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Chapter 5: Phylum PORIFERA

-Sponges evolved a multicellular body uniquely specialized for filter -thin in asconoid
feeding(Separation of suspended food particles from water by -thick in most leuconoid
passing them through a mesh that strains out the food) -intermediate thickness is syconoid
-Constant rearrangement of tissues brought by ameboid movements -demosponges and calcareous sponges, body wall is cellular but
of cells glass sponge body wall is syncytium
-Dynamic tissues and Totipotent cells: sponges are intermediate -syncytium: large extensive multinucleated cytoplasm enclosed by
form between protozoan colonies and other metazoans external membrane by not divided into cells by internal membrane
-Sister taxon of remaining Metazoa (Eumetazoa) Cellular
-porifera=pore bearers -demosponges and calcareous sponge (cellularia): two types of
-water enter through pores and flows throughout the body in a tissues: epitheloid and connective
system of flagellated canals -Epitheloid tissue: epithelium but lacks intercellular junctions and
-adult sponge: sessile and attached organism hemidesmosomes; not underlaid by basal lamina; pinacoderm which
-connective tissue well developed covers outer surface of body (exopinacoderm) and lines incurrent
-body symmetry may be radial by asymmetry predominates and excurrent canals (endopinacoderm) and flagellated
-Intermediate growth: enlargement without a fixed upper size limit choanoderm which forms atrial lining (asconoid) and lining of the
-Color of sponges result from cell pigments and endosymbionts choanocyte chambers (syconoid and leuconoid)
-Connective tissue layer between the pinacoderm and choanoderm
FORM called mesohyl (middle wood): form bushy fibrous network: bath
-Asconoid sponges
simplest; hollow cylinder attached by its base to -pinacoderm: 2 types of differentiated cells
substratum; body surface covered by monolayer of flat cells pinacocyte (platter cell); flattened squamous cells that
called pinacoderm (platter skin); hollow interior, atrium, or abut each other edge to edge to form skinlike cellular
spongocoel, lined with monolayer of flagellated collar cells pavement
called choanoderm (collar skin); small pores: ostia o generally lacks flagella except Plakina and
peforate the cylinder wall; osculum: larger opening at Oscarella ( flagellated endopinacoderm lining)
upper free end of body. Porocyte:form ostia of all asconoid and many syconoid
Choanoderm creates unidirectional water flow that enters and leuconoid; constitute prosopyles and apopyles of many
the ostia, passes over the choanoderm en route the atrium, syconoid and leuconoid psonges
exits through osculum -porocyte surround pore; miniature sphincter valve
Aaquiferous system: circulatory system of choanoderm, -Connective Tissue: mesohyl not bathed w/ environmental water
pores, and chambers acheocytes (progenitor cells): macrophage- like, large
all asconoid: small and cylindrical or tubular body ameboid cells with conspicuous nucleus and numerous
Leucosolenia (single tube or cluster of tubes joined at large lysosomes and skeletal elements; totipotent;
base) phagocytic; digestion and internal transport
Clathrina (network of tubes) lophocytes (crest cells): archeocyte-like ameboid cells;
limits body size (unfavorable SA:V ratio); Since flagella secret collagen fibers of mesohyl; produce and maintain
move water effectively only near the choanoderm surface, fine collagen fibers of messohyl
an increase in body diameter would create volume too spongocyte: only in Demospongiae, secrete collagen that
large to be pumped by the flagella unless wall thickens or polymerizes into thick skeletal fibers called sponging
body was redesigned. sclerocytes: (hard cells): mineralized skeletal spicules of
-Syconoid many sponges
increased surface area and reduced atrial volume by myocytes (muscle cells): contain actin and myosin;
forming alternating inpockets and outpockets of the body regulate oscular aperture size; help water control
wall. oocytes and spermatocytes: gametogenesis that later will
choanocyte chamber/ radial canal: outpockets of the develop into sperm and eggs
choanoderm -choanoderm have choanocytes (collar cells): generate water flow
incurrent canals: inpockets of the pinacoderm; discharge through sponge
into the choanocyte chambers via prosopyles (front gates; -basal part of choanocyte flagellum of many species (Microciona and
numerous small openings) Grantia compressa) have bilateral vane
water path: Ostiaincurrent canals prosopyles
choanocyte chamber atrium osculum Synctial
this decrease volume of atrium and increase area of -glass sponge: no sheetlike pinacoderm pavement
flagellated choanoderm -in hexactinellids: living tissue in 3D strands called trabecular
larger than asconoid syncytium
Grantia and Sycon (Scypha) -cellular choanoderm absent; choanosyncytium in place
-Leuconoid -collar body: with collar and flagellum; no nucleus arise from surface
largest body size; aquiferous system is complex network of of choanosycytium
water vessels that permeate a solid, spongy body -water in hexactinellids: surface openings in trabecular network -
spherical choanocyte chamber at intersection of incurrent incurrent canals - collar body chambers - excurrent canals - atrium
and excurrent canals osculum
excurrent canals: small diameter; multiple oscula replace
voluminous atrium and single osculum of asconoid and WATER PUMPING
syconoid sponges -flow velocity fastest through osculum; slowest in choanocyte
water enters via surface ostia surface before flowing to chambers
incurrent canalsprosopyleschoanocyte chambers -water current: activity of choanocyte flagella -choanocyte flagella
apopyle (water exit, back gate) excurrent canals and collars are away from ostia (asconoid) or prosopyle (leuconoid
oscula and syconoid)
Microsciona prolifera -oscula at chimneys well above main body and ostia
Vastly increases area of flagellated choanoderm while
minimizing water volume to be moved
water pumping is decentralized
-mesohylar endoskeleton -demosponge family Clionidae: breakdown of calcareous shell and
-Oscarella and Halisarca: sole skeleton is gelatinous mesohyl coralline rock in sea
supported by 1 fine collagen fiber -etching cells: specialized archeocytes; erode shell
-mesohylar matrix supplemented with mineral spicules, spongin or
-spicules: stiffen mesohyl Clonal reproduction
-Euplecta aspergillum and Michinella: glass sponge; rigid brittle 3D -fragmentation, budding, or by propagating overwintering propagules
spicular skeleton -calcifying demosponges (sclerosponges): massive called gemmules
basal exoskeleton of CaCO3 -sclerosponges: siliceous spicules -Clathrina: budding
-bath sponges (Spongia, Hippospongia): compressible elastic and -freshwater sponges and few marine: gemmules
spongy -diapause: state of near metabolic arrest
-Haliclona: spongin welds together spicule tips -Dysidea janiae: -gemmules: produced in mesohyl of a dying sponge
sponge no spicular skeleton but use calcareous skeleton of red alga - -spongocytes: spongin shell around cellular mass
spicules: siliceous (SiO2) or calcareous (CaCO3) -shell encloses cell mass except at one pole where micropyle
-Spicules: remains
Megascleres: principal skeletal framework -completed gemmule consists of a shell and its enclosed archeocytes
Microscleres: smaller; support pinacodermal lining of and is then called thesocyte
canal system or toughen body wall
secreted extracellulary by sclerocytes in calcareous Sexual reproduction and development
sponges, intracellularly in sclerocytes in demosponges, -hermaphrodites
intersynctyially in glass sponges -sperm spawned from one sponge and transported by water current
to another
-Ephydatia, Chondrilla, Hymeniacidon, Tethya can move -most sponge: viviparous
-collective ameboid movement or pinacodermal and other cells -lack genital organ
-Clathrina coriacea: constriction of oscula by myocytes -spermatic cyst
-absence of intercellular junctions, basal lamina, hemidesmosomes in -eggs arise from archeocytes or dedifferentiated choanocytes
sponge tissues allows these independent and cell movements -egg and nurse cells: enclosed in follicle
-carrier cell: transformed ameboid choanocyte
-aquiferous system: gas exchange, food acquisition, waste disposal, -coeloblastula larva: calcareous sponge (Clathrina)
release sperm and larvae -amphiblastula larva: (Grantia, Sycon, Lecosolenia); develops as
-little segregation of function, integrating systems are not well hollow ball with anterior flagellated cells and posterior non flagellated
developed granular cells
-sponge lack nervous tissue -parenchymella larva: most demosponges
-low level organization allow to adaptively remold bodies to -trichimella larvae: glass sponges
regenerate readily -all sponge larvae are lecithotrophic
-olynthus: juvenile sponge functional and feed
NUTRITION -rhagon: juvenile stage
-filter food particles
-food trapping filters in incurrent canals (decrease in diameter as they SymplasmasP (Hexactinellida)
penetrate inward) and choanocytes -glass sponge have synctial tissues
-smallest particles enter choanocyte chambers and removed by -siliceous triaxonal hexactines spicules -Euplectella, Dactylocalyx,
phagocytosis or pinocytosis Hyalonema, Rhabdocalyptus
-choanocyte and archeocyte engulf and digest particles in vesicles CellulariasP
-carnivorous species: demosponge family Cladorhizidae -w/ cellular tissues
-sources of particulate wastes in sponges: indigestible products of
intercellular digestion and inorganic mineral particles that enter in DEMOSPONGIAEC
water stream -leuconoid
-Freshwater sponges: green algae in archeocytes -siliceous spicules, spongin, spicules(spongin or mesohyl)
-Marine sponges: host dinoflagellates -megascleres: monoaxons, triaxons, tetraxons


EXCRETION o lacking distinction between mega and
-internal transport of food inglass sponges is intrasyncytial microscleres
-leaky animals: sponges TETRACTINOMORPHA (subclass)
-freshwater sponge: contractile vacuoles: osmoregulating for o tetraxons, asterose microscleres, w/o sponging
individual cells CERACTINOMORPHA (subclass)
o distinct mega and microscleres
-local myocyte contraction in response to local stimulus o Microsciona prolifera (red beard sponge)
-slow: specialized intercellular junctions are absent CALCAREA (class)
-membranes between cells isolate rather than conduct wave of o asconoid, syconoid and leuconoid
depolarization o calcite spicules
CALCINEA (subclass)
BIOACTIVE METABOLITES AND BIOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION o choanocytic flagellum not close w/ nucleus
-metabolites: prevent settlement of other organisms on surfaces Clathrina
-use to compete for space CALCARONEA (subclass)
-harbor endosymbionts that occupy space in aquiferous system and o choanocyte flagellum close to nucleus
take advantage of water flow and protection afforded by host o Grantia, Lecosolenia (asconoid), Sycon
-3 major taxa: hexactinellida, demospongiae, calcarea: cambrian or
ordovician periods