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FRANCIS D. K.

CHING
A VISUAL
DICTIONARY 0 F
ARCH TECTURE
SECOND EDITION
A
VISUAL DICTIONARY OF
ARCHITECTURE
VISUAl DICTIONARY Of

I
Secon Edition

fronds D. K., Ching

John Wilcy & Sons, Inc.


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Library of Congress CataloginginPublication Data:

bi3N 9'7804'70648858 (pbk.): ISBN 9'78+118104880 (d1k):


ISBN 9781-118104897 (ebk): ISBN 9781-11816049 7(ebk):
IS13N 9'781-11816133-3 (ebk): ISBN 9'78+118161371 (ebk)

l'rinted in the United States of America

1098'7654321
Preface vii

Architecture 1
Arch 4 force 98 Plostic 200
Beam 7 Fortification 1oo Plate 202
Brick 10 Foundation 102 Plumbing 204
Building 13 Fmme 106 Reinforced Concrete 210
Cable Structure 20 Geometry 11 o Roof 216
Ceiling 22 Glass 114 Room 224
Ceramic 24 Hardware 116 Shell 227
Church 27 Heat 119 Sitework 229
Color 30 History 129 Soil 232
Column 32 House 140 Sound 234
Computer Graphics 34 Joinery 144 Stair 239
Concrete 40 light 146 Stone 242
Construction 46 Load 157 Structure 244
Design 52 Masonry 163 Survey 253
Dome 62 Material 169 Sustoinability 255
Door 64 Measure 17 4 Temple 266
Dmwing 68 Membrane 17 6 Theoter 27 4
Electricity 76 Metal 177 Truss 277
Elevator 82 Moisture Protection 184 Vault 2so
Fastening 84 Order 187 Vision 282
Fireplace 89 Ornament 190 Wall 284
Fire Safety 90 Paint 195 Window 289
Floor 94 Ploster 196 Wood 294

Index 303
PIU E

One picture is Just as a single image can be worth a The reader may use t;his dictionary in a number Major additions to this second edition reflect
thousand words, asingle word can conjure up in of ways. if one knows the exact term and wants changes brought about by advancements in digital
worth a thousand
the mind's eye athousand images. Regardless of to find out its meaning, then one can look it up in technology as well as the increasing awareness of
words ... the power of a solitary word or image, however, the index. Looking up one term will always present the environmental consequences of our design and
each comnwnicates meaning more effectively related terms arranged around one or more construction activit;ies.
when brought together into a single presentation. illustrations.
The symbiotic relationship between graphic and l)espite these additions, this remains a !1ook
verbal conm1unication is the basis for this visual If one does not know the precise term, then one for the curious to browse as well as adesktop
dictionary of architecture. can look up the general ~;ubject in either the ta!Jie reference for the student of architecture. The
of contents or the index. One can then refer to compilation of words and definitions is not
Instead of an alphal1eticallisting of entries as the appropriate section, browse the illustrations, intended to be exhaustive. Rather, the selection
found inmostdictionilries, ~he informatio11 is and scan for the term. While brov~>Jing, if one is designed to 1!!: comprehensive enough to reflect
clustered around l1asic aspects of architecture encounters an entry or a word used in a definition ~he rich, complex, and multidimensional nature of
as outlined in the table of contents. Within each that is unfamiliar, one can look it up in the index. architecture.
section, words are placed in a visual context, which
further explains, clarifies, and completes their Included are fundamental terms relating to
meaning. architectural design, hi;;tory, and technology.
Since architecture b avi;;ual art, most ol the
entries naturally lend themselves t;o graphic
repre;;entation. Some are more abstract but
are included to help clarify related terms or to
complete the treatment of a subject. Others are
inserted simply because they are of historical
interest.

VII
Architecture is an art for all to learn l>ecause all are concerned with it. ~,John Ruskin Ai'chitecture

depends on Order. Arrangement:, Etuythmy, Symmetry, l'ropriet:y, and Economy. All of these must: be l>uilt with

due reference to durability, convenience, and beauty. Durability will be assured when foundations are carried

down to the solid ground and materials wisely and liberally selected; convenience, when the arrangement of

the apartments is faultless and presents no hindrance to use, and when each class of building is assigned

to its suitable and appropriate exposure; and beauty, when the appearance of the work is pleasing and in

good taste, and when its members are in due proportion according to correct principles of symmetry. --

Vitruvius Ar-chitecture is the masterly, correct and magnificent play of masses brought together in

light. ---Le Corbusier Anyone entering on the study of architecture must understand that even though

a plan may have abstract beauty on paper, the four facades may seem well-balanced and the total volume

well-proportioned, the building itself may turn out to be poor architecture. Internal space, that space which

cannot be completely represented in any form. which can be grasped and felt only through direct experience.

is the protagonist of architecture. To grasp space, to know how to see it, is the key to the understanding

of building. --Bruno Zevi Architecture, painting, and sculpture are called the fine arts. They appeal to

t:he eye as music does to the ear. But architecture is not judged by visual appeal alone. Buildings affect all

of the human senses- sound, smell, touch, taste, and vision. --Forrest Wilson lt became apparent t:o us

that architecture is generally assumed to be a highly specialized system with a set of prescribed technical

goals rather than a sensual social art: responsive to real human desires and feelings. This limitation is most:

frighteningly manifested in the reliance on two-dimensional diagrams that lay more stress on the quantifiable

features of building organization than on the polychromatic and three--dimensional qualities of the whole

architectural experience. ~-Kent Bloomer & Charles Moo re The only way you can build, the only way you can

get the building into l>eing, is through the measurable. You must follow the laws of nature and use quantities

of brick, methods of construction, and engineering. But in the end, when the building becomes part of living, it

evokes unmeasurable qualities, and the spirit of its existence takes over. -Louis Kahn 13uilt environments

have various purposes: to shelter people and their activities and possessions from the elements, from human

and animal enemies, and from supernatural powers; to establish place; to create a humanized. safe area in a

profane and potentially dangerous world; to stress social identity and indicate status; and so on. Thus the

origins of architecture are best understood if one takes a wider view and considers sociocultural factors, in

the broadest sense, to be more important than climate, technology, materials, and economy. In any situation,

it is the interplay of allt:hese factors that best: explains t:he form of buildings. No single explanation will

suffice, because buildings--even apparently humble dwellings-are more than material objects or structures.

They are institutions. basic cultural phenomena. l'eople think environments before t:hey l>uild them. Thought

orders space, time, activity, status, roles, and behavior. But giving physical expression to ideas is valuable.

Encoding ideas makes them useful mnemonics; ideas help behavior by reminding people of how to act, how

to behave, and what is expected of them. it is important to stress that all built environments~-~buildings.

settlements, and landscapes~- are one way of ordering the world by making ordering systems visible. The

essential step. therefore, is the ordering or organizing of the environment. --AtliOs Rapaport Ruskin said:

"Great nations writ:e their autobiographies in three manuscripts, the book of their deeds, the book of their

words and the book of their art:. Not one of these l>ooks can be underst:ood unlesf; we read the two others,

l1ut of the three the only trustworthy one is the last." On the whole I think this is true. If I had to say which

was telling the trut:h about society, a speech by a minister of housing or the actual buildings put up in his

time. I should l>elieve the buildings. ~~-Kenneth Cl ark We require of any building, that it act well, and do the

things it was intended to do in the best way; that it speak well, and say the things it: was int:ended to say in

the best words; that: it look well, and please us l1y its presence, whatever it has to do or say. ~-Joint Ruskin

Architecture also exists without: necessary assistance from an architect; and architect!; sometimes

create buildings which are not architecture. -~Norval White Architecture is produced l1y ordinary

people, for ordinary people; t:hcrefore it ;;hould l1e easily comprelwnsillle to all. Steen Filer l(ac,mu'iSr.n

VIll
ARCHITE URE
The ART
architecture The product or result of architectur I work; buildings, collectively.

and SCIENCE
architecture Astyle or method of building characteristic a people, place, or time.

of DESIGNING
architecture The profession of designing buildings and other habita eenvironments.

and CONSTRUCTING
architecture I he conscious act of forming things, resulting in a unifying or co rent structure.

BUILDINGS

---------- ------------ --------

--------------
UIH
art
The conscience use of skill, craft, and
creative imagination in the production of
what is l'eautiful, appealing, or of more than
ordinary significance.

aesthetics
The branch of philosophy that deals with
the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with
aview to establishing the meaning and
validity of critical judgments concerning
works of art. Also, esthetics.
beauty delight
The aggregate of qualities in a person or A high degree of pleasure or enjoyment.
thing that gives intense pleasure t;o the
senses or deep satisfaction to the mind
or spirit, whether arising from harmony
of form or calor, excellence of craft.
truthfulness, originality, or other, often
unspecific property.
taste
Critical judgment, discernment, or
appreciation of what is fitting, harmonious,
or beautiful prevailing in a culture or
personal to an individual.
\

commodity
Something of value, the, or convenience.

environmental design urban design interior design


The ordering of the physical environment The aspect of architecture and city The art, business, or profession of
by means of architect.ure, engineering, planning that deals with the design of planning the design and supervising
construction, landscape architecture, urban structures and spaces. the execution of architectural
urban design, and city planning. interiorf;, including their col or schemes,
city planning furnishings, fittings, finishes, and
The activity or profession of deternrining the future sometimes architectural feat;ures.
physical arrangement and condition of aconm1unity,
involving an appraisal of the current conditions, space planning
aforecast of future requirements, aplan for the fhe aspect of architecture and interior
fulfillment of these requirements, and proposals design that deals with the planning,
for legal, financial, and constructional programf; to layout, design, and furnishing of spaces
implen1Cnl; t;lw plan. Also called town planning, within a proposed or existing building.
urban planning.

----~~------------------~----------- --------------------------~----~~-------------

2
AROUH RE
6Cience
11 branch of knowledge dealing with a body of
facts or truths ol;t:ained by direct ol,smvation,
experimental investigation, and methodical
technology study, systematically arranged and showing
!I pp lied science: The lnanch of knowledge that the operation of general laws.
deals with the creation and use of technical
methods and materials, and their interrelation
with life, society, and the environment.
technics
The science of an art or of the arts in general.
tectonics
The science or art of shaping, ornamenting, or
assembling materials in building construction.
architectonics
The unifying structure or concept of an
artistic work.

firmness engineering
The state or quality of being The att and science of applying scientific
solidly constructed. principles to practical ends in the design
and construction of structures, machines,
and systems.

behavioral science
llny of the sciences, such as sociology and
anthropology, that seek to discover general truths
from the observation of human behavior in society.
sociology
The science of human social institutions and
relationships, spec if. the study of the origin,
development, structure, functioning, and
collective behavior of organized group;; of human
beings.
anthropology
fhe science of humanl,cings, the st:udy of
the origins, physical and cultural development, and
environmental and social relations of hu111ankind.

landscape architecture
The arl:, business, or profession of
designing, arranging, or modifying the
features of a landscape for aesthetic
or practical1easotb.

regionalism
/\n approach to architecture that strives to counter a lack
of identity or sew;e of place by utilizing the geoiJraphical
cont,ext of a IJuildiniJ to guide its design response t:o
topography, cli111ate, light, and tectonic form.

-----------------------------
3
CH
AcrHved .structure for SfJanning an opening,
designed to support a vercicalload primarily
by axial compression.
keystone
The wedge-shaped, ofcen embellished
masonry arch voussoir at the crown of an arch, serving
An arch constructed of individual to lock the other voussoirs in place.
extrados
The exterior curve, surface, or boundary of
the visible face of an arch. Also called back.
archivolt
Adecorativp, molding or band on the face of
an arch following the curve of the intrados.
intrados
< rise The inner curve or surface of arr arch forming
fhe height of an arch from t.he the concave underside.
spring line to the highest point
springer of the intrados.
The first voussoir resting on the
impost of an arch.

spring
The point at which an arch, vault, or dome
rises from its support. Also, springing.

crown spandrel
The highest part or point of a convex
The triangular shaped, sometimes
construction, such as an arch, vault,
ornamented area between the extrados
or roadway.
of two adjoining arches, or between the
haunch lefo or right extrados of an arch and the
rectangular framework surrounding it.
Also, spandril.
impost
The uppermost part of an abutment,
often in the form of a block, capital, or
molding, from which an arch springs.

order iag
Any of several concentric rings of A crosspiece connecting the ribs in a
masonry forming an arch, esp. when each centering. Also called bolster.
projects beyond the one below.

centering
Atemporary framework for supporting a
masonry arch or vault during construction until
skew arch the work can support itself.
An archway having sides or jambs not at right
angles with the face of its abutments.
camber piece
A board used as centering for a flat arch, slightly
crowned to allow for seWing of the arch. Also
called caml>er slip.

---------------------
4
arch action
The manner in which an arch transforms
the vertical forces of a suppo1ted load into
inclined components and transmits them to
abutments on either side of the archway.

The median line of an arched structure.


line of thrust
The set of resultants of thrust and weight
each part of an arch imposes on the next
lower one. I'or bending to be eliminated
throughout an a1ch, the line of thrust must
coincide with the arch axis.

funicular arch
An arch shaped to develop only axial
compression under agiven loading. This shape
may be found by inverting the funicular shape
for a cable carrying a similar loading pattern.
As with any funicular structure, afunicular
arch is subject to bending if the loading
pattern changes.
An inverted catenaty is the funicular shape for an
arch cal'lyinq a vertical load uniformly distributed
alonq the lenqth of the arch axis.
The outward force or pressure exerted by one
The parabola is the funicular shape for an arch part of a structure against another.
cal'lyinq a vertical load uniformly distributed over
its horizontal proje~tion.
I The thrust of an arched structure on its
abutments, pmp01tional to the total load
and span, and inversely proportional to
the rise.

rigid mch
An arched structure of timber, steel, or
reinforced concrete, constructed as a rigid
body capable of carrying bending stresses.

fixed arch
A fixed frame structure having an arched
form.
two-hinged arch
A two-hinged frame structure having an
arched form. The part of a structure receiving and
three-hinged arch supporting the thrust of an arch, vault, or
A three-hinged frame structure having an strut.
arched form. tie rod
See frame stmcture. An iron or steel rod serving as a structural
tie, esp. 011e keeping the lower ends of an
arch or frame from spreading.

5
triangular arch
A primitive form of arch consist;ing of two
stones laid diagonally to supporl; e;1ch ol;iwr
over an opening.

corbel arch
French arch Afalse arch constructed by corbeling
courses from each side of an opening until
An arch having a horizontal intrados with A flat arch having voussoirs inclined to the
they meet at a midpoint where a capstone
voussoirs radiating from a center below, same angle on each side of the center.
ofren built with a slight camber to allow is laid to complete the work. The stepped
for settling. Also called jack arch.
reveals may be smoothed, but no arch
action is effected.

rampa11t arch
An arch having one impost higher than
the other.
stilted arch
. ~ An arch resting on impost:; treated as

round arch Roman arch If( . 'f + 1'- .:::,,~;;:'""''"'""""""'"''""''''""


An arch having a continuously curved
intrados, esp. a semicircular one.
An arch having a semicircular intrados.
l .~~ . :::::~~~::~oot>ObiWiblll
An arch having an intrados that widens
above the springing before narrowing to a
rounded crown. Also called Moorish arch.
trefoil atch
An arch having a cusped intrados with three
round or pointed foils.
segmental atch
An arch struck from one or more centers
below the springing line.
skewback
A stone or course of masonry having a -- basket handle atch
sloping face against which the end of a Athree-centered arch having acrown with a
segmental arch rests. radius much greater than that of the outer
pair of curves. Also called an se de panier.

pointed arch equilateral arch lancet arch drop arch


An arch having a pointed crown. A pointed arch having two centers and radii A pointed arch having two centers A pointed arch having two centers and radii
equal to the span. and radii greater than the span. less than the span.
Gothic arch
A pointed arch, esp. one having two centers
and equal radii.
I

~ '
,., l' \ .:-r./
J, /:
~
/ surbased arch
An arch having a rise of less than halfthe span.

Tudor arch L:J. ~ ogee arch


11 pointed arch, each haunch of which is ;I
Afour centered arcli having an inner pair of
double curve with the concave side uppermost.
curve~; witha radius much greater than that
of the outer pair.
/\rigid stlucturalmember de~;ig11ed to caiTY
and transfa transverse loads across space to
suppo1'ting elements.

bending moment
An external moment tending to cause part
of a structure to rotate or bend, equal to
the algebraic sum of the moments about
the neutral axis of the section under
consideration.
Compression
resisting moment
Tension
An internal moment equal and opposite to a
bending moment, generated by a force couple
to maintain equilibrium of the section being
considered.

neutral axis
deflection An imaginary line passing through the
The perpendicular distance a spanning member centroid of the cross section of a beam or
deviates from atrue course under transverse other member subject to bending, along
loading, increasing with load and span, and which no bending stresses occur.
decreasing with an increase in the moment of bending stress
inertia of the section or the modulus of elasticity Acombination of compressive and tensile
of the material. stresses developed at a cross section of a
camber structural member to resist atransverse
Aslight convex culwrture intentionally l1uilt into force, having a maximum value at the
a beam, girder, or truss to compensate for an surface furthest from the neutral axis.

transverse shear .
Ashear force at across section of abeam or verticalshea1ing stress
other member subject to bending, equal to the The shearing stress developed along
a cross section of a beam to resist
algebraic sum of transverse forces on one side of
the sect;ion. transverse shear, having amaximum
value at the neutral axis and decreasing
non linearly toward the outer faces.

horizontal shearing stress


The shearing stress developed to prevent slippage along
horizontal planes of a beam1mder transverse loading,
equal at any point to the vertical shearing stress at that
point.llbo called longitudinal shearing stress.

-~-----~--------~--~----------------~--~----~-----~-------- - - - - - - - - - - - - - ---~~---------- - - - ----~- --


7
flexure formula moment of inertia
Aformula defining the relationship between The sum of the products of each element of
bending moment, bending stress, and the cross where an area and the square of its distance from a
sect;ional properties of a beam. 13ending stress fb ' extreme {i/Jer stress in/1ending
2
coplanar axis of rotation. Moment of inertia is
is directly proportional to bending moment and a geometric property that indicates how the
inversely proportional to the moment of inertia of M = bending moment crosssectional area of astructural member is
a beam section. distributed and does not reflect the intrinsic
c = distance fJVm neutml axis to
physical properties of a material.
the outermost surface in bending
If
lfc=@ section modulus
Ageometric property of a cross section, defined
then as the moment of ine1tia of the section divided
fb =Mfs by the distance from the neutral axis to the most
remote surface.

While halving abeam span Of' doubling its width reduces The efficiency ofabeam is increased by configuring
the bending stresses by a factor of2, doubling the the CJ'OSS section to provide the required moment of
depth reduces the bend1ng stresses by a factor of4. li1e1tia or section modulus with the smallest possible X- X
area, usually by making the section deep with most of
the material at the extremities where the maximum
/1ending stresses occu1:

4 x 10 timber beam W14 x38 steel beam

33.25in2 = Area ofsection 11.20in2 Area of section


250in 4 I about xx axis 386in4 I about xx axis
I 52.6in3 s 54.7in3 s

principal stresses
The tensile and compressive stresses resulting
from the interaction of bending and shear
stresses at a cross section of a beam.

I At the extreme surfaces ofabeam, only bending


stresses exist and the p1incipal stresses are
equivalent to the tensile and compressive
stresses resulting from bending.

I stresses exist and these can be resolved into

I
I tensile and compressive stresses acting at 45'
angles to the neutral axis.
laterallluckling
The buckling of a structural member induced by For an intermediate element subject to both
compressive stresses acting on aslender portion bending and shear stresses, the principal
insufficiently rigid in the lateral direction. stresses have an inclinaUon determined by the
relative magnitudes of these stresses.

stress trajectories
Lines depicting the direction but not the
magnitude of the principal stresses in a beam .
. . shear center
The point in the CI'OSSsectional plane of a
structural member through which atransverse
load must pass in order to prevent torsion or
twisting of the member about a longitudinal axis.

8
simple beam
Al1eamrcsting on simple supports at both ends,
which arc free to rotate and have no moment
rw;isrance.i\s with any statically determinate
structure, the values of all reactions, shears, and
moments for a simple l1eam are independent of its
cross-sectional shape and material.
shear diagram
Agraphic representation of the variation in
magnitude of the external shears present in a
structure for agiven set of transverse loads and Uniformly dist;ributed loads produce linearly
support conditions. va1yinq shears. cantilever beam
I
A projecting beam supported at only one fixed end.
ll
moment diagram
Agraphic representation of t:he variation in
magnitude of the bending moments present in a
structure for a given set of transverse loads and Concentrated loads produce bendinq moments that Uniformly distributed loads produce parabolically
support conditions. The overall deflected shape va1y linearly between loads. va1yinq moments.
of a structure subject to bending can often be
inferred from the shape of its moment diagram.
cantilever
A beam or other rigid structural
member extending beyond a fulcrum
and supported by abalancing member I
__3/__
~ i
J J. J ,L. l
. .
~< l l l l =~ i overhanging beam
Asimple beam extending beyond one its supports.
or adownward force behind the fulcrum. : :
The overhang reduces the positive moment at

~~HJCUVi~
positive shear ... mid span while developing a negative moment at
A net resultant of shear forces that acts vertically the base of the cantilever over the support.
upward on the left part of the structure being
considered.
negative shear
A net resultant of shear forces that acts vertically
downward on the left part of the structure being
.. . /1 A[[lif[Jl]}ili
Assuminq auniformly distributed load. the projection
for which the moment over the support is equal and
opposite to the moment at midspan is approximately
-'!8ofthespan.

considered.
~-
positive moment double overhanging beam
A bending moment that produces a concave A simple beam extending beyond both of its
curvature at a section of a structure. supports.

inflection point
A point at which a structure changes curvature
. . . -.~11~ l*JJ J:~ ~=*JJ6 Assuminq aunifonnly distributed load, the
pr~jections for which the moments over
from convex to concave or vice versa as it deflects
under atransverse load; theoretically, an internal
hinge and therefore apoint of zero moment. .~
. .: JlflJ[nl' !
l.lllh.'lj:vy
the supports are equal and opposite to the
moment; at midspan are approximately IJ.5
of the span.
negative moment
A bending moment that produces aconvex
curvature at asection of astructure.

haunch
The part of a beam that is thickened or deepened to fixed-end beam
develop greater moment resistance. The efficiency A beam having both ends restrained against
of a beam can be increased by shaping its length in translation and rotation. I he fixed ends transfer
response to the rnornent and shear values, which bending stresses, increase the rigidity of the
typically vary along its longitudinal axis. beam, and reduce its maximum deflection.

suspended-span
A simple beam supported by the cantilevers of two
adjoining spans with pinned construction joints at
points of zero moment. Also called hung-span.
continuous beam
A beam ext;ending over more than two supports

~ ~ ~: ~ )~ 1 ,1: ~ ~ ~~ ~: 1 ~ J~ ~ ~ l l ++lll J J 1 1i in order to develop greater rigidity and smaller


moments than a series of simple l1eams having
similar spans and loading.l3oth fixedend and
continuous IJCams are indeterminate ;;tructures
for which the values of all reactions, shears, and

LLT"~t '_ .
nroments are dependent not only on span and
loading but also on cross-sectional shape and

"TlUIID J effective length


material.

The distance l1etween inflection pain% in the span of a


fixed end or continuous l1eam, equivalent in nature to the
actual length of asimply supported beam.

9
BRICK
/\masonry unit of clay, for111ed into a rectangular
17rislll while plasUc and hardened by drying in the
sun or firing in a kiln. soft-mud process
The process of fanning brick l;y 111olding relatively wet
common btick clay having a moisture cont;ent of 20% to 30%.
Brick made for general building purposes and not
specially treated for col or and texture. Also called sand-struck btick
building bl'ick. Brick formed in the soft-mud process with a mold lined
with sand to prevent sticking, producing a matte
facing brick textured surface.
Brick made of special clays for facing a wall, often
treated to produce the desired calor and surface water-struck brick
texture. Also called face brick. Brick formed in the soft mud process with a mold
lubricated with water to prevent sticking, producing a
brick type smooth, dense surface.
AdesignaUon indicating the
stiff-mud process
permissible variation in size, calor,
The procesc; of fanning brick and structural tile [,y
chippage, and distortion allowed in a
extruding stifi' but plastic clay having a moisture
facing brick unit.
content of 12% to 15% through adie and cutting the
FBX extrusion to length with wires before firing.
Facing brick suitable for use where a
dry-press process
111inimum variaUon in size, narrow color
The process of forming brick l1y molding relatively dry
range, and high degree of mechanical
clay having a moisture cor11;ent of 5% to 7% under high
petfection are required.
ptessute, resulting in shat-p-edged, smooth surfaced
FBS bricks.
Facing brick suitable for use where a
kiln
wider col or range and greater variation
A furnace or oven for burning, baking, or drying
in size are permitted than for type FBX.
something, esp. one for firing pottery, baking bricks, or
FBA drying timber.
Facing brick suitable for use where
flashing
patticular effects are desired resulting
Firing brick units alternately with too much or too little
from non uniformity in size, color, and
air to vary their face col m.
texture of the individual units.
cull
brick grade A brick or timber rejected as being of inferior quality.
Adesignation indicating the durability of abrick
unit when exposed to weathering. The U.S. is
divided into three weathering regions--severe,
moderate, and negligible~-according to annual
winter rainfall and the annual number of freezing
cycle days. Brick is graded for use in each region
according to compressive strength, maximum
water absorption, and maximum saturation
coefficient.
SW
13rick suitable for exposure to severe
as when in contact with the ground or used on
surfaces likely to [,e permeated with water in
subfreezing temperatures.

firebrick
A brick made of fire clay and used for lining furnacwi
NW and fireplaces.
Brick suitable for exposure to fire clay
absorption
The weight of water absorbed by a clay masonry negligible weathering, as when used A refractory clay used in the making of firebricks,
unit when immersed in either cold or boiling as abackup or in interior masomy. crucibles, and other ol,jects exposed to high
waterfor iJ stated length of time, expressed as a temperatures.
percentage of "he weight of the dry unit.
refractory
saturation coefficient A material having the ability to retain its physical
The ratio of the weight of water absorl1ed by a shape and chemical identity when subjected to high
clay masonry unit immersed in cold water to the t;emperatures.
weight absorbed when immersed in boiling water,
indicating the prol1able resistance of the brick to
the action of freezing and thawing. clinker
/1 detbe, hard IJutned kick Ucied esp. for paving.
suction
The weight of watet absorl1ed by a clay maf;onry A white, powdery deposit that forms on an
unit when parUally immersed for one minute, exposed masonry or concrete surface, caused by
expressed in grams or ounces Also the leaching and crystallization of soluble salts
called initial rate of absorption. from within the materiill.

------~-------------------------

10
BRI

modular brick
nominal dimension 3courses= 8 in. (205 mm) A brick having nominal dimensions of 4 x2 2f3 x
A brick dimension larger than the actual 8 in. (102 x68 x203 mm).
I dimension to account for the thickness of
a mottar joint.

----- Norman brick


I ~- .... - Abrick having nominal dimensions of 4 x2 2f3 x
12 in. (102 x 68 x305mm).

SCRbrick
Brick having nominal dimensions of 6 x2 2f3
x 12 in. (102 x68 x305mm). SCR stands for
structural clay research and is atrademark of
the Brick Institute of America.

engineered brick
A brick having nominal dimensions of 4 x3 1f5 x
5courses 16 in. (4{}6 mm)
8 in. (102 x81 x203mm).

Norwegian brick
A brick having nominal dimensions of 4 x3 IJ5 x
12 in. (102 x 81 x305mm).

4courses= 8 in. (2W mm) Roman brick


Brick having nominal dimensions of 4 x2 x 12 in.
(102 x51 x305mm).

economy brick
jumbo brick 2courses= 8 in. (203 mm) A modulat brick having nominal dimensions of 4 x
Any of various oversized bricks having nominal 4x8 in. (102 x 102 x203 mm).
dimensions established by the manufacturer.

stretcher
A brick or other masonry unit laid horizontally
in a wall with the longer edge exposed or parallel
to the surface .
Abrick cut transversely so as to leave one ... header
end whole. Abrick or other masonry unit laid horizontally
in a wall with the shorter end exposed or parallel
gauge
to the surface.
To chip or rub stones or bricks to acertain
size or shape. rowlock
Abrick laid horizontally on the longer edge with
the shorter end exposed. Also, rollock.
soldier
Abrick laid vettically with the longer face edge
exposed .
.... :"""",."'"'"" sailor
Abrick laid vertically with the broad face
exposed.
shiner
Abrick laid horizontally on the longer edqe
wi1J1 the broad face exposed. Also called bull
stretcher.

See ma&onry (or types ofmortm')oint;s.

11
BRI
brickwork
13rick construction. esp. the art of bonding soldier course
[,ricks effectively. Acontinuous coui'SC of soldiers inl1rickwork.
bond
/\ny of various arrangements of masonry
units having a regular, recognizable,
usually overlapping pattern to increase
the strength and enhance the appearance
of the construction. stack bond
A brickwork or masonry bond having successive
running bond courses of stretchers with all head joints
A brickwork or masonry bond composed aligned vertically. Also, stacked bond.
of overlapping stretchers. Also called
stretcher bond.

common bond
A brickwork bond having a course of
headers between every five or six courses course
of stretchers. Also called Amel'ican
bond.

closet
A masonry u11it specially formed
or cut to finish a course or bond course ....
complete the bond at the corner A continuous course of headers or
of a waiL Also. closure. bondstones overlapping more than one
wythe of masonry.

English bond English cross bond


A brickwork bond having alternate courses A modified English bond in which the head
of headers and stretchers in which the joints in the stmtching courses are offset
headers are centered on stretchers and by half the length of a stretcher. Also called
the joints between stretchers line up Dutch bond.
vertically in all courses.
queen closer
Abrick of half the normal width,
used for completing a course or
for spacing regular bricks. Also,
queen closure.

Flemish bond Flemish cross bond


A b1ickwo1'k [7ond having alternating A modified Flemish bond having courses of
headers and stretchers in each course, alternate headers and stretchers alternating
each header being centered al10ve and with stretching courc;es.
below a stretcher.

flare headel'
king closet A brick having adarker end exposed as a header
Athree quarter lnick for in patterned brickwork.
finishing acourse or for spacing
regular bricks. Also, king
closure.

Flemish diagonal bond garden-wall bond


Aform of Flemish cross bond in which A brickwork bond for lightly loaded boundary
the courses am offset to fonn a diamond walls, having a sequence of a header and three
pattern. stretchers in each course, with each header
l1cing ccntered over a header in alternate
course::!.

12
BUI ING
A relatively permanent enclosed structure
constt ucted over a plot of land for
Abuilding is i! shelter from r'ilin, sun, and wind. superstructure
habitable use.
This imp/its a Roof; and W;il/s to support; if; If the The vertical extension of a building or other
I'm lis entirely enclose the space within, there are construction al10ve the foundation.
/Joorways for access, and Windows (or liqhf;. Roofs
and wall, doors dnd windows ;Jre the essential
features of buildings. Roof
Roofs may /1e (idt, sloping, or curved. Aroof with
one slope is called a Lean to. When two sloping
roofs rest upon parallel walls and lean against
one another; they meet in a horizontal ridge at;
the top, and form aGa/Jie iit edch end. If two Willis
make ,1 projecting anqle, their roofs intersect; in
;m inclined line cNIIed a Nip. If the Wdlls meet in a
reentering angle, the inclined line of intersection
is acalled a Valley. Cirwlar walls cany conical or
domical roof?.
If there is more t;han one story, the flat roof of the
lower story becomes the Floor of the story above.
If the roof extends beyond the wall that supports
it;, f;he projection is called the Edves. If the wall
also projer:ts to support the extension of the roo(,
the projection is called a Cornice. The principal
meml1er of aeo mice, which projects like ashelf
and crowns the wall, is called a Corona.
Walls are generally nude widerjust at the bottom
so as to get a bet;t;er bearing on the ground. This
projection is the !3ase. A similar projection at
the top is called aCap or, if it projects much,
a Comice, i/S has been said. Alow wall is called
a l'arapet. Ashort piece of wall about as long
as it is thick is called a l'ost, and if it supports
something, a l'edestal; the part between its cap
and base is then the Die. Atall post is ulled a
l'ie1; if it is square, and a Column if it is round.
Caps of piers and columns are called Capitals,
and the part between the cap and the base, the
sha(t;. The (fat upper member of a capitiil is called
the Abacus.
Abeam that spans the space between two piers or
columns or bet;ween apier or column and a wall is
called an Architrave, or Epistyle. Above it, between
the archilirCJve ,1nd the comice, there is generally
alittle strip of Will! called the Frieze. Architmve,
frieze, Jnd cornice constitute the Enta/Jiature.
A series of columns is called a Colonnade. The
spaces between piers or columns are sometimes
spanned by Arches, aseries of which is r,al/ed an
Arcade.
lhe space /Jet:ween two parallel walls is sometimes
covered by asort of continuous arch called a
suvstructute
Vault, instead of /1y a floor or roof
The underlying
The Wall, the l'ier; and the Column, with or wit:hout of a building or other construction.
the pedestal, consUtut;e the chief supporting
members: the Frieze and Cornice, with the roof
that rests upon them, consUtute the chief part
of the load they cany. The ArchitrCJve, the Arches, 13uildinq site
and the Spandre/s form part of the load relative to
what is below them, flllt are supporting members
relative to what is above them.
!3esides /Jeinq valua/Jie as ashelter; a hiildinq
may /1e in itself a noble and de/ighUul object;,
and architects are builders who, /1y giving a ""'"'"''''"~~' interrelated, or
building good proportions ,1nd fine details, and by or parts forming a
employing /1eautifu/ materials, make it valuable on unified whole, esp. to serve a
its own account, independently of if;s uses.
-William Rol1erG Ware
7he American Viqnola

13
BUI ING

skyscraper ._ .,_."-:- ._--:-s


A building of exceptional height and many stories,
supported by a steel or concrete framework from
which the walls are suspended.

edifice
A building, esp. one of large size, massive
structure, or imposing appearance.

high-rise
Describing a building having a comparatively large
number of stories and equipped with elevators.

story
Acomplete horizontal division of a
building, having acontinuous or nearly
continuous floor and comprising the
space between two adjacent levels.

mid-rise
Describing a building having a moderately large
low-rise number of stories, usually 5 to 10, and equipped
Describing a l1uilding having one, two, or three with elevators.
stories and usually no elevator.
loft
One of the upperfloors of awarehouse orfac1;ory,
typically unpartitioned and sometimes converted
or adapted to other uses, such as livi11g quarters,
a1tists' studios, or exhibition ejalleries.
loft building
A building having several floors with large areas of
unobstructed space, originally rented out for light
industrial purposes and now frecv~ently converted
to residential occupancy.

14
BUI ING
attic
/\room or space direc!;ly under the roof of a
l1uilding, esp. ahouse.
half-story
/\usable living space within asloping
having dormer windows for lighting.

crawl space
An area in a building having aclearance less than
human height, but accessible by crawling, esp.
cellar
such a space below the first fioor that is enclosed
11 room or set of rooms for the storage of food,
by the foundation walls.
fuel, or the like, wholly or partly underground and
usually beneath a building.
storm cellar
Acellar or other underground place for shelter
during violent storms, such as cyclones,
tornadoes, or hurricanes. Also called cyclone
cellar.
floot
A continuous supporting extending
11 horizontal or inclined door over astairway giving
horizontally throughout a building, having a
access to acellar.
number of rooms and constituting one level in

mezzanine
A low or partial story between two main
stories of a building, esp. one that projects as
a balcony and forms a composition with the
y story beneath it.

~~~-=~ ... ---~--


+'
'
,' ........ first floor
1
The ground floor of a building. In Britain

1
and elsewhere, the first floor is the floor
immediately above the ground floor .
. ground floot
!he floor of a building at or nearest to
ground level.

....... basement

____ 4- A story of a building that is wholly or partly


---~low ground level.

area way
A sunken area affording access, air, and
light t;o a basement door o1 window. subbasement
Any story or floor l1elow UIC tnilinl1asemen1;
of abuilding.

15
BUI ING

facade
The front of a building or any of its sides facing frontispiece
a public way or space, esp. one distinguished A principal facade, or a part or feature of a facade,
by its architect.ural treatment often treated as a separate element of t;he design
and highlighted by ornamentation.

corps de log is
In French architecture, aterm describing the
central element of a building as opposed to its
pavilion
subsidiary wings and pavilions.
A projecting subdivision of afacade, usually
accented by 111ore elaborate decoration or
greater height and distinction of skyline.

false front
A facade falsifying the size or importance
story
of a building.
A major horizontal architcctural division, as
of a facade or the wall of a nave.

bay
Any of a number of principal compartments
or divisions of a wall, roof, or other part of a
building marked off by vertical or tr'ansverse
supports.
blind story
A major horizontal division of a wall having no
exterior windows.
blind
Dc:;cribing ilrece:;s in a wall havinrJ the l7alcony
appearance of a window (blind window) or An elevated platform projecting fro111
door (blind door), in;;crtcd to complete a wall of a l1uilding ;n11l encloserll;y i11'ililing
series of windows or to provide symmetry or parapet.
of de:;igrr.

fenestration
The de:;ign, pmportioning.
and disposition of windows
and other exterior openings
of a lllrilding.

16
BUILDING

"""'"'""'"~~
---==--,-

stoop porch portico


1\ raised platform, approached by steps and /In exterior appendage to a building, Aporch having amof supported by columns,
having a roof. at the entrance of a house. forming a covered approach or vestibule often leading to the errtrance of a lnlilding.
to a doorway.

",~~>
I -~
~""
>furecour't
Acourtyard before the entrance to
a building or a group of buildings.

~
~~ X
//!
// :
/ po cache e
veranda colonnad~// : ~~ ~ .
,. "' / ve)J!cular pac:Jageway leading through
,( : ' .. /. .. ,.. ;r buildlirgor_sc een wall into an intel'ior
1\ series of regularly spaced colu111ns ~ /<
Alarge, open porch, usually roofed and partly
enclosed. as by a railing, often extending across
the front and sides of a house. Also, verandah.
supporting an entablature and usually one siC!&-~
of a roof structure. ~
r . ><'~-V[ courtyard ,
/ k: '.,
) .. ...
/
r1f J!.O&t'ern
~.-- .. .. _ WAprrvate or ,,rde entrance, a;, oncf01
!anal
Averanda, esp. one used as a living room. ""j./'-- y 111 pedeslttillh ne~l i.o cl pori e cocherr.
,<~ / parte coche1e
1\ porch roof j?I'OJCCtrng over a dtrve\'lay at
the entrance to a building and sheltering
those getting in or out of vehicles. Also called
carriage porch.

terrace
An open. ofl:en paved ;Jre;J connected to a house
or building ;rnd :;erving iic> an outdoor living area.
deck
An open, unroofed porch or platfor111 extending
from a house or other ln1ildinej.

portal
Adoorway, gate, or entrance, e:,p. an
inrpil!iiti!J one emphasized IJy o;ize and
eil:ately ;ll'chitectural treat111ent.

17
rotunda
Around, darned building, or a large and high
circular space in such a building, esp. one
A wing at right angles to the length ofa
surmounted by a dome.
building. Also, el.

piloti wing
Any of aseries of columns A part of a building projecting from and
supporting a l1uilding above subordinate to a I or main part.
an open ground level.

Arectangular building having little width


with respect to its length and height.

An area open to the sky and mostly or entirely


surrounded by walls or buildings.

tower
Abuilding or structure high in proportion to
its lateral dimensions, either standing alone or
forming part of alarger building.
block
Alarge building divided into a number of separate
apartments, offices, or shops. Askylit, central court in a building,
esp. a large interior one having a
roof and surrounded by several courtyard
stories of galleries. Acourt adjacent to or within a building, esp. one
enclosed on all four sides.

loggia patio
Acolonnaded or arcaded space within the body of A courtyard, esp. of a house, enclosed by low
a building but open to the air on one side, often at buildings, arcades, or walls.
an upper story overlooking an open court.
piano nobile . .
The principal story of a large building, such as a atrium
palace or villa, with formal reception and dining An open, skylit court around
rooms, usually one flight above the ground floor. which a house or building is built.

cortile
A large or principal courtyard of an Italian palazzo.

palazzo
Alarge, imposing public building or private
residence, esp. in Italy.

18
orientation
The position of abuilding on asite in relation to
true north, te points on the compass, tea specific
place or site feature, or to local conditions of
sunlight, wind, and drainage.

claim front
To assert or demand recognition or possession. To face in a specific direction or look out upon.
folly
Awhimsical or extravagant; structure built to
serve as a conversation piece, lend interest to a
view, or commemorate a person or event, found
esp. in18thcentury England.
pavilion
A small, often ornamental building in agarden.
merge
To coml1ine, blend, or unite gradually by stages so bagh
as to l1lur identity or distinctions. An enclosed garden in Indian architecture.

plaza
A public square or open space in a
piazza
An open square or public place in acity or town,
esp. in Italy.
gazebo
quadrangle Afreestanding roofed structure, usually open on
Asquare or c1uadrangular space or court the sides, affording shade and rest in a garden
surrounded by a building or buildings, as on a :::.==::==-"l-.......c., or park.
college campus. Also called quad.
mall
A section of a street, typically in the downtown
area of a city, from which vehicular traffic is
excluded and used as a public walk or promenade.
Also called pedestrian mall.
promenade
An area used for a stroll or walk, esp. in a public
place, as for pleasure or display. belvedere
Abuilding or architectural feature of abuilding,
alameda designed and situated to look out upon apleasing
In Latin America, a boulevard, park, or public scene.
garden having apromenade lined with shade trees.
topiary
galleria Clipped or trimmed into ornamental and fantastic
Aspacious promenade, cow , shapes, or J;iw work or art of such clipping.
usually having a vaulted roof
commercial establishments.

allee
French term for a broad walk planted with trees.

parterre
An ornamental arrangement of fiOI'Ier beds of
different shapes and sizes.

A frame supporting open latticework, used as a


screen or a support for growing vines or plants.
lattice
A structure of crossed strip:; arranged t;o form il
retJular pattern of open spaces.

pergola
Astructure of parallel colonnades supporting an open
roof of beams and crossing raft;ers or trelliswork, over
which climbing plants are trained to grow.

------------~---------~-~-----------------------

19
RE
A structural system utilizing the cal1lc as the
principal means of support.

sag
The vertical distance from the supports to the
lowest point of a cable structure.
As the saq ofacable increases, the intemal forces
cable developed in the cable decrease. Cable structure:;
Aflexible structuralmeml,er, such as wire rope generally have saq:sp;m mUos l;etween1:8 and 1:10.
or metal chain, having high tensile strength but
offering no resistance to compression or l1ending.

funicular shape
The shape assumed by afreely deforming cable in
direct response to the magnitude and location of
external forces. A cable always adapts its shape
so that it is in pure tension under the action of an
applied load.
funicular polygon .
The shape assumed by a freely deforming cable in funicular structure
direct response to a set of concentrated loads. A structure shaped to carry or support
a given loading by either axial tension
funicular curve or compression. For any given loading
The shape assumed by afreely deforming cable in condition, there is only one general
direct response to a uniformly distributed load. funicular shape. If the loading pattern
catenary changes, bending is induced in the
The curve assumed by a perfectly flexible, uniform structure.
cable suspended freely from two points not in
the same vertical line. For aload that is uniformly
distributed in a horizontal projection, the curve
approaches that of a parabola.

Bu rtresses,
compression struts,
or similar elements are required to contain
and al1sorb the horizontal components of
the cable thrusts.

structure
/\lens-shaped structure having the outward
thrusts of an arch balanced by the inward pulls
of a cable, resulting in no net lateral forces at the
supports.

20
suspension st1ucture
A si;ructure of cables suspended and mw;ttp;cpn
l;etween compre~;sionmembers to directly single-curvature structure
support applied loads. Asuspension si;ructure utilizing aparallel series of
cables to support Stll'face forming beams or plates.
suspension bridge
A single-curvature structure is susceptible to flutter
A bridge having adeck suspended from cables
induced by the aerodynamic effects of wind. This
raised on towers and securely anchored to
liability can be reduced by increasing the dead load on
abutments at the ends.
the structure or anchoring the primary cables to the
ground with txansverse guy cables.

guy cable
Acal,le for absorbing the horizontal component of
thrust in a suspension or cable stayed structure
and transferring the force to a ground foundation.
mast
Avmtical or inclined compression member in a
suspension or cable-stayed structure, supporting
the sum of the vertical force components in the
primary and guy cables. Inclining !;he mast enables
it to pick up some of the horizontal cable thrust
and reduces the force in the guy cal,les.

double-cable structure
A suspension structure having upper and
lower sets of cables of different curvatures,
pretensioned by ties or compression struts to
make the ~;ystem more rigid and resistant to
flutter.

double"curvature structure
A suspension structure composed of
afield of crossed cables of different
and often reverse curvature:;. Each
set of cables has adifferent; natural
" period of vibration, thus fanning a
"-"'', self-dampening system that is more
'\~resistant to flutter.
boundai'Y cable
Acable for anchoring a set of secondary
cables in a suspension structure.

cable"stayed structure
/\ strudure having vertical or inclined
masts from which cal,les extend to support
horizontally spanning meml1er:; arranged in a
parallel or radial pattern.

21
lUNG
The overhead interior sUIface or lining of a room,
often concealing the underside of the floor or
roof almve.

beam ceiling
The underside of afloor showing the supporting
beams and finished to form aceiling.

coffer
One of anumber of recessed, usually square or
cove ceiling '"'1 octagonal panels in aceiling, soffit, or vault. Also
A ceiling having a cove. Also, coved ceiling.
I called caisson, lacunar.
cove lacunar
Aconcave surface forming part of aceiling at its A ceiling, soffit, or vault adorned with a pattern
edge so as to eliminate the usual interior angle of recessed panels.
between the wall and the ceiling.

camp ceiling
Aceiling having the form of a truncated pyramid.

plafond
A flat or vaulted ceiling of decorative character .

.., ... _______________________


22
ilU~G

drop ceiling suspended ceiling


A secondaiJ! ceiling formed to provide space for pi17ing A ceiling suspended from an overhead floor or roof
or ductwork, or to alter the 17roportions of a room. structure to provide s17ace for pi Feci, ductwork,
Also, dropped ceiling. lighting fixtures, or other se1vice equipment.

plenum
The space between a suspended ceiling and the
floor structure above, esp. one that serves as
a receiving cha111berfor conditioned air to be
distributed to inhabited spaces orfor return air t;o
l1e conveyed back to a centl'al plant for processing.
acoustical tile
Tile made in various sizes and textures from a
soft, sound-absorbing material, such as cork, acoustical ceiling
mineral fiber, or glass fil1er. A ceiling of acoustical tile or other sound
al;sorbing material.
metal pan
An acoustical tile consisting of a steel or
aluminum pan having a 17erforated face
and containing aseparate layer of sound
al;sorbing material.

exposed grid
A metal grid of invm'ted tees supporting the
acoustical tiles of a suspended ceiling.
Asecondary member of the grid supporting a
suspended ceiling system, usually a sheet metal
tee carried by the main runners.
main runner
Aprincipal member oft; he grid supporting a
suspended ceiling system, usually a sheet-metal recessed grid
channel or tee suspended by hanger wires from the Ametal grid for supporting asuspended ceiling of
overhead structure. acoustical tiles having rabbeted joints.
spline
Athin metal strip inserted into the edges of two
acoustical tiles to make a butt joint between
them.
ketf
concealed grid
Agroove cut into the edges of an acoustical
A metal grid supp01'ting the acoustical tiles of a
tile to receive a spline or Tshaped member of a
suspended ceiling, hidden within kerfs cut into the
supporting grid.
edges of the tiles.

linear metal ceiling


A suspended ceiling system of narrow met;al strips,
usually incorporating modular lighting and air
handling components.

'"
integrated ceiling
A suspended ceiling system incorporating
acow;tical, lighting, and air handling components
into aunified whole.
linear diffuser
A long, narrow diffuser desiiJned to disperse air
through slot" between the panels of an integrated
luminous ceiling ceiling system. Alc>o called slot diffuser.
louvered ceiling
Asuspended ceiling of translucent panels for A suspended ceiling of multicellular louver~; for
diffusing the light fron1luminaires mounted shielding the light; sources mounted above it.
al;ove it.

23
CERAMIC
Any of vat'ious hat'd, brittle, noncorTosive, and
nonconductive materials formed l1y the ionic
bonding of a metal and a nonmetal, such as
brick, conaete, and natural stone.

ceramic ware earthenware porcelain enamel


Any of various products made by fwing clay or Low-fired, opaque, nonvitreous ceramic ware. A hard, vitreous, translucent ceramic material A vitreous, usually opaque, decorative or
similar materials in a kiln, such as brick, tile, and consisting essentially of kaolin, feldspar, and protective coating applied by fusion to the surface
stoneware
pottery. quartz, fired at a very high temperature. of metal, glass, or pottery.
High-fired, opaque, vitrified ceramic ware.
china porcelain enamel
Atranslucent ceramic material, bisque-fired at An opaque, glassy coating bonded to metal
a high temperature and glaze fired at a lower by fusing at a high temperature. Also called
temperature. vitreous enamel.
kaolin
Afine white clay used in the manufacture of
porcelain and white portland cement. Also called
china clay.

firing vit1ify
The process of hardening or glazing ceramic ware To make aclay body vitreous by firing at a specified ceramic bond
by heating in a kiln to a specified temperature. temperature. Athermochemical bond between materials
resulting from exposure to temperatures
6 approaching the fusion point of the mixture.

6 < body
The structural portion of aceramic article or the
clay material or mixture from which it is made.

hard-burned >- vitreous bisque-fired


Fired at a high temperature to near vitrification Resembling glass, as in transparency, hardness, Fired to harden a clay body.
and having relatively low absorption and high lnittlcness, luster, or having low or no porosity.
bisque
compressive strength.
Farthenware or porcelain that has l1een fit'ed once
but no1, glazed. Also called biscuit.
glaze-fired
Fired to fuse aglaze to aclay body.

soft-burned :> semivitreous glaze


A vitreous layer or coating fused to aclay body
Fired a1;a low temperature and having relatively Having a moderate water absorption of slightly
to col or, decorate, waterproof, or strengthen its
high absorption and low compressive strength. under 6%.
SLII'face.
frit
/\fused or partially fused matcrial!;hat b ground
to introduce a soluble or unstable ingt'edient into
glaze;; or enamels.

nonvitreous
Having awater absorpeion greater than '7%.

------------------ - - - - - - - - -----
24
ceramic tile
Any of various fired clay tiles used for surfacing
walls, !loors, and countcrtop:o .
. "T''''

.... '"

.....
glazed wall tile
......, Ceramic tile having a nonvitreous l1ody and a
bright, matte, or crystalline glaze, u:;ed for
"" j--
... surfacing interior walls and light duty floors .
~-

~
i I
1- .... '--- . ....;
..
.. i.... J
1--'
t .... ,. -
- I I I I I
. . .,,,, J LJ J J

ceramic mosaic tile


Small ceramic tile having a porcelain or natural
clay body, glazed for SLII'facing walls or unglazed
for u:,e on both floors and walls, and usually face
or back-nw:mted on shceos to facilitate handling
trimmer
and speed installation .
!lny of various
for finishing an

_. . . -r~
< CJ
.n. . tr quanytile

Ctl . . , / . . Unglazed ceramic flo01tile having anatural clay


body . Also called promenade tile .
pavertile

tJ [j}/(1//./// Unglazed ceramic f!oor tile similar in composition


to ceramic mosaic tile but thicker and larger in
sur-face area .

sanitary base /V -----


/1 coved 1-rle set at the meetmg of afloor
and wall to prevent accumulation of dirt
and to facilitate cleaning.
' '. -
tile accessot'Y
!lny of the ceramic or nonceramic articles
designed to l1e affixed to or inserted in tilework,
such as tov1er bars, soap holders, and the like .
0
thick-set process thin-bed process
Atile setting process in which ceramic tile is Atile-setting process in which cerilmic tile is
applied over a portland cement mortar bed 0 /~ bonded to acontinuous, stiible backing with athin
to 11/% in. (19 to 38mm) thick, which allows for coat of dry-set mortar, latex portland cement
accurate slopes and planes in the finished work_ mortar, epoxy mortar, or an organic adhesive, IJ3%
to IJ8 in. (0.8 to :3.? mm) thick.
portland cement mortar
!I field mix of portland cement, sand, water, and tile grout
,;ometimes hydrated lime, used for leveling or Acenrentitious or resinous mix for fillingjoints in
setting ceramic tile in the thick-set process. ceramic tilework.

bond coat
!I thin coat or nwrtm fo: !Jrmding ceramic t;ilc to
a biicking.

25
UR IC
structural clay tile
11 hollow tile of fired clay having parallel cells or hollow tile
cores. used inl1uilding walls and partit.ions. llny of various cellular building units of fired clay,
concrete, or gypsum, used for building walls,
LB floors. and roofs, or for fireproofing steelwork.
Load-bearing structural clay tile suitable for
masonry walls not exposed to frost action. or in
exposed masonry where protected by afacing of 3
in. (76.2 mm) or more of stone, brick, terra cotta, structural facing tile
or other masonry. Structural clay tile having a glazed surface, used
LBX for facing walls and partitions, esp. in areas
Load-bearing structural clay tile suitable for subject to heavy wear, moisture. and strict
masonry walls exposed to weathering or frost sanitation requirements.
action. FTS
Structural facing tile suitable for exposed exterior
and interior masonry walls and partitions where
moderate absorption, slight variation in face
dimensions. minor defects in surface finish, and
medium color range are acceptable.
FTX
Smooth structural facing tile suitable for exposed
exterior and interior masonry walls and partitions
where low absorption and stain resistance are
required. and where a high degree of mechanical
perfection. minimum variation in face dimensions,
and narrow calor range are desired.

terra cotta
Ahard, fired clay, reddish-brown in col or when
unglazed, used for architectural facings and
ornaments, tile units, and pottery.
architectural terra cotta
Hardburned, glazed or unglazed terra cotta,
handnwlded or machine-extruded to order as a
ceramic veneer for walls or for ornamentation.

l
8

adobe rammed earth


Sun dried l,rick made of clay and straw. Astiff rnixttll'e of clay, sand or other aggregate, and
commonly used in regions with little rainfall. water. co111pressed and dried within forms ;ts a wall
se. se
construction.lllso called pi pisay. pi de terre.

26
CHURCH
Christianity
The religion founded on the teachings of Jesus / apse
A building fo1 public Christian worshijJ.

Christ. including the Catholic, l'rotcstant, and


E;1stcrn Orthodox churches. /1 semicircular or polygonal projection of a buildinrJ.
usually vaulted and used esp. at the sanctuary or
basilica east end of a church. /\I so, apsis.
An early Christian church, characterized by a long,
rectangular plan, a high colonnaded nave lit by a tribune
clcrestory and covered by a timbered gable roof, The bishop's throne, occupying a recess or apse in
two or four lower side aisles. a semicircular apse an early Christian church.
at the end, a narthex, and often otherfeatures, bema
such as an ;rtrium. a bema, and small semicircular Atransverse open space separating the nave and
apses terminating the aisles. the apse of an early Christian church, developing
atrium into the traw;ept of lakr cruciform churches.
The forecourt of an early Chrbtian church. flanked sanctuary
or surrounded by porticoes. A sacred or holy place, as that part of a church in
ambulatory . which the principal altar is placed.
The covered walk of an atrium or cloister. altar
cantharus The table in a Christian church upon which
A basin for a ritual cleansing with water in the the Eucharist. the sacrament celebrating
atrium of an early Christian basilica. Chri:it's La:;t Supper. is celelm1ted. Also called
communion table.
baldachin
An ornamental canopy of stone or marble
nave pennanent;ly placed aver the altar in a church.
The principal or central part of achurch. Also. baldachino. baldaquin. Also called
extending from the na1'thex to the choir or ciboriutn.
chancel and usually fianked by aisles.
aisle
Any of rhe longitudinal divisions of a church,
separated from the nave by a row of columns
or piers.

ambo
A portico Ol' vestil1ule l1efore the nave of an early
Chrbtian or Byzantine church, occupied by those
not yet christened.
baptistery
/\part of a church or a separate !Juilding in which esonarthex
l1ajJtisn1 is administered. Abo. baptistry. /\n inner n;11thex when two are present.

baptism exonarthex
A sacrament of initiation into Christ'iall'rty,
symlmlic of spiritual regeneration. marked by a an inner narthex.
cere111onial im111ersion or applica1;ion of water.
font
/1 l1asin, Lbually of stone. holdincJ the vmtcr cancelli
used inl;aptism. A low screen in an eady Christian basilica.
the clergy and :omnctin1cs the choir
from1;he congregation.
sarcophagus
/1 st;one coffin, csp. one bearing :;culpture or
dbplaye!l aS illllOIIIIIIICil[;,

be ma
The sanctuary space ;;urrounding the alta1 of ill I
Eastern church.
diaconicon
i\ :;acrbty i11 an early Christian or lastc1n church.
tbu;rlly on the :;outh side of the bcnn
saaisty
i\ room in a church v1herc the :iacrcd ve:Jseb and
icon vestment:; arc kept.. Al:io called vestry.
/1 l'epre:;entation of asaCI'ed Chri;;tian personage,
such as Christ or a tyPically prothesis
on awood ;;rwfacc and it:;elf venerated a:; l1eincJ 1\ larrJe apsidal extension of the interior ;\chapel in an Eastern Church where the
:;acred, esp. in the tradition of the l:c!;;tern Church. A semen or partition on which icon:; are placed. volume of a church. i\bo, exhedra. l:uchari:;tic elcnrcnts a1e prepared, usually on the
separating the l1enra from the n;rve of an Fa;;tern north :;idc of the l1ellla.
church. /\bo, iconostas.

27
CHURCH
transept
The major transverse part of acrucifonn church,
crossing the main axis at a right angle between
the nave and choir.
spire
.crossing Atall, acutely tapering
The intersection of the nave and transept in a pyramidal structure
cruciform church. surmounting a steeple
or tower.

westwork campanile steeple


The n1onun1ental western front of a Romanesque Al1ell1;ower. usually one near l1ut not attached to Atall ornamental structure. tbually ending
church, treated as atower or towers containing a the body of a church. in a spire and surmounting the tower of a
low entrance hall below and a chapel open to the nave church or other public building.
above. onion dome
A bulbous. domelike roof termi'i)iltittg in a sharp
wheel window point, used esp. in Russian Orthodox church
A rose window having distinctly radiating mullions architecture to cover acupola or tower.
or l1ars. Also called Catherine wheel, marigold
window.

tympanum
The space l1et;ween an arch and the horizontal head of a
door or window below. often decorated with sculpture.
trumeau
A column supporting the tympanum of adoorway
at its center.

An indigenous Scandinavian church ofthe 12th and 13th


gallery
centuries. having atiml1er frame, plank walls, atiered,
I\ roofed promenade, esp.
steeply pitched roof. and few windows.
one extending inside or
outside along the exterior hermitage
tabernacle wall of a building. The dwelling of a hermit; more generally, asecluded place of
Acanopied recess fot a residence or habitation for a religious person or group.
relitjious image or icon.

loft
A gallery or upper
level in a church
or hall

arcade respond interlacing arcade


Aseriw; of arches supported on piers or column;;, A pier or pilaster projecting front a wall a:; An arcade. csp. al1lind one, co111posed of arches
a support for an arch or lintel, esp. at the rest;iruj on alterna1,e supports and overlapping
arcuate
terminal;ion of illl ;m;ade or colonnade. in ;,erie:; whcre they cro:,;,,;\ho called
Curved or arched like a bow: aterm used in
intersecting atcade.
describintJ the arched or vaulted structure of dosseret
a Romanesque chtll'ch or Gothic cathedral, as Athickened abacus or supplementary capital blind arcade
dbtinguished irom the trabcated architecture of set al,ove acolumn capital to receive the thrust A :;erie:; of arches superimpo:;ed 011 a wall for
iln Egyptian hypostyle hall or Greek l)oric temple. of an arch. /1bo called i111post block. decot'ittion.Aiso called a1cature.
Also, a1'cuated.

28
CHURCH
flee he cathedral
1\ slender ~;pi re rising from the ridge of a roof. esp. The principal church of a diocese, containing
one al10ve the crossing of a Gothic church. the bbhop's throne called the cathedra.
martyrium
1\ church or other edifice erected over the
tomb of a martyr.

cross-in-square
1\ typical Byzantine church plan having nine bays.
The center bay is a large square surmounted by a
finial dome; the smaller square corner bays are domed
chapel
1\ relaUvely small, usually foliated ornament or vaulted; and the rect;angular side bays are
1\ separately dedicated part
terminating the peak of a spire or pinnacle. barrel vaulted.
of a church for private prayer,
crock et meditation, or small religious
1\ projecting ornament, usually in the form of chancel services:
curved foliage, used esp. in Gothic architecture The space about the altar of a church
ro decorate the outer angles of pinnacles, for the clergy and choir, often elevated chevet
and gables. above the nave and separated from it The rounded east end of a Gothic cathedral,
by a railing or screen.
gargoyle including the apse and ambulat01y
1\ grotesquely carved figure of a human or ambulatory
animal, esp. one with an open mouth that serves /\n aisle encircling the end of the choir or chancel
as a spout and projects from a gutter to throw chantry of a church./\lso called deambulatory.
rainwater clear of abuilding .. 1\ chapel endowed for the saying of
Masses and prayers for the souls of the
founders or of persons named !Jy
choir
The part of a church occupied by the singers of
a choir, usually part of the chancel.
retrochoir
1\ separate divisioniJehind the choir or high
altar of a large church.

Lady chapel
1\ chapel dedicat;ed to the Virgin Mary, usually
located behind the high altar of a cathedral at the
rose window extremity of the apse.
1\ circular window, usually of stained glass
high altar
and decorated with tracery symmetrical
The main altar of achurch.
about the center.
presbytery
stained glass
The part of a church reserved for the officiating
Glass col01ed or stained by having pigments
clergy.
baked onto its surface or by having various
metallic oxides fused into it while in a molten close
srate. /\n enclosed pl:.1ce, esp. the land surrounding or
beside acathedri.il.
slype
triforium 1\ covered passage, esp. one l'etween the transept
/\n arcaded story in a church, between and chapter house of a c;Jthedral./\lso, slip.
the nave arches and claestory and chapter house
corresponding to the space between the The place where the chapter of acathcdr;JI or
vaulting and the roof of an aisle. nronastery meets, usually a building aUached
to or a hall forming part of the cathedral or
monastery.
chapter
crypt > galilee /\n assembly of the monks in a mon;J~itery, or the
An underground chamber or vault u:;ed as a lnll'ial 1\ small porch used as achapel 111ernl,ers of a religious house or order.
place, esp. one beneath the main floor of a church. for penitents at the west
abbey
end of ~;ome 111edieval Fnglish
1\ monastery under the supervision of an abiJot,
churches. Also, galilee porch.
or a convent under the supervi:;ion of an abl,ess,
rood lielonging t;o the hitJhC~it rank of ;;uch iw;titutions.
1\ crucifix symhJiizing the cross on which Chrbt
paradise
was crucified, esp. a large one set above the garth
/\n at;rium or cloister licside a church.
entrance to the choir or chancel of a111edieval 1\ courtyard or quadrangle enclosed by a
church. clobter./\bo called cloister garth. cloister
i\ covered walk hiiVing an arcar1e or colonnade on
rood screen alure
one side opening onto a courtyard.
1\ screen, often elaborat;ely adorned and properly 1\ walk or passage, as along a clobter
surmounted by ;rrood, separating t;he chancel or or behind the parapets of a castle./\lso, ambulatory
choir from the nave of a medieval church. allure. 1\ covered place f01 walking, as around acloister.

29
R
I\ phenomenon of light and vi~;ual perception Munsell System
that may be described in terms of an 11 system for specifying col01s arranged in three
individual's pet'ception of hue, satut'ation, and orderly scales of uniform visual steps accordillfJ
lightness for objects. and hue, saturation, and to hue. chroma. and value, developed in1898
brightness for light sources. pale brilliant by Albert H. Munsell. Hue extends in a rotary
Designating a calor having high Designating a color having high direction about a central axis through a spectrum
lightness and low saturation. lightness and strong saturation. of five major and five secondary hues. Value
extends vertically direction from black at the
bottom through a series of grays to white at the
spectrum top. Chroma extends radially from the central axis
The distribution of energy emitted by a radiant at which saturation is zero, out to the stronge:;t
source. arranged in order of wavelengths, esp. the saturation attainable for each calor's hue and
band of coims produced when sunlight is refracted
by a prism. comprising red, orange,
blue. indigo. and violet.

hue
Violet; One of the three dimensions of col or: the
propetty of light by which the calor of an oliject
!hdigd is classified iJS l1ein!j red. yellow, green, or blue, or
!3/ue an intermediate l;etween any contiguous pair of
these col01s.

dark deep saturation


Designating a calor having low Designating a color having low One of the three dimensions of col or: the purity or
lightness and low saturation, and lightness and strOll!) sa1;uration. vividness of a hue.lllso called intensity.
reflecting only a sma 11 fraction of
chroma
incident light.
The degree by which acalor differs from a gray of
the same lightness or bri!jhtness, corresponding
to saturation of the perceived color.

lightness
The dimension of col or by which an ol1jec1; appears
teflected col or to teflect mom at less of the incident light, vatyinrJ
The perceived color of an object, determined by the ftom!Jiack to white for surface col01s and from
wavelengths of the li!jht reflected front its surface l1lack to colorle:;s for transparent volume color:;.
afi;er selective al~:;orption of other wavclengthc; of
value
the incident licjht.
The degree by which acalor appear:i to reflect
more or less of the incident light, cotTespondin!J to
gray scale of the perceived calor.
I\ scale of acluontatic colors
h;tving :;evetal, w;ually ten, CI{UJI bl'ightness
gr;.tdation;; ranging front white The dimension of acol or t;hat is correlated with
t;o !;lack luminance and l;y which visual c.tintuli are ordered
continuow;ly from very dim to very l;l'iljht.l'ure
selective absotption
while has the nt;1ximunt!Jrighl.nc:li, and 11ure !;lack
rite aiJ:;orpl;iott of certain wavelettcjtl~:> of the
Uw mini11111111
li!jht incident on acolored :;urfacc. the remaining
portion bcin!J rcllcctccl m ITillblllittul.
I Yellow

subtractivc col or
11 colot' produced !Jy mixing cy;111, yellow, and
m;lcJcntii[JirJillcnb, each of which ;il;~;or!J;; ccrt;tin
wilvelength:;./\IJalanccd mixture of lihese colorant
or oiul;tractive printaric" theoretically yields !Jiack
since it ak;or!J" ;tll w;tvelen!jths of visil1le licjhl;.

additive col or optical mixing


11 color produced l'Y com!JininiJ lights of red, wccn. lhc nwriJillcJ ofjuxt;aposed dots ot sti'Okc:; of pure
anci!Jitw vl;tvelen~th:i The:ie light or additive colot':i when :;ecn fmm adi:Jtancr. to produce a hue
primaries contain all the wavelengths necessary often more luminotb th;Jn that avail;i!Jie front ;t
to pwducc acolol'ie:;:; or white light. ptcntixcd pigment.

30
colorwheel
warm Acircular scale of the colors of the Sjlect;rum,
Designating a color inclined toward or showing complementary col01s Ojlposite each
dominated by red, orange, or yellow. other./1lso called calor circle.

primary color
Any of a set of colors, such as red, yellow, and blue,
regarded as generating all oH1er colors.
secondary calor
/1 col or, such as orange, green. or violet, 17roduced
by mixing two primary colors.
tertiary calor
cool A calor, such as brown, produced l1y mixing two
IJe:;ignating ;1 calor inclined J;ow;~rd or secondary colors, or a secondary calor with one of
dominated by green, blue, or violet. its constituent primaries.

advancing calor
Awarm col or that appears to move complementat'Y calor
toward an ol1server, giving an illusion One of a pair of opposing col01s on a calor wheel.
of space. perceived as completing or enhancing each other.
receding colot analogous calor
Acool colorthat appears to move away One of two or three closely related col01s on a
from an observer, giving an illusion of colorwhecl.
space.

triad
Acombination of three colors fanning an
calor scheme -------------~- equilateral triangle on acalor wheel.
An arrangement or pattern of
colms conceived of as farming an split complementary
integrated whale. Acombination of one calor and the pair of col01s
adjoining its complementary col or on acalor wheel.

double complementary
A combination of two analogous colors and their
complementary colors an acol or wheel.
monochromatic
Having only one color or exhiiJiting varying
intensit1es and values of asingle hue.
polychromatic
tint Having or exhibiting a variety of colors.
A relatively light value of a calor,
produced by adding white to it.

calor triangle
Atriangular diagram developed by Faber Binen
to describe the relationship between a pure hue,
white, and l1lack, which combine to yield secondary
An intermediate value of a calor l1etwcen
tints, tones, shades, and gr;Jys. All colars may
a tint and a shade.
be subjectively conceived as a mixture of J;he
psychological primaries -red, yellow, green, and gray
blue---plus the achromatic pair of white and black. An achromatic col or l1etween wh'tte and
l1lack.
achromatic
Having 110 saturation and J;herefom no
shade hue, such as white, black, or gray,
A relaJ;ively dark value of il color,
produced l1y adding black to it;.

31
MN
A rigid, mlativcly slender structut'almembcr
designed pt'itnarily to supp01't contpressive
loads applied at the ment[Jer ends.

pillar
An upright, relatively slender shaft or structure,
usually of brick or stone, used as a building
support or standing alone as a monument.
post '''' '''' '''''' :>
Astiff vertical support, esp. awooden column in
timber framing.

buckling
The sudden lateral or torsional instability of a
slender structural member induced by the action
of acompressive load. Buckling can occur well
before the yield stress of the material is reached.
buckling load
The axial load at which a column begins to deflect
laterally and becomes unstable.
Under abuckling load, acolumn cannot generate
cross
the int,emal forces necessmy to restore its original
section
linear condition. Any addit:ionalloading would cause
the column to deflect fw1:her unt:il collapse occurs in
bending. Most columns in pl'iictice are subject to both
compression and bending due to variation in material
properUes, initial crookedness in fabrication, or some
The critical point at which acolumn, carrying its eccentricity in load application. This bending oft;en
critical buckling load, may either buckle or remain causes the actual buckling load to be s/ight;fy lower
undeflected. The column is therefore in a state of than the critic,JI buckling load.
neutral equilibrium. critical buckling load
The maximum axial load that can theoretically be
applied to a column without causing it to buckle.
critical buckling 5tte5s The critical buckling load for a column is inversely
The critical buckling load for acolumn propottional to the square of its effective length,
divided by the area of its cross section. and direct:ly proportional to the modulw; of
elasticity of the material and to the montent of
inertia of the cross sec~ion. Also called Euler
ractor of Sdfety
buckling load.

slenderness ratio
The ratio of the effective length of acolumn to its least
shot't column radius of gyration. radius of gyration
Athick column sul1ject to failure l1y
:>Le/0
The radial distance from any axis to a point at
crushing rather thanl1y l1uckling. Failure The higher t;he :;/endemr;ss 1'1Uo. t;he lower is t;he crit:iDcJI
st;re55 t;hdt; will cause buckling. Aprinwy objective in the
V which the mass of a body could be concentrated
occurs when the direct stress from an axial r =Vi!A without altering the moment of inertia of the
load exceeds the compressive strength of design ofil column is to reduce it;s slendemess r<1Uo by
body about that axis. for a structural section,
the material available in the cross section. minimizing its effective length or nwximizinq the radius of
the radius of gyration is equal to the square root
An eccent;ric load, however, can produce gyraUon of it;s cross secUon.
of t;he quotient of the moment of inertia and the
bending and result in an uneven stress
area.
distribution in the section.
/he higher the mdius ofgyt,1Uon ofastruct;utcJI
o;ecUon the more resist:.o~nt; the sccUon is to
long column buckling. In det;ermining the cross o;ectioni/1 shiipe o{
intermediate column /\slender column subject to failure by buckling 11 column, the objective is to provide the neceso;;uy
Acolumn having a mode of failure l1etween mdius of gymtion a/Jout the different axes. For an
rather than by crushing.
t-hat- of ashort- colun1n and il long column, ;Jsymmet;ric;tl cross section, lmcklinq willt;end to
often partly inelastic by crushing and partly occur about; t;he weaker ;Jxis or in the direcUon of t:he
elasUc by buckling. le:Jsf, dimension.

32
lUMN

=
=

Compressio11

eccentricity Moment= load (P) xeccentricity (e) combined stresses


The amount by which an axis deviates from Aset of tensile and compressive stresses
another parallel axis. resulting from the superposition of axial
P-delta effect and bending stresses at a cross section of a
An additional moment developed in astructural structural member, acting in the same direction
member as its longitudinal axis deviates from the and equal at any point to their ;Jigebraic sum.
line of action of acompressive force, equal to the
product; of the load and the meml;er deflect;ion at
any point. kern
The central ama of any horizontal section of a
middle-third rule
column or wall within which the resultant of all
The proposition that acompressive load should
compressive loads must pass if only compressive
l;e located within the middle third of a horizont;al
stresses are to be present in the section. A
section of acolumn or wall to prevent tensile
compressive load applied beyond this area will
stresses from developing in the section.
cause tensile stresses to develop in the section.
Also called kern area.
kern point
@ effective length A point on either side of the centroidal axis of
The distance between inflection points in a a horizontal column or wall section defining the
column subject to buckling. The effective length limits of the kern area.
of a column determines its critical buckling load.
When this portion of acolumn buckles, the entire
column fails.

Pcx4 Pcx2 Pc Pc/4


I'
tl
jl
11
!I
11
effective length factor ... I I
I I
A coefficient; for modifying t;llC actuallengt;h of a I I
column according to its end conditions in order to I I
I
determine its effective length. Fixing both end:;
of ;Jiong column reduces its effective length l;y
half and increases its load-carrying capacity by lateral bracing unbraced length
afactor of~. The lm1cing of acolumn o1 other comprec>Sion The distance between the pointfi at; which a
member to reduce its effective length. Lateral structural member is lnaced agaitbt buckling in 21
l1racing is most effective when ~he bracing pattern direction normal to its length.
occurs in more than one plane.

33
IPUHR G PHICS
The field of computer science that studies
methods and techniques for creating,
representing, and manipulating image data
[,y comt?uter technology; the digital illlaiJeS
so pi'Oduced. Architectural applications of
computer graphics range from two-dimensional
architectwal drawing to three dimensional
modeling and energy, lighting, and acoustic
simulations of building performance.

raster image
11 digital image that consists of agrid of closely
spaced pixels. Also called bitmap image.
Raster images are t;ypically cha"1cterized by pixe/
width and height and by the number of bits perpixel,
and can be stored in various file {omliltS ;md viewed vector image
on amonitm; project;ed on ascreen, or printed 011 11 digital image cmated and defined by
paper /)igital photog~<1phs are prime exmnples of mathematically l1ased software routines for such
raster images.
geometric primitives as Foints, straight lines,
R,1st;er imaqes Jre resolution dependent. !he smaller curves, and shapes, and from which more complex
and closer the pixels are togethCJ; the bett:er the graphic elements can be created.
image quJ!it;y and the larger the file size oft;he dat;a
stmcture. When the same number ofpixels are
spread out over alarqer area mtd the size of each
pixelqrows, the image f;ecomes qminy or pixe/lated,
as the resolution of t;/Je eye enables it; to pick out
individuJ! pixe/s.

bitmap
11 data structure representing agenerally square
or rectangular grid of pixels.
Unlike msier images, vector images are individual
objects with independent, editable attributes such
pixel as outline, fill, co/01; shading, and t:ransparency They
Contraction of picture+ element: the smallest are resolution independent and scalable up to the
addressable area of illumination on adisplay resolution of the device displaying or printing them.
screen.
Vector images cmt/}{i converted to /Jitmc1ps in ,1
bit process called msterizinrJ.
Contraction of binary+ digit: a variable or
cam puted quantity that can have only two
possible values, such as the binary digits, 0 and 1,
or logical values, such as true/false, yes/no, or
on/off.
bit depth
The number of l1its av;1ilal1le for representing the
col or of a single pixel in a raster or bitmapped Contrel poillt, C Bezier curve
image. The more bits per pixel, the more col01s can llny of aclas:; of 111athematically derived curves
l1e displayed.lllso called calor depth. developed by French engineer f'ierre Bezier for
CAD/CIItvl operation:;.
Asimple !3eziercurve ha:; two anchor points, which
define Ute endpoint:; of t:IJe curve, and two control
Anchor point
point;s, which lie out.side the curve and control the
curvature of the path. A1111111/Jer of simple !3rfzier
curves Cilil!'e joined to form more complex curves. The
eo/linear relationship between the t:wo handles at an
;111chorpoint ensures asmoot;h curvature wherever
the path cliiJnges curvature.

Anr;horpoint:

Cont:rol point:

34
PUHR GR HI CS
RGB colot' model resolution
Acalor model in which white is the additive The degree of detail visible in a printed image or
cotnliination of the three primary colored an image displayed on a computer monitor. The
lights- red, green, and blue--and black is the re;;alution of an image depends not only on how it
absence of light. Red, green, and blue lights can was created but also on its physical size and the
be added together in various ways to reproduce distance from which we view it.
the spectrum of colors we see. The main purpose
scanner tesolution
of the RGI3 col or model is for the sensing,
The resolution at which the charge-coupled device
representation, and display of images in electronic
(CCD) or other sen;;or of a scanner samples an
display systems, such as digital cameras,
original, usually expressed in samples per inch
scanners and projectors, computer monitors, and
(SPI). Manufacturers often use dots per inch (DPI)
televisions.
in lieu of SI' I in specifying the resolution capability
RG/3 i,; ;J device dependent eo/or space---different of their scanners, but technically there are no
devices detect or reproduce agiven RG/3 value dot;s in the scanned image until it is printed. The
diHerenUy, since the eo/or elements (such as higher the resolution of the scanned image, the
phosphorsor~yes) and their response to the more faithful the :;can is to the original.
individual R, G, and 8 levels vmy frommanufact;urer
to mdnufacturet; or even in the same device over
96 Pfldisplay
time. Thus, an RG/3 value does not define the same
eo/or across devices without: some kind of eo/or display resolution
m;m;Jqement; system. The resolution at which a computer monitOI'
displays an image, which may l1e srJecified l1y
true calor the number of pixcls per inch (l'fl) that can[Je
A111ethod for representing and storing graphical displayed in each direction (e.g., a pixel den;;ity of
i1nage information using a 24-liit col or depth to 96 PPI), or by the number of colu111ns and rows of
allow more than16 million colors to be displayed in pixels per inch (1'1'1) creating the display (e.g., pixel
adigit;al image. dimensionc> of 1280xWO).
In the 24 bit RGB eo/or model, e;ich red, green and
/Jiue component; o{apixe/ is 8 bits /onq and has 256
possible variations in intensity, calibrated alonq
;! scale fi'Dm 0 t:o 255, with 0 indicating t:he least;
intensity and 255 the greatest. An RGI:! value of
0,0,0 would result in /Jiack (no intensity {or red,
green and /Jiue) and an RGB value of 255, 255, 255 camera tesolution
would result; in white (filii int;ensit~y {or md, qrcen The resolution at which the clccti'Onic sensor of
and /J/ue). When the three componcnt:s ill'/! comf;ined, adigital camera capt;ures an inlatJC, expre:;scd in
there iJ/'C 256 x256 x256 possi/;/e com/Jinations megapixels or how many millions of pixel:; it can
msu/t;;ng in 16,771,216 possi/;/e wlors, each of which record in a single i111;1gc. For example, aca111era
can /;e ;!5siqncd aspecific RGB value. 1600 x 1200 pi>:el:; p:'oduccs an
image with a rc:;olution of 1.92million pixcb,
which i:; rounded up to 2 megapixel:i for tni.ll'keting
purposes.
/(an illli!tJii i:, to f;c vie:;ed only onc;crcen orproject:ed
digitaf(y. r:t'Ci!Uilij Or t!Ci/llning it; /JiiYOnd the :JC/YICII
waMcof

!3/uc
,.J low!'c:x!/ut;ionnwnitor look!.; hrqr:r tk111 il- dot:' 011 ,I
hi!]her/'IJSO{llf;/0/111/i!llif;or bcuw:;e t:hc SiJ/1/IJ 1111111/Jr:r

p1int tesolution
I he w;olution 11t which an imiltJCc;Ctta, l;bcr
or oUICI'IJrintinCJ device c;m pi'Oduce text,
;md grilphic:,, usually nleasulcd in dots of ink o1
toner per inch (01'1). l1~ost printer:> print the o;;m1e
CMYK
nunllier of dots horizonti1lly and vertically. Fo1
/\f;ronym for the four colored inks used in the
example, ;1600 iJI'I printer l'lill place 600 tiny
[!l'inting p1occ% cyan, m;J!jenta, yellow, and
li~;t;le rloki ;!cross;; horimnt;;1l inch anr1600 dote,
black.
in avertical inch.
CYMK calor model
11 coiOI' model in which t;he four colo1ed ink:; used
i11 calor print;in!J cyan, magenta, yellow, illld
lilack subcl'act l!i'ightne:;:; from the typically
white liackg1ound of the papcl', witl1 black rcsull.in!J
from the full combination of colol'ed inks. l:ach
ol thco;c coloro; al!o;orl1o; cc1tain wavclengtlic; of
liijlit. \'ilth the colors we see l1eing the colors that
ill'e not alJ:;orbcd. 13y using ;1 halftone of dot;s for
e;1ch color, the full Sl!ecti'UIII of pri11tcd coloro; can
be achieved.

35
TER GR H
computer-aided design solid modeling
The u~;e of computer technology in the design Computer modeling t:hat represents bot;lr the
of real or virtual ol1jects and environments. The geometric structurc and the interior volume of ;r
rerm includes a variety of sohware and hardware t. hrce dimensional ol;ject or building. With a solid
technologies, from the vector-based drawing and model, it is possible to assign physical properties,
drafting of lines and figures in two-dimensional calculate physical behavior, and to check for object
space (2D CAD) to the nwdeling and animation of interference.
surfaces and solids in three dimensional (3D CAD)
space. Abbr.: CAD
CADD
Acronym for computer-aided design and drafUng. parametric modeling
Computer modeling that uses rules and
constraints to define and represent the
attributes and behaviors of athree-dimensional
object or building and to maintain consistent
computer modeling relationships and interactions among its elements
The use of computer technology and mathematical and component~;. Also called feature-based
algorithms to create abstract models of systems mode ling.
and processes to simulate their behavior. For
Conventional dJgitalmodeli/Jg n~at:es expliCit;,
architectural applications, computer modeling
coordinate-based geometric models; the mles for
sohware enables the creation and manipulation
m;! king changes are implicit; and must l;c understood
of virtual, three-dimensional models of existing or
and implemented by the designeJ: In paJCJmetric
proposed buildings and environments for analysis,
modeling, the rules m-e explicit and the geomet1y
testing and appraisal.
is implicit. !be programming environment; ofa
wireframe modeling pammetric model enab/e5 the user to define the
Computer nwdeling that represents the form of a rules and const/'ilints that control such aspects as
three-dimensional object or building by specifying geometry, posft;fon, orient:at:ion, material properties,
the vertices and edges of all mathematically and lmilding perfomwnce criteria. When any element;
continuous surfaces, including opposite sides and is modified, the parametric change engine in the
all internal components normally hidden from view. soft;wa1-e determines which otheJ; 1-elated elements
must be ddjusted ;md how to make the change.
surface mode ling
Computer modeling that represents the geometric
structure of athree dimensional object or
building by defining its surfaces rather than its
interior volume, usually with polygons consisting
of vertices, edges and faces, creating a polygon
mesh that can be edited by subdividing, trimming,
intersecting, stretching or projecting. Because
curved surfaces can only be approximated by a
polygon mesh, such mathematical algorithms
as non uniform rational Bsplines (NUR13S) are
used to model true curves and complex surfaces.
Modeled surfaces can also be texture-mapped to
add calor and texture, and l1e assigned Vleightand
a center of gravity for simulations.

Boolean operations
Any of a number of operations l1ased ott Boolean
logic and used in computer modeling to fonnmorc
complex objects from a set of primitives, such as
the cube, cylinder, sphere, pyramid, or cone.
All the following operations are destructive in the
sense that each eliminates the original solids
after completion of the process.
lloolean uttion is an addirive process that
contl1ines two or more individual and separate
solids into a single new solid that corr;;ists of
both the comnwn and uncon1n10n volumes of
the selected solids.
13oolean difference is a subtractivc process
that removes or carves out the common volume
blobitecture from either one or the other of the selected
From blob+ architecture: a term coined l1y Greg solids.
l.ynn to descril1e expcriment:s with indetermin;rtr.
forms in digital design. Now, an often dei'Ogatory lloolean interseceion is a
rcrm for any l1uildinw; having itTegulal'ly curved a new solid based on the comnwn volume
and rounded shapes and forms. While seemingly sharcd by two Ol" more selected solids.
arbitrary in nature, many cxanrples rely on
computer nwdeling algorithms to derive thcil'
freeform surfaces.

---- ______ ...


36
building information modeling
11 digital technology for creating. managing.
coordinating, and optirnizing building data.
using adatabase of project information and
tJII'eedimensional. dynamic nwdeling software
to facilitate the exchange and interoperability of
building information, including building geometry,
spatial relationships, lighting analysis. geographic
information, and quantities and properties of
building materials and components.13uilding
informationmodeling software can be used for the
life-cycle of a building from design to visualization
studies, production of contract; documents,
simulation and analysis of building performance,
coordination of the construction process. and
management of facilities operationllbbr.: BIM
4D modeling
Bllvl modeling that integrates three-dimensional
CAD drawings with the fourth dimension oftin1e
to visualize the construction sequence and
identify scheduling constraints. conflicts, and
opportunities for optimization.
5Dmodeling
BIM modcling that integrates three dimensional
CAD drawings with the dimensions of time and
buildingSMART International cost data to visually link design and scheduling
Trademarked name for an international with pricing and budgeting for equipment,labor.
organization with representation in North and materials. 51) nwdeling enal1les users to
America. Europe. Asia, and Australia. bringing analyze the effect a contemplated change would
t;ogether architects. engineers, contractors, have on other sect:ions of a pi'Oject as well as how
facilities managers. product manufacturers. tile change might affect both cost and scheduling.
and software vendors to define and develop
open international standards and protocols
for data exchange in building information
nwdeling; formerly the International Alliance for
lntei'Operal,ility.
buildingSMART alliance
Trademarked name for a council of the National
lnsUtute of Building S~andards (I~IBS).
estal1lished to develop and promote open
standards for gathering, maintaining. and
conmwnicating technical information for the
design. construction. and facilities industries,
and the full life cycle implementation of a single
National Building Information Model St:andard
(N1311viS).
National Building Information Model
Standard
/1 project of the building%~/\RT alliance to develop
aseries of open source nat;ional standards and
guidance for all aspects of building information IIOVFI 7. SECOND FLOOH

modcling for the ar'chitccturc. engineering.


const;ruction. and facilities management
industries.llbbr.: NBIMS
Industry Foundation Classes
/In open f;pecification for an ol;ject-oriented
file format for 1311vlnrodeling, developed and
maintained l1y buildingSiviiiRT International
(formerly the International Alliance for
lnteroperability) to facilitate intcroperability
among soft;ware platforms in the IJUilrJing indrbtry
/\l1lll'.: IFC
OmniCiass
Trademark for a construction classification
~;tructure for elcct;I'Onic datiiiJa:;c:;, incorpor;1ting
other extant sy,,tems current.ly in use. such as
lvla,;tcrFormat and llniForrnat.

37
computer simulation digital lighting
fhe computer modeling of a natur;JI, human, or Any of a range of digital techniques for modeling and
engineering system to predict and evaluate its simulating the lighting of three dimensional fOI'IliS
behavior and performance, esp. when too complex and spaces.
for conventional analytic solutions.
In architect:ure, simulaUon programs employ
algorithms for visu,11izinq and ana/yZJilg the
performance ofan exisUnq building ora design
proposal within the context of its environment,
l1ased on iniUal pmameters and varia/Jies assumed
for the environment. Comput;er simulaUons can
occur throughout t;he architectural design process,
from the earliest stages of conceptual design to ... ray casting
construcUon documentation and constmction. Adigital technique for analyzing the three-dimensional
Specific areas f;/ut; c;m be modeled and simulated geometry of forms and determining the illumination
include structuml behavim: thermal performance, and shading of surfaces based on their orientation to
CIICI'IJY efficieiiCY, water usage, iflcidef!ce of solii!' an assumed light source. Ray casting does not take
radiation, dayliqhting, and acoustics. into account the way light travels after intersecting
a surface and therefore cannot accurately render
reflections, refractions, or the natural fall off of
shadows.
local illumination
A basic level of ray tracing that is limited to direct
illumination and ambient light rays. Local illumination
does not take into account the diffuse inter-reflection
of light among the surfaces in a three-dimensional
space or scene.
global illumination
A computationally intensive digital technique that
uses sophisticated algorithms to more accurately
simulate the illumination of a space or scene by taking
into account not only the light rays tha1; are emitted
directly from one or more sources but also tracking
the light rays as they are reflected or refracted from
one surface to another, especially the diffuse inl;er-
reftections that occur among the surfaces in a space
or scene.
ray tracing
A glol1al illumination technique for simulating the
optical effects of illumination, executed by tracing the
path a ray of light triJVels from its source to a surface
that interrupts its IJI'Ogress, where it may be absorbed,
reflected, or refracted in one or more directions,
depending on the material, calor, and t-exture of the
surface.

radiosity
!I glol1al illumilliltion algorithm for renderin11 all of the
luminous energy emitted and reflected from the diifuse
surface;; in a scene, based on a detailed ;Jn;Jiysi;; of
the rate of transfer of radiant energy l1etween the
surface;;. Considered to l1e more accurate but also
n1ore computationally intensive t-han ray tracing,
radiosit-y as;,umes that; all surface;; e111it and reflec1.
energy unifornlly over their entire area, and 1;hat all
of t-he energy in an Cllvironlllent can be accoun!;ed for
t;hrough absorption and reflection.

38
>

computer.. aided manufacturing


The use of computer technology to control
the operations of a manufacturing plant, e~>p.
the control of machine tools. Advantages of
computer-aided manufacturing include greater
Roller spreads a layer of powder
precision. efficiency, and material consistency,
over the bed of the printer.
and a reduction in energy consumption and waste.
Abbr.:CAM

Print head deposits alayer of


binder onto the powder plane.
3D printing
Acomputer-driven rapid prototyping
Binder bonds with the powder to process using aprinter to lntild a rapid prototyping
create a solid layer of the physical physical model directly from 3D CAD Any of various techniques for fabricating physical
model. data. objects using the data from aCAI) drawing or
virtual :3D model and additive manufacturing
stereolithography t;echnology to lay down successive layers of liquid,
An additive manufacturing technology powder, or sheet material, which are glued or
for producing physical objects or fused together to create the final physical model.
models, using avat of liquid UVcural1le
photopolytnet' resin and a UV laser to
fabricate the designed object a single
t;hin layer at atime.
Process is repeated until the final
top layer of the model is printed.
Completed model is a stack of 2D <::: Laser beam
images printed onto the powder,
Layers of solidified resin
which is revealed after the excess
powder is removed during the
excavation process.

CNC router
Computer numerical contl'ol router:
a machine tool or other powered digital fabrication
mechanical device driven and controlled The use of 3D modeling software and aCNC
by acomputer program to fabricate router, a laser cutter, or aZ plotter to fabricate
components, esp. by the milling of a physical object; or component. The nature of the
plywood and other sheet materials. process encourages generative strategies.

laser cutter
A machine that uses acomputer
controlled laser to cut, bore, 01 engrave
such sheet: materials as paperboard,
basswood, and plexiglass. Industrial
grade laser cutters can also be used on
structural and piping mat;erials.
Z plotter
Acomputer controlled machine
that tbc:; ;Jdditive manufacturin!J
technology to fabricate a plot of three
dimensional data.

39
NCR E
!In artificial, stonelike tJuilding 111aterialmade l;y natural cement
mixing cement and various mineral ;Jggregates /1 naturally occurring clayey limestone that, when
with sufficient water to cause the cement to calcined and finely pulverized, produce;, a hydraulic
set and bind the entire mass. cement;.
pozzolan
!I siliceous material, such as fly ash, that reacts
chemically with slaked lime in the presence of
moisture to form a slow hardening cement, named
after anatural cernent from Pozzuoli, an ancient
Roman town near Vesuvius. !llso, pozzolona,
pozzuolana.
siliceous
Containing :;ilica or a silicate.
fly ash
Fine particles of ash recovered from the waste
gases of a solid fuel furnace.

cement cement Type 1: normal


!I calcined mixture of clay and limestone, finely hydraulic cement made by burning a mixture /1 port land cement used for general construction,
pulverized and used as an ingredient in concrete of clay and limestone in a rotary kiln and having none oft he distinguishing qualities of the
and mortar. The term is frequently used pulverizing the resulting clinker into a very other types.
incorrectly for concrete. fine powder, named for its resemblance to a
limestone quarried on the Isle of Portland, Type 11: moderate
England. !I portland cement having a reduced content of
tricalcium silicate tricalcium aluminate, making it more resistant
hydraulic cement to sulfates and causing it to generate less heat
Cement capable of setting and hardening by a of hydration: used in general construction where
reaction with water. resistance to moderate sulfate action is required
or where heat buildup can be damaging, as in the
dicalcium construction of large piers and heavy retaining
!I compound constituting about one-quarter of walls.
the volume of portland cement and responsible
for the aging or longterm gain in strengt;h of the Type Ill: high early strength
cement. !I very finely ground portland cement having an
increased content oftricalcium silicate, causing
tricalcium aluminate it to cure faster and gain strength earlier than
!I compound constiouoing al!out one tenth or the normal portland cement: used when the early
volume of port land cement and responsible for removal of formwork is desired, or in cold-weather
the initial setting of the cement. construction to reduce the time required for
protection from low temperatures.
Type IV: low heat
Rawmat;erials consist o( com/Jinations /1 portland cement having a reduced content of
of limestone, clay, shale, oyster shells, tricalcium silicate and an increased content of
silica sm1d, and iron ore. dicalcium silicate, causing it to generate less heat
of hydration than normal port land ce111ent; used in
R,1r'llllaterials ili'C ground to the construction of massive concrete structures,
powder :wd /J/ended. such as gravity dams, where alarge buildup in heat
can be damaging.
13uming in af'OtdiY kiln changes "1w
mixru1-e inro cement; dinkcr
Type V: sulfate resisting
!I portland cement having a reduced content sulfate action
oftricalcium aluminate, lessening the need for !In expansive reaction occurring when the cement
gypsum, a sulfate normally added to cement to matrix of concrete or mortar comes in contact
clinker
retard its setting time: used where resistance to with sulfates dissolved in ground water or in soil.
!I fused mass of incomhrstible matter resulting
from heating in a kiln or the burning of coal.
severe sulfate action is required.
air-entraining portland cement
calcine AType I, Type 11, or Type Ill portland cement entrained air
To heat a substance to a high temperature Gypsum is added to clinker to which a small quantity of an air entraining Microscopic, spherical air bubbles: typically "
without melting or fusing to drive off volatile agent has been interground during manufacture; 0.004 to 0.04 in. (0.1 to 1.0 mm) in dia111eter,
matter or to cause oxidation or reduction. designated l1y the suffix !1, as in Type lA, Type 11!1, intentionally dispersed in a concrete or mortar
01Type IliA mix by an air entraining agent.
white portland cement
!I portland cement produced from raw materials
low in iron oxide and manganese oxide, the
sul1stances that give concrete its gray color; wied
in precast concrete work and in the making of
Clinker is uround ini,o terrazzo, stucco, and tile wout.
porlif,1nd cement.

40
NCR

fine agg1egate
AggrecJate consi:;tinrJ of :;;11l!J having aFarticlc
size smaller than IJ4 in. (6.4mm); specif. the
portion of aggregate that will pa,;s t:hrough a
0/8 in. (95nnn) sieve, almost entirely through
aNo. 4 (4.8mm) sieve, and be pmdominantly
retained on a No. 200 (74p) sieve.
coarse aggregate
Aggregate consisting of crushed stone,
gravel, or blast-furnace slaiJ having aparticle
size larger than 1f1 in. (6.4mm); specif. the
portion of aggregate that is ret;ained on a No.
4 (4.8mm) s'reve. The maximum size of coarse
aggregate in reinforced concrete is limited l1y
the size of the section and the spacing of the
minforcing [,ars.

mixing water aggregate > graded aggregate admixture


The water used in a concrete or mortar mix, Any of various hard, irwrt, mineral materials, such Aggregate having a pa1ticlcsize dbt:ribu1:ion Any substance other t:han cement, water, or
exclusive of any absorbed by the aggregate and a~; sand and gravel, added to a cement paste charact;erized by uniform grading. Graded aggregate, added to a concrete or nwrtar mix
free of such harmful substances as organic to 111ake concrete or mortar. Since aggregate aggregate requires the least amount of to alter its properties or those of the hardened
material, clay, and salts. Waterfit for drinking is represents from60% to 80% of the concrete cement paste to fill the voids and surround product. Also called additive.
generally acceptable. volume, its properties are important to the t:he particles.
strength, weight, and fire-resistance of the
cement paste particle-size distribution air-entraining agent
hardened concrete. Aggregate should be hard,
A mixture of cement and water for coating, dimensionally stable, and free of clay, silt, and The range of particle sizes in a granular An admixture that disperses entrained air in a
setting, and binding the aggregate particles material, expressed either as the cumulative concrete or mortar mix to increase workability,
organic matter, which can prevent the cementing
togel:her in il concrete or mortar mix. percentage by weight of particles smaller or improve resistance of the cured product to
matr'rx from b'rnding the particles together.
larger than a specified sieve opening, or as the the cracking induced by free thaw cycles or
percentage l1y weight of the particles that; t:he scaling caused by deicing chemicals, and
range between specified sieve openings. in larger amounts, to produce lightweight
insulating concrete.
uniform g1ading
A particle-size distribution in which aggregate accelerator
particles vary uniformly from fine to coarse An admixture that hastens the setting and
without a preponderance of any one size or strength development of a concrete, mortar,
group ot srzes. or plaster mix.
retarder
An admixture that slows the setting of a
concrete, nwrtar, or plaster 111ix in order t;o
allow more time for placing and working the
mix.
surface-active agent
lightweight concrete structural lightweight concrete expanded shale An admixture for reducing the surface tension
Concrete made with aggregate of low specific Concrete made with strong lightweight aggregate, A strong lighcweightagwegat:e obtained l1y of the mixing wate1 in aconcrete mix, therel1y
gravity and weighing less than normal concrete, such as expanded shale or slate, having aunit the exfoliation of clay or shale. Also called facilitating the wetting and penetrating
which has a unit weight of al,out; E)() pcf weight from8b to 115 pcf (1,362 to 1,840 kg/ m0) expanded clay. action of the water or aiding in the emulsifying
(2,400 kg/ m"). and compressive strength comparable to that of and dispersion of other additives in the mix.
expanded slate Also called surfactant.
normal concrete.
A strong lightv;eight; aggregate obtained by
the exfoliation of :;lat:e. water-reducing agent
/In admixture for reducing the anwunt
exfoliation of mixing water required for the desired
The splitting or swelling of certain111inerals
workal1ility of aconcrete or mortar mix.
into ascaly aggregate when heated.
Lowering the water-cement ratio in this
nlitnner generally result:s in increa~;eil
strength. Also called superplasticizer.
insulating concrete per lite coloring agent
Lightweight concrete having a unit weight of A volcanic glass expanded l1y heat to form
A pigment or dye added to ;1 concrete mix to
less than60 pcf (960 kg/ m:)) and low thermal lightweight, spherical particles, used as
alter or control its calor.
conductivity, made with lightweight aggregate, nonstrudurallightweight aggregate and as
such as perlite, or with afoaming agent; or gas loose fill thermal in:;ulation. Also, peatlite.
forming chemical that infuses the mix with a
vermiculite
ho111ogencous cellular :;tructure.
Mica expanded by heat into very light:, wormlike
thre;tds, used a:; nonstructurallirjlrtweighc
aljgreljat:e and as loose fill thermal insulat:ion.

41
mix design
The most economical selection and pro110rtioning 7% 15%-< cement content
of cement, water, and aggregate to produce The quantity of cement per unit volume of concrete
concrete or mortar having the required or nwttar tnix, ptcferably expressed in pounds per
properties of workability, strength, dural1ility, and cubic yard [Jut often stated in sacks of cement per
watertightness. cuilic yard of mix.
Abtam's law water-cement ratio 16%-21%-< water content
A law postulating that, with given concrete The ratio of mixing water to cement in a unit The quantity of water per unit volume of concrete
materials, curing, and testing conditions, volume of concrete or mortar mix, preferably or mortar mix, pmferably expressed in pounds per
the compressive strength of concrete is expressed by weight as adecimal fraction but 1%-3% cubic yard but often stated in gallons per cubic
inversely proportional to the ratio of water to often stated in gallons ofwatet pet' 94-lb. sack yard of mix.
cement: developed by D.A. Abrams in1919 from of cement. The water-cement ratio controls
experiments at Lewis Institute in Chicago. the strength, durability, and watertightness of
. . ' .
hardened concrete.
Fine aggregate ... 25%-50%

8000

Coarse aggregate 51%--51%

sack
A measure of portland cement:
consistency
941b. in the U.S., 87.51b. in
The relative ability of freshly mixed concrete or
0 Canada, 1121b. in Britain, and
mortar to flow, usually measured by the slump
4 5 6 7 8 50 kg in countries using the test for concrete and by the flow test for grout
Gallons of water per sack of cement metric system. Also called bag.
or mortar. Consistency depends largely on the
propottion of cement paste to aggt"egate in a mix.
slump test >-
A method for determining the consistency workability
slump The relative ease with which freshly mixed concrete
and workability of freshly mixed concrete by
A measure of the consistency and workability of or mortar can l1e handled, placed in fonmvork,
measul'ing the slump of a test specimen.
freshly mixed concrete, expressed as the vertical compacted, and finished. Workability depends
settling, in inches, of a specimen after it has been partly on the water-cement ratio and partly on
placed in a slump cone, tamped in a prescribed the grading of the aggregate in a mix.
manner, and the cone is lifted.

plastic mix
Aconcrete or mortar mix that flows sluggishly
without segregating and is readily molded.
dry mix
A concrete ot mortar mix containing little wa1;er
slump cone or too much aggregate in relation to the other
An open ended, truncated cone of ~;heet metal components and llilving little or no slump. Also
12 in. (305mm) high, with a called stiff mix.
8 in. (203 mm) and atop diameter of 4
wet mix
(102mm), used to mold a specimen
Aconcrete or 111ortar mix having a relatively high
mixed concrete for the slump test.
water content and runny consistency, yielding a
product that is low in strength, dural1ility, and
compression test watertightness.
Atest for determining the compressive strength
of a concrete batch, using a hydraulic press to
measure the maxin1umload atest cylinder can
support in axial compression before ftactul'ing.

testcylindu
core test
Acylinder of concrete 6 in. (152 mm) in
diameter and 1? in. (:"50~5 mm) high, cast from a A compression test of acylinder cut from a
hardened concrete structure, usually by means
represen1;ative batch and cured in a laboratory ot
of a core drill.
in the field under controlled condition:,.

----------~-------------------------------------------~--~------------------------

42
form liner spreader formwork
Material for lining the inside face of aform, A brace, usually of wood, for spacing and The tempotary structure required to support
specially selected to impart asmooth or keeping wall or footing forms apart. Also newly placed concrete, including the forms and
patterned finish to the concrete surface. called spacer. all necessary suppot'ting members, bracing, and
hardware.
release agent
Any of various materials, such as oil or form
silicone, for preventing the bonding of Boarding or sheeting of wood, metal, plastic, or
concrete to a surface. Also called parting fibet'glass for containing and giving adesired
compound. shape to newly placed concrete until it sets and
,...... ++Wafer gains sufficient strength to be self-supporting.
A horizontal timber or steel beam for
A partition closing the end of aform or
reinforcing various vertical members, as in
preventing the passage of newly placed form work or sheet piling, or for retaining
concrete at a construction joint.
at the edge of an embankment. Also
keyway called breast timber, ranger, wale.
A longitudinal groove or channel formed in a
ktIJ 1\:'1(,~~ strongback
concrete footing or other member that has
A vet'tical support for aligning and
set, providing a shear resisting key for newly
reinforcing walers. Also called stiffback.
placed concrete.
yoke
Aclamping device for keeping column forms
or the tops of wall forms from spreading form tie
under the fluid pressure of newly placed A metal tie for keeping wall forms from spreading
under the fluid pressure of newly placed concrete.

snaptie
chamfer strip Aform tie having notches or crimps, which allow
A strip of wood or other material attached to a form its ends to be snapped off below the concrete
to produce a smooth, rounded or beveled edge on the surface after stripping oftheforms.
outside corner of a concrete member.
rustication strip 1nt . . . . . . . . . + . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cone bolt
A strip of wood or other material attached to the inside Aform tie having cones at each end inside the
face of a form to produce a groove in the surface of a forms, which allow it to also serve as aspreader.
concrete member.
cone
grade strip A small, truncated cone of wood, steel, or plastic
A wood strip fixed to the inside face of aform to indicate attached to a form tie to space and spread wall
the top of a concrete lift. forms, leaving aneatly finished depression in the
concrete surface to be filled or left exposed.
Trademark for a brand of cylindrical column form wedge
made of compressed, resin-impregnated paper. Any of avariety of slotted devices for tightening
form work and transferring the force in aform tie to
she bolt
the waJ~;s
chair . ~ .... ', ' . Aform tie consisting of water rods that are
Adevice for supporting and holding steel inset'ted through the form and threaded onto the

~)flU
reinforcement in proper position before and ends of an inner rod; after stripping, the water
during the placing of concrete. rods are removed while the inner rod mmains in
high chair the concrete.
Atall chair for supporting top bars in a concrete
beam or slab.
bolster
Awide chair for suppot'ting and spacing bottom
bars in a concrete beam or slab.

climbing form
Aform that can be raised vet'tically for
succeeding lifts of concrete during the
construction of a multistory l1uilding.
lift
The height of a quantity of concrete placed in
a form at one time.

slip form
Aform that can be moved slowly and continuously flying fotm
as concrete is being placed during the A large form that can be moved by a crane, used
construction of a concrete pavement or building. in constructing the concrete floors and roofs of
multistory buildings.
. . ,; .
.. ~ :
ca0Hn-place conaete time of haul
Concrete deposited, formed, cured, and finished The period from first contact between mixing
in its final position as part of a o;tructure. Also water and cement to completion of dbcharge of
called cast-in-situ concrete. the freshly mixed concrete from a truck mixer.
ready-mixed concrete
Concrete mixed at a batch plant far delivery by an
agitator truck to a construction site.
shrink-mixed concrete
Concrete partially mixed at a batch plant and then
mixed more completely in atruck mixer en route to
a construction site.

,1 ; transit-mixed concrete
ag1tato1' truck Concrete dry batched at a l1atch plant and mixed
Atruck equipped with a rotating drum to prevent in atruck mixer en route to a construction site.
segregation or loss of plasticity of the readymixed
concrete being delivered to aconstruction site.
placement
truck mixer
The process of depositing and consolidating
11 truck equipped with a rotating drum and a
freshly mixed concrete in a form or in the final
separate water tank for mixing concrete en route
position where it is to harden.
to aconstruction site.

concrete mixer
/\machine having arevolving drum, often motor .
driven, far mixing cement. aggregate, and water to
produce concrete. pneumatic placement
The delivery of concrete, slurry, or plaster by a
direct placement buggy pipeline or hose to the point of placement on a
Acart, often motordriven, for transporting heavy
The discharging of freshly mixed concrete construction site, either in aplastic state for
directly into aform from aconcrete mixer, buggy, materials, such as freshly mixed concrete, for depositing in place or for spraying, or in adry
or crane bucket. short distances at aconstruction site. state with water added at the nozzle from which
it is sprayed.
free fall
The descent of freshly mixed concrete into a shotcrete
form without the aid of a drop chute. A lightweight concrete construction consisting
of a mixture of cement, sand or crushed slag, and
drop chute
water, pumped through a hose and sprayed at
Achute for containing and directing afalling
high velocity over reinforcement until the desired
stream of freshly mixed concrete so as not to
thickness is reached. Also called gunite.
cause segregation.
chute
An inclined trough 01tube for conveying free
fiowing materials to a lower level by gravity.

consolidation segregation
The process of eliminating voids other than The separation of coarse aggregate from the
entrained air within newly placed concrete and mortar or of water from the other ingredients of
ensuring close contact of the concrete with form
freshly mixed concrete, resulting from excessive
surfaces and eml1edded reinforcement. horizontal movement orfrce fall of the mix, orfrom
overvibration after placement.
stratification
spading The separation of an excessively wet or
Consolidation of newly placed concrete by the ovcrvibrated concrete mix into horizontal layers,
repeated insertions and withdrawals of aflat, with increasingly lighter material migrating toward
spadelike tool. the top.

rodding bleeding
Consolidation of newly placed concrete by the vibration The emergence of excess mixing water an the
repeated insertions and withdrawals of arod. Consolidation of newly placed concrete by the Stll'face of newly pi;Jced concrete, caused l1y
moderately high frequency oscillations of a settlement of solids within the mass. Also called
Vi!ll'iltOr. watet' gain.
vibrator laitance
An electric or pneumatic oscillating tool for A milky deposit containing cement and aggregate
a1jitating and consolidating newly placed concrete. fines on the sur'face of new concrete, caused by
the bleeding of excess mixing water, overworking of
the 111ix, or improper finishing.
p

finishing darby architectural conctete


The process of leveling, smoothing, compacting, A long wooden or metalstraightcdge Expo:;ed concrete wo; k requiring special care in
and treating a newly placed concrete surface to ....;:: for smoothing a fresh concrete surface the selection of rnarerials, forming, placing, and
produce the desired texture and appearance. immediately after screeding. finishing to aujuire the desired appearance.
se reed
A wooden or metal straightedge drawn a
over anewly placed concrete slab to bring
to proper level.
screed
Afirmly established grade strip or edge form
serving as aguide for making atrue level surface
on a newly placed concrete slab.
float dry-shake finish veton brut
Aflat tool for spreading and smoothing a fresh A colored finish pmduced by sprinkling a dry Concrete left in its natural state after form work is
concrete, stucco, or plaster surface. mixture of cement, sand, and a pigment on afresh removed, esp. when the concrete surface reflecl;s
bull float concrete surface following screeding and after any the text;ure,joints, and fasteners of a board form.
Afloat having alarge, flat blade attached to free water has evaporated, and then working the
a long mixture into the surface with afloat.

float finish
Afine textured finish obtained by
smoothing a fresh concrete, plaster, or
trowel stucco surface with a wood float.
Any of various flat bladed hand tools for applying,
spreading, working, or smoothing plastic material, broom finish exposed aggregate finish
such as conaete, mortar, and plaster. A striated finish obtained by stroking abroom Adecorative finish produced by sandblasting,
or stiff brush over a freshly troweled concrete etching with an acid, or scrubbing a concrete
power trowel surface. surface after the init.ial set in order to remove
/1 portable machine having steel trowels mounted the outer layer of cement paste and expose J;he
on radial arms that rotate about a vertical shaft aggregate.
to smooth, compact, and finish a fresh concrete
surface.

pavement saw
Awheel-mounted, rotary power saw equipped with Adense, smooth finish obtained by working
asilicon-carbide or diamond blade for cutting a afresh concrete or plas1;er surface with a
control joint in a hardened concrete slab. steel trowel.
bush hammered finish
Atextured finish given to a fresh plaster or Acoarse-textured finish obtained by fracturing
concrete surface by troweling with acircular, a concrete or stone surface with a power driven
overlapping motion. hammer having a rectangular head with a
corrugated, serrated, or toothed face.

set honeycomb
Voids on a fanned concrete sud'ace, caused l!y
segregation during placement or l1y itlfiufficient
consolidation.
cure . spa !ling
To maintain newly placed concrete or mortar at The chipping or scaling of a hardened concrete or
1;he required temperature and humidity for the masonry Stll'face caused by freeze thaw cycles
first seven days following placement, casting, or or the application of deicing salts. Also called
finishing to erbure satisfactory hydration of the scaling.
cementitious materials and proper hardening.
crazing
heat of hydtation Numerous ha'wline cracks occurring in the
The heat generated by the process of hydration, surface of anewly hardened concrete slab as a
as during the setting and curing of a concrete mix. result of rapid drying shrinkage.
hydration drying shtinkage
The process in which asubstance combines A reduction in volume of concrete, mortill', or
chemically with water, as that occurring when plaster caused l1y a loss of moibture.
cement is mixed w'rth water.
setting shrinkage
A reduction in volume of concrete prior to its
iinal set, caused by hydration of the cement
paste.

45
The art, science, or business of building. licensed
. Legally certified by a governmental or other
constituted authority to engage in a business or
architect engineer
profession in the state orjurisdiction in which a
A person who engages in the A per'son trained, skilled, or
project is to be constructed. Also, registered.
profession of architecture, usually professionally engaged in any of
trained and experienced in the design various branches of engineering.
and construction of buildings.

owner
A person or organization having
the legal right or title to apiece of .............................
property, usually the architect's client
and party to the owner-architect > consultant
agreement. A person or organization hired to
give professional or expert advice
regarding a specific aspect of a
~---------~----------,
! contractor
project, such as acoustics or lighting.
insurance
developer A person or organization that ... ..... The insuring of property, life, or one's person
A person or organization that invests contracts to provide the materials against loss or harm arising in specified
in and develops the potentialities and perform the work for a contingencies in consideration of a payment
of real estate, esp. by initiating and
implementing building projects for
construction project at a specified
time and rate.
subcontractor
A person or organization that
.
proportionate to the risk involved.

ownership, management, or resale. contracts with ageneral contractor


'-----" general contractor
to provide a portion of the work on a
A person or organization that
construction project.
contracts directly with an owner to
lending institution manage and supervise aconstruction
The institution, usually a commercial project, including the work performed
bank, providing the long-term financing by subcontractors. r .............................. i.......... bonded
for a construction project. Having a monetary commitment
set asrde to ensure that all
obligations set forth in a

construction manager
A person or organization that
contracts with an owner to advise
on and coordinate all phases of a
building project, from evaluating the
construction cost and feasibility of
design decisions to managing the
bidding, award, and construction
phases of the project.

design-build
Of or pertaining to an arrangement
under which a person or organization
contracts directly with an owner to
design and construct a building or
speculative builder
project.
A person or organization that
develops and constructs buildings for turn-key
(iUIJseriuent sale or lease. Of or pertaining to an arrangement
under which a person or organization
designs and constructs a l1uilding
for sale or lease when ready for
occupancy.

------------------
46
ION
The procec;s of l1uilding frolll !;ite
pmpar:1tion through erectian, assemiJiy,
and finishing or1eratiow;.

top out
To install the highest structural member in
aconstruction or complete the uppermost
course in amasonry wall.

falsework
The temporary framework far supp01ting a
structure under construction that is not yet
capable of supporting itself.
scaffold
Atemporary structure or platform for supporting
workers and materials at a height above the floor
or ground during the construction or repair of a
building. Also called staging.

feasibility study
Adetailed investigation and analysis conducted
to determine the financial, technical, or other
advisability of a proposed construction project.

~t0--+
bidding --~
The competitive process of offering to perform the
notice to proceed
... ' ...... ~' ' ' ... ' ~

Awritten communication issued by an owner


erect
To construct by the raising, positioning, fitting
certificate of occupancy
Adocument issued by abuilding official CCitifying
work described in a contract for a specified sum. authorizing a contractor to proceed with the together, and fastening of materials or parts. that all Ol' a designated portion of a building
award work and establishing the date of commencement complies with the provisions of the building code,
of the work. and penniWng occupancy for its designated use.
Aformal acceptance of a bid or a negotiated
proposal. building permit postoccupancy evaluation
Awritten authorization to proceed with The process of diagnosing the technical, functional
contract
construction of a building project in accordance and !1ehavioral aspects of a completed building
A legally enforceable agreement, usually in written
with approved drawings and specifications, in order to accumulate information for future
form, between two or more parties t;o do or not to
issued by the local government agency havi11g programming and design activities.
do something specified.
jurisdiction after plans have l1een filed and
reviewed.
building official
A person designated by agovernmental authority
to administer and enforce the provisions of a
building code.

fast-track .................... ......... -- .... "' '"""-- ... j ...... .


Of or pertaining to project scheduling in which 1 I
the design and construction phases of a building : I
Construction phJse 4 '-/!.~..........~~- ........... --~.. ~-~.....~
project overlap to compress the total time 1 !
required far completion. l I
I

CPM
I
I
Construction phase .3
I
Or ~.~~~~~=~=~==~=== :::.:.:::=:.:::.=~===::.:.::::J
Critical Path Method: a method for planning, I
I
scheduling, and managing a project, combining Constmction ph;1se 2
all relevant information into aflow chart;, I
including the optimum sequence and duration
of activities, the relative significance of each Constmction phase I
event, and the coordination required for timely
completion of the project.

47
ION
The manner in which n1ateriab are ordered,
assembled, and united into a whole, such as
f1ame construction.

systems building prefabricate fabdcate contract documents


Aconstrucrion process using a high degree To fabricate or manufacture beforehand, esp. To construct by assembling diver:;e a11d usually The legal document:; comprising aconstrucrion
of prefabrication in the manufacture of in standardized units or con1ponent;s for quick standardized parrs. contract, including the owner cont;ractor
srandardized units or components to speed assembly and erecrion. agreemenr. condirions of the contracr, and rhe
assembly and erection of a building. Also called consrrucrion drawings and SjJecification:; for rhe
industrialized building. projecr. including all addenda, modifications, and
any other ireniS stipulat;ed as being specifically
panel included.
A prefabricated section of a floor, wall, ceiling, or
mof, handled as asingle unit in the assembly and construction documents
erection of a building. The construcrion drawings and specifications
seWng forth in detail the rcquiremenrs for the
sandwich panel construction of a project.
A5trucrural panel consisting of a core of
relatively light 111atcrial enclosed between rwo specifications
sheets of a high strength marerial, generally The parr of the contract documents consisting of
rcsulring in a high sriffnesstowcight; ratio. a derailed description of the technicalnatum of
the materials, standards, and qualiry of execution
stressed-skin panel of the work to be placed under conrract.
A srructural panel consisring of plyv1ood
glued to lu111l1er stringers, used as floor, roof.
or wall member subjecr ro l1ending. The plywood performance specification
facings and stringers act as a series of lbeams Aspecification rh at stipulates how a11articular
with rhe plywood resisting nearly all of rhe component or system must perform wirhout giving
bending srresscs. Cross l1racing may be placed rhe means to l'e employed to achieve the results.
t;o support the edges of the skin and to help
disrribute concentrated loads. descriptive specification
A specification that sripulates the exact
quanriJ;ies and qualities of materials to be
furnished and how they arc robe assembled in a
consrruction.
tefetence specification
Aspecificarion that refers to a standard
specificarion ro indicare the properries desired
in a marerial or component and rhe merhods of
t;esting required to substantiate rhe pcl'f'ornlilnce
of pro~ucts
pl'Oprietary specification
A specificarion rhar sUpulares J;he use of
specific products, systems, or processes without
module pmvision fo1 substitution.

modular coordination
Correlating the dinwnsiolb of a
unit size:; of its component:;, tbually with Uw aid
of a planning grid l1ased on a4inch or 100nnn
cubical module.

lift-slab construction ~iitup consttuction


Atechnique of cow,tructing nwltic;tory l1uilrlings A method of casting reinforced concrete w;1ll
in which all horizonral slabs arc cast at ground paneb on :oite in a horizo11tal posi!;ion, then tilt;ing
level and, when CLII'crl, arc raised into posirionl1y them up ill\0 rhcil' final
hydraulic jacks.
p

UNIFORMATII
Asystem (ASTM standard for classifying Group B: Shell, including
building elements and related sitewo1'k that Superst;mcture, Exterior
provides a consistent reference for the l:nclosure &koo{inq
description, economic analysis, and management
of buildings during all phases of their life
cycle. including planning, programming, design,
construction, operations, and disposal. The
format i5 based on the classification of elements,
/Jivi6ion 14 Conveying Equipment
which are defined as major components that are
common to most buildings and perform agiven /JivisionlS - KESEKVEIJ rog F/JlUKE EXVANS!ON
function. regardless of the design specification,
/Jivision 16 - f(ESEKVED rog FUTURE EXVANSION
construction method, or materials used.
/Jivisionl7 RESEmD FO!( F/JT/JKE EXFANSION
/JN!!ORMAT 11 (AS/M E/557) c!ds:;ifics building
elements into three hier<Jrchica//evels using iin /Jivision 18 f(ESERVEJJ FOI\ F/JT/JKE EXI'ANS/ON
,1/phanumeric designdUon. /here dre :;even Level 1
groups ........................................................... . /Jivision 19 - KCSEKVED !OK IVJURE EXI'AN!3/0N
Facility Services Subgroup
Division?O k/5/RVE/J rog 1/J/UkE EX!"i\NS/ON
E:Jch Major GrouF Element i:;/;mken down into Level
2 Group Element;s (810, 820) iind Leve/.5/ndividua/ /Jivi:;ion21 Fii<J S11ppre:;sion
Element:; (81010, 131020, /32010, 82020). ALevel 1 Interior Finishes Division 22 -1'/um/Jing
is proposed to /Jreak the individual e/ement;s into yet
smaller Su/nlements (!310ll, 81012, /31012 .. .). /Jivision23- l!ec?Ung Venti/at;;ng and Air Conditioninq
/JNff'Of(MAT 11 differ:; ft'Oin and complements the Division24 - KESEkVE/J f'Of( /U/Uf(E EXI'ANS/ON
lvfasterl'ormat c/assi{icaUon system, which is f;ased
Division25 -lntegmted A11tomaUon
on products ;md buildincJ material.s {or detailed
qu;mWy tAc:offs of materials and task:; as5ociated /Jivision26 --Electrical
with t;he construct;;on, OfJel'iiUon. a11d maintenance
/Jivision27 CommunicaUons
or buildings.
Division28 -Electronic Safety and Securi~y
Division29 - kESEKVEIJ rog F/JlUKE W'ANS/ON
UniFormat
Group D. Conveying, 1'/uni/Jing, HVAC, Fire
The Uniform Cla~;sification System developed and Site and Infrastructure SubgrouF
notection &Electrical Sy:;te/1/S
pul1lished l1ythe Const1uction Specifications
Division 3D 1\CSIF:VED !OK F/J!VI~C IXI'ANS!ON
lnst:itute (CSI) and Construction Specifications
Canada (CSC). UniFormat: is similar in organization /Jivi:;ion 51- /:~1rthwork
to UNIFORh~AT 11 but adds another group, Group Z:
/Jivi.sion52 -/xt;erior lmfli"Dvement;s
General, that incorporates general requirements,
l1idding requirements, contract forms and Division 55 /JUiiUes
contingencies, and project cost estimating.
Division :54 ii<msportat;;on
/1not:ha significant difference occurs in how
UniFormat uses lvlasterFol'l11at numbers and titles Divi:;ion .5!5 W;Jt;en'liJY c111d Marine
foll.eve15 and, sometimes, l.evel4 elements.
/Jivision .36 - K!SFKVIJJ FO!( F/J/UkE Hf'ANSION
Division 57 - KJ:SU\VIJJ !Ok IU/UKE EXI'ANSJON
MasterFo1mat
Divi:;ion.58 KESEIMJJ !OK /UT/JKE EXI'ANSION
Aformat developed l1y the Consl:ruction
'mrriliroiirll1" ln:;tit.ute (C~?I) for coordillatiniJ /Jivision:3.9 f(JSIKVF/J /Of( IIJl/M IX/1\NS/ON
snrcr:ifi,c:li.inns filing of technical data and product
Process Equipment Subgroup:
literature, ;md const1uction cost: accounting,
originally organized into 16 divisions l1ased on Division40 -11-ocess lnt;eqraUon
an interrelationship of place, trade, function, or
/Jivi:;ion11 lvfateria//1or:essinq mid Handling
material but expanded in 2004 to 50 divisions to
Equiflment;
reflect changes in the COII:itl'uction industry.
/Jivision42 11-oass l!eaUnq, Cooling, iind iJ1yinrJ
Equipment;
/Jivision1J -- I'Jocess Giis ;md liquid lliind/ing,
PROCUREMENT AND CONTRACTING SPECIFICA170NS GROUf Division 06 Wood, F/asUcs, and Compo6ites
/1Jrifici1Uon and St;omqe !Cquipment;
REQUIREMENTS GROUP
General Requirements Subgroup Division 07 Thermal and Moisture Fl'otection
/Jivi.r,ion11-l>r!lluUon ConUd l'quipment
Division 00 - I"IYKummenl- and Cont-w;UnrJ
/Jivi5ion 01 GencJCil Kequiremcnt:s Divbion 08 Openings
/(equirmnenl.s /Jivbion15 -lndu5tl:y-5per.i{ic Manu{;;c;t;urinrJ
l'acility Construction Subgroup Division 09 -lini:ihes l:quipment;
Division 02 l'xist:inq C!mdit:ion:; /Jivision!O Division16 IVater ii/ld W:6t;e~v,1ter Equipment;
Division 0,3 Conaete Divisionll Equif!nwnt /Jivision4! KISIRVW FOK (/JI/JKI EXI!\N!3/0N
Division 01 lvliisonly Division 12 -lllmishings /Jivision4!3 C/ec;t;ricall'ower {jenemt;ion
Divi;,;ion 0!5 Metals Division 13 Dpcci;i/ Conc,tmction /Jivision ,19 VISU\VI/J !OK 1/I!U/\1/XFi\NS/ON
construction type noncombustible const1uction protected noncombustible
Aclassification of a building's construction Construdion having a structure of steel, construction
according to the fire resistance of its major concrete, or masonry, and walls, floors and 11oncombustible construction having a
cornponents: structural frame, exterior bearing a roof of noncombustible materials. structure and major components with fire
and non bearing walls, interior bearing walls, floors resistance ratings at least equal to those
and ceilings, roofs, and enclosures of fire exits and specified by the appropriate authorities.
vertical shafts. While model codes may differ in
the detailed requirements for each construction
unprotected noncombustible
type, they all limit the area and height of a building
construction
Noncombustible construction having no
according to construction type and intended
fire-resistance requirements except for
occupancy. Also called com;truction class.
fire walls and enclosures of fire exits and

building code
Acode regulating the design, construction,
alteration, and repair of buildings, adopted and
enforced by a local government agency to protect
the public safety, health, and welfare.
Abuilding code generally establishes minimum
standards for materials and methods of
construction specifications (or structural and fire
safety, and other requirements l;ased on the t;ype of combustible construction ordinary construction
constmction and the occupancy ofabuilding, o(t:en Any construction that does not fulfil! 11 construction type having noncombustible
using standards established by the American Society the requirements for noncombustible exterior walls and an interior structure wholly
for Testing and Mc1terials, the American National construction. Ol' pattly of light framing.

Standards Institute, and various t:echnical societies protected ordinary construction


and trade associ,ltions. Ordinary construction having a structure
zoning ordinance and major components with fire-resistance
An ordinance regulating the division of land ratings at least equal to those specified by the
into zones, so as to restrict the height, bulk, appropriate authorities.
density, and use of buildings, and the provision unprotected ordinary construction
of such ancillary facilities as parking; a principal Ordinary construction having no fire-resistance
instrument in the implementation of amaster requirements for the interior structure except
plan. Also called zoning code. forfire walls and enclosures of fire exits and
restrictive covenant vertical shafts.
A covenant with a clause that restricts the
action of any party to it, such as an agreement
among property owners specifying the use to
which a property can be put; racial and religious
restrictions are legally unenforceable.
heavy-timber construction
energy code Aconstruction type having noncombustible
A building code that sets minimum standards exterior walls and an interior structure of
for energy conservation and the enagy-efficient timbers and decking of specified minimum sizes
design of buildings. without concealed spaces. Also called mill
constluction.
nonconforming
Of or pertaining to a material, type of
construction, or occupancy or use not complying
with the requirements set foti:h in abuilding code
or zoning ordinance.
variance
/vi official permit io do something normJIIy
forbidden by regulations, esp. by building in a way
or for a purpose normally forbidden by a building lightframe construction protected light-frame construction
code or zoning ordinJnce. Aconstruction type primarily formed by a Light-frame construction having a structure and
system of repetitive wood or light-gauge steel major components with fire-resistance ratings at
members and not meeting the requirements for least equal to those specified by the appropriate
heavy-ti111l1er construction. authorities.
unprotected light-frame construction
Light-frame construction having no fire-resistance
requimments except for fire walls and enclosures
of fire exits and vertical shafts.

-------------------------------
50
model code
1\ building code developed by an organization
of states, professional societies. and trade
;Jssociations for adoption !Jy local communities.
International Building Code
1\ comprehensive, coordinated national model -<:-"""'c........................... \ ....."',pc.; ....... building area
building code developed. published, and maintained
The area within the surrounding exterior walls of
by the International Code Council (I CC). composed
abuilding, excluding vent shafts and courts but
of representatives of the three prior model
including unbounded areas within the horizontal
code agencies (BOCA, ICBO and SBCCI) and
projection of the floor or roof above.
headquar'tered in Washington. D.C. Abbr.: IBC
BOCA National Building Code
1\ building code developed and published by the
Building Officials and Code Administrators
International, Inc. (BOCA) and previously used
primarily in the northeastern U.S.
Uniform Building Code
Abuilding code developed and published by the
International Conference of Building Officials
(ICBO) and previously used primarily in the central
and western U.S.
Standard Building Code
Abuilding code developed and published by the
Southern Building Code Conference (SBCC) and
previously used primarily in the southeastern U.S.

!Juilding height
The vertical distance from the grade plane to the
average height of the highest roof surface.
story a!Jove grade plane
Any story having afinished floor surface above
the grade plane, including a basement when
story the finished floor surface of the floor above the
The vertical distance from the finished surface basement is momthan6 ft. (1.8 m) above the
of a floor to thefinished Slllface of the next floor grade plane.
above. For the highest noor level, story height is
measured from the finished surface of the floor to grade plane
the top of the ceiling joists or roof rafters. 1\ horizontal reference plane used in determining
building height and number of stories, calculated
as the average of finished grades adjoining a
building along its exterior walls. Where the ground
level slopes away from a building, the reference
plane is established by the lowest points in the
area between the building and the lot line or within
adistance 6ft. (1.8m) from the building.

anchor !Juilding
An exterior lnlilding having direct access to a
mall covered mall building but having it;s required
means of egress independent of t;he mall.
Aretail complex containing a variety of stores,
restaurants, entertainment facilities, and other
busines:; establishments housed in a series of
connected or ar~acent buildings or in a single large
building. Also called shopping mall.
mall
A[Juilding code term for a roofed or covered
pedestrian way within a covered mall building
serving as access for anumber of tenants and not
exceeding three open levels in height.
covered mall
A single build'mg enclosing a number of tenants,
such as retail stores, restaurants. and
entertainment facilities, and having access to one
A con11non seating arca in a
or more malls.
mall that serves adjacent foorJ.
preparationt;enant;s,

--------------------------------
51
DESIGN
The creation and organizat;ion of formal
elements in a work of art.

fotm
The shape and structure of something as
distinguished from its substance or material.

line

shape
The outline or surface configuration of a
particularform 01figure. While form usually refers
to the principle that gives unity to a whole and
often includes a sense of mass or volume, shape
suggests an outline with some emphasis on the
enclosed area or mass.

texture visual texture tactile texture


The visual and esp. tactile quality of asurface, The apparent texture of a surface resulting from The physical, dimensional structure of a surface,
apart from its col or or form. the combination and interrelation of colors and apart from its col or or form.

organic
Of or pertaining to shapes and forms having
irregular contours ~hat appear to resemble
those of living plants or animals.
nonobjective
Of or pertaining to shapes and forms not
representing natural or actual objects. Also,
nonrepresentational.

symbol
abstract Something that stands for or represents
Of or pertaining to shapes and forms having an something else by association, resemblance, or
intellectual and affective content dependent convention, deriving its meaning chiefly from the
solely on their intrinsic lines, colors, and structure in which it appears.
relationship to one another.

A mark or figure having a conventional meaning


and used in place of a word or phrase to express a
complex notion.

massing articulation
I\ unified compostion oftwo-dimensional A method or manner ofjointing that makes the
shapes or three-dimensional volumes, esp. one united parts clear, distinct, and precise in relation
that has or gives the impression of weight, ~o each other.
density, and bulk.
additive
Characterized or produced by addition,
accumulation, or uniting, often resulting in a new
identity.
subtractive
Characterized or produced by removal of a part or
portion without destroying a sense of the whole.

52
>
D IGN
----------~--

content form
The significance or meaning of an attistic The manner of arranging and coordinating
work. as distinguished from its form. the parts of a composition so as to produce
acoherent image.

organization
The systematic arranging of interdependent
or coordinated parts into a coherent unity or
functioning whole.

An individual, minute, or subordinate


part of a whole. sti'Ucture
The organization of elements or patts in a complex
Illll!ilh! lil: llf 11! 11! llf system as dominated by the general character of
the whole.

texture
The characteristic structure given to a
surface or substance by the size, shape.
arrangement. and proportions of the parts.
fabdc
An underlying framework or structure of
connected parts.

parti
The basic scheme or concept for an architectural
des'tgn, represented by adiagram.
diagram
Adrawing, not necessarily representational, that
outlines. explains. or clarifies the arrangement and
relations of the parts of a whole.

composition
pattern The arranging of parts or elements into proper
An arristic or decorative design, esp. one proportion or relation so as to form a unified
having a characteristic arrangement and whole.
considered as a unit, of which an idea can
be given by afragment.

53
design principle order hmmony
11 fundamental and comprehensive concept of 11 condition of logical, harmonious, or The orderly, pleasing, or congruent arrangemerrt
visual perception for structuring an aesthetic comprehensible arrangement in which each of the elements or parts in an artistic whole.
composition. element of a group is properly disposed with
repose
reference to other elements and to its purpose.
Harmony in the arrangement of parts or colots
that is restful to the eye.
coherent
unity Logically or aesthetically ordered or integrated
The state or quality of being combined into one, to afford comprehension or recognition.
such as the ordering of elements in an artistic
work that constitutes a harmonious whole or
promotes asingleness of effect.
agreement
Correspondence in size, shape, or calor among
the elements in awork or art.
similarity
The state or quality of being alike in substance,
essentials, or characteristics .

. . proximity
uniformity Nearness in place, order, or relation.
The state or quality of being identical,
homogeneous, or regular.
homogeneous J
Uniform in structure throughout or
composed of parts that are all of the continuity
same nature or kind. The state or quality of being continuous, such
as that exhibited by a line, edge, or direction.
regular
Uniformly or evenly formed or arranged. alignment
llrrangement in or adjustment according to a
monotony straight line.
The state or quality of lacking variety.

complexity collage
The state or quality of being a whole lln artistic composition of often
composed of complicated, intricate, or diverse elements in unlikely or
interconnected parts. unexpected juxtaposition.
variety hierarchy
The state or quality of having varied or diverse 11 system of elements ranked, classified, and
forms, types, or characteristics. organized one above another, according to
importance or significance.
emphasis
Stress or prominence given to an element
of a composition by means of contrast,
anomaly, or counterpoint.
opposition
The state or position of being placed opposite
another, or of lying in corresponding positions from
contrast an intervening space or object.
Opposition or juxtaposition of dissimilar juxtaposition
elements in a work of art to intensify each The state or position of being placed close
element's properties and produce a more together or side by side, so as to permit
dynamic expressiveness.
A () comparison or contrast.

tension
11 tenuous valance maintained in an artistic
work between opposing forces or elements, often
causing anxiety or excitement.
anomaly
11 deviation from the normal or expected
form, order, or arrangement.

contradiction
point The state or condition of being opposed,
The major idea, essential part, or salient inconsistent, or logically incongruous.
feature of anarrative or concept.
counterpoint
salient 11 parallel but contrasting element or theme in a chaos
Prominent or conspicuous. narrative or concept. 11 state of utter disorder or confusion. ~

54
DESIGN

balance
The pleasing or harmonious arrangement or
proportion of parts or elements in adesign
e!j,uilibrium or composition.
Astate of rest or l1alance between
contrasting elements or opposing forces.

e!j,uipoise
An equal distribution of weight,
relat'1onship. or forces.

counterpoise
Acounterbalancing weight
or force.

symmetry
The exact correspondence in size, form. and
arrangement of parts on opposite sides of a
dividing line or plane. or about acenter or axis.

bilateral symmetry
Symmetry resulting from the

-!~tt~:~,:;~~~r~:;:
local symmetry ....
i 1~ w]i,.~
C1[-1. l.................. . . . i-.~~~j ~ fo . ~.
.r~=i1t.r_;rJJ i.

A symmetrical condition occurring in


one part of adesign, often serving to ' j j radial symmetry
Symmetry resulting from the
center an irregular pattern.
arrangement of similar. radiating
parts about acenter point or .....
g;
central axis. .. ;. ..

axis axis of symmett-y central plan


Astraight line to which elements An imaginary line about which The plan for a building organized
in a composition are referred for afigure. body, or composition around a large or dominant space,
measurement or symmetry. is symmetrical. usually characterized by two axes
crossing each other at right angles.

movement rhythm
The rhythmic quality of a composition Movement characterized by a patterned
motionl1y represented gesture~; or by the repetition or alternation of formal element~; or
relationship of structural elements: ___ .-! motifs in the same or a modified form.
direction . repetition
The line along which sotnethinJ)~"~, The act or process of repeating formal

ll10V.II.1g,
With pomtmg.
reference oriacmg1J)" .
tothe(c lf. ). elements or motifs in adesign.

pomt toward : f ~- ~
;i ;~~::di.s
1
/ r~ ~- ~~Jlf)
0 [1~"= ,,'tr/ interval
A space between two objects. points.
# or states.

g1adation concatenation
A process or change taking place by degrees or A series of linked or interconnected
through a series of gradual, succw;sive st;ages. things or event:s.

ss
DESIGN
proportion eurythmy
fhe comt7arative, pi'Opa, or hal'llwniottsrelation Harmony of proport:ion or ntovcment:.
of one part to a110the1 o1 to the whole wi\.h
rco;pcct to llliliJnil:udc, quantity, or dewee.

proportion
l, l, 2. ,3, 5, 8, 13, 21. .
The equality l1etween two ratios in which the first
of the four terms divided by the second equals the If/, IJ?2l35f!5Sfl!, 8fl.7 ..
third divided by the fourth.
Fibonacci series
golden section The unending sequence of numbers where the first
A pi'Oportion between the two dimensions of a plane Relation in magnil:udc, quantity, Ol' degree two terms are 1and 1, and each succeeding term
figure or the two divisions of a line, in which U1e raUo of l1etween two or mo1e similar things. is the sum oft he two immediately preceding. Also
the snlilller t:o the larger is the same as the ratio of the called Fibonacci 5equence.
larger to the whole: a ratio of approximately 0.618 to
harmonic series
1.000. Also called golden mean.
A series whose temts arc in harmonic progression.
l, lf3. 1/b. If% 1/D ,
harmonic progression
/1 sequence of numbers whose reciprocals form an
arithmetic progression.

scale
Acertain proportionate size, extent, or degree, A unit of measurement used for standardizing the
usually judged in relation to some standard or dimensions of building materials or regulating the
point of reference. proportions of an architectural composition.

human scale
The size or proportion of aln1ilding element
or o;pace, or an article of furniture, relative
to the structural or functional dimensions
of the human body.

visual scale
fhe ;;ize or proportion of son1e1:hing relat:ive t:o The ;;iLe or proportion an element appears to
an accepted ;;tandiml of nreasurement. have relative to other elemelrt;;; or component;o; of
known or assumed size.

56
DESIGN
ergonomics
An applied :ociencc concerned wil:h the
characterisl:iu; of people that: need to be
corbidaed in the design of device~; and sy:otenv;
in order that people and things will inter;1ct
effectively ;I lid ;;afely. Also called human
engineering.

The mea;;urement and study of the size


and proportions of the human body.
structural dimension
Any of t:he dimensions of the humanl1ody and anthropomorphize
its parts. To ascribe human form or characteristics

functional dimension
Any of the dimensions determined l1y l;odily
position and movenwnt, such as reach, stl'ide,
or clearance.

static fit dynamic fit kinesthesia


The correspondence between the size and The correspondence between The sensory expaience of l10dily position,
posture of a human body and a building the sensory experience of presence, or 111ovement derived chiefly from
element or article offurniture. bodily presence and stimulation of nerve endings in muscles, tendons.
and the size, shape, and and joints. Also, kinaesthesia, kinesthesis.
proportion of a space.
haptic
Relating to or based on the sense of touch.
olfactory
Relating to or based on the sense of s111ell.

barrier-free
Of or pertaining to spaces, l1uildings. and facilitie~;
usal1lc by all people, including
the physically handicapped.

proxemics
lhc sl:udy of the ~;ynrbolic and conrmunicative role
of U1c scpar;JtiOII individu;rb maintain
in variotb social ;Hrd interpersonal situatiorb,
;md how the nat:urc and degree of this spatial
arrangement: relate~; to environnwnl:al and
cultrm1l factor:,.

territol'ia lity
fhe p;rtt:ern of [1chavior il%oci;lt.cd l'lith
defining and defending ;1 ccrTitory or dolilain. one [Jersolr feeb conrforl:able talking eo
anoUwr.1\lso c;Jiled personal distance.

57
D IGN
Americans with Disabilities Act
lln net of Congress that l1ecame law in199?,
establishing design standards and requirements
for alllnlildingr; except single family residences
to ensure U1Cit accessibility l1y the physically
disabled.
universal design
The process of planning, designing, and creating
pmducts, buildings, and environments that
are accessible to all individuals, including
those with disabilities or special needs, to the
greatest extent possible given current materials,
technologies, and knowledge.

11 continuous, unobstructed path from site


arrival points and connecting all accessible
lntildings and facilities within a site.

access
The ability, freedom, or permission to approach,
enter, or use. accessible parking
accessibility The parking spaces and passenger loading zones
The degree to which a product, device, service, located on an accessil1le route and complying
or environment is available to people having with the /1mcricans with Dis;Jbilicies /let
disabilitie'i or special needs. llccessil1ility Guideline:; (lllJMG).

accessible
Descril1ing a,;ite, lnlilding, or facility designed and
cottstructed to comply wiU1 the llnwricans with
IJisal1iliUcs !let (/11JMG).
<.<
c; Yi I
0
0 I I
0 I J
0
0 TT
~~ T
0
0 1 T
I.I . ~~J

I I

access aisle
acccs:iil;le
/111 :ipacc l;cti'lcctt 'Juclt
clement,; a:; parking :;paces, scatitl!), and de:;b

58
p

DESIGN

adaptability accessible unit


The al,ility of such elements as counters, Adwelling unit or sleeping unit that
sinks, and grab bars to be altered so as to complies with the Americans with
;1cconmwdate the needs of individuals with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines
or without disabilities, or individuals having (ADAAG) for routes, elements, and
different types or degrees of disabilities. spaces.

detectable warning
A surface feature built in or applied to walking
surfaces to warn visually impaired persons of
hazards along a circulation path.

cross slope
The slope perpendicular to the dimction of travel.
running slope
fhe slope parallel to the di1ection of travel.

curb ramp
/1 ramp cui; into or leading up to a curb.

59
DESIGN
design conceive
lo conceive, co11trive, or devise the form and ro form ;In idea m concepUon in the mind.
:,tructure of ;il,uildiniJ or other cow,truction.
contrive
ro form in a11 a1tbtic or inrJeniotb m;mne1.

design process
devise
To form in t:he mind l1y new coml,ilutions Ol'
A purposeful activity aimed at devising a plan
applications of existing ideas or principles.
for changing an existing situation int:o a future
preferred state, esp. \;he cyclical, iterat:ive process
comprising t:he following .. l.r~----~-.:_:...:_:.._.__, preparation
Collecting and analyzing relevant: analysis
process
Identifying a problem and its ;;ocial, information and establishing Scparat:incJ of a whole into itf, colbtituent pa1ts
A systematic ,;erics of actions or ope1atiow;
economic, and physical cont:ext. goals and criteria for an or element;s, w;p. as amerhod of st;udying t;he
leading or directed to a particular end.
acceptal1le solut:ion. nature oft:he whole and det:ermining its essential
phase feature;; and t;heir relations.
A particular ;;\;age in il procr,;;s of ch;1ngc or
development. synthesis
Combining of ;;eparate, often diverse part;s or
program element:; so a~; t:o form asingle or coherent whole.
A procedure for solving a prolllem, ;,uch as il
:;t;at:ement ;;eWng forth the context, conditions,
and ol1jectives for ;1 design project.
dynamics
The pattern of change, growt;h, or
develop1wnt of an ol;ject; or phenomenon.

charrette
/In int:ense effort to complet:e adesign develop
project within a specified time. Also, To work out, expand, or realize the capabilities or
charette. possibilities of so as to l1ring gradually to a fuller
or more advanced or effect:ive stare.

modify
To change the form, character, or qualit:ies of in
order to give a new orientation to or t:o serve a
reevaluation
new end.
A;;ses:;ing how well an implemented
:;olut:ion in use satisfies the
specified goals and criteria. To improve or elaborate in order to make more fine

inflection
A bend, angle, or similar change in the shape
of aconfiguration, by means of which a change
of relationship t;o some context or condition is
implement feedback
indicated.
To ensure the fulfillment of by means of Evaluat:ive infonnat:ion about an action or
il dcfinice plan or proccdLwc. ' p1ocess, prompt:ing a ret:urn to a preceding transformation
pha;;e for alteration or correction. The process of changing in form or structure
through aseries of discrete permutations and
manipulations in response to a contexl;
or set: of conditions without: illo;;s of idenW;y Ol'
evaluation
concept.
~)imulating, tcstinrJ, and modifyinq
acceptable alternat:ivcs according to
:;pecified go;Jis and criteria.

communicate simulate
To expi'Css, convey, or interchange ideas, To choose from a nu111l1er of alternatives To aswtain Ol' assess the significance, worth, Ol' To create a likeness or model of somet:hing
information, or the like by writing, ;;peaking, or or preference. tjuality of, Lbu;llly l1y careful appraisal and study. anticipat:ed for te:JUIIiJ and evaluation.
through acommon system of sign:; or syml,ol;,,
judgment criterion model
csl; in away t:hat b clearly and readily
The mental ;Jbility to perceive distinctions, /1 standard, rule, Ol' principle on which ajudgment A 111iniature rcpre;;ent:ation, usu;1lly l1uilt to
understood.
comprehend relationships, Ol' dist:inguish alternatives. Ol' decision may be ba;;ed. scale, to :;how the appearance or construction of
proposal ;;omething.
function datum
The offering of a pl;m for co1bide1ation,
The natural or proper action for which /1n assumed, given, Ol' othcrwi;;e ddennined fact mockup
acceptance, or action.
something is designed, used, or exbi/i. or propo;;ition from which conclusions may l;e A fulh;ized model of a l1uilding or structure, built
drawn Ol' decisiotb made. accurat;ely to scale for ;;tudy, tr,stiniJ, or teachinrJ.
purpose
The l'ca:;on for which something exisV; test
orb done, made, Ol' used. fo ;;ubject a ;;ystem o1 proccs;; to :,uch condition;,
or operations iiC> will lead to a critical evaluation
a111enity
of al1ilitie;; or performa11ce and sub,;cqucnt
/1ny feature that pwvide;; or increa~;e;;
accqAill1ce Ol' rejection.
comfort, convenience, Ol'[!lecbllrt.

economy
Careful, Lh1ilLy, and efficient, uoe and
managcnwnt of re:;ourwi.

60
DESIGN
reason fancy creativity
The faculty or power of comprehending, inferring, The play of the mind throuiJh whk:h vbiot6 Tile aliility t:o tran::cend traditional ide;1::,
or thinking itt an orderly, rational way. ;m: :JUiliiiiOtlcd, c0p. mental inventions that patterns, or l'eiation:;hips and to initiate
are whint:;ical, playful, and characterbtiuilly 111eaningfulnew idca0. form:;, or interpretation:,.
reiiiOVCd fr0111reality.
originality
fhe creative aliility to imagine or expre:;s in an
image independent and individual manner.
visualize envision
A mental representation of something
To form or recall a mental image of. To form a mental pict:ure of afuture
previously perceived in the al,sence of the
original stimulus. imagination
reproductive imagination cteative imagination The faculty of forntitlg mental inugcs or
The power of reproducing images The power of recombining fanner concepts of what is not
int:he memory under the suggestion of experiences in the creation of new or perceived in reality.
associated images. directed at a ::pecific goal or aiding in
solution of a problem.

idea
11 thought or notion resulting from mental
vision al'lilrcne:;;-,, undcrstand'lng, or activit:y.
project
To regard an idea or concept as rhe act or power of anticipatiniJ that concept
having ::ome for111 of olijcctive which will or 111ay come to lie. Amental in1age orfonnulation of what
reality outc;'rde of the mind. c:on1ething is Ol' ough~ to be, e::p. an idea
perspective
inform The facult:y of seeing ~hing;; in their true generalized from particular characteristics or
To animate or pel'llleate with a relations or of evaluating their relative instances.
particular form, substance, quality, significance. design concept
or distinction. A concept for the fortn, struct:ure, and features
address view of a building or other construction, repre:,ented
To direct the efforts or attention of. 11 particular manner or mode of graphically by diagrams, plans, or other
looking at or reg;Jrding somct.hing. drawings.
engage
To attract and hold fast liy influence aspect scheme
or power. A way in which athing may be Anundel'lying organizational pattern or
viewed or regarded. structure for adesign.

projet
practice . .................. theory The original scheme for adesign presented in the
Actual performance or application of Abstract thought or speculation resulting form of a sketch outlining its specific character,
principles, as distinguished from theory. in a system of assumptions or principles to lie developed in detail in later studies.

real I used in analyzing. explaining, or predicting


phenomena, and proposed or followed as
Having olijective, verifiable, and independent metaphor synectics
the basis of action.
existence, as opposed to bein artificial or An object, activity, or idea used in place of another The study of creative processes, csp. as applied
illusory. ' abstract to suggest a likeness between them. to the stating and solution of problcllls, that
Thought of without reference to concrete involve:; free use of metaphor and analogy in
reality or a particular instance. analogy
i11forn1al interchattge within a small group of
A similarity in some particulars bctweent:hings
principle diverse individuals.
otherwise dissimilar; specif. a logical inference
A fundamental and comprehensive law, liased on the assumption that if two things are
truth, or assumption governing action, known to be alike in so111c respect:;, then they will
procedure, or arrangement. prolialily be alike in other respects.

intuition
typology The power or faculty of knowing without: evident
Asystematic classification or study of types rational thought illld inference.
according to structural features.
speculation
type Meditation or reflection on a subject or
1\ numl1er of things regarded as forming a idea, resulting in aconclusion inferred from
group by reason of common attributes or incon1rJiete or inconclusive evidence.
characteristics.
ambiguity
atchetype fhe ;;tate or quality of !1eing susceptible
/1n original model or 11att:ern on which all things l:o uncertainty of meaning or multiple
of the sa111e kind am copied or liased. interpretatiotl.
ectype > serendipity
A reproduction of an origin;il. 7-A A,~ .. An aptitude for making dr:sirable and IHiexFect:ed
~;:/:;:::/ !/ ~ discoveries by accident:
prototype
/1n early and typical example that exhiliits the connection ~ ' \ accident
Ccioc;,tial features of aclass or group and on Contextual, causal, or logical relations A fort:uitou:, circumst:ance, quality, 01
which based or judged. or as:;ociat:ions of so111cthing observed cllilracteri;;tic.
of so111cthing. or itllilgined.

61
D E
1\ vaulted structure having a circular [Jian and
usually the fonn of a pot'tion of a S[!here, so
constructed as to exert an equal thrust in all
ditections. meridional line
1\ curved line describing avertical section cut
through the axis of a rotational surface.
hoop line
Acircular line describing a horizontal section
cut perpendicular to the axis of arotational
surface.
semicircular dome
1\ dome having the form of a hemisphere.
Tmnsition from meridional to hoop forces
occurs at; ati angle of ft'Oin 45' to 60' {Jom the
verUc.1l axis for most lo.'id conditions.
hoopfo1ce
Aforce acting along a hoop line of a dome
structure, perpendicular to meridional
forces. Hoop forces, which restrain the oul>
of. plane movement ofthe meridional
in the shell of a dome, are compressive in the
uppa zone and tensile in the lower zone.
meridional force
Aforce acting along a meridional line of a
dome structure, always compressive
full vertical lo;Jding.

saucer dome
1\ dome having the form of a seg111ent of a sphere,
with its center well below the springing line. 1\
saucer dome is particularly sensitive to buckling
under an external load.

tensionl'ing
1\ ring encircling the base of a dome to
contain the outward components of the great circle
meridional forces. In a concrete dorne, this
ring is thickened and reinforced to handle
the bending stresses caused by the differing
elastic deformations of the ring and shell.

radial dome Schwedler dome lattice dome geodesic dome


1\ dome l1uilt with steel or titnl,cr ti'IIS:Jcs 1\ sl;eel dome sl.rucnwe h;winrJ mctnberc; tliiJi; A steel dome structure having mcml,cts that /1 :;tcel dome Iraving members that follow three
arranged in a radialmannet and connected l1y follow the lines of latitude and longitude, follow the circle:; of latitude, and two set,, of principal inl.erseci;inq at
polygonal ring:; at variouc, heights. ;md athird :;et of diagonab completing the diaqonal:; replacing the lines of lottgitudc and 6Ct, :;ubdividini) the dome surface into a:;etie:;
triangulation. formin1) il of equilateral splreric;il

62
oculus
A circular opening, esp. one at the crown of ;1
dome.

lantern semidome
A super~;tructure crowning a roof or dome Half adome formed by a vertical section, such as
and having open or windowed walls to let in one over a semicircular apse.
light and air.
cui-de-four
cupola A semidome or quarter-sphere vault, such as one
A light structure on adome or roof, serving over a11 apse or niche.
as a belfry, lantern, or belvedere.
tambour
The vertical part of a cupola. pendentive
Aspherical triangle fanning the transition from
the circular plan of a dome to the polygonal plan
interdome
of its supporting structure.
The space between the inner and outer
shells of a dome.

Adormer window in a roof or spire.

lunette
An area in the pliine of awall framed by an arch or
vault, containing awindow, painting, or :;culpture .
. ..whispering gallery
A space or gallery beneath a dome or pendentive dome
vault in which low sounds produced at A spherical dome formed by removing four
any of certain points are clearly audible segments so that it merges with its pendentives
at certain other distant points. and sits on asr1uare plan.

sq,uinch
An arch or corbeling liuilt across the upper irbide
corner of asquare tower to support the side of a
drum superimposed octagonal structure.
Acylindrical or faceted construction, oftc11
pierced with windows, :;upporting adome.
tholobate
The sul,:;tructwc supporting adome or cupola.

bandage
/1 stratJ, ring, or chain placed around a:;tructurc
i.o ~;ecwe ;Jnd hold its part:; together, as around
the spri11gi11g of adome.

63
D R
A hinged, sliding, Ol' folding banie1 of wood,
metal, or glass for opening and closing an
entrance to a l1uilding, room, or cal1inet.

single"acting door
swinging door
Adoo1 that ttwns on hinges Ol' jlivots about
a vertical edge when pushed or pulled. ---L Adoor hung on hinge~; that permit it to swing
in one direction only.

"--=:JJ==--="~""
(
I
<_
_ double"acting door
Adoor hung on hinges that permit it to swing

4,,
-
_ in either direction from aclosed position.
1
:: double doors
\ I' A pair of doors hung in the same doorframe.
\ ~ 1k 11
leaf
'--.tt A hinged or sliding section of adoor or shutter.
active leaf
The leaf of a pair of double doors to which t;he
balanced door latching or locking mechanis111 is attached.
A pivoted door that is partially counterbalanced ;,!so called opening leaf.
for easier opening and closing.
inactive leaf
automatic door The leaf of a pair of double doors to which the
;, door that opens automatically at the appi'Oach strike plate is fastened to receive the latch or
of a person or automobile. l7olt of the active leaf, usually fixed in a closed
door opener position by bolts at the t;op and bottom of the
pivoted door ;, mechanism that automatically opens adoo1 doo1. Also called standing leaf.
Adoor carried on and swinging al1out on a when actuated by a radio transmitter, electric eye, astragal
center or offset pivot, as distinguished from Ol' other device. A molding attached to one or both meeting
one hung on hinges.
stiles of apair of double doors to prevent
draf~s or the passage of light, noise, or smoke.

mullion
A slender vertical member dividing the
opening for apair of double doors, sometimes
folding door removable to tJermit the passage of large
Adoor wiU1 hi11ged sections that canl1e folded A folding door that divides into two leaves,
flat against; one another when opened. the inner edge of each leaf being hung from an
overhead track and the outer edges pivoted

II!~
at the janil;.
ll
accordion door
I A nwltileafed door that is hung from an
overhead track and opens !1y folding back in
r the manne1of an acco1dion.
I
pocket door
Adoor that slides into and out of a recess
in il dOOIWay ViiJII.
sliding door
Adoor th;lt operates or 111oves by ;;liding on
il track, usually parallel to a wall.

revolving door
rolling door An enttance dool'for excluding d1afts fmm the
AI;JI'gc door consisting of horizontal, interior of a building, consisting of four leaves
interlocking metal slats guided l1y a track on ,;et in the form of 11 cross and tot;;lting a!1out a
either side, opening l1y coililliJ aiJOut an overhead central, vertical pivot within a cylindrically shaped
drum at the head ofthe door opening. vestibule. Some revolving doors auto111atically
fold back in the direction of erJrec;c; when prco;sute
b applied, providing a legal pas~;agcway onl10th
~;ides of the doot pivot.

wing
One of the !eavec; of a doul1le or mvolvinrJ door.
sweep
lhe flexi!J!e we;IJ;herstripping a!OIIIJ of a
rcvolviii!J door.
air curtain
overhead door A ~;tream of compres:;cd ;lil' directed dovllll'lill'!.l
1\ lariJC door constructed of one or cieveralleave:,, openiiiiJ l;y ;lctoss a doorway :;o as to for111 a:oliield to
swinrJing ot rolling up toil position a!1ovr, the door opening. exclude drafb.

64
p

doorframe
rough opening fhe fra111e of a doorv;;;y, consi:;ting of two ja111l1:;
/In opening in a l'liJII into which a doorframe ot and ;rhead or lintel.
window fra111e b fitted.
jamb
Either of the vettical sides of an archway,
head
doomay, or window opening.
fhe uppermost member of a doorframe or
cased opening window frame.
Ado01less opening finished with trinnvork.

doorjamb
Either of the two sidepieces of a doorframe.
stop
The projectiniJ part of adoorframe against: which
a door closes Abo ea lied doorstop.
planted stop
casing Astop formed l1y attaching a molding to a
The finished, often decorative framework doorframe or window frame.
ai'Ound a door or window opening, esp. the rabbeted stop
portion parallel to the StiiTounding surface Astop fornred integrally by a ral1l1el: in a
and at right angles to the jambs. do01fra111e or window frame.
subcasing blank jamb
Arough casing for a doorway or window Adootjamb having 110 stops. nor prepared to
opening. receive hardware.
buck
Asubframe of wood or metal set in a partition
ro support the finish frame of a door or
window. Also called door buck, rough buck.

sill
The horizontal member l1eneal:h a door or window
opening.
11 threshold
door clearance
The sill of a doorway, covering the joint between
The clearance required to prevent binding
two flooring materials or providing weather
between a door and it:; doorframe Ol' the
protection at an exterior door.
finished floor.
saddle
door bevel
Araised piece of flooring between the ja111l1s of
lhe angle of the lock edge in relation to the
a dootway, to which a door fits closely so as t:o
face of the lock stile, usually an inclination of
prevent its [;inding when opened.
IJB in. (3.2. mm) for each 2. in. (51 mm) of door
thickness, allowing the door to swing free of the
door frame.

overdoor
/1n ornan1en1:al painting, catving, or section of
woodwork ditectly above a doorway. fanlight
!I setnicircular or :;enrielliptical window over
transom a doorway or anorha window.
Acros:;piece separat:ing a doorway from a
windoi'l ot fanlight almve it.
transom window
Awindow al1ove the transom of a doorway.
Abo called transom, transom light. sidelight
1\ window ;11. the :;ide of ;r door or anol:ltcr
reveal windov; Also called winglight.
The part of ;r jamb of awindov; or door opening
that. if, vbi11le betv;een tire outer wall :;urface
and the window or doorftanw. splay
1\ :iutface tlrat makes an ol1lictuc angle l'lith
sconcheon
anotlter, ;.~:;where a window or door opening v;idcn:,
The reveal of a window or door opening from
fi'Dtll the fr;mw toward the face of l:lie wall.
the ft;rnw to the inner face ofthr, wall. 1\lso,
esconson. scuncheon.

Venetian door
Adoorway having a for111 sinrilar l.o l:hat of
a l'alladiatll'lindow.
paneled door
/1 door having a framework of stiles, rails,
and son1etirne0 muntins, filled with panels panel
of a thinner material. Adist;inct section or division of a wall,
/1 ceiling, or door, recessed l1elow or raised
~--

I i/.i
above the general level or enclosed by
a frame.
rail
Any of various horizontal members framing li < stile
panels, as in a system of paneling, a panele.d I /i Any of various upright members framing
door, window sash, or chest of drawers. panels, as in a system of paneling, a
;'/
top rail paneled door, window sash, or achest of
The uppermost; rail connecting the :;tiles of drawers. muntin
a paneled door or window sash. hinge stile Astile within the
The stile of a door !;y which it is hung. frame of il door.
lock rail ''''
>
The rail of a door that meets the c;hutting Also called hanging stile.
sl;ile at the level of the locbet. lock stile
bottom rail The stile of adoor that closes against
I ' meeting stile
The lowest rail connecting the st;iles of a 'he frame of the opening. Abo called
One ofthe abutting stiles in a
paneled door ot window sash. shutting stile.
,i., pair of double doors.

"' vision light


Asmall light in the upper portion
storm door
An outer or supplementary door,
of adoor glazed with clear glass usually glazed, for protecting an
for viewing. entrance door from drafts, driving
rain, or c;evere weather.

screen door
An ext;erior door having wood or
aluminum ;;tile;; and rails that;
hold awire or plastic mesh to
admit; air but exclude insects.

French door louvered door combination door


Adoor having rectangular glass Adoor having a louvered opening lot the An opening fitted with slanting, fixed or An exteriordool'luving a frame into which
panes extending throughout its passage or circulation of air. Also called movable slats to admit air but exclude rain different types of panels can be inserted,
length, and often hung in pairs. blind door. and snow or to provide privacy. Also, louvre. such as a screen for summer or stor111 sash
Also called casement door. for winter.

glassdoM Dutch door batten door jib door


Adoor of heat st;rencjthened or tempGI'cd Adoor divided horizontally so that; Adoor cotbtructed of verticaiiJOatds Adoor hinged to l1e flush with the wall
with or wil.ltout raib ort~tib, Lbed the upper or lower 11art can lir; opened held together l;y horizontal ktt.tew, on either side and treated so as to be
primarily as an entrance door. or clo~;ed ;;eparately. and diagonal bracing. indiscernible when closed. /1lso gib door.

66
adjustable doorframe
/1 doorframe having asplit head and jambs for
installation in various wall thicknesses. flush door
Adoor having snwoth :;urlaced faces.

core
Awooden construction, as in a door, forming
a backing for face veneers.
crossbanding
The plywood or hardboard veneer immediately
beneath the face veneers of a flush door. Also,
cross band.
doorskin
Asurface veneer of plywood, hardl10ard,
plastic laminate, or medium density overlay,
bonded to the crossl1anding or com of a
flush door.

prehung do01 solid-core doot hollowcote door


1\ door hung in a doot'frame before installation in a Awood flush door having il /1 wood flush door having a framework
wall, sometimes prefinished and prefitted with all solid core of staved lumber, of ,,tiles and rail,, encasing a11 expanded throat
necessary hardware and casing trim. pa1ticleboard, or amineral honeycomb core of corrugated fiberboard or The opening ln:twcen the b;ickl,end:; of i1111etal
composition. agrid of interlocking horizontal doorframe.
vmod strips.

acoustical door
1\ door having asound-deadening
core, gasketed stops along the top
and sides, and an aut;omatic drop seal
along the bottom. Also called sound-
insulating door.
backbend
The face at the auter edge of a metal
doorframe that returns to the wall surface.

hollow metal frame


kalamein door 11 doorframe having ahead and jambs formed
Adoor having a structural from a single piece of metal.
wood core clad with
hollow metal door
rplvanized sheclmetdl.
Adoor having face sheets of light gauge ;Jteel
lmnded to asteel channel frame, reinfo1ced with
channels, a kraft honeycomb structure, or a rigid
knockdown frame pl;tstic foam core.
/\metal doorframe composed oithree or
111ore for a:oseml1ly in the field. flush frame
A111etal doorframe designed t;o l1e installed durillrJ
welded frame
1\ mct;il doorfl'ill11e that ~e, co111pletcly cict. the con:A:ruction of a mason1y or stud wall.
up and welded at the factory.

cutoff stop
11 stop having il closed end drywall frame
that terminates above the Aknockdown f1ame having adouble return
l1ackl,end for ine;tallation after adrywall
floor line at a+:'i" or 90" iiii!Jic.
Also called hospital stop, partition is finished.
sanitary stop
grouted frame
jamb anchot /1 metal doorframe completely filled with plaster
Any of various metal devices for or nwrtar for structural rigidity and increased
securing the jani11 of adoorframe fire rec;is1;ance.
[,o ili11a:;on1y, ~iteel srud, or wood
:;i,ud l'lall.
anch01 double egress frame
/\ny of various metal devices for base anchor spat 1\ metal doorfra111e prepared to receive a pair
liindinrJ one parl of il ;,t,rucrure to /1 metal clip Ol' device for 11 protective lilliii!J, u:;ually of c;tainle% Sll1tllt:-;l!:tll1fl dOOrS !;hat :i\'lillg ill
another. :;ecuring the I;:J:ie of il s1:ecl, ar the l;a:;e of adoorframe. directions.
doorfra111e l:o the floor.
D ING
The art, pmcc~"' or technique of rcpre0enting
an object, scene, or idea l1y means of line:; 011 image
;1 :;rwface. llteprcsentation oft he fonn o1 appea1-ance Perceivin,q
Seeing of something, made visil1le in asculpturc, Imagining
photograph, or drawing.
technique freehand drawing
/\method or procedure for accompli:;hing a desi1ed The art, process, or technique of drawing l1y
aim or task, as that employed by an artist showing hand without the aid of draiting instruments or
a high degree of skill or conrmand of fundamentals. mechanical devices, esp. for the representation of
perceptions or the visualization of ideas.
contour drawing line
The technique of drawing lines to represent the 11 thin, continuous mark made on a sw'facc
contours of a subject, without shadi11g or nwdeling with a pencil, pen, or brush, as distinguished
offornr. from shading or calor.
contour outline
The ou!;line of a two dimensional shape or bounding /\line describing the outer boundary of afigure
edges of a three dinwwiional form. or object.
profile
!In outline of ;1 form or :;tructum seen or
represented from the side.

gesture drawing
The technique of drawing asingle or multiple
lines freely and quickly as a subject is scanned
and percept;ions of volume, mass, movenrent, and
significant details am pmjected onto the drawing
cross-contour drawing surface. In contra:;t to contour drawing, gesture
The technique of drawing lines to represent a drawing generally proceeds from the whole to the
series of cuts across the surface Q[ aform rather parts.
than its edges.
gesture
Amovement of the hand, ann, head, face, or body
that expresses an idea, opinion, or emotion.
movement
The effect or illusion of motion conveyed by the
relationship of structural elements in adesign or
composition.

regulating line
/\line drawn to measure or express alignment,
scale, or proportion.
trace
/\line lightly drawn to record alignment or
measurement.
shading
The rendering of light and dark values in adrawing
t;o create UlC illusion ofthreedimensionality,
represent light and shadow, or give the effect of
col or.
hatching
Shading composed of fine litres drawn in close
proximity.
crosshatching
Shading composed of two or more series of
inter:;ecting parallel line:;.
scribbling
Shading by mean:> oi a network of random,
multidirectional lines.
stippling
Shading l!y means of dots, :;null or short
modeling strokes.
lhe technictue of renderinrJ the illusion
ofvolwne, depth, m solidity on a two key
dimensional :;urface by shading. The dominant; tonal value of ;1 drawing or paincing.

grisaille high-key low-key


Monochromatic painting in shades of gray Having chiefly light to1res with little contrast. HavinrJ chiefly dark tones with litt,le contrasc.
to produce a three-dimensional effect.

68
D 11\!G

... , design drawing


/\ny of the drawinw; made to aid in the
sketch vbualizat:ion. expiOI'iltion, evaluation, ilnd
/1 simply or ha~;tily executed drawing or painting
conm1unication of ii COIIcept int;he de"i!Jn proces:>.
representing the essential features of an ol1ject
or scene without the details, often made a;; a
preliminary study.
study
Adrawing execul:ed as an educational cxcrcicie,
produced as a preliminary to a final work, or made
to record ol1scrvations. Sometimes referred to a;;
a l'eferential drawing.
conception
1\ drawing of something that does not yet exist.
draft
Apreliminary sketch of a design or plan, esp. one
subject to revision.

esquisse
Asketch showing the general feature,; of a design
or plan.

epure
Afull-scale, detailed drawing done on a wall, floor,
or other large surface, from which are traced the
patterns for various building elements. presentation drawing
Any of a set of design drawings made to articulate
cartoon and communicate a design concept o1 proposal, iiS
Afull scale drawing of a motif o1 design, to be for exhil1ition. review, or publication.
transferred in preparation fo1 a fresco, 111osaic,
or tapestry.
rendering
Adrawing, esp. a perspective, of a building or
interior space, artistically delineating materials,
shades and shadows; usually done for the
purposes of presentation and persuasion.

A unified area of light, shade,,,. r"'"''' n'"r


shape ol'form in general outline rather than in
detail.
passage
An area, ~;cction, or detail of il work, csp. wit:h
respect to its ~ualities of execution. vignette
/1 drawing that is shaded off gradually into the
t1ompe l'oeil ciurrounding pape> so as to leave 110 definite line
Adrdwing or painting i11 which ol;jects arc rendered at the l1order.
in extremely fine detail to emphasize the illusion of analytique
tilctile and rjualities. An elevation drawinq of a facade, ''UITOunded l;y a
decorative arrangement of drawing,, of important
dctaib and c;ornetirnes a plan or section oft he facade.

69
ING
drafting
Drawing done with the aid of such instruments
as cotniJasses, and scales,
esp. for the systematic representation and
dimensional specification of architectural
and engineering structures. Also called
mechanical drawing.

grid
A rectangular system of lines and coordinates
serving as a reference for locating and regulating
the elements of a plan.

dashed line
A broken line consisting of short, closely spaced
strokes, used esp. to represent object lines that
are hidden or removed from view.
dotted line
A broken line consisting of a series of closely
spaced dots, sometimes used in place of a
da;;hed line.

construction drawings
The portion of the contract documents showing
centerline
in accurate graphic or pictorial form the design,
A broken line consisting of relatively long
location, dimensions, and relationships of the
segments separated by single dashes or dots,
elements of a project. t\lso called contract
used to represent the axis of a symmetrical
drawings, working drawings.
element or composition.
seal
An embossing stamp used by a licensed architect,
engineer, or other design professional on contract
drawings and specifications to show evidence of
registration in the state where the work is to be
performed.

crowfoot break line dimension line


AV shaped mark the apex of which is areference A broken line consisting of relatively long A line terminated by atTows, short ;;lashes, or
poir1t. coCIJnWntc; joined by :;hott zia1a0 strokes, used dots, indir,ating the extent or maqnitude of a pari;
to cut off aportion of a drawiniJ. or the whole, ilnd along which measurenrenl;c; ;11'(;
leader
scaled and indicated.
/1 short line leading the eye from anote or
dimension to a refcrence point, line, or arca.

70
p

DR NG
descdptive geometry projection
The theory of making projections of three The process ortecllllicjUC of representing athree
dimensional objects on aplane surface in order dimensional object by projecting all its by
t-o deduce their gcomct;ric praperUcs and straight line:;, either parallel or convergin(j, to a
relationships. picture plane.
orthographic projection
A method of projection in which athree
dimensional object is represented by projecting
lines perpendicular to a picture plane. Also called
orthogonal projection.

plan
An orthographic projection of the top or section
of an ol1ject or structure on ahorizont;JI fila ne,
usually drawn to scale. Also called plan view.
floor plan
11 plan of a room, suite, or entire floor of a l1uilding
as seen from above after a horizontal section
is cut and the upper portion removed, typically
showing J;he form and arrangement of interim
spaces and their enclosing walls, windows, and
doors.

l'eflected plan
A plan of aroom as seen from al1ove but having its
ceiling surfaces and elements projected downward
upon it so that what would appear to the right
when seen from below appears on the plan to the
left. l1lso called reflected ceiling plan.
poche
The walls, columns, and other solids of a building
that are cut in a floor plan or section drawing,
framing plan indicilted usually in black or l1y hatching.
1\ plan sho',ving the pattern, clcmcrM, and
connections of the :Muctural frame for a floor or
roof of a building, using a;;ystem of symbol;; and
drafting linework.

contour line
An imaginary lir1e joinino points of equal
elevation on asurface, or its representation on
il topographic plan or rllilp.

ca11'wur interval
The diffcrence in elevation rcpresentcd l1y each
contour line on a topographic plan or map.
grading plan
roof plan
I\ plan :>hawing the pi'Oposcd fini:;h contours
A plar1 sli(Ming the top view of abuilding, esp. Uw
and elevation,, of the ground surface of a
forrn of it:; wof.
construction ;;il;c.

site plan
/1 plan ;,I towing the form, location, and orieni.iit;ion
Marth ar't'OW
of iil!uilding or group of ln1ildings on il site, tbually
11 graphic syllll1oluscd on plans aud map:; to
including [;he dinwrbions, conJ;ormi, lanrJ:x;apiniJ,
indicate the direction of north.
and plot.llbo
scale called plot plan.
11 pmportion det.crrninin(j the reli;Uonship of a
reprc:;entarion ro that which it represent:>.
g1aphic scale
I\ waduatcd line or l1ar indicating the
proportionl;ctwcen arcprc:;clrl;ation and tlial; area plan
which it rr,prc;;cnts. 11 plan showing the principal clcmcnrs of a1bir)ri
project in the wirier context; of iis ;;unounrling
CllVironn;enJ;.

71
DR NG
section
/In orthographic projection of an object; or
structure as it would ;q1pe;1r if cut through
by ;1n intersecting plane to show its internal longitudinal section
configuration, usually drawn to scale. An orthographic projection of a sect;ionmade l1y
cutting through the longest axis of an ol1ject.

cross section
/In orthographic projection of a secUon made l1y
cutting transversely, esp. at right angles to the
long axis of an ol1ject. Also called transverse
section.

section line
Accnterline terminating in a perpendicular
segment with an arrow, used to indicate where a
section is cut in a plan or elevation view and the
direction in which the section is to l1e viewed.
oblique section
/In orthog1aphic projection of a section made l1y
cutting with a plane that is neither parallel nor
perpendicular t;o the long axis of an object.

The casting and rendering of shade and


elevation shadows, esp. in orthographic views, to convey relief
/In orthog1aphic projection of an ol1ject or light, oAirface, for111, and depth. !In apparent projection from a flat l1;1ckground
structure on a vertical picture plane parallel to one due to cOIItrast, creating the illusion of three
of it;; sides, usually drawn to ;;ea le. di111ensions.
shade local calor
The parts of ;1 solid ~hat receive no light The natural col or of a particular object; as it-
l1ecau:;r, they are tangent to or tunwl away would appc;1r in whil;e light.
fi'Olll a theoretical light source.
shadow
i\ dark figure ea;;\, upon a ;;urf;lce l1y an
opaque body interceptin11 the rays from a
theoretical light source.

highlight
/\l71'illiantly li!Jht;ed area ol ;11110dcled
drawing ;ippearincJ ;1s a lun1i11016 ;;pot.
0

72
p

llR NG
paraline drawing axonometdc projection
!lny of various f;inglc view drawings The ortAwgriipliic projection of a tliree-dirnensioniil
l;y parallel lines remainincJ ol;ject; inclined l:o t:hc picture pi;~ ne in such away
p;1rallel to each oU1er l'at,licr than that its three principal axes are foreshortened.
converging ;Is in linear perspective. axonometric
!I paraline drawing of an axonornetric projection.
havrng alll'rnes parallel to the three principii Iaxes
drawn to scale but diagonal and curved lines
distorted.

phantom dimetric projection isometric isometric projection


!I part of a drawing that is made transparent An axonometric projection of a three- !I paraline drawing of an isometric fii'Ojection. !In axonometric projection of a three-dimensional
to permit representation of details otherwise dimensional object inclined to the picture having all lines Farallel to the Frinc'rpal axes ol1ject having its princ'rfial faces equally inclined t,o
hidden from view. plane in such a way that two of its princi[ial drawn to true length at the same scale. the [iicture plane so that its three Frincipal axes
axes are equally forebhortened and the third are equally foreshortened.
afipears longer or shorter than the other two.
trimetric projection
An axonometric projection of a three-
dimenbional ol1ject inclined to the picture
plane in such a way t:hat all three Frincipal
different rate

cutaway
!I drav1ing or model having an oute1
section re111oved to display the
interior,

exploded view
!I drawing that show;; the individual part;;
of a structure or construction separately
but indicat,e;; t,he'w proper relat'1onsh'qJs to
each other and to the whole. /ll;;o called
expanded view.
phantom line cavalier drawing cabinet d1awing oblique
/ll;rokenline r:onsi:.:ting of l'cl;ltivcly loll!) /1 p;iraline dr:lwincJ of ;1n oiJ!ique luviniJ /1 l!aralinc rlrav;ir:rJ of :1n oiJiiquc projcct;ion, h:wing !I paralinc dr;:\'linrJ of an ol;lirjuc projection,
segnwnl:o; c;ep:il'ated by two :Awrt da:;lw:; or I: he receding lir1c:J papcndicrrlar to the picture all lines parallel to the picture plane drawnt,o having alllirw; and faces jJarallell:o the j!icture
doi:s, used to repre;;ent :1 property line, an jJI;IIIc drawn l:o r.he ~iame :Jcale ;~;; the line~; parallel exact ~iCillc, and the receding lines perpendicular plane drawn to exact: c:cale, ;1nrl :lllrccedin!J li1ws
alternative po:;ition of a fiilrt of an o!Jject, or to the plane. to the pict;ure pl;l!le reduced l:o half scale. pcrTcnrJicular to I: he picture plane shown at any
t.lw i'Ciiltive po:;itiorr of an :il,sen1 convenient angle orhcr than 90', sometimes
at a reduced :;calc to off:;et: the appearance of
rli:;t:ortion

73
perspective pictorial space continuity of outline
Any of various techniques for repre;;enting three rhe illusion of space or depth depicted on atwo Atechnique for representing depth or distance
dimensional objects and spatial relationships on dirnensio11al surface by various waphic 111ean;;, by empha(iizing the continuity of dw contour of a
atwo-dimensional surface as they might appear such a;; aerial perspective, continuity of outline, or shape perceived as being in fro11t and concealing a
to the eye. vcrticalloc;Jtion. part of another [Jehind it.
spatial edge
An edge of an object or stwface separated from
its background by an interval of space, delineated
by a thicker line or by a (iharp contrast in value
01' texture.

aerial perspective vertical location size perspective texture perspective


Atechnique far rendering depth a1 distance by Atechnique for representing depth or distance by /1 technique for repre;;enting depth or distance by Atechnique for representing depth or distance l1y
111uting the hue, tone, and distinctness of objects placing distant objects higher in the picture plane reducing the size of objcct.s perceived as receding gradually increasing the density of the texture of
perceived as receding from the picture plane. /1lso than ol1jects perceived as being closer. from the picture plane. a su1face perceived as receding from the picture
called atmospheric perspective. plane.

linear perspective
A mathematical system for representing
three dimensional objects and spatial
relationships on atwo-dimensional surface by
means of perspective projection.
perspective projection
A method of projection in which athree
dimensional object is represented by
projecting all its points to apicture plane by
straight lines converging atan arbitrarily fixed ... picture plane
point representing the eye of the viewer. An imaginary transparent plane, coexistent with
the drawing swface, on which the image of a
center of vision three-dimensional object is projected. In linear
V perspective, any line or plane coincident with the
picture plane can be drawn to exact scale.
vanishing point
station point A point toward which receding parallel lines aprJear
Afixed point in space representing asingle to converge in linear perspective, located at the
eye of 1;he viewer in linear perspective. point where a sightline parallel to the set of lines
intersects the picture plane
horizon line
A line representing the intcrsect;ion of the picture
plane and a horizontal plane thi'Dugh the eye of the
viewer in linear perspective.

ground line
A horizontal line representing the intersection of
the ground plane and the picture plane in linear
perspective. Also called base line.
ground plane
A horizontal plane of refere11ce fro111 which vertical
measurementci can be taken in linear perspective,
usually the plane supportiniJ the ol1ject depicted
or on which the viewer stands.
cone of vision
The field of visionradia1;ing outward from the
eye of the viewm in linear per(ipective, defined
by sighUines forming a15' to 30' angle wi1;h cen'GI'al axis ofvisiotl
the central axis of vision. The cone of vision rhe sightline indicating the direction in which
serves as a guide in determining what can the viewer is looking in linear perspective,
be drawn in linear perspective withou1; the perpendicular to J;iw picture plane.
appearance of distortion.

74
NG
convergence f/arallellines petpendicul;u to t:he picture planr: will l'ilrallellines parallel t:o t:he picture plane perspective
The apparent movement of parallel lines toward a appear t:o converqe ilt the cent:er of vision. retilin their orientation and willnot;ippcar Adrawing of the perspective projection of
common vanishing point as they recede, used in I:O conVCI(jC. an ol;ject; or scene, cluracterized chiefly [;y
linear perspective t:o convey an illusion of space convergence and foreshortening.
and depth.
foreshortening
The apparent contraction or distortion of a
represented line or shape that is not parallel
diagonal vanishing point
Avanishing point for a set of horizontal lines
to the picture plane, conveying an illusion of
receding at a45' angle to the picture plane in
linear perspective. Also called diagonal point,
distance point.

one-point perspective
A linear perspective of a rectangular object or
they volume having a principal face parallel with the
recede will appear to converge picture plane, ~;o that verricallines parallel to
somewhere above the horizon line. the picture plane remain vertical, horizontal lines
parallel to the picture plane remain horizontal, and
vanishing trace
horizontal lines perpendicular to the picture plane
A line along which all sets of receding
appear t:o converge at the center of vision.
parallel lines lying in the same or parallel
planes will appear to converge in linear
perspective.
measuring point that: 3/'e horizont;al but not
Avanishing point for a set of parallel lines used in petpendicular to the picture plane will
transferring scaled measurements in the picture appear to converge somewhere on the
plane to lines receding in horizon line.
isocephalic
Having the heads of all figures at approximately

.
the same level. Also, isocephalous.

II ~~::l:
2
0 ~l-~--

two-point perspective
-- ,

A linear perspective of a rectangular object or


volume having two principal faces oblique to the
picture plane, so that vertical lines parallel to the
picture plane remain vertical and two horizontal
sets of parallel lines oblique to the picture plane
appear to converge at two vanishing points. one to
the left and the other to the right.

diagonal
l'ilrallellines slopinrJ downward as measuring Astraight line connecting two nonadjacent
they recede will ,1ppear to converqe Any line coincident with or pa1allel to the angles of a rectangle, used in sul;dividing a
somewhere below the horizon line. plane, as the ground line, which can be ...whole into proportionate parts or multiplying
take measurements in linear pe:~pective. a hasiJ;unit of measurement or space.

three"point puspective
graphic
A linear perspective of a rectangular object or
Of or relating to pictorial volume having all principal faces ol;licjue to the
rqnesencation, esp. that which depicts picture pi;Jne, so that the three principal seV? of
in aclear and effective manner. View ar :1 sliiillow parallel line:; appear to converge at three different;
angle from this point;. ' , , ,. , ' . vanishing points.
HE
The science dealing with the physical
phenomena arising fmm the existence and
i11tcraction of electric cha1ges. battery
11 group of two or n10re cells collllcctcd together
to produce clecl:ric current.
electric charge electromotive force
The intrinsic property of nutter giving rise to The energy 11er unit charge availal1le for conversion cell
all electric pheno1r1ena, occurring in two forms from a chemical, mechanical, or other form of 11 device fo1conve1ting chemical into electric
arbitrarily given positive and negative algebraic energy into electrical energy, or vice versa, in a energy, usually consisting of areceptacle with
signs and measured in coulombs. Opposite charges conversion device such a:; a battery, generator, o1 electrodes in an electrolyte.lllso called electric
attract while like charges repel each ot:her. motor.lll1br.: emf cell, galvanic cell, voltaic cell.
coulomb potential difference electrolyte
fhe SI unit of electric charge, equal to the cpantity The voltage difference I!Ctween two points that /1 nonmetallic conducting medium in which current
of electricity transferred across a conductor by a represents t:he work involved in the transfer of a is carried by the movement of ions.
CUITent of one ampere in one second.llllbr.: C unit charcJe from one point to che other.
electrode
potential 11 conductor through which a current enters or
The work required to move a unit charge fro111 leaves a nonmetallic medium.
a reference point to a designated point.
anode
The necjative terminal of a primary cell or storaga
l1atte1y
cathode
I he positive terminal of a primary cell or storage
f'tessure: volt:aqe l1attery.

voltage circuit
Nydr<wlic analogy t:o l7otential difference m electmmotive force fhe com1Jiete path of an electric current,
iill electric circuit: expressed in volts; analogous to pressure in including the source of electric energy.
water flow.
Beries
volt !In arrangement of components in an electric
I The SI unit of potential difference and ci1cuit in which the same current flows
Valve: swit:ch electromotive force, defined as the difference through each component in turn without
I
of electric potential between two points of a branching.
conductor carrying a constant current of one
f'fow: C/1/TCnt; parallel
ampere, when the power dissipated l1etween the
/In arrangement of components in an electric
points is equal to one watt.llbbr.: V
j circuit in which all positive terminals arc
connected to one conductor and all negative
tenninab are connected to a second
conductor, the same voltage being applied to
!'ricUon: resistance each component.

power current resistance resistivity


The product of potential difference and current The rate of flow of electric charge in a circuit per The opposition of a conductor to the flow of The resistance pm unit length of a substance with
in a di1ect current circuit. In an alternating unit ti111e, 111easurcd in amperes. current, causing some of the electric energy to l1e a unit cross sccl:ional area.llbo called specific
current circuit, power is ec1ual to the product of transformed into heat and usually measured in resistance.
!3eforc t:hc nature ofelearicit:y was fully understood,
the effective voltage, the effective current, and ohms. llbbr.: R
it: was ,qssumed Ulilt: adirect: current: {/owed from il conductivity
the cosine of the phase angle between current
posiUve point: t:o anegaUve one. This convention is ohm /\measure of the ability of asubst;Jnce to conduct
and voltage.
Mill u:Jed I!V!?n Uwu1Jh dat:ron5 flow in t;he opposif;e rite SI unit of clec\,ricall'eciistancc, ec1ual to the electric cutTCIIc, equal to the l'eciprocal of che
watt direct;!on, fromnegi!Uve t:o posiUve. re:;istance of a conductor in which a potenl:ial resistivity of che su[,stance.lllso called specific
fhe ~jlunit of power, equal to one joule per second difference of one volt produces a current of 011e conductance.
ampere
or to the power represented by a current of one alilpere. Symbol: Q
The basic SI unit of clect1ic current, equivalent to
ampere flowing across a potential difference of one
volt./\[,lw.:W
a flow of one coulomb per second or to the steady Ohm'Biaw >I= VfR
current produced l1y one volt applied across a fhe law that for any circuit the electric current (I)
wattage msistance of one ohm.llbl!i'.: A is directly proportional to the voltage and
/In amount of power, esp. the power rcr{uired i11versely proportional to the resistance.
amperage
to operate an electrical device or appliance,
The strenoth of an electric current measured or Joule'51aw
expressed in watts.
expressed in ampe1es; analogotb to the rate of The principle that the rate of production of heat
kilowatt water flow. by a direct currenc is directly prop01'1:io11al to the
/\unit: of power, equal to 1,000 waHs. lll!l1r. kW resi;;tance of the circuit and to che square of che
current.
kilowa~t"hour
11 unit of energy, equal to the energy transferred
or cxpe11ded l1y one kilowal.t in one hotn; a conmwn
unit of electric power cOIISU111ption./\lllil'.: kWh

76
HE
direct current
generator An electric current flowing in one direction only
/1 machine that converbmechanical cnmJy -0 and h;lving a magnitude that does not vary or
into electrical energy. varies only slightly. i\llbr.: DC

alternator
Agenerator for Jlroducing alternating current. alternating current
An electric current that reverses direction at
electric motor regularly recurring intervals. having a magnitude
A machine that converts electric power into
that varies in asinusoidal111anner. Al1b1'.: AC
mechanical energy.
volt-ampere
armature A unit of electric measurement. equal to t;he
The main current canying winding of a motor
product of one volt and one a111pere. equivalent to
or generator in which electromotive force b
one watt for direct-curmnt systems and aunit of
induced. cote apparent power for alt;ernatingcurrent systems.
A mass of iron or otherferrous material in an A!Jbr.:VA
brush
electromagnet, induction coil, or transformer.
Acopper or carl1on conductor serving to
~;crving to concentrate and intensify the
maintain electric cont;act; between fixed and transformer
magnetic field resulting from acurrent in a
n1oving elements in a motor or generator. An electric device consisting of nvo Ol' more
surrounding coil.
windings wound on the ~;an1e core. which e111ploys
coil the principle of mutual induction t;o convert
Aconductor wound in ;J spiral form to variations of alternating current in a prima1oy
introduce induct;ance into a circuit. circuit into variations of voltage and CUITent in a
secondary ci1cuit.

step-up transformer
high-voltage su!lstation A transformer having fewer turns in Hw primary
Operated on, powered l1y, or An auxiliary power station where electrical winding than in the secondary, serving to
transmitting high voltage. current is converted, as from DC to AC, or transform low voltage to high voltage.
where voltage is stepped up or down. step-down transformer
service
A transformer having il great;er number of turns in
The supplying of utilities. such as water, gas. and
the primary winding than in the secondary, serving
electricity, required or demanded by the public.
to transform high voltage to low voltage.

line drop line voltage


The decrease in voltage between two The voltage supplied by a power line, measured
points on a power line, usually caused at; the point of use.
by resistance or leakage along t;he line.
service conductor
Any of sever,JI conductors extending from a
main power line or transformer to the se1vice
service entrance conductor equipment of a building.
The portion of a service conductor extending from
a service drop or service lateral to the service service drop
equipment of abuilding. The overhead portion of ;;ervice
watt-hour meter conductors extending from the
A meter for measuring and recording the quantity nearest utility pole to a l1uilding.
service latera I
of electric power consumed with respect to time. The underground portion of service
conductors extending fro111 a main power
line or transformer to a building.

transfMmet' vault
A fire-rated mom housing a transformer
and auxiliary equipment for alarge building,
feeder
usually located on grade or l1elow ground and Any of the conductors extending from the
ventilated directly to the outside air. service equipment to various distribution
points in a building.
protecting the electric
building, located near
of the service conductors and
of a main disconnect

standby generator
Ageneriltor for p1oviding emergency
power during a power outagc./\lso called
emergency generator. unit substation
A freestanding enclosure housing
uninterruptible power supply
An emergency system designed to pmvide
adisconnect switch, a ;;l;epdown
transformer. and switchgear for a
power ;Jutomatir,;lily and instanl;aneou:;ly
number of electric circuits.
upon failure oft he normal power supply.

77
E RIC
phase live
The fractional part of a period or cycle through l:lectrically connected to a source
which ti111e has advanced, 111easured fro111 a of voltage, or clt:ctrically charged so
:;pecified reference point and of ten expressed as to have a potential different from
as an angle. that of earth. Also, hot.
dead
Not electrically connected to a
source of voltage.

ground
Aconducting connection between an electric
circuit or device and the earth or oU1er point fault
of zero potential. A local failure in the insulation or
continuity of a conductor, or in the
functioning of an electrical system.
short circuit
An almormal, ustwlly accidental
singlephase three-phase condition of low resistance between
Of or pertaining to a circuit energized l1y an Of or pertaining to a coml1ination of three two points in an electric circuit,
alternating current with one phase or with circuits energized by alternating currents resulting in a flow of excess current.
phases diffcl'ing l1y 180'. or voltages differing in by one third Also called short.
of :1 cycle or 120'.
two-phase shock
Of or pe1taining to acircuit energized by two rhe muscular sp;bms caused by an
alternating currents or voltages differing in electric current passing through
phase by one quarter of a cycle or 90'. the body.
fuse
Adevice containing a strip
or wire offusi11le metal that
melts under the heat produced
by excess current, thereby
interrupl;ing the circuit.
service switch plug fuse
fusible metal
The main disconnect for the entire electrical Afuse housing afusiHe link in a porcelain cup
Any of various metal alloys
system of abuilding, fitted with athreaded metal base.
having a melting point below
power systems.
300'F (70"C), used as solder cartridge fuse
and in various safety devices. Afuse having a onetime or renewal1le fusil1le link
/1lso called fusible enclosed in an insulating fiber tube.
knife-blade fuse
A cart1idge fuse having a metal blade at each end
for making contact with the fusible link within.
time-delay fuse
panel /1 fuse that delays opening to allow a short>term
A l1oard on which a1e mounted t:hc switches. overload to p;bs, as when sta1ti111J a motor.
fuses, and circuit l1rcakers for controlling
and protecting a number of simil;11
l1ranch circuits, installed in a cabinet and
accessil;le from the front: only. Also called circuit breaker ground fault
panelboa1d A switch that automatically interrupts an electric /1 nwmentary, usually accident;Jl, grounding of a
circuit to prevent excess current from damaging conducting wire.
bus apparal;wj in the circuit or from catbing a fire.
A heavy conduct:or, usually in the form ground-fault interrupter
Acircuit !weaker may l1e reclwjerl anrlreuserl
of a ,;olid copper [;ar, 16ed for collecting, /1 circuit lm::Jkcr l:hat ;;enscs eu!Tcnt.s caused
with01;t replacement of any components. Also
carrying, and di:;t:rilJutilllj large electl'ic !Jy ground faults and instantaneously shuts off
called breaker.
currents. Also called busbar. power l1efore damage 01 injury can occur.
Al!IJr.:gfi

grounded conductor
Any conductor of an electrical system
intention;Jlly connected to aground
connection.

ground wire
/1 conductor corHrectiniJ electric
equqmtent or acil'(:uit to awound
connection. Abo called grounding
conductor.

78
H RI(
lightning md load
Any of several conducting rods installed at the The power delivered l1y agenerator or transformer,
top of a struct.ure and g1ounded to divert li11htning or UIC power consumed l1y an appliance or device.
the :;tructure.
connected load
lightning mTe5ter The total load on an electrical system or circuit
Adevice for protecting electric equipment if all connected apparatus and ecjuipment arc
from damage by li!jhtning or other high-voltage energized simultaneously.
currents, using spark gaps to carry the current to
the ground without passing through the device. maximum demand
The greatest load delivered to an electrical syste111
spark gap or circuit over a specified intmval of time.
A space between two terminals or electrodes,
across which a discharge of electricity may pass demand factor
at a prescribed voltage. The ratio of the 111aximum demand to the
connected load of an electrical system, used in
estimating the required capacity of the system to
account for the prol,ability that only a portion of
the connected load may be applied at any ti111e.
diversity factor
The ratio of the sum of the nr;Jxin1ul11 dmmnds on
the various parts of an electrical sy:;te111 to the
maxinwm demand on the whole.
load factor
The ratio of !;he average load on an electrical
system over a specific period ofti111e to the peak
load occurring in that period.
branch chcuit
The portion of an electrical system
extending from the final overcurrent
device protecting a circuit to the
outlets served by the circuit.

general purpose circuit


A branch ci1cuit that supplies current to a numi!Cr
of outlets for lighting and appliances.

appliance circuit
A branch circuit that supplies current to one or
111ore outlets specifically intended for appliances.

individual circuit
A branch circuit that supplies current only to a
single piece of electrical equipnent.

distribution panel
A panel for distributing
panels or to other heavy power
COnSUilling load:;.
low-voltage
Of or pertaining to a circuit in which alternating current
below 50 volts is supplied l1y a step down transformer
from the normal line voltage, used in residential :;ystems to
control doorl1ells, intercoms, heating and cooling systems,
and remote lighting fixtures. Low voltage circuits do noc
recjuire a protective raceway.

-------------..---------------..-- - - - - - - ,_ - - - - - - - -.. - - - - -------------------------------79


HE
cable wire conductor
Asingle insulated conductor or a bound or /1 pliable metallic st1and or atwi:;ted or woven /\ ;;ub;tance, l1ody, or device tllilt conducV; heat,
!iheathed coml,iniltion of conductors insulated asse111bly of such strands, often insulated with sound, or elcctl'icity.
from one Jnother. "{({('{ a dielectric n1atc1ial and used a:; a conducto1 of
armored cable
Electric cable consisting of two or more insulated
conductors protected by aflexible, helically wound
metal wrapping. Also called BX cable.
~~~olu~tn:~~- insulator
A material that is a poor conductor of electricity,
used for separating or supporting conductors to
mineral-insulated cable p1event the undesi1ed flow of current.
Electric cable consisting of a tul1ular copper
breakdown voltage
sheath containing one or more conductors
The minimum applied voltage at which a given
embedded in a highly compressed, insulating
insulator l1reaks down and permits current to
refractory mineral.
pass.
nonmetallic sheathed cable
dielectric strength
Electric cal1le consisting of two or more insulated
The 111axirnum voltage that canl1e applied to a
conductors enclosed in a nonmetallic, nwisture"
givenmatel'ial without causing it to break down,
resistant, flameretardant sheath. Also called
usually expressed in volts or kilovolts per unit of
Romex cable.
thickness.
coaxial cable dielectric
A cable for transmitting high frequency telephone,
A nonconducting substance.
digital, or television signals, consisting of an
insulated conducting tube enclosing an insulated
conductiniJ core. junction box
shielded cable An enclosure for housing and protect:ing electric
An electric cable enclosed within a metallic sheath wi1es or cables 1:hat am joined togethe1 in
in order to reduce the effects of external electric connecting or l1ranching electric circuits.
Ol'111agnetic fields. knockout
A panel in a casing or box that can readily l1e
removed, as by punching, hammering, or cutting, to
provide an opening int:o the interior.
conduit
Atube, pipe, or duct for enclosing and prot:ecting
grommet
A rubber or plastic washer inserted in a hole in a
electric wires or cable.
metal part to prevent wounding of a wire passing
rigid metal conduit through the hole.
Heavy"walled, tubular steel conduit joined l1y
bushing
screwing directly into athreaded hub with
An insulating iind protective lining for one or more
locknuts and bushings.
passing through a hole.
electrical metallic tubing
Thinwalled, tubular steel conduit joined by
compression or setscrew couplings. Abbr.: EMT
flexible metal conduit
Aflexible, helically wound 111etal conduit, used
duct
for connections to motors or other viiJI'ating
/111 enclosed raceway for housing conduccors or
equip111ent./\lso called Greenfield conduit.
Cilbles.
bus duct
1\ rigid n1etal housing for a group of llli:Oe:;
insulated from each other and the enclosure./\lso
Gill led busway.
raceway
Achannel expres:;ly designed to hold and protect:
electric wires and ca[,les.
surface raceway
A l'aceway designed for exposed in:;tallation in
dry, nonhazardous, noncorrosive locations.
multi-outlet assembly
A:;urface mount:ed raceway designed w hotbe
the electriutl wires for a circuit illlil il serie;; of
receptacles.

underfloor raceway cable tray


/1 r:1ceway suital,le for iwit:.tllationunder :1 floor, /In open metal framework for :-upporl:iniJ
often used in office llllildinw; to allow for the ncxil!le in:;ulated electl'ical conducto1s.
placement of power, signai, ilnd telephone outle\5.

80
E R!CI
air switch switch
A switch in wllich the interruption of acircuit faceplate Adevice for making, breaking, or directing an
occurs in ait'. /1 protective plate sutTounding ;tn cleci,ric CUITCnt.
electric outlet or light :;witch.
knife switch toggle switch
Aform of air switch in which ahinged copper A switch in which a lever or knob, moving through a
bl;tde is placed between two contact clips. small arc, causes the contacts to open ot close iln
electric circuit.
float switch
/\switch cotttrolled by a conductor
floating in a liquid.
mercury switch
An especially quiet switch that opens and
closes an electric circuit by shilting a sealed
glass tube of mercury so as to uncover or
cover the contacts.
key switch
A switch operated only by inserting akey.
dimmer three-way switch
A rheostat; or similar device for regulating /1 single-pole, doul>lethrow oiwitcli used in
the intensity of an electric light without conjunction with another to conti'OIIights from
apprecia!Jiy affecting spatial dioitrillut;ion. 1;wo lociltiowi.
Also called dimmer switch.
rheostat
A resistor for regulating acurrent by means
of variable resistances.
b four-way switch
A switch used in conjunction with two threew;1y
switches t;o control lights from three locations.

knob-and-tube wiring
An obsolete wiring system consisting of oiingle,
insulated conductors secured to and supported
on porcelain knobs and tubes. outlet
loom A point on a wiring system ar which current i:;
Aflexible, nonmetallic, fire resistant tul1ing for taken to supply iln electric device ot apparat;us.
conductors in knobandtube wiring. outlet box
Ajunction box de:;igned to facilitate connecting an
electric device or receptacle to a wiring system.
convenience outlet
An outlet usually mounted on a wall and hou:,ing
one or more receptacles for porUl,le lamps or
appliiinCCfi.
receptacle
/1 female fitting connected to a i!Ower su1;ply and
equipped to receive iJ plug. Also called socket.

cord
grounding outlet
A small, tlcxiiJic, insulated cable fitted with ;1
An outlet having an additional contact for a
plug to connect; a portal1le lilmp or appliance to a
ground connecUon.
lead plug
/1 flcxil1le, insulated conductor for electric;JIIy wire nut
A 111ille fitting lot' making ;tn electrical connection
connecting an iipparattb to another or to a circuit. A plastic connector coutai11ing a threaded metal
to a citcuit l1y in:;erUon in a receptilcle.
fitt;ing fot screwing onto the intertwined ends of
pigtail two or nwte conductors. grounding plug
/\ slwrt, flexil1le conductor w;crJ in connecting A plug haviniJ a bl;1de for a wound connection.
astationery terminal with a t;erminal having a connector
limited t'attqe of motion. Any of various devices for joining two m 111orc polarized
conductors l'lithout a per111anent splice. IJe:;igned :;o that a plucj and recqJtacle can fi1.
terminal together in only one way.
Aconductive clement or device for e:>tal1lioihing ill I
cltx;t;ric connection to ;Jn iippilratuoi.

81
1\ moving platform or cage for carrying bulkhead
passengers or freight from one level of a !ll1oXIike structure on iJ roof providing access to
lntilding to another. a stairwell or an elevator shaft.
lift penthouse
British tern1 for elevator. /\structure housing elevator machinery on control panel
the roof of iJ building. A panel containing switches, l1uttons, and other
passenger elevator cquipmen~ for regulating electrical devices.
An elevator exclusively for the use of
passengers. hoisting machinery
top car clearance
The machinery for rabing and lowering an elevator
freight elevator The vertical distance from the top of an elevator
car, consisting of a motor-generator set, traction
An elevator for carrying heavy cargo, car to the nearest overhead obstruction when the
machine, speed governor, brake, drive shaft;, driving
on which the operator and the persons car platform is level with the top landing.
sheave, and gears, if used.
necessary for unloading and loading the
freight are permit1;ed to ride. driving sheave
A wheel or disk with a grooved rim, used as a pulley
dumbwaiter for hoisting.
A small eleva~orfor conveying food, dishes,
or o~her materials l1etween the floors of idle sheave
a building. A pulley for tightening and guiding the hoisting
hoistway cables of an elevator system. !lbo called
bank deflector 5heave.
A row of elevators in a high rise building, Avertical enclosed space for the travel of one or
controlled by acommon operating system more elevators. !llso called elevator shaft. . machine beam
and responding to a single call button. One of the heavy steel beams supporting the
hoisting machinery for an elevator.
hoisting cable
One of the wire cables or ropes used for raising and
lowering an elevator car.
guide rail
landing One of the vertical steel tracks controlling the
The portion of afloor adjacent to an travel of an elevator car or counterweight.
elevator hoistway, used for the receiving
and discharge of passengers orfreight.

.... ,...",,, ...... traveling cable


elevator car safety
One of the electric cables connecting an elevator
1\ mechanical device for slowing down and stopping
car to a fixed electrical outlet in the hoistway.
an elevator car in the event of excessive speed or
free fall, actuated by agovernor and clamping the
guide rails by a wedging action.

rise
The vertical distance traversed by an elevator
car from the lowest to the highest landings of
the hoistway./\lso called travel.

hoistway door counterweight


!I door l1etween a hoistway and an elevat:or landinrJ, !I weight balancing another weight, such as the
normally closed except when an elevator car is rectangular castiron blocks mounted in a steel
stopped at the landing. frame to counterl1alance the load placed on ~he
hoisting machine by an elev;Jtor car.

electric elevator
An elevator system consisting of a car that is
mounted on guide rails, supported by hoisting
cables, and driven by electric hoisting machinery. limit switch
Also called traction elevator. Aswitch that automatically cuts off current to an
electric motor when an object moved by it, such as
an elevator car, has passed a given point.

elevator pit
lhe portion of a hoistway extending from the level buffer
afthe lowest landing to the iloorafthe hoistway. A pbton or ~>pring device for al1sorbing the
of a descending elevator car or counterweight at
the extreme lower limit of travel.
bottom car clearance
The vertical distance from the floor of an elevator
pit to J;he lowest part of an elevator car platform
when the car rests on fully compressed buf"fcrs.

82
H

elevator car
The load-carrying uni1; of an elevator, consisting
of a car frame, platform, light metal enclosure,
and door or gate.
car frame
The structural steel frame of an elevator car to
which are attached the platform, guide shoes.
elevator car safety, hoisting caHcs. and control
equipment.

lantern
A lighi;, usually ove1 the eniTance to an elevator
on each floor of ;;multisto1y building, that signaki
the approach of the elevator.
annunciator
A signa ling apparatu:, in an elevator car or at a
landing thai; displays;; visual indication of floor
machine room landings.
A room housing the hoisting
machinery, control equipment,
call button
A push button fo1 requesting an elevator.
and sheaves for raising and
lowering an elevator car. door interlock
A safety device for preventing the operation of an
elevator car unless the hoistway door is locked in
the clo~;ed position.
door contact
A safety device for preventing the operation of an
elevator car unless its doOI' Ol' gate is fully closed.
Also called gate contact.

LU/LA elevator newel


limited Use/Limited Application The horizontal section of railing at the upper or
elevatm: a relatively compact lower end of an escalator.
hyd1;wlic clcvato1 having limited hydraulic elevator
capacity and travel for use in /In elevator system consisting of acar supported
new and renovated low rise, low l1y ;1 piston that is moved by or moves against a
occupancy l1uildings. fluid under pre%ure.

escalator
/1 power driven stairw;w consistiniJ of ~itcps
attached to a conl.inuously circulating l;clt, used
fo1 moving IJiiS~ienrJer" up and down vetween
floors. Also called moving staircase, moving
stairway.

moving sidewalk
A power driven, continuou:;ly n10vi11g :;urface,
inclined lift :,imilar to aconveyor l;clt, u:;ed for c;myin11
Achai1 or platformnwwJt.ed on a ;;tee I cjuirJe rail pedestrians horizoni;ally Ol' along lov1 inclinwi.
;1nd d1ivcnl;y ;JJI clccl.ric motor. u:;ed fOJ'I'ilising or
lov;e1ing a pmson o1 goods along a stairway. Also people mover
called stail' lift. /1ny of v;wiow; forms of nJ;bs tl'iiWiit, :iuch
as moving sidewalks or automated drivcrles:;
vehicb, u:;cd for c;huttling people a1ound
or in congested url1a11 a1e;~:;,

83
SHNING
Holding together or uniting two or more
ot' member!;, as f;y clamrJing with ilmechanical 1d 6d 8d !Od 12d 16d 20d< penny
fastener, by bonding with ;m adhc0ivc, or by The desionated length of a nail, from twopenny to
11!2'' z~ 2 /!;!'' 7,11
,J .JIH' Jlf?'' 1/1
v;elding or wldering. sixtypenny. ~?ymbol: d
58 mm 51 mm 64mm 76mm 83mm 89mm 10217111/
c:::-
""-

l l shank
nail
The straight, narrow part of a nail Ol' bolt, l1etween
A s1;raight, slender piece of metal having one end
the head and the point.
pointed and the other enlarged and flaUened for
hammering into wood or other building materials eightpenny nail
as afastener. A nai!21J2 inches (64mm) long.
sixteen penny nail
A nail3 IJ2 inches (89mm) long.

spike
cut nail /1 heavy nail for fastening togethet' heavy
A nail having a tapering rectangular shank with a timbers, 4 to 14 in. (102 to 356 mm) long and
blunt point, made by cuttintJ from il rolled shee1; proportionally thicker than a common naiL
of iron or steel.
d1iftbolt
wile nail A spike havinrj a round !;hank, drivel! into predrilled
A nail made by cutting and shaping a piece of holes to fasten heavy timbers together. Also
round or elliptical wire. called driftpin.
common nail staple
A nail having a slender shank, aflat head, and a A Ushaped piece of metal or heavy wire with
diamond point. pointed ends, driven into a surface to secure sheet
l;ox nail material or to hold a hasp, pin, or bolt.
/1 nail having a flat head and a shank more slender corrugated fastener
than a common nail of the same length. Afastener consisting of a piece of corrugated
casing nail sheet st;eel with one wavy edge sharpened, used
A nail having a small conical head and a shank more for uniting two piece!> ofv10od, as in a miter joint.
slender than a common nail of the same length, Also called wiggle naiL
used in finish work in which the head may remain
visible.
round point
finishing nail An acute, conical point on a nail or spike.
A nail having a slender shank and asmall, barrel
shaped head that is driven slightly !1elow the diamond point
surface and covered with putty Ol' 1;he like. An acute, pyramidal point on a nail or spike.

btad chisel point


A small finishing nail. A point on a nail or spike formed by two flat
inclined sides meeting at a sharp angle.
double-headed nail
A nail used in building temporary structures, such
as scaffolding and fonnwork, having aflange on its
shank to prevent it from being driven in all the way To fasten!Jy nailing perpendicular to the face
and to leave the head free for pulling. Also called of the work.
form nail, scaffold naiL toenail
concrete nail To secure by nailing obliquely to the surfaces
A lurdened-~;teelnail having a flu red or threaded l1eingjoined. Alternate nails may !1e driven ilt
shank and adiamond point for hanllllet'ing into opposite angles to provide increased holding
concrete or masonry. Also called masonry naiL power.

flooring nail end-nail


A nail for fastening floor boards, having a small To fasten by nailing into the end of aboard
conical head, a mechanically deformed shank, and parallel1;o the grain of the wood. End nailing
a blunt; diamond point. provides poor resistance 1;o withdrawaL

ring-shank nail blind-nail


A nail having a series of concentric grouves on its To secure by nailing in such a way that
shank for increased holding power. nail heads are not visible on the face of the
work.
roofing nail
A nail having a barbed, threaded, or cement set
coated shank and a broad, flat head for fastening To sink a nail head sligh1;1y !1elow 1ii1C surface
sllinrjles or Uw like l'lith a nail :>et.

drive screw clinch


A metal fastener having a helically threaded ~;hank nailing strip To secure a nail or screw in positionl1y
that can be driven with a hammer and removed A strip of wood or orher partly yielding hannnerin1) down the j!I'DtrudintJ point;.
with a!>crewdriver. Also called screw naiL material attached to a hard surface, !;uch as
of steel or concrete, ;;o that ol1jects 111ay !1e
fastened t;o the surface.
NIING
screw
/\metal fastener haviliiJ atapered, helically
th1ead t;hreaded sh;mk and a slotted head, designed to
lhe helical or copiral ridtJC of acocrcw, nut, l1e driven into wood or the like l1y turning, ;b with
orl!Oit. a screwdriver.

pitch wood screw


The distance between tvm corresponding A screw having aslotted head and athreaded
points on adjacent threadco of a screw, point that permit,; it to form its own mating
nut, or bolt. threads when driven into wood with a screwdriver.
self-tapping screw
A coarse-threaded screw designed to tap its
countersink
corresponding fenrale thread as it is driven. Also
To enlarge the upper part of adrilled hole so
that the head of screw or !JOlt will lie flush with called tapping screw.
or below the surface. lag screw
A heavy, coarse threaded screw having asquare o1
pilot hole
hexagonal head driven by a wrcnch, used in amas
t\ guiding hole for anail or screw, or for drilling a
inaccessil,le to the placement of a nut or v1here
larger size hole.
an exceptionally long bolt would l1e needed to
tap penetrate ajoint fully. Also called coach screw,
To cut screw thread~; into an opening. lag bolt.
strip 111achine screw
To tear or damage the threads on abolt or screw A met;al fastener used with a nut or driven into
by applying too 111uch force. atapped hole, having astraight, threaded filtank
and a:;lotted or Phillips head for turning with a
screwdriver.

flat head cap screw


A screw head having a flat upper surface and a A metal fastener for machine parts, having a
conical bearing surface. straight, threaded shank held by threads tapped
in the hole into which it is screwed.
oval head
sheet-111etal screw
Ascrew head having a shallow, spherical shape
Acoarsetllt'eaded screw for fastening fiheet
with a conicall1earing surface.
metal and other thin material.

round head setscrew


A screw or bolt head having aspherical shape with A screw, ofren without a head, threaded through a
a flat bearing surface. Also called button head. hole in one part tightly upon or into another part
to prevent relative movement.
thu111bscrew
truss head A screw having aflattened, knurled head defAgned
Ascrew or bolt head having a shallow, spherical to be turned by the thumb and forefinger.
shape with aflat bearing surface.
screw eye
A screw having a ring shaped head.
pan head
Ascrew or rivet head having acylindrical shape
with arounded shoulder.

slotted head
fillister head /\screw head having a ;;i11gle slot, driven by a flat
Acylindrical screw head having a slightly do111ed Upped screwdriver.
upper surface and aflat bearing stwface.

Phillips head
A screw head havi11g two partial c;lots crossing at
bugle head
right angles, drivenl1y a l'hillips c;crewdriver.
Ascrew head having a flat upper surface and an
underside shaped like the bell of a bugle.
Alien head
A screw head having an axial hexagonal recess,
power-driven fastener driven by an Alien wmnch.
A rnechanrcal fastening system that consists of atool,
fasteners, and either a powder actuat;ed cartridge or
compressed air ;;crving a:; a power source.
nail gun
Any of a variety of rmeuntatic filsteners for driving
strip mounted nail;;, frontlmJiJs to larger franring nails.
@ square head
A screw head having il square recess, driven by :1
fiquare drive or Rol1ertson ;;r,rewdriver. Also called
Robe1tson head, after the inventor of the screw
drivehead.
pal111nailer
A ;;mall, lightweight, hand held pneumatic nailer that; security head
tbes a repeated hamn1er aci,ion to drive nail:; in ti!jht A~;crew head designed to resist; renwval wiU1 ;1
spaces.
flattip11ed or l'hillips ,;crewdriver.

85
bolt sq,uate head nut
A threaded metal pin or rod. usually having a head A bolt or screw head having a square shape A square or hexagonalmetall1lock pet-forated wit:h
at one end. designed to be inserted through holes designed to be turned with awrench. athreaded hole to fit around and secure a bolt
in a%e111l1led parte; and secured by a mat:ing nut. or screw.
neck

carriage bolt
A bolt having a rounded head, aflat bearing
surface, and a square shoulder for prevent:ing
'" ' , " '"
~V crt=~p
The patt on the shank of abolt next to the

'P"''""'"'
~
lock nut
A nut specially constructed to provide extra
friction l1etween itself and a screw or bolt.
castellated nut
A nut having radial slits on its outer face to allow

~
rotation. used where the head may be
a locking pin or wire to be inserted in both the nut

oat=-
inaccessible during tightening.
and a hole in its bolt. Also called castle nut.
machine bolt
cap nut
A bolt having a flat bearing surface and a square
or hexagonal head for turning with a wrench.
hex head
A l1olt or screw head having a hexagonal
shape designed to l1e turned with a wrench.
9 A nut having a hexagonal base and adomed top
to cover the threaded end of a screw. Also called
acorn nut.
wing nut
A nut having two flat projecting pieces that
provide a grip for tightening with the thumb and
forefinger. Also called thumbnut.
stove bolt
Asmall, coarse-threaded machine screw. washer
... ( ) .
'. /
A perforated disk of metal, rubber. or plastic,
J-bolt used under the head of a nut or bolt or at ajoint
AJshaped metal rod threaded at one end to V to distribute pressure. prevent leakage. or relieve
receive a nut. friction.
U-bolt
A metal rod bent in the shape of aUand threaded
at each end.
@Q lock washer
A washer specially constructed to prevent a nut
from shaking loose.
eyebolt load-indicating washer
A bolt having a ring-shaped head to receive a hook
Ort'Ope.

clevis
@ A washer having small projections that are
progressively flattened as abolt is tightened,
the gap between the head or nut and the washer
A Ushaped fastener secured by a bolt or pin indicating the tension in the bolt.
through holes in the end of the two arms.
turn buckle
A metal link or sleeve internally threaded at each
end, used for coupling and tightening two parts,
such as the threaded ends of two rods or stays.
counterbore
To increar;e the diameter of a portion of the
length of adrilled hole to receive the head or
nut of a bolt or screw.

row spacing
The centertocenter distance
'r<1>1.

l1etween two or more rows of bolts. - - -<j>.


expansion bolt
An anchor bolt having a split casing that expands
mechanically to engage the sides of a hole drilled
in masonry or concrete.
Moily end distance
Trademark for a brand of expansion volt having a The distance between the end of atimber and
split, sleevelike sheath threaded ciO that turning the centcr ofthe nearest l1olt. hole.
the bolt draws the ends of the sheath together
and spreads the sides to engage a hole drilled in
masonry or the inner surface of a hollow wall.
expansion shield
A lead or plastic sleeve inserted into a predrilled
hole and expanded by driving a bolt or screw into
it. Also called expansion sleeve.
toggle bolt lewis bolt
An anchor bolt having two hinged wings that close An anchor bolt having a wedge-shaped end around
against a spring when passing through a predrillcd which concrete or lead is poured to hold it.
hole and open as they emerge to engage the inner fox bolt
surface of a hollow wall. An anchor l10lt having a split end to receive a
foxtail wedge as it is screwed into a blind hole.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ------------------------------------- ---------------
86
NING
hanger framing anchor
!lny of various lh;haped metaiiJtar;kets for llny of various sheet metal connect:ors for joining
supporting the end of a IJeanJ,jaist, purl in, o1 light: wood framing rnembcrs, w>ing !ipecial nails
truss at agirder Ol' wall. The supported 111eml1er that are loaded laterally rather than in withd1awal.
t;ransfers its reaction to the hanger through
l1earing, but; load transfer to the supporting
meml1er i:; through shear in the special nails
securing the hanger.
hurricane anchor
!I framing anchor for tying a rafter or truss to
a wall plate and securing it against lateral i<nd
uplift;ing wind and seismic forces. Also called
hurricane tie.
joist anchor
A metal tie strap for securing the joists of afloor
or roof diaphragn1 to aconcret;e or n1a:;onry wall in
I. ~
order to transmit lateral wind or seismic loads.

~."'~
~. ~.'~>~~
. floor anchor
-~ A111etal tie :;trap for rest;raining a floor of a light
. .... . . . . . . ... )]
..... wood frame structure against uplifting wind or
' seismic forr:e:i .
.
; ~ 7
sill anchor
beam seat t\ framing anchor for securing a sill plate to a
!I U shaped metal bracket for anchoring a timber concrete :;lab or foundation wall.
l1eam to aconcrete support. holddown
post cap A metal device for restraining awood frame
A Ushaped metal bracket for securing atimber struct;ure against uplifting wind or seismic forces,
beamt;o a supporting post. Also called column consisting of a stiffened steel angle [,olted to
cap. a wall stud and secwed l1y a threaded rod to a
concrete foundation.
post base
AU shaped metal bracket for supporting and
anchoring atimber post to its base or foundation.
Also called column base.

timber connector
dowel /\metal ring, plat:e, or grid for transferring shear
A cylindrical pin fitting snugly into holes in two between the faces of two timber members, used
adjacent pieces to prevent their slipping or to with a single bolt that serves to restrain and
align them. Also called dowel pin. clamp the as:;embly together. Timl1er connectors
toothed plate are more efficient than bolt:s or lag screws used
A sheet-metal plate punched to produce a alone since they enlarge the area of wood over
closely :;paced grid of protruding teeth, used as which a load is distributed.
a splice plate in the manufacture of light wood
trusses.
spike grid
/1 flat or singly curved grid of spikes forjoining
heavy timl1ers, held in place by a !iingle bolt. The
J !
L
resulting joint is resistant to loosening due to
viiJratian, i111pact:. and reversible lat:cralloads.

shear plate split" ring


Atimber connector consisting of a round plate 11 timber connector consisting of a metal ring
of malleable iron inserted into acorresponding inserted into corresponding grooves cut: into the
groove, flush with the face of atiml1er, and held f11ces of the joininrJ memi1ers and held in place l1y
in place by a single l1olt. Shear plates are used in asingle lmlr. The tongue a1rd groove split in the
l1ack to l1ack pairs to develop :;hc;r1 resist:ance in ring permi!:s it to deform slightly under IOilding
denwuntable wood to-wood connection:;, o1 singly and 111aintainl1earing at all ;;urface:?, while the
in a waodto nwt:al connection. beveled crass section eases insertion and ensures
a tight fitting joint after the ring is fully !ifilted
in the groove:?.

87
FASTENING
solder braze weld gas welding
To unitetwo pieces of metal by applying any of To unite two pieces of metal by applying any of To unite or fuse two pieces of metal by heating and Any of agroup of welding processes utilizing the
various nonferrous solders. usually a tin-lead alloy, various nonferrous solders. usually a copper-zinc allowing the metals to flow together, sometimes heat produced by the combustion of aoxygen and
at a temperature below BOO'F (427'C). alloy, at atemperatureabove BOO'F (427'C). with pressure and t headdition of an intermediate afuel gas, such as acetylene.
or filler meta l. arc welding
solder
Any of various fusiblealloys applied in a molten Any of agroup of welding processes utilizing the
state to the joint between two metal parts to heat of anarc betweenan electrodeand the base
fi ller metal metal.
unite them without heating the parts to the
Themetal that is added during a welding.
melting point. The molten solder flows into ajoint
brazing. or soldering process, having a
by capi llary attraction.
melting point either approximately the .. ...... ..... arc
sameas or below t hat of the metals being_,. ~ . -;;-:,:7;1/,' ,, . .,., ....... A sustained luminous dischargeof electricity
welded. J,~~; ~-::: ,!:;,'///tl,~ ~~,..<.-.
. .\,. _.....:.. .,-. .-.I-"',::/,.:','/,'':':'/~:~~-~.__: . . ~=\: across a gap in a circuit or between two
,.-~:--~"""~""'4<:-~-~~"K"'~""'-''''i,',',',':' '. !,~:~. . ~ electrodes. Also called electric arc.
~--~~~T-~--~~--~~~
shielded metal arc weld ing
A method of arc welding using aconsumable
metal electrode that releases an inert gas
base metal '\\ bead to form a shield around the arc. This shield
fillet weld
The principal metal to be welded, brazed. Acontinuous deposit of fused meta l. protects the weld area from oxygen and
A weld with atriangular cross section joining two
soldered, or cut, as distinguished from Also called we ld bead. nitrogen in the air that would cause rapid
surfaces that meet in an interior right angle.
fi ller metal. oxidation of the liquid metal.
welding rod . ..... ........... inert-gas shielded arc welding
A wire or rod of filler metal used in A method of arc welding in which the weld
gas-welding and brazing processes. area is shielded by the continuous flow of an
The junction between the base
and in those arc-welding processes in inert gas fromanexternal source. the filler
metal and the face of a weld. which the electrodedoes not furnish metal being supplied by a consumablemetal
root the filler metal. electrode or by a separate welding rod.
The point at which the back or
lap weld fl ux ~- fl ux-cored arc welding
bottom of a weld meets the base
Aweld madealong the seams of Asubstance, suchas rosin, applied to A method of arc welding using atubular steel
metal.
two overlapping pieces of metal. remove oxides from and prevent furthe electrode conta ining a core of vaporizing flux
t hroat oxidation of metal surfaces to be joine that forms a gaseous shield around the weld
Thedistance from the root of a by welding. brazing. or soldering. area.
weld to the face of thebase metal.
submerged arc welding
butt weld A method of arc welding in which t heweld area
A weld betweentwo pieces of metal is shielded by a blanket of fusible. granular
butted together. metal that melts to form a layer of protective
partial-penetration weld full-penetration weld puddle weld slag. The filler metal may be supplied by a
A butt weld having adepth less than A butt weld having adepth equal to A weld made by burning a hole in a consumableelectrode or by a separate welding
the thickness of the smaller of thetwo the thickness of the smaller of the piece of sheet metal and filling with rod.
members being joined. two members being joined. a small pool of molten metal.
resistance welding
Any of agroup of welding processes utilizing the
heat generated by resistance to the passage of a
electric current.

single-bevel weld double-bevel weld sing le-vee weld double-vee weld groove weld
Agroove weld in which theedge of Agroove weld in which the edge of Agroove weld in which the edgeof Agroove weld in which the edge of A weld madein a preformed indentation
one abutting member is beveled from oneabutting member is beveled eachabutting member is beveled each abutting member is beveled between two abutting pieces of meta l.
one side. from both sides. from t hesameside. from both sides.

rivet
A metal pin having a head at oneend, pneumatic riveter
used for uniting two or more plates by A pneumatic hammer used with a
passing the shank through a holein rivet set to formt hesecond head
each piece and hammering down the of arivet.
plain end to form a second head. rivet set
Atool for shaping t hesecond head
of arivet. explosive rivet
drift A rivet for ajoint accessiblefrom one side only,
A round, tapering piece of metal for dolly having anexplosive-filled shank that is detonated
enlarg ingor aligning holes to receive rivets Atool for receivingand holdingthe head of arivet by striking the head with ahammer to expand the
or bolts. Also ca lled driftpin. while the other end is being headed. shank ont hefar sideoft he hole.
aligning punch
Adrift for bringing holes in line to receive
a rivet or bolt .

88
E
bonnet /1 fra111ed opening 111ade in a chi111ncy
Acover for an open fimplacc, or il to hold an open fire.
cowl, hood, or wind c;ip l;o incrca:Jc
the dl'ilrt of achi111ncy. chimney
!I vertical, incombustible structure containiniJ a
cowl flue through which the smoke and fire
A hood like covering for increasing chimney cap
or furnace arc caiTied off to the outside and by A rilised cover for achimney, usually in the
the draft of a chi111ney or ventilator.
means of which adraft is created, esp. the pari; form of a slab or cornice.
spark arrester of such a structure that rises al1ove a roof.
Adevice, consisting of wire netting chimney pot
smokestack !I cylindrical pipe of earthem1a1'e or metal,
or the like, used t;o stop or deflect
(\ pipe for the escape of the s111oke or gases of fitted on (;op of achimney to increac.c draft
sparks or embers thrown fro111 an
combustion. and disperse s111oke.
open fireplace or chi111ney.
draft
1\ current of air i11 any enclosed space, as in a
prefabricated flue 1oom, chimney, or stove, caused by a difference
!I nii;tal vent for fueHired equipment, in temperature or pies,,ure.
ibSeml1led from factory made parts.
downdraft
flue lining
smoke dome !I dov111ward current of air in a chimney or flue,
!I smooth-surfaced unit of heat-resistant
The smoke chamber covering of a often carrying filiwke with it.
p1efabricated metal fireplace unit. fire clay or lightweight concrete, having a
fJCjuare, rectangular, or oval section, used
hood for lining i;lw flue of a chin1ney.
A metal cover or canopy for a stove,
fireplace, chimney, Ol' venUiator. fire screen flue pargeting
!I screen placed in front of afireplace for !In incombustible passage or A smooth linino of mortar or plasterfor a
protection, esp. fro111 sparks or eml1ers. duct for smoke in a chimney. chimney flue. !llso, parget.

mantel dtaft
Aconstruction fra111ing the opening of !I stone or wooden lintel over a chimney breast
Adevice for regulating the current of air in
afireplace and usually covering part !I part of a chimney or fireplace that
fireplace opening, or a 111asonry a stove or fireplace.
of the chimney breast in a decorative arch used in place of such a lintel. projects out from a wall, usually inside a
manner. Also called building. damper
A111ovable plate for regulating the draft in a
chimney arch
fireplace, stove, or furnace.
An arch over a fireplace opening, supporting
the breast. smoke chamber
t\n enlarged area between the throat of a
chimney bar
fireplace and the flue of a chimney.
A steel lintel for carryiniJ the masonry
above the fireplace opening. Also called smoke shelf
camber bar, turning bar. /\ledge at the bottom of a smoke chaml,er,
so made as to deflect or break the
cheek
downdrafts from the chimney.
throat
The narTow opening between afireplace and
its flue or smoke chamber, often closed
with adamper.

.fitebox
The cfurnl'el' co1rtaining the fim of a
fireplace.

t1immer arch
!In arch, WJ11ally of brickiliirJ in thefOI'Ill
back hearth of half of a seomental arch, between il
The part of the hearth that chimney and a header in a floor strudurc
within the fimplacc itself. Abo called to support il hearth.
inner hea1th.
ashpit
front hearth /1 receptacle in the l)(;i;lolll of a fireplace
rlw part ol the hearth that projeci/i into or fireiJOx fo1 the collection and reniOVill
the 1'00111. /\l:;o called outer hea1th. or ashe~J.
ashpitdoor
inglenook !I Cib1>iron door providing access to an
!I col'!lel' or nook neclr a liil'tJC, open rernoviniJ ashes, or to achimney
fireplace, usually provided with seating. fOI' renwvilliJ ;;oot.
!llso called chimney corner.

89
FIRE
The measures taken to prevent fire or minimize fire hazard
the loss of life or prorJerty I'Gsulting from a Any condition that incrc;bes the likelihood of a
fire, including linriting fire loads and hazards; fire, ol1struct;s access to fircfighting equipment,
confining the sr;read of fire with fire resistant. or delays the itt the event
construcUon; the use of fire detection and of fire.
extinguishing systems; the establishment
fire load
of adequate firefighting services; and the
The anwuntof combustible material in a building,
training of building occupants in fire safety and
measured in pounds per square foot of floor area.
evacuation procedures.
combustible
Of or pertaining to amaterial capable of igniting
and burning. '"'"'"'""'""""""'""""""""'"'""'" ""'"""""}
!Jme

ignition point flash point


The lowest temperature at which a substance The lowest temperature at which acombust;ible
will undergo spontaneous combustion and liquid will give off sufficient vapor to ignite
continue to burn without additional application momentarily when expo~;ed to flame.
of external heat.
tunnel test
fire-rated 1\ test measuring the time it t;akes for a
Noting or pertaining to a material, assembly, 1200 qJ controlled flame to spread across the face of a
or construction having a fire-resistance rating test specimen, t;lw amount; of fuel the material
required by its use. 1\lso, fire-resistive. contributes to the fire, and the density of
1000 the smoke developed by the fire. 1\lso called
fire-resistance rating
The time in hours a mat;erial or assembly can be Steiner tunnel test.
expected to withstand exposure to fire without 800 flame-spread rating
collapsing, developing any openings that permit A rating of how quickly afire can spread along
the passage of flame or hot gases, or exceeding a the surface of an interior finish material. !Zed
specified temperature on the side away from the 600 oak flooring has a flame-spread rating of 100,
fire, determined by subjecting afull-size specimen while acement asbestos board has a rating ofO.
to temperatures according to a standard time
temperature curve. fuel-contribution rating
400 1\ rating of the amount of combustible
substances an interior finish material can
contribute to a fire.
200
smoke-developed rating
Arating of the amount of snwke an interior
0 finish material can produce when it burns.
4 lvlaterials having a snwke developed rilting
Time in hours a1Jove450 are not permitted to be used inside
buildings.

flame retardant
1\ compound used to raise the ignition point
of a flammable material, thus making it more
resistant J;o fire.

spray-on fireproofing
1\ mixture of mineral fibers and art inorganic binder,
applied l1y air pressure with a spray IJUn t;o provide
athermallmrier to the heat of a fire.
fileproofing intumescent paint liquid-filled column
Any of various materials, ~;uch as concrete, lath Acoating that, when exposed to the heat of a 1\ hollow structural steel column filled with water
and plaster, or gypsum board, used in making a fire, swelb to fonn a thick insulating layer of to increa,,e its fire re:;btance. If expo:>ed to flame,
l1uilding material, rneml1er, or system resistant to inert gas bubbles t.hat; ret;ard~; flame :;pread and the water ah;orlh; hcitt, ri~ie:; by convection to
damage or de:itt'uction by fim. combustion. remove the heat, ;nrd is replaced with cooler w;1ter
from a storage tank or a city water main.

90
FHU
fire zone fire separation fire area fire wall
!I zone of acity within which certain !lny floor, wall, or roofceiling construction !In area of a building enclosed !Jy fire rated !I wall having the required fire-resistance
construction types are prohibited because of having the required fire-resistance rating to construction capable of confining the spread rating to prevent the spread of fire from
fire hazards present in the zone. confine the spread of fire. of fire. one part of a building to another, extending
from the foundation to a parapet above the
firebreak occupancy separation
roof and having all openings restricted to
!In open space established to prevent the !I vertical or horizontal construction having the
a certain percentage of the v1alllength and
spread of fire from a building, a group of required fire-resistance rating to prevent the
protected by a self-closing or automatic
lnrildings, or an area of a city to another. spread of fire from one occupancy to another in
closing fire assembly. Each portion of a
a mixed-occupancy building.
building separated by one or more fire walls
distance separation may be considered aseparate building when
The separation required between an exterior calculating the floor area and height allowed
wall of a building and a property line, the center by a building code.
line of an adjacent street or public space, or
the exterior wall of an adjacent building, all
measured at

draft stop
!I fire-rated partition dividing an enclosed
aWe space of combustible construction, or
the concealed space between a suspended
ceiling and a wood-frame floor above.

fire assembly
The assembly of a fire door, fire window, or
fire damper, including all required hardware,
anchorage, frames, and sills.
self-closing fire assembly.
!I lire assembly that is normally kept in
a closed position and is equipped with an
approved device to insure closing and latching
after having been opened for use.
automatic-closing fire assembly
!I fire assembly that may remain in an open
position and will close automatically if
sul!jected to an increase in tem11erature or
actuated by a smoke detector.

classA ( . UL label fire door


Classification for afire asseml1ly having a_3hour Y'0'J !I label affixed to a building 111aterial, co111ponent. !I door assembly, includiniJ all required
frreresrstance ratmg for protectrng openrngs ~" __ .~/ or device with the authorization of Underwriters' hardware, anchorage, frames, and :;ilb, having
in3hour or +hour fire walls and occupancy laboratories. Inc .. indicating that the product the reituired fire-resistance rating for itr;.
:;eparations. (a) has a rating based on performance tests location and use.
of such products; (b) is from a production lot
class B fire window
found by examination to be made from materials
Cla::,sificcJtion for a fire assen1l!ly having a1 hour I\ window assembly, including all required
and by processes essentially identical to those
or 1 1 /~ hour fire-resistance rating for protecting hardware, anchorage, frames, and sills, having
of reprcsen1;ative products that have been
openings in1-hour or?. hour fire separations, exit the required fire resistance rating for its
subjected to appropriate frre, electrical hazard,
stairways, and vertical shafts. location and use.
other tests for safety; and (c) is suliject to the
class C reexamination service of UL. smoke vent
Classification for a fire asseml1ly h;wing a !I vent de:;igned to open automatically in the
0/4 hour fire resistance rating for protecting labeled
event of fire in order to remove smoke and
Of or pertaining to a building material or
openings in1hour walls, corridors, and heat from aIJuilding.
asseml1ly havi1rg a fire-resistance rating certified
hazardous areas.
l1y Undemri1;ers' Laboratories, Inc. or other fire damper
class D recognized testing laiJOratory. !I damper that closes an air duct
Classification for afire ;Js:;embly having a automatically in the event of fire to restrict
1 1 /~hour lire-resistance rating for protecting the passage offire and smoke, requimd where
openings in exterior walls subject to severe fire aduct penetrates afire wall, fire rated :>halt,
exposure from ou1;side the building. or other lire separaUon.
class E fusible link
Classification for afire assembly having iJ !I link 111ade of a fw;i!Jie nlcl;al. When exposer!
''14 lwur fire rec>ic>ldncc rating for pro~ec~ing to the heat of a fire. the link melts and
openings in exterior walls subject to light or causes afire door. fire damper, or the like
nwderate fire expw;ure from ou15ide the buildinrJ. to close.

91
FIRE
file-alartn system spl'inkler system
An electrical :>ystem installed in ;J ln;ilding to Apparatw; for automatically extinguishinrJ fires
autom;;tically sound an alarm v1hcn actuated in a ln;ilding, consisting of a ~;ystcm of pipes in
l1y a fire detection ~;ystem. or l;elow the ceiling1;, connected toil ~;uitable
water supply, and ~;upplied with valve1; 01 spri11kler
fire-detection system
heiids made to open aut.omatically at a certain
Asy~;ten; of thermostats or ot:her approved
temperature.
sensors for detecting the presence of fi1e and
automatically signaling an alarm. sprinklered
Of or pertaining to a ln;ilding Ol' building area
smoke detector
that has or is protected by a properly maintained
An electronic fire alarmt;hat is activated by
sprinkler ;jysten1.
the presence of smoke.
sprinkler head
A nozzle in a sprinkler system for dispersing
a stream or spray of water, usually controlled
by afusi!Jie link that melts at a predetenllined
temperature.

automatic fi1e-extinguishing system


/1 system of devices and equipment that
automatically detects a fire and discharges an
approved fire cxtingubhinrJ ;lrJcnt; onto or in the
standpipe area of a fire.
Awater pipe extending vertically through a
wet-pipe system
building to supply fire hoses at every floor.
A sprinkler system containing water at sufficient
wet standpipe pressure to provide an immediate, continuous
Astandpipe containing water under discharge through sprinkler heads that open
pressure and fitted with fi1e hoses fo1 automatically in the event of fire.
emergency use by building occupants.
dry-pipe system
dry standpipe A sp1inkler system containing pressurized air
A standpipe containing no water and used that is released when a sprinkler head opens in
l1y the fire depa1tment to connect fire the event of fim, allowing water to flow through
hoses to a fire hydrant or pumpertruck. the piping and out the opened nozzle. Dry-pipe
systems are used where the piping is subject to
freezing.
i fire pump preaction system
A pump that provilles the Adry-pipe sprinkler syste111 through which water
required water pressure flow is controlled by a valve operat;ed by fire-
in a standpipe or sprinkler det;ection devices more sensitive than those in the
fire hose system when the pressure sprinkler heads.l'reaction systems are used when
in the system drops below a an accidental discharge would da111agc valuat;le
preselected value. materials.
deluge system
A sprinkler sy~;tem having sprinkler heads open at
all times, through which water flow is controlled
l1y avalve operated by a heat-, smoke , odlame
hydrant sensing device.
An upright pipe with one or more
nozzles or spouts fo1 d1awing wate1
from illilain, esp. for fightinrJ fires
siamese
Also called fire hydrant, fireplug.
A pipe fitting installed
on the ext.erior of a ln;ilding, providing class Afile
tv10 or more connections through which Afire involvinrJ ordinary combustible matel'ials,
the fire departlllent can pulllp water to a such as wood, paper, and cloth, on which the
standpipe or sprinkler system. quenching o; cooling effect ofwate1 is of primary
importance.
class Bfire
A fire involving flammal1le liquids, such as gasoline,
oil, and grease, which n1ust be cxtingubhed
Wiitermain l1y excluding air and inhihting the release of
combustible vapors.
class Cfire
!I fi1e involving live electrical cquipnlcnt;, which
requires a nonconducting extinguishing medium.
fi1e extinguisher class Dfire
A p01tal1le appa1atus for putting out asmall fire /1 fire involving certain combustible met;! IS,
by ejecting pres:;urized water or special chemicals, such a:, magnesium or sodiu111. which requires
classified accordin11 to the type of fire it b able to a nonreactive, he;1tahorl1ing extinguishinrJ
extinguish. medium.

92
means of egtess
1\ contittuou:i path of tl;wci ftom any point itt a
l;uilrJing to the outside at wound leveL

exit access horizontal exit exit


That; portion of;; mean:i of egress that lead:; to an A Fibsage UiroUrJh or ai'Ound a wall An enclo:;ed and protected path of escarJe for the
exit;. 13uilrJing code:; specify t;he maximum distance con:;tructed as required for an occupancy occupanV; of abuilding in the event of fire, le;Jding
of travel to an exit and the minimum distance separation, protected by an auto111atic closincJ from an exit access to an exit d'rscharge.
l1et;ween exits whent;wo or 1110re are required. fite door, and leading to an area of mfuge in the
building or on approximately the sa111c
in an adjacent building.

atea of refuge
An area affording safety from fire or smoke
coming from the area front which escape is made
and where persons un;1l1lc to use stain1ay;; can
remain temporarily to await assistance durirtg an
emergency evacuation. Also called area of rescue
assistance.

smokeproof enclosure
fhc enclosing of an exit staitway l1y Willis of
fircresistive construction, accessil!le l1y a
vestibule or by an open exterior balcony, and
well ventilated l1y natural or ntechanicalmeans to
Ashaft for air, light, stairs, or an elevator, limit the penetration of smoke and heat. 13uilding
extending vertically through codes Lbually require one or more of the exit
;; lntilding. stairways for il highrise building [;e pi'Otected by ;1
smokeproof enclosure.
exit stairway
exit corridor A st;;imay leading to an exit passageway, an exit
A passageway serving as a required court, or public way, enclosed by fire-resistive
exit, enclosed l1y walls of fire-resistive construction with self-closing fire doors that
exit light swing in the direction of exit travel.
constr'uction. 13uilding codes limit the length
An illuminated sign identilying ;1
of dead end corridors. exterior exit balcony
exit..
exit door A landing or porch projecting from the wall of a
emergency lighting building and serving as a required means of egress.
Adoor providing access to a means of egre:;s,
I\ lighting syste111 designed to supply the
swinging in the direction of exit travel, and fire escape
illumination required for safe egress from
usually equipped with a panic bar. An exit stairway down an outside wall of a building,
a building in the event of a pov1er failure.
constructed to the ;;a me standards as an interior
exit stairway.

exterior exit
exit passageway An exit door opening directly to an exit court
A means of egress connecting a rertuired or public way.
exit or exit court with a public way, having
no openings other than rertuired exits and
enclosed by fireresif,tive construction as
required for the walls, fio01s. and ceiling oft he
building served.

exit court
Ayiird or r;ourt providing cgrec;s to a pul1lic way
occupant load for one or more mquired exits.
The totalnun1ber of persons that may occupy
a building or portion t;hereof at atty one time, public way
determined l1y dividing the floor area assigned to I\ street, alley, or similar parcel of land open to
a part;icui;Jr tbe by the square feet per occupant; the sky and deeded, dedicated, or otherwise
penn'rt.ted in that use.l3u'rlrJ'rng codes use pel'llranenlily appropriated for the free p;bS;Lge
occupant; load to establbh the required number and use ofthe general public.
and width of exit.s for a llllilding.

93
F R
The level, l1ase sw-face of iii'Oom or hall upon
which one stands Ol' walks.

finish floor

subfloor
A base for a finish floor. consisting of l1oards.
plywood. or other structural sheathing laid over
and fixed to the floor joists. A subfloor is olten
used as a working platform during construction
and may also act as a structural diaphragm to
transfer lateral loads to shear wall:i. Also called
blind floor, rough floor.
floor framing
The act. process. or manner of constructing the
structural frame of a floor. rim joist
Ajoist set on top of the sill and fanning the
joist wood fra111cd floor. Also called
Any of a series of small, repetitive parallel beams
for supporting floors, ceilings, or flat roofs.
---:::::>;:.::>

header
A framing nwml1e1' cros;;ing and supporting the
ends of joists, studs, Ol' rafters. so as to transfer bridging
the weight to paralleljoi:;V;, studs. Ol' raft;ers. An aiTangenwnt of [Jrace:; or blocking between
prevent \,heir rotation or
trimmer lateral diS!Jiacement, csp. when their depth
A!Jeam,joi:;t;, or rafter :;upporting one end of a to width ratio exceeds 6.13ridging may not l;c
header at the edge of an opening in afloor Ol' roof required when the ends of the 111eml,ers are fixed
frame. against rotation and their edges are held in line l;y
tailpiece SLJ!Jflooring or ciheathincJ
A relatively sh01t l1e;nn, joi:;t, or ralter ;,uppnttcd
l1y a wall ;it; one end and l1y a header ilt the othc1.
solid bridging
131'id!Jing consbting of short IJOJI'ds fixed ve1tically
Also called stringrJt'.
!Jet;ween floor or roof joi:;%.
cross!Jridging
13rid!Jing composed of diagonal braces set in
l1etween floor or

94
deck
The structural surface to which fiooring or
beam fill roofing ic? applied.
/vla1;crial, such as n1ason1y or concrete, for
filling the spaces between joists or beams decking
in or on top of a mas01wy wall, stiffening Self.c?upparting units of wood, metal, or
the members, and providing increased fire concrete capable of spanning /1eill11S,joists,
resistance. Also, beam filling. rafters, or pur/ins and serving as a /1ase far
flooring or roofing.
beam pocket
/1n opening in the vertical face of a structural
meml1er to receive a beam.

firecut
An angular cut at the end of ajoist or beam where
it enters a masonry wall, allowing the member to
fall without damaging the wall if it burns through
somewhere along its length.
metal decking
Sheet steel strengthened for use as floor or
roof deck'mg by cold-rolling aseries of ribs or
flutes into it, and usually galvanized for corrosion
resistance. The spanning capability of metal
decking depends on the thickness ofthe steel
sheet and the depth of the corrugations.

Asteel pin welded to the tap flange of asteel


beam or girder and embedded in a concrete slab
so as to cause the beam and the concrete to
act as a structural unit.
composite decking
Metal decking serving as permanent fonnwork Metal deck'111g serving as permanent form work and
for a reinforced concrete sla/1 until the slab can tensile reinforcement for aconcrete slab banded t;a
support itself. it by adeformed or dovetail rib pattern.

acoustic decking cellular decking


Metal decking containing gli16S fiber between lvletal decking manufactured by welding a
the perforated webs of ril1bed decking or in the corrugated steel sheet to a flat steel sheet,
perforated cells of cellular decking, used as a forming a series of raceways for electrical
sound al1sorbing ceiling. wires and cables.

access floOJ'ing system


1\ system of renwval,le and interchangeal,le
floor panels supported an ;Jdjustable pedes tab
or stringers to allow free access to the :;pace
I1CIIcath. /\lso called raised flooring system.

95
f R
finish flooring
lvlaterialused for the weariniJ :>ur'face of a floor,
:;uch ib hardwood, tcrTiJZZO, or floor tile.

wood flooring
Finish flooring in the form of wood planks,
or [,locks.

strip floOI'ing
Flooring composed of long, narTow wood
usually side and end-matched.

plank flooring hollow" backed


Flooring composed of boards wider than strip Of or pertaining to a wood or stone
flooring, usually side and end-matched. having a back face hollowed
can fit more tightly against an
stwface.
parquet
A floor composed of short strips or blocks of wood
sleeper
/1ny of a numl1er of wooden strips laid
forming a pattern, sometimes with irrlays of other
upon a concrete slal1 to provide a means of
wood:; or other materials.
attaching a subfloor or flooring.
parquetry
Mosaic work of wood used for floors and
solid block flooring
Long-wearing flooring co111posed of solid
wainscoting.
wood blocks set in adhesive with their grain
oriented vertically.

block flooring unit block laminated block slat block


Flooring composed of square units preassenll1led A flooring block made by joining short lengths of A flooring [,lock made l1y bonding three or A flooring block made by asseml1ling narrow :;la%
at the 111il and usually installed with mastic over il strip flooring usually tongued on two nrore wood veneers with amoisttwercsistant or fingers of hardwood into
wood subfloor or concrete slab. adjoining sides and grooved on the other two to adhesive, Lbr1ally tongued on two opposing side:J
engineered flooring
ensure proper alignment in setting. and grooved on the other two to ensure proper
Laminated wood flooring made [,y pressure-gluing
alignment in setting.
cross plies for greater dimensional stability and
having awear laymof solid, often pmfinished
hardwood.

terrazzo topping thin"set terrazzo


1\ nw:;aic floor or paving composed of The mixture of stone chips ;rnd A thinre:Jinous icerrazzo toppiniJ directly
marl1le or other stone chips. set in a ccmcntitious or re;,inou:; matrix that OVCI' il :JOUnd WOOd, metal, or COrlcrete
cemmrtitiorr;, or resinou:; nratrix and produces il l.erTiiZZO c.urf;Jce. :;til!floor.
!)I'Ound when dr-y. monolithic terrazzo
' bonding agent
Achemic;il :;ub:;tance ;rpplied t;o ;r A terrazzo topping installed directly over
sul;strate to cre;i!J; a l10nd l1etwccn it; a wughfinishcd concrcl.c :olal1. Achenric;il
standard tenazzo
;md asucceeding laya, iiS IJetv1ccn ;r lmnding agent i:; used if the concrete surface
/1 ground illid polbhed terranu fini:;h
terrazzo toppinrJ and astilifloor. is too :;111ooth for a mechanicall1ond.
colbisting mainly of relat;ively small :;tone
chit;s. underbed bonded ter1azzo
The nrort;rr brsc on v1hich a A terrazzo toppincJ installed over i! mortar
Venetian terrazzo
tcrr;mo toppincJ i:; applied. undei'IJuJ that i:; bonded toil rough-finished
/1 rJrOtllld and polie>hed krrilzzo finis!:
concrete slal1.
corbi:iting mainly of large stone chip:;, with resinous matrix
:;maller chip:; filling the spaces l;ctween. A latex, polyester, or e17oxy binder
rustic tenazzo conrl1ined with :,tone chips t;o from a sandcushion tet1azzo
A unifonnly textured terTaao finish terr;mo t;opping especially re!Ji:Jt;lrrt to A terrazzo ;;ystem for controllirrg cracking when
produced l1y w;rshin!J the nlillTix pr,ior to clremicab ;urd almi:iion. :;tmcturalmovemerrt con:;i:;tincJ of il
:,ettiniJ chips, which ;ll'e tcrTii/ZO topping in:;t;illcd OVer ilrcinfOr'Uod nwrtar
nOt!ji'OUiid. underl7ed t;lul. is from the :orMioor I'Y
isobtionn1enrlmme ;md a thin layer of :;and.
Palladiana
A mos;Jic tciTiWO finish consi:,ting of cut
or fr;!ctrl!'cd m;rrl1lc ciL1ko set l1y h;md intche
desired 11;1ttern, with :;mallcr chip:; lillincJ
the :;pace:; l1etween.

96
linoleum resilient flooring
/1 re:;ilient floor covering formed by coating Any of various floor covCI'ings capal!le of sprirrcJing
lilll'lap or carrva:> with heated lirbccd oil, !1ack to iilw original form after l1eing !Jr;nt or
powdemd cor'k, and m:Jirr, arid adding comprc:;c,cd, availal1!e in either tile or sheet form
pigments t:o achieve the desired colors and and set in mastic over a :;uital1le undel'laynwnt.
patterns. Linoleum should l1e used only on
floor covering
a subfloor suspended above grade.
lvlaterial, esp. a nonfabric material, such as vinyl or
vinyl sheet ceramic tile, used to cover afloor.
A resilient floor covering composed
principally of polyvinyl chloride in
combination with mineral fillers, pigments,
and afil1er, felt, or foam backing.

vinyl tile
/1 resilient floor tile cornpo:;ed principally
of polyvinyl chloride in combination with
mineral fillers and pigments.

cork tile
A resilient floor tile composed of
granulated cork and syr1thetic resin
binders, finished with a protective coat
of wax or a fi1111 of clear polyvinyl chloride.
Cork tile should be used only 011 asul,floor
suspended above grade. Any of various pasty substances used as a
sealant, adhesive, or protective coating.
rubber tile
/1 resilient: floor tile composed of natural or underlayment
synthetic rubber with mineral fillers. A material, :;uch as plywood or hardboard, laid
over a suiJfloor to provide a smooth, even ba:oe for
resilient flooring, carpet, or other nonstructural
flooring.

carpet
A heavy woven, knitted, needletufted, or felted
fabric for cover'ing a floor.

woven ea rpet pile


Carpet; made l1y simultaneously The upright tufts of yarn forming the sur'face of a
pile weight interweaving the backing and pile yarns carpet or fal1ric.
The average weight of pile yarn in acarpet,
on a loom.
stated in ounces per sc1uare yard. loop pile
tufted ea rpet Acarpet texture created by weaving, tufting, or
pile density Carpet made by mechanically stitching knitting the pile yarn into loops.
The weight of pile yarn per unit volume of
pile yarn through a primary fabric
carpet. si:ated in onnces per cul1ic yard.
!1ackinrJ and !10nded with latex to a
cut pile
/1 creat-ed [;y culting each loop
pitch secondary l1acking.
of pile yarn, producing ar;1nge oftextures from
The crosswise numl1er of tuft-forming
knitted carpet infornli.il dr.n:;e velvets.
pile yarns in a 2'1-irrch (686nrrn) width of
Carpet made by looping the backing,
woven carpet.
and pile yanb with three
sets of needles.
gauge
The :.pacincJ of tuft;:; acro,;:; t.he width of
at;uft;ed or knitted c;lr'pct, ill fusion-bonded carpet
fr;1ctiow; of ;1n inch. Carpel; 111adc !1y hc;li>fw;ing face y;:r'IIS backing
to a vinyll!iJcking supported l1y other The foundation material securing the pile y;rrrb of
n1;1ter'iiils. il c;rr11et iind 11rovidinrJ it, wit;h :,tiffne:''' :Arcngt;li,

flocked carpet ;md din1erbional staiJility.


nlillle [ly IWOI!ellinlj :ihort carpet pad
str'ands of pile fil1cr clectrostat:ic;:lly A pad of cellul;:r rul1!1er or fclted animal hair, over
arJainst; an adhesive co;Jted [Jacking. which carpet io; installed to incre;be resilience,
needlepunched carpet improve dural,ility, and reduce impact :;ound
Carvet made IJy punching carpet tr;msmi:ision. /1bo called carpet cushion.
fil1ers [;;:ck a11d fort:h through a woven
polypropylcnc sheet; with !1arl1cd
needles to form;: fclted fil!cr nlilt.

carpet tile
A flooring tile made of carpetin~cJ
material.

97
/In influence on aiJOdy producing or tendill!J to
pmduce achange in shape o1 movement.

collinear forces
vector Concurrent forces having the same line of action,
11 quantity possessing both magnitude and the vector sum of which is the algebraic ~;um of the
direction, represented by an arrow whose length magnitudes of the forces, acting along the same
is proportional to the magnitude and whose line of action.
orientation in space represents the direction.
coplanar forces
line of action Forces that operate in a single plane.
/\line of indefinite length of which a force vector
is a segment./\ force acting on a rigid body may concurrent forces
be regarded as acting anywhere along its line Forces having lines of act;ion int;ersecting at a
of action without altering the external effect; common point, the vector sum of which can be
of the force. found by applying the parallelogram law.

components of a force
Two or more concurrent fo1ces into which a
single force may be resolved and having a net
effect on a rigid body equivalent; t;o t;hat of
the initial force. For convenience in structural parallelogram law
analysis, these arc usually the rectangular or The proposition that the vector sum of two
Cartesian components of the initial force. concurrent forces can be descril1ed [,y the diagonal
of a parallelogram having adjacent sides that
represent the two force vectors being added.
sum
11 single vector equivalent to and producing the
same effect on a body as the application of two or
more given vectors. Also called resultant.
moment
The tendency of a force to produce rotation of triangle method
abody about apoint or line, equal in magnitude 11 graphic technique for finding the vect;or sum
to the product of the force and the moment ann of two concurrent forces by displacing one force
and acting in aclockwise o1 counterclockwise vector parallel to itself until its tail coincides with
direction. the head of the other and completing the triangle
with a vector that represents the resultant force.
moment center
The point at which the axis of a moment intersects polygon method
the plane of the forces causing the moment. 11 graphic technique for finding the vector sum
of a coplanar system of several concurrent
moment arm
forces by drawing to scale each force vector in
The perpendicular distance from the line of action
succession, with the tail of each at the head of
of a force to the point or line about which a
the one preceding it, and completing the polygon
moment occurs.lllso called force arm.
with a vector that represents the resultant force,
extending from the tail of the first to the head of
the last vector.

couple
11 force sy~;ten1 of two equal, parallel forces acting
in opposite directions and tending to produce
rotation but not translation. The nwment of a
couple is equal in magnitude to the product of
center of gravity
one of the forces and the perpendicular distance
The point at which the ent;ire weight of a body may
l'ctween the two forces.
r1e considered concentrated so that, if supported
at thb point, the l!ody would remain in equiliiJrium
in any position; coincident with the center of mass
in a uniform gravitational field./\ force whose line
of action passes through the center of gravit;y of il
body affects only its translational equilibrium; the
body remains in roi.ational equilibrium .
. . center of mass
The point at which the entire 111ass of abody
may be considered concentrated ;;uch that the
------~-.
rmallel forces moment about any line through the point is zero.
Nonconcurrent forces having parallel lines of centroid
action. The center of il one or two-dimew.ion;il figure,
nonconcurrent forces about which the sum of the dbplacemen% of all
lorw; having linec, of action tllilt. do not interc.ect points in the figure is zero.
at a common point, the vector sum of which is ;1
~;i11gle force that would caw;e the ;,anw translation
and rotation of a body as the set of original forces.

98
FORCE
Newton's first law of motion
The physical law that .1l10dy remains at !'est or in
motion with a const;ant velocity unless an extel'nal
force acv, on the body. /\liiO called law of inertia.
st;able unst;a/Jie neut;ral inertia
The tendency of a l1ody at rest to remain at rest
or of a body in motion to l'etain its velocity along
a straight line unless acted upon by an external
5tatically eq,uivalent force.
tran5lation Having the same translational and
rotational effect on al1ody:
equilibrant
The uniform motion of a body in a straight line,
The force re11uired to l1ring a set of concurrent
without rotation or angular displacement.
forces into equilibrium, equal in magnitude but
opposite in direction to the resultant of the
concurrent force system and acting along the
same line of action.

The circular motion of a body about an axis.

lever equilibrium
A rigid element; that pivots al1out a fulcru111 A state of balance or rest resulting from the equal
to exert a pressure or sustain a weight at a action of opposing forces. For a rigid l1ody to be in
second point by a force applied at a third. equilibrium, two conditions are necessary. First,
fulcrum the vector sum of all forces acting on it must equal
The point or support about which a lever zero, ensuring translational equilibrium: 2Jx 0;
turns. /:Fy ~ 0; 2Jz ~ 0. Second, the algebraic sum of
all moments of the forces about any point or line
mechanical advantage must equal zero, ensul'ing rot;ational equilibrium:
The ratio of output force to the input force 2:1vl = 0.
applied to a mechanism.

2 Newton'5 second law of motion


The physical law that the su111 of the forces acting
on a l10dy i;; equal to the product of the Ilia% of
the l1ody and the acceleration produced by lhe
F force, with motion in thedi1ection of the resultant
of theforces.

force (F)~ mass (M) acce!emti011 (i!)

mas,r, (M)~ 11.1 =weight (w) I gr;wit;Jtional force (g)


free .. body diagram
/1 graphic reprc;;entation of the co111plete ;;ystem
of applied and reactive force;; acting on abody or
an isolated part of a ;;tr"ucture. Every element;ll'y
part of a sl:ruct;u1al sy0le111 has reaction:, that arc
necessary for the e~uilil1rium oft he
the larger system has reactions at its supports 3 Newton's third law of motion
that serve to n1ain1.ilin the equilil1rium of the The physical law that for every force acting 011
whole. Abo called equilibrium diagram. a body, the body exerts a force having equal
111agnitude and the oppofJite direction ;1long the
san1e line of ac\:ion as the original force./\bo
mechanics called t;lw law of action and reaction.
The branch of phyc;ics that deals with the
effects afforce,; onl10dics or material systems,
comprised of statics and dynamics.
applied fmce
statics
/111 ext;ernal force acting di1ectly on almdy.
The lwanch of mechanicc; lhal deab with the
rclatiow> of force,, pmduci1111 equilil!iium iii'IIOIIg reactive force
bodies or matcl'ial syst;ems. /\n extern ill force oeneratcd by the action of one
l;ody 011 another.
dynamics
The branch of mechanics that deals with the
mot:ion and ecjuiliiJI'iUm of l1odics 01 nlill;erial
systems under the action of fol'ces.

99
Adefensive military \'IOrk com!IXucted for the
purpose of strengthening ;J position.

circumvallate sally port


Surrounded l1y or as if l;y ar;11npart. Agateway in afortificaUon permitting a large
numl1er oftroops to move rapidly front the
besieged position and attack the besieger:;.
casemate
Avault or chaml1er in a rampart, having
embrasures for artillery.

curtain
An enclosing wall connectiniJ two bat;t;iorb or
bastion
towers.
AprojcctiniJ part of a ra111part or other
fortification, typically forming an irregular gorge
pentagon attached at the base to the main work. The rear passageway int;o a l1astion or similar
outv;ork.
terreplein
The top plat:for111 or horizontal surface of a
rampart where guns ilre mounted.

The part of a bastion that extends from t;he


cur'tilin to the face.
shoulder
The angle between the face and the flank of a
bastion.

Either of the two outer sides that form the salient


ravelin angle of a bastion.
AVshaped out work out;side the main ditch
of a fortress, covering the works between two
bastions.
outwork escarp
Aminor defensive position estal1lished beyond The inner slope or wall of the ditch
a main fortified area. surrounding a rampart. Also called .. parapet
scarp. Adefensive wall or elevation of earth or stone
glacis
Aslope extending downward in front of a counterscarp protecting soldiers from enemy fire.
fortification in such a way that it l1rings The exterior slope or wall of the cordon
advancing enemy soldiers into the nwstdirect dit;ch surrounding a rampart. Aprojecting course of stones below the parapet
line of fire. of a rampart.
berm
Aledge between the exterior slope of a rampart
and the moat of a fortification. Also, berme.

rampart
Abroad embankment of earth raised as
iJ fortification around a place and usually
surnwuntcd by a par'apct.
matte
Asteep mound of earth surrounded by a ditch and
;;urmounted by a ti111l1er stockade and tower.

bailey
The outer wall of a castle or the
courtyard enclosed by it.
matte and bailey palisade
i1 11or111iln Cilt>t.le oftlw 10th thi'Oil(jh 12th i\ fence of i>iJie;; ;;et iirmly in t;he ground
centuries, consisting of a nwl;te placed for' enclosut'e m de fen se.
within a [1ailcy.
pale
Apointed ;,t;ick or stake.

100
ION
keep castle
I he innernw:,t and strongest. structure or Afortified woup of l1uildings w;ually
tower of illlledicval Cibtle, u;;ed as il pbcc of chapel dominating the :iUITounding country ill id held
turret residence, e:ip. in Umcs of siecJe. ;\bo called A:;ubordiJJatc 01' pli1cc of l1y aprince or noble in feudal ti111es.
/1 small tower fonning part of a large I" donjon. worship or prayer within illalgel'
sj;ructure, frecjuently [ICIJinning SOI11e complex. citadel
distance above the ground. Ill so called /1 fortres:; in a con1n1anding position in or IICill'
tourelle. a city, used inl;he control of the inhaiJitants
and in defense during attack o1 siege.
bartizan
A small overhanging turret on a wall
or tower, often at aco1neJ' or near a ward
gateway. An open space within 01 l1ctween the walb of
a castle.
bower barbican
/1 lady's private chamber in a An out;work 011 the approach to acacitle
111cdieval castle.
or town, esp. awatchtower at the cpte Ol'
postern drawbricJgc. Also, barbacan.
Asmall rear door o1 gate to af01t
enceinte
Ol' castle. A fortified w;JII encircling a ca:;tle or town, Ol"
necessarium the place liO enclo;;ed.
fhe privy of a 111edieval ca:;tle 9i:
monastery. Also called garriwobe.

brattice battlement
A tcmpOl'ai"Y wooden fortification A parapet having a regula1 alternation of
in medieval a1chitecture, erected at; nwrlon:; and aeneb, originally for defense but
the top of a wall during a siege. later used as a decorative motif. /\I so called
em battlement.
chemin-de-tonde
mer! on
One of the solid part;s between the crenels of
a l1attlement.

crenel

embrasure
machicolation An opening, such as a loophole or crenel,
A projecting gallery Ol' parapet at through which missiles may be di:;charged.
the top of a castle wall, supported by loophole
corl,eled arches and having openings in A small or narrow opening in a wall of a
the floor through which stones, molten fortification for tche di::,cllarge of missiles.
lead, or boiling oil could l1e cast upon an
enemy beneath. eyelet
A small :~perture in the wall of a medieval
castle used ;Js a window or loophole. lllso,
oil let, oyelet.

portcullis
A strong grating of imn or timber
dungeon hung over the gateway of afortified
Adark, often underground prison or place in such a way that it could be
cell, iJS in a111edieval castle. lowered quickly to preve11t pa:;1;age.
broad, deep ditch, w;ually iillcd with water,
oubliette surmunding the rillllj)ilrt of a f01tified town,
A secret; dungco11 having an opening fortress, or castle as protection against;
only in the ceilillg, thmiUJh which assault.
prisoner:i were dmpped.

101
The lowe~;t division of a buildiniJ or other
construction, partly or wholly l1elow the sw+ace
of the ground, designed to support and anchor
the supet'structure and transmit its loads
directly to the earth.

Nonuniform soil pressure caused by


lateral forces.
L...... passive earth pressure
shallow foundation
The horizontal component of resistance Shear msistance provided by McUon
Afoundation system placed directly below the
developed l1y asoil mass against the IJet;ween footing and soil.
lowest part of a substructure and transferring
horizontal movement of a vertical structure
building loads directly to the supporting soil by
through the soiL
vertical pressure.

active earth pressure


footing The horizontal component of pressure that
The part of afoundation bearing directly upon asoil mass exerts on a vertical retaining
the supporting soil, set below the frostline and structure.
enlarged to distribute its load over agreater area.

soil pressure allowable bearing pressure


settlement The actual pressure developed between a The maximum unit pressure a foundation is
The gradual sul1siding of a structure as the footing and the supporting soil mass, equal permitted to impose vertically or laterally on a
soil beneath its foundation consolidates under to the quotient of the magnitude of the supporting soil mass. Allowable bearing pressures
loading. forces transmitted and the area of contact. for various soil classifications are conservative
consolidation Also called contact ptessure. values permitted by building codes in the absence
The gradual reduction in the volume of asoil of geotechnical investigation and testing of the
mass resulting from the application of a F=building load soil. Also called allowable bearing capacity,
sustained load and an increase in compressive allowavle soil pressure.
stress.
primary consolidation
A reduction in volume of a soil mass under the
action of a sustained load, due chiefly to a
squeezing out of water from the voids within the A = conL1ct area of foof;ing
mass and atransfer of the load from the soil soil pressure (q) =PIA
water to the soil solids. Also called primary
compression.
secondary consolidation
A reduction in volume of asoil mass under
the action of asustained load, due chiefly to
adjustment of the internal structure of the
soil mass afcer most of the load has l1een
transferred from the soil water to the soil solids. The maximum dep'h ilt which soil is frozen or
frost penetrates the ground.

differential settlement frost heave


The relative movement of different parts of An uplih in soil caused by the freezing of
a structure caused by uneven ;;ettlement or internal moisture.
failure of its foundation. frost boil
Overlapping soil st;re;;ses may l;e caused by closely , ~,,~~/ohening of soil resulting from the thawing
spaced footintp or by adjacent; footinus located at \frozen groundwater.
different levels.
\
arching
The tranMer of sl.l'e;;,, from il yielding l L
of a soil mass to adjoining, less yieldinrJ or 02q
rest:r;1ined mas;,;.

Oiq

102
FOUN ON
foundation wall spread footing
!I wall occurrinrJ below the floor nearest !I concrete footing extended laterally to di:;tril,utc
grade, de;;igned to ;;upport and anchor the the foundation load over a wide enough area that
SUfJCr:Jtructure. lAw allowal;le supportinrJ
soil is not exceeded.

ground slab
Aconcrete slab placed over adense or compacted
l1ase and supported directly by the ground,
u;;ually reinforced with welded wire fabric or a
grid of reinforcing bar;; to control any cracking Critical section r1ssumed (or shedr
caused by drying shrinkage or thermal stresses.
Actual punching shear
Separate or integral footings are required for
heavy or concentrated loads. Over problem soils, Compre55ion
the slal1 must l1e designed as a mat or raft
Tension
foundation. !llso called slab on grade.
base course
A layer of coarse granular materials placed and
compact;ed on undisturl1ed soil or prepared fill
t;o prevent the capillary ri;;e of moisture to a strip footing
concrete ground slal1. The continuous ;;pread footing of a foundation wall.

subst1atum isolated footing


Something that underlies or serves a:; a base or !I single spread footinrJ supporting a freestanding
column or pier.
foundation. Also called substrate.
continuous footing
A reinforced concrete footing extended to support
a row of columns.

grade beam
A reinforced concrete beam supporting a
superstructure at or near ground level and
transferring the load to isolated footings, piers, or
piles. Also called ground beam.

stepped footing
!I continuous or strip footing that changes levels combined footing
in stages to accommodate a sloping site or 1cantileve1' footing /\reinforced concrete footing for a perimeter
bearing stratum. A reinforced concrete footing connected column or foundation wall extended to SUfJport an
interior column load.
by atie beam to another footing in order to
balance an asymmetrically imposed load, To avoid rotation or different:ia! settlement,
as at the perimeter of abuilding site. !llso continuous ;md c;mf;i/ever (oot:inqs are proportioned
called strap footing. to qenCJ<Jtc uni{orm5oil pressure.

mat
!I thick, slalilike footing of reinforced concrete
raft
:;uppor1-ing anun1l1er of columns or an entire
!I mat providing a footing on yielding soil, usually
building.
for an entire l1uilding, placed so that the weight
of the displaced soil exceeds the weirjht of the
construction.

ribbed mat
A mat foundation reinforced l1y agrid of ribs a~;ove
or below the slab.

floating foundation grillage cellular mat


!I foundation used in yielding soil, having for it;s A framework of cro;;sing beams for spreading !I co111posite structure of rcinforcuJ concrete
footing a rafl; placed deep enough tint the weight heavy loar!s over large ;lrc;b. Also caller! grid. slab:; and b;bemeJ1; walls serving as a mat
of the excavated ;;oil is equal to or greater than foundation.
the weight of !;he construction supported.

103
FOUN ION
deep foundation
Afoundation system that extend~; down through anvil
unsuitalile soil t.o transfer buildiniJ loads to a fhe component of a pile hanllllet', located jus!,
more appropriate bearing st;ratunr welll1elow the below the ram, that l-r:111sfers i.he drivinrJ force to
superst;ructure. the pile head.

pile foundation cushion


Asystem of piles, pile caps, and tic beam~; for A cap for protecting a pile head as well :1s the pile
transferring building loads dovm to asuitable hammer during a driving operation. Also called
bearing stratum, used esp. when the soil mass cushion block, cushion head.
directly below t;he construct.ion is not suital1lc for' pile driver
the direct bearing of footings. A machine for driving piles, usually composed of
atall framework supporting machinery for lifting
a pile in position before driving, a driving hanrmer,
and vertical rails or leads for guiding the hammer.
bearing stratum . batter pile drive band
A stratum of soil or rock on which a A pile driven at a specified Asteel band encircling
footing bears, or to which a building load is angle to the vertical in the head of a timber
transferred by a pile or caisson. order t;o pi'Ovide resistance pile to prevent it from
against lateral forces. splitting when driven.
Abo called pile ring.
pile
A long slender column of wood, steel, or reinforced
concrete, driven or hammered vertically into the
earth to form part of afoundation system.
end-bearing pile
A pile depending principally on the bearing timber pile
resistance of soil or rock beneath its foot for A log driven usually as a friction pile, often fi1ted
support. The surrounding soil mass provides a with a steel shoe and a drive band to prevent; it
degree of lateral stability for the long compression from splitting or shattering.
member. Also called point-bearing pile. shoe
allowable pile load The hard, Fointed or rounded foot of a pile or
The maximum axial and lateral loads permitted on caisson for piercing underlying soil./\lso called
a pile, as determined l1y adynamic pile formula, a drive shoe.
static load test, or a geotechnical investigation of precast conc1ete pile
the foundation soil. A precast, often prestressed concrete column,
pile eccentricity .... having a round, square, or Folygonal section and
rhe deviation of a pile from its plan locatiO! I or sometimes an open core, driven into the earth by a
from the vertical, resulting in a reduction of its pile driver until it meet:; the required resistance.
allowable load.
pile tolerance
pipe pile H-pile composite pile
The permitted deviation of a pile from the vertical,
A heavy steel pipe driven with the lower end A steell+section driven as a pile, sometimes A pile constructed of two materials, such as a
for which areduction in allowal1le load is not
either open or closed by a heavy steel plate or encased in concrete to a point below the water t.i111l1er pile having a conaete upper section to
required.
point and filled with concrete. An open-ended table l;o prevent corrosion. 11-sections can be prevent the portion of1;he pile above the water
pipe pile requires inspection and excavation welded toget.her in t.he driving procesCi to form table from del;eriorating.
l1efore lieing filled with concrete. any length of pile.

dynamic pile formula


/1ny of several formulas by which the allowable
axial load on apile canl1e calculated from the
energy required for a pile ha111111er to adv;Jnce the
friction pile pile foot a specified distance into the subsoil.
A pile depending principally on the frictional
static load test
resbtance of surTounding earth for support.
A test for deter111ining the allowable axial load on
skin friction a single pile, usually afraction ofthe load required
The friction developed bet;wecn the sides of a pile to reach ayield Foint, apoint of resistance, or a
and the soil into which the pile is driven, limited Foint of refusal.
liy the adhe~iion of soil to the pile sides nnd the
point of resistance
;;hear ;;trength ofthe surTounding soiln1ass.
The point at which a pile load causes a specified
negative friction ne1; set:tlement alter being apFiied continuously
An additionallo;Jd on a pile resulting from for a specified period of l;ime.
:;et.tling of fill, which tendo; to rlriliJ the pile
point of refusal
rlol'lll\'liird into the soil. -1r- I he poin1, at which no additional seH-Ienrent take:,
place after a File h;b l1eenloaded continuously for
l pressure bulb ;1 S11ecified f!Criod of Ume.

1-~- 1 :,
Azone in a loaded soil mass lmundcd by an
"i :Jrbilrarily selected isobar of :Mess, ils from yield point
The point at which an incre;J:>c in File load f!roduces
:1 sirrgle or nwnlicr of friction piles.
:1 dispi'Of!Ortion;Jte incrc;l:,c in :;ettlement.
isobar
/\line Cotrllecting points of equall!rcssure.

104
UN ION

pile cap
A reinforced concrete slab or mat
joining the heads of acluster of piles
to distribute the load from a column or
grade beam equally among the piles.

~i/
() () ()
A reinforced concrete beam distributing the
() r;] () horizontal forces from an eccentrically loaded
\_ __ 0 pile cap or spread footing to other pile caps or
Examples ofpile layouts () () footings.

cast-in-place concrete pile


Apile constructed by placing concrete into
a shaft in the ground.
pedestal pile
Acast-in-place concrete pile having an enlarged
cased pile foot to increase its bearing area and strengthen
A concrete pile constructed by driving a steel the bearing stratum by compression, formed by
pipe or casing into the ground until it meets forcing concrete out at the bottom of the casing
the required resistance and then filling it with into the surrounding soil.
concrete.
bulb
casing A bulge cast odormed at the bottom of a cast in
Acylindrical steel section, sometimes place concrete pile to enlarge its bearing area and
corrugated or tapered for increased stiffness, strengthen the bearing stratum by compression.
driven or dropped in place eo serve as aform for
acastin-place concrete pile.
mandrel
A heavy steel tube or core that is inserted
into athin-walled casing to prevent it from
collapsing in the driving process, and then uncased pile
withdrawn before concrete is placed in the A concrete pile constructed by driving a concrete
casing. plug into the ground along with a steel casing
until it meets the required resistance, and then
ramming concrete into place as the casing is
withdrawn.

pier
Acast in-place concrete foundation formed by
boring with a large auger or excavating by hand a
shaft in the earth to a suitable bearing stratum
and filling the shaft with concrete.
caisson
A pier, esp. when the boring is 2 fL (610 nnn) or
larger in diameter to permit inspection oft he
bottom. sand pile
bell A base for a footing in soft; soil, made by
The base of acaisson enlarged to increase its compacting sand in acavity left by atiml,er pile.
bearing area.
bell bucket
An attachn1cnt to an earth auger having
expanding blades for excavating a bell at the
l10ttom of a caisson shaft.

rock caisson
A caisson that is drilled into astratum 11 socketed caisson having a steel H section
of solid rack rather than belied. core within a concretdilled pipe casing.

-
105
FR E
/1 skeletal stxucturc of 1elatively slender
members designed to give sh;Jpe and support to
a building Ol' other construction.

[5~l
cr= . ?::JS plastic hinge
braced frame Avirtual hinge that develops when all fibers
A structural frame whose resistance to are fully yielded at a cross section of a
lateral forces is provided by diagonal or structural member.
other type of bracing.

r=~~1
~-~----(}-----4

rigid frame fixed frame


A structural frame of linear members rigidly A rigid frame connected to its suppo1ts with
connected at their joints. Applied loads produce fixed joints. Afixed frame is more resistant to
axial, bending, and shear forces in all members of deflection than a hinged frame but also more
the frame since the rigid joints restrain the ends sensitive to support settlements and thermal
of the members from rotating freely. In addition, expansion and contraction.
vertical loads cause a rigid frame to develop
horizontal thrusts at its base. A rigid frame is
statically indeterminate and rigid only in its plane.
sidesway
Also called moment-resisting frame.
The lateral displacement produced
in a rigid frame by lateral loads or
asymmetrical vertical loading.

i
hinged frame
A rigid frame connected to its supports with pin
!

mnmll!rJruu~,.~.~\.-.
joints. The pin joints prevent high bending stresses JlllllllilliJill!nntlr
from developing by allowing the frame to rotate
as a unit when strained by support settlements,
and to flex slightly when stressed by changes in
temperature.
v

three-hinged f1ame
A structural assembly of two rigid sections A-frame
connected to each other and to its supports with A building constructed with a ~;tecp
pin joints. While more sensitive to deflection than triangular frame resting directly on
either t;he fixed or hinged fra111e, the three-hinrwJ a foundation.
frame is least affected by support settlements
and thermal stres:;ec;. The three pin joint;s also
permit the frame to lw analyzed as a statically
determinate c;tructure.

106
knee
The junction of the top and
of the uprights of a bent.

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bent portal
A braced or rigid frame designed to carry vertical A rigid frame of two columns and a beam defining a
and lateral loads transverse to the length of a single bay. Also called single-bay frame.
framed structure.

1< multibay frame


A rigid frame having acontinuous l1eam suppo1ted
by and rigidly connected to three Ol' more columns.
Vlerendeel truss
Aframed beam structure having vertical web
members rigidly connected to parallel top and
bottom chords. A Vierendeel truss is not atrue multistoty frame
truss since its members are subject to nonaxial Avertical ser'ies of superimposed rigid frames.
bending forces. Also called Vierendeel girder.
transfer column
Adiscontinuous column in a multistory frame,
supported at some intermediate level where its
load
portal method
A method for analyzing a multistory frame as a
cantilever dominated by shear racking. The p01tal
method assumes that apoint of inflection occurs
at the midlength of all members in the frame, and
that the frame acts as a series of independent
portals to which the total lateral shear at each
level is distributed in proportion to the floor area
each column supports. Imaginary pin joints can
be inserted at each point of inflection. making the
frame a statically determinate structure.
cantilevet method
A method for analyzing a multist:ory frame as
a cantilever subject to bending. The cantilever
method assumes that apoint of inflection occurs
at the mid length of all members in the frame,
and that the axial force in each column of a srory transfer girder
b proportional to its horizonl:al distance from Agirder supp01ti11!1 atransfer column.
the centroid of all the columns on that level.
Imaginary pin joints can be insmted at each
point of inflection, making the frame a statically
determinate structure.
moment distribution method
A method for analyzing an indeterminate
structure through an iterative process of fixing
a rigid joint in space, determining the fixed end
n1aments at the joint. then releasing the joint: to
allow it to rotate, and studying the t:ransference
of moments and rota1:ions to other joints.

indeterminate determinate
Of or pert