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Shigellosis

Shigellosis is an infectious disease


caused by a group of bacteria called
Shigella (shih-GEHL-uh). Most who are
infected with Shigella develop diarrhea,
Shigellosis fever, and stomach cramps starting a
day or two after they are exposed to the
bacteria. Shigellosis usually resolves in 5
to 7 days.
How do you treat shigellosis?

Replacing lost fluids from diarrhea may be all the


treatment you need, particularly if your general health
is good and your shigella infection is mild. Avoid drugs
intended to treat diarrhea, such as loperamide
(Imodium) or atropine (Lomotil), because they can
make your condition worse.
How do you get shigellosis?

Shigellosis is an infectious disease caused by Shigella.


The Shigella germ is a family of bacteria that can cause
diarrhea in humans. People with shigellosis shed the
bacteria in their feces. The bacteria can spread from
an infected person to contaminate water or food, or
directly to another person.
How contagious is shigellosis?

Shigella germs are present in the stools of infected


persons while they have diarrhea and for up to a
week or two after the diarrhea has gone away.
Shigella is very contagious; exposure to even a tiny
amount of contaminated fecal mattertoo small to
see can cause infection. ... Contaminated hands
touch your food or mouth.
How long does it take to recover from Shigella?

Once a person gets infected with the Shigella


bacteria, it usually takes anywhere from 12
hours to several days for the symptoms to
appear. Most cases get better within 1 week
even without use of antibiotics.
How do you prevent shigella?

To prevent the spread of shigella:


Wash hands frequently and thoroughly.
Supervise small children when they wash their hands.
Dispose of soiled diapers properly.
Disinfect diaper-changing areas after use.
Don't prepare food for others if you have diarrhea.
What is shigella species?
In Canada, deaths related to shigellosis are rare. In
2004, one death was attributed to shigellosis. The
disease is usually more severe in young children.
Complications from shigellosis are possible and can
include blood poisoning (septicaemia) infections
elsewhere in the body.
What are the signs and symptoms of shigella?
Frequent bouts of watery diarrhea are the main
symptom of shigellosis. Abdominal cramping, nausea,
and vomiting may also occur. Many people who have
shigellosis also have either blood or mucus in their
stool, and they may run a fever. Symptoms usually
begin within 3 days of coming in contact with Shigella.
What is the source of Shigella spp?
The Shigella spp. bacteria are foodborne pathogenic
microorganisms that are of particular concern to
humans. The organisms include Shigella sonnei,
Shigella boydii, Shigella flexneri, and Shigella
dysenteriae. Shigella are gram-negative, nonmotile,
nonsporeforming rod-shaped bacteria.
Is shigella deadly?
S. dysenteriae and S. boydii are rare in the
United States, though they continue to be
important causes of disease in the developing
world. Shigella dysenteriae type 1 can cause
deadly epidemics.
What antibiotics are used to treat Shigella?
The following antibiotics are used to treat Shigella dysentery:
Beta-lactams: Ampicillin, amoxicillin, third-generation
cephalosporins (cexime, ceftriaxone), and pivmecillinam
(not available in the United States)
Quinolones: Nalidixic acid, ciprooxacin, noroxacin, and
ooxacin.
Macrolides: Azithromycin.
Prevention & Control
Currently, there is no vaccine to prevent shigellosis. However, you can reduce
your risk of getting shigellosis by:
Carefully washing your hands with soap during key times:
Before eating.
After changing a diaper or helping to clean another person who has
defecated (pooped).
If you care for a child in diapers who has shigellosis, promptly discard the
soiled diapers in a lidded, lined garbage can, and wash your hands and the
childs hands carefully with soap and water immediately after changing the
diapers. Any leaks or spills of diaper contents should be cleaned up
immediately.
Avoid swallowing water from ponds, lakes, or untreated swimming pools.
When traveling internationally, follow food and water precautions strictly
and wash hands with soap frequently.
Health program of the government.
Food and Water Safety
Contaminated food or drinks can cause travelers diarrhea and other
diseases. Travelers to developing countries are especially at risk.
Reduce your risk by sticking to safe eating and drinking habits.
Hot food -High heat kills the germs that cause travelers diarrhea, so
food that is cooked thoroughly is usually safe as long as it is served
steaming hot. Be careful of food that is cooked and allowed to sit at
warm or room temperatures, such as on a buffet. It could become
contaminated again.
Health program of the government.
Drinks
Drinks from factory-sealed bottles or cans are safe; however,
dishonest vendors in some countries may sell tap water in bottles that
are sealed with a drop of glue to mimic the factory seal. Carbonated
drinks, such as sodas or sparkling water, are safest since the bubbles
indicate that the bottle was sealed at the factory. If drinking directly
from a can, wipe off the lip of the can before your mouth comes into
contact with it.