I would

hold my grandpas hand and I remember how his hands felt very much like

paper, yet very callused from long years of hard work. When it rained out, he

baked me fudge brownies and cookies. My grandpa was always there when I

needed a wound to be tended to or when I was sick and not feeling well. I miss

my grandpa dearly with all my heart, and I wish I could tell him now how much I

miss everything we used to do together.

When I was young, the money wasnt always there but we still lived a decent,

comfortable life style. I didnt see much of my father because he was always off

somewhere working two jobs while attending college. Thats why my grandpa

was there. My grandpa played the second father-role in a significant part of my

life as a young girl. My grandpa wasnt rich but he made sure that I was a

content, healthy girl by babysitting me. When my parents were at work, my

grandpa took me out to the park and horseback riding. I have many memories of

me and my grandpa that I hold very dear, some of which I will never forget. My

grandpa taught me to appreciate life because life is short. I believe what my

grandpa says is true because bad things do happen unexpectedly, and when

they do, yo...

Lots of people think that if you lose something, that it will be lost forever. To me,
nothing is ever really lost; the things you have or own will always be with you,
maybe not physically but always in your memory. And yes, when you lose things
like a family member, a pet or friend, it is comforting to look at the good times.
But we also look at the bad times because talking from experience with my dads
death, looking at just the good things doesnt help as much as looking at both.
For instance, when I think of my mom, I dont just look at the good she does for
me, I look at the things I dont like that she does, because if you only look at the
good things its like looking at something fake or not true.
The way I look at my dads death is that I lost someone that I never really got to
know as much as I wanted to. But in a way it made me look at life differently and
see how everything is never perfect, life does not always go the way you want
them too. Through my dads death, I think that I have matured and now have a
sense that fate has somewhat a control of my life. Also even though my brother
and sister had more years with my dad, I had a closer relationship with him.
Since I was the youngest, he paid more attention to me because my sister and
brother were in high school at the time. I am glad that I had that 9-year
relationship with one of the best dads in the world who always put his family first
no matter what the situation was.
The way my dad passed away was he was on his bike riding home from the
grocery store. He was on Lighthouse Ave. and there was a car wanting to turn
left on to Cedar St.. So my dad was about to go around the car when all of a
sudden a car hit him from behind and knocked him of his bike and he landed on
his head and killed him instantly.

Death leaves a heartache no one can heal, love leaves a memory no one can steal.
As an avid traveler, Ill share some of my best experiences probably the most beautiful, memorable travels of my life. The one
that Im going to share with you is my trip to Baguio. I was a freshmen then when I first step to this breathtaking highland haven
where exotic beauty continues to enchant visitors from across the globe. It was such a wonderful place that is a perfect
getaway, all year round! Baguio city is also the highest elevated city in the Philippines and it rises from the clouds as a dynamic
and sparkling gem across the mountain ranges of Sierra Madre and of course the tall pine trees, that gives air to the city.

Our first road trip destination is the Bell church. When were on our way, I was wondering with theyd name it that
way. Questions in my mind like, is the church looks like a bell? Or is it a church full of bells? LOL hahaha . But I was wrong ,
when we got into the place, youll see a beautifully designed solemn Buddhist church. The buildings were adorned with flags,
bells, and dragon. It was a perfect place for meditation.

Our next destination is the strawberry farm. Literally this is a farm of strawberries. I love the experience of picking
fresh strawberries in the farm. Of course it is the only place in the Philippines where strawberries are grown. This is a unique
Baguio experience. Eating fresh strawberries, buying products made up from strawberries and people that have cheeks like
strawberries! LOL!

After the strawberry experience, we immediately went to THE MANSION where it is the official summer residence of
the president of the Philippines. An article said that the place is one of the most visited and photographed landmarks in Baguio.
Thats what we did , me and my friends took a lot of pictures together with a beautiful background, a landscape garden with the

After the mansion, we went to Tam-awan Village. It is a new attraction of the city where you can see many artist
colony set, a charming collection of Ifugao and Kalinga huts, and a magnificent art gallery. I enjoyed the hiking experience in
Tam-awan in Village. When you reach the top most of the village youll see a breathtaking view of the china sea and the fresh
air that touches your very soul. It depicts a village of the first Cordillerans, youll see the beautiful houses that we call BAHAY
KUBO. If you are the type of person that loves art, its the best places for you.

Our final road trip destination is the Camp John Hay. Where I felt the grandeur and beauty of Baguio city. I love taking
pictures with my friends with all the pine trees and fog, it really feels like we were in clouds. The most exciting in that place is
when we went inside an old house that thought to be a ghost house. It feels freakly inside. There are old picture frames in the
wall, the things there were really of old age. But outside that house, is beautiful landscape garden full of flowers.

The trip is an adventure! Even though were so tired, we really enjoyed a lot! Finally, I can say that THERE IS MORE TO BAGUIO
The summer capital of the Philippines, Baguio is one of the most visited tourist spots in the country. This is partly because while
everyone is suffering in heat due to the summer sun, Baguio maintains its cools air.

Baguio, an urbanized city at the north of Luzon, in the Cordillera Administrative Region, situated just along the borders of La
Union and Benguet, is one of the greatly developed cities in the Philippines due to its increasing amount of tourists each other.
Although the place isnt as historical-looking and simple-bearing as it used to be, people are still aware of the many tourists
spots in Baguio.

My family and I took our first Philippines vacation together in Baguio (oddly, this happened a year ago and I was only able to
blog about it now). We had been planning for this trip quite awhile now, but because of our busy schedules, none of us really
made a final decision. We took the trip in May 30 June 3 of 2009 and it was a very sudden trip. I remember I just got home
and we began packing our stuff because we would be leaving in the morning one of the kinds of trips I love the most, the ones
that are unprepared.