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# 7 Chapter 7

7.1 Introduction
The aim of chapter 4 was to show how to calculate the main reinforcement of a beam
subjected to bending moments and axial forces which give rise to distributions of
normal stresses in cross-sections. The main principle was that steel reinforcement is
provided in those areas where the concrete cracks due to large tensile stresses.
Figure 7.1-1 shows a beam in a four point bending disposition. The central part of the
beam is loaded in pure bending; the longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as indicated
in chapter 4. The two parts of the beam between the concentrated forces and the
supports are subjected to a more complex loading because of the combination of the
bending moment and the shear force. Yet, in the early days of reinforced concrete,
people tried out the behaviour of beams with only longitudinal reinforcement and
observed for increasing loads the appearance of inclined cracks in the zones with shear
loads. Without special reinforcement to bridge the inclined cracks, it is even observed
that failure of the beam is determined by shear: one crack is prolonged suddenly up to
the upper side of the beam which causes the total collapse of the structural element (as
shown in figure 7.1-2). This type of failure happens in a sudden (brittle) way and has
thus absolutely to be avoided. The logical solution is to provide inclined reinforcement,
perpendicular to the cracks (figure 7.1-3), but a valuable alternative is to use vertical
links (or stirrups) which bridge the crack at a certain angle.

Figure 7.1-1
Four point bending test, applied on a beam with only longitudinal reinforcement

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Figure 7.1-2
Typical failure mode for a beam with only longitudinal reinforcement: a shear crack
leads to total collapse in a sudden way

Figure 7.1-3
Two possible solutions to bridge shear cracks; (a) inclined shear reinforcement:
longitudinal bars (main reinforcement on the bottom side) may be bent up to the upper
side of the beam instead of being simply curtailed; (b) vertical shear reinforcement:

## 7.2 Members not requiring shear reinforcement

7.2.1 Introduction
Providing shear reinforcement leads to a substantial cost; it is thus useful to analyse the
conditions which may allow omitting this type of reinforcement. This paragraph focuses
on the determination of the shear resistance of members without shear reinforcement.

7.2.2 A starting point: overview of results from theory of elasticity for beams with
continuous, homogeneous, isotropic and elastic materials
The following paragraph presents an overview of main notions and formulas concerning
shear forces and shear stresses in a beam loaded in bending, taken from theory of
elasticity and strength of materials courses. The formulas are valid for homogeneous,
isotropic, continuous and elastic materials. The setting is defined in figure 7.2.2-1.

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Figure 7.2.2-1
Principle figure for the elaboration of the formulas for shear stresses in beams loaded in
bending

## Main results are:

longitudinal shear force
rotation equilibrium in a cross-section leads to (figure 7.2.2-2):

Figure 7.2.2-2
Rotation equilibrium in a cross-section of a beam loaded in bending

## the shear stress on the level of the NA:

(7.2.2-1)

the formula of JOURAWSKI for the shear stress in a certain point (or on a certain
level) of the cross-section:

7-3
(7.2.2-2)

with
the y-component of the shear stress on an elementary surface perpendicular to
the x-axis;
V the shear load in the cross-section;
b the width of the cross-section at the level where the shear stress is
determined;
the moment of inertia of the full cross-section with respect to the z-axis (axis
passing through the centre of gravity G);
the static moment of the part of the cross-section situated above the level
where the stress is determined, with respect to the z-axis.

## Figure 7.2.2-3 presents a beam loaded by a uniformly distributed load. In uncracked

situation, and assuming continuous, homogeneous, isotropic and elastic material, one
obtains the set of trajectories of the principal stresses. The orientation and magnitude of
the stresses are determined in each point with a theory of elasticity approach; MOHRs
circle can be used for graphical representation. Figure 7.2.2-4 presents in a schematic
way the reasoning that permits to determine the principal orientations, the principal
elementary areas and principal stresses in a point A on the NA (x = 0; xy max) and in
point B in the cross-section. It is observed in point A that the principal tensile stress has
the same magnitude as the shear stress and is oriented with an angle of 45 with respect
to the axis of the beam. In punt B, the principal elementary area with the largest
principal tensile stress is much more horizontally oriented. These results help to
understand the crack pattern due to shear load in a beam in reinforced concrete with
only main reinforcement and in which, from a macroscopic point of view, the concrete
may be considered as a homogeneous material: see figure 7.2.2-5.

Figure 7.2.2-3
Principal stress trajectories in uncracked situation (continuous, homogeneous, isotropic
and elastic material)

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Figure 7.2.2-4
Application of MOHRs circle for the identification of the principle tensile stress at the
NA (axis of the beam); deduction of the crack pattern influenced by the presence of
shear

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Figure 7.2.2-5
Figure (a) presents the trajectories of the principle compression stresses in an uncracked
beam; figure (b) presents the experimentally observed crack pattern obtained by a four
points bending test on a beam in reinforced concrete without shear reinforcement
(WIGHT, 2009)

## 7.2.3 Effect of the cracking in reinforced concrete (beam without shear

reinforcement)
The appearance of cracks has an important influence on the further distribution of
internal forces. As cracks develop in the lower part of the beam, the NA is shifted
upwards which leads to the vertical elongation of the cracks; these cracks only deviate
towards the 45 orientation on the level of the new NA. This explains why the crack
pattern shown in figure 7.2.3-1 is characterized by much more vertical cracks than the
45 disposition in uncracked material. When load intensity increases, cracking
continues until one crack becomes instable: that means that the crack develops in a
brittle way over the whole depth of the beam. Internal equilibrium is not possible any
more and failure is reached.

Figure 7.2.3-1

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Crack development with increasing load, in a beam in reinforced concrete with main
reinforcement and without shear reinforcement (WALRAVEN, 1995)

Another consequence of the cracking is that equations (7.2.2-1) and (7.2.2-2) are strictly
not valid anymore. Moreover, the stress distribution in the cross-section, in ULS, is non-
linear and is thus highly different from the distribution in uncracked state.

Note:
WALRAVEN (1995) assumes that the following formula still allows
determining a reasonable estimation of the mean" shear stress in a section in
reinforced concrete:

(7.2.3-1)

with
b = the width of the cross-section or the minimum width of the web of I- or T-
beams;
z = the lever arm, which in first approximation can be taken as 0,9.d.

## 7.2.4 Mechanisms of the transfer of shear loads in a cracked beam in reinforced

concrete
Figure 7.2.4-1 gives an overview of the different mechanisms which explain the transfer
of the shear load in a beam in reinforced concrete without shear reinforcement.

Figure 7.2.4-1
Mechanisms for shear load transfer in cracked reinforced concrete:
(a) uncracked concrete in compression; (b) tensile stresses at the tip of the crack;
(c) granulate interlocking; (d) dowel action

## The following mechanisms are identified:

the uncracked compression concrete in the upper part of the beam (above the
shear crack) is able to transfer high shear loads;

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tensile contact stresses are present at the crack tip as long as both sides are not
separated more than w 0,15 mm (WALRAVEN, 1995). In order to further open
the crack tip, an additional tensile force has to be developed;
the shear displacement of one part of the beam with respect to the other part is
hindered by the mechanical friction resistance provided by the sliding of two
irregular crack surfaces. This is called the aggregate interlocking effect;
the shear displacement of one part of the beam with respect to the other part is
also hindered by the dowel action of the main reinforcement bars. On top of the
local shear resistance of the steel bars, one may also take account of the resistance
to local crushing of the concrete adjacent to the bars: figure 7.2.4-2.

Figure 7.2.4-2
Dowel action of the main reinforcement and resistance to local crushing of the

It can thus be concluded that the following factors determine the shear load bearing
capacity of beams without shear reinforcement:
the concrete class;
the main reinforcement ratio (a larger ratio also leads to smaller crack widths);
the width of the cross-section;
the depth of the cross-section. An important observation is that shear load bearing
capacity indeed increases with depth but less than proportional. This is a well
known phenomenon in the course on failure mechanics: a large crack is more
sensitive for instable elongation than a short crack (small sections are more
an eventual axial force, which may influence the crack width.

## 7.2.5 The shear resistance of a beam in reinforced concrete without shear

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reinforcement
Reference: EN 1992-1-1:2004; 6.2.2

The design value for the shear resistance VRd,c in a beam without shear reinforcement is
determined by means of the following empirical formula:

(7.2.5-1)

## with a minimum of:

(7.2.5-2)

where:
VRd,c is expressed in N;
fck is expressed in MPa;

with d in mm and k 2;

d = effective depth determining the distance between the centre of gravity of the
main reinforcement to the most compressed concrete fibres (top layer of beam);
= smallest width of the cross-section in the tensile area;

< 0,2.fcd

## (expressed in N): axial force in the cross-section due to loading or

prestressing (positive sign for compressive load);
(expressed in mm2): area of concrete cross-section;

with area of the tensile reinforcement which extends at the least over the
distance d+lbd beyond the section considered (see figure 7.2.5-1). Note: lbd is the
required anchorage length, discussed in chapter 6 in these course notes;

## ; assuming c = 1,5 leads to CRd,c = 0,12;

k1 = 0,15;
vmin = 0,035.k3/2.fck1/2;

The introduction of the recommended values k1 = 0,15 , CRd,c = 0,12 and vmin in equations
(7.2.5-1) and (7.2.5-2) leads to the following equations for the design value of the shear
resistance of a beam without shear reinforcement:

7-9
(7.2.5-3)

## with a mimimum of:

(7.2.5-4)

Figure 7.2.5-1
Definition of Asl in the formula for the calculation of the shear resistance of a beam
without shear reinforcement: one can only take account of those bars which are
adequately anchored; (a) end support; (b) intermediate support (Figure 6.3 in EN 1992-
1-1:2004)

The verification of the shear load bearing capacity of a structural member without shear
reinforcement is thus performed by the comparison, in the cross-section to be
considered, of the design value of the imposed shear load VEd with VRdc.

## 7.3 Members requiring design shear reinforcement

7.3.1 Introduction
If preliminary calculation shows that the shear load bearing capacity of the member
without shear reinforcement, is not large enough to withstand the imposed shear force
(thus if VEd > VRd,c), an adequate shear reinforcement is necessary. The shear
reinforcement provides replacement of the shear load bearing capacity which disappears
gradually with growing cracks, the reduction of the thickness of the compressed
concrete arch and the increased crack width which reduces the granulate interlocking
resistance. The presence of shear reinforcement allows to further increase loads while
avoiding catastrophic beam shear failure before the full exploitation of the bending
capacity.
Throughout the years, it was not easy to find an international agreement on a shear
reinforcement calculation model. The models proposed in the CEB-FIP Model Code
(precursor of EC2) and later on in the EC2, have been reworked several times.
The shear reinforcement calculation model has been developed on the basis of
remarkable experimental results.

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7.3.2 Remarquable experimental results
7.3.2.1 Result 1: beams in reinforced concrete may be analyzed by means of an
analoguous truss
Experiments on beams with shear reinforcement (links for example) reveal that the
crack pattern is determined by the presence of the links: figure 7.3.2-1. The cracks in the
zone loaded by shear, show a regular pattern and are even somewhat parallel in long
beams. In between the cracks, compressive concrete struts are identified. The struts
guide the loads applied on the upper side of the beam towards the lower side of the
beam; from there on, the loads are back again transferred towards the upper side by
means of the links; this is a regular process all along the length of the beam.
These experimental observations are the basis of the papers written independently by
the Swiss engineer RITTER in 1899 and the German engineer MRSCH in 1902, in
which they both proposed to describe the shear load transfer in reinforced concrete
beams by means of an analogous truss (WIGHT, 2009).

Figure 7.3.2-1
Schematic representation of the regular crack pattern in a beam in reinforced concrete
with shear reinforcement: identification of an analogous truss. Asw represents the cross-
section of 1 link with two legs

## The truss system is composed of four types of members:

- the non-cracked arch with compressed concrete at the upper side of the
beam, acts as the top compression member of the truss;
- the horizontal tension steel (main reinforcement) acts as bottom chord of the
truss; the distance between top and bottom member is the lever arm z;
- the diagonal compression members inclined at an angle , represent the
concrete compression struts between the (parallel) shear cracks;

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- the transverse tension members in the truss, characterized by the distance
z.cotg between them, represent the shear reinforcement (in this example

7.3.2.2 Result 2: the relationship between imposed shear load and the necessary shear
reinforcement
The area Asv of a vertical member in the truss in figure 7.3.2-1, is equal to:

(7.3.2-1)

with
Asw the cross-section of 1 link (2 vertical legs);
The force that has to be resisted by the vertical member is indeed the shear load V.
Consequently, the tensile stress sv in the vertical member is:

(7.3.2-2)

The steel stress (in the links) has to be limited to the design strength fywd. This reasoning,
fully based on the truss analogy, leads to the value of the maximum shear load that can
be supported:

(7.3.2-3)

However, experimental results (WALRAVEN, 1995) show that the real behaviour does
not fully coincide with the one suggested by the truss analogy. Figure 7.3.2-2 shows, in
a schematic way, the experimentally measured relationship between the steel stress sv
in the shear reinforcement and the applied shear load V; the solid line shows the
experimental relationship while the dashed line shows the relationship according to the
truss analogy via expression (7.3.2-2).

Figure 7.3.2-2

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The steel stress sv in the vertical links in function of the imposed shear load V: solid
line = experimental measurement; dashed line = theoretical relationship according to the
truss analogy

Figure 7.3.2-2 shows that the shear reinforcement is practically not working when
small values of shear loads are applied. Shear reinforcement is only activated (increase
of steel stress sv in the links) from the moment on that a shear crack appears. It is
learned from the experiments that in cracked situation, the imposed shear load V is
transferred by two mechanisms:
- partly by the truss mechanism;
- partly by an extra bearing mechanism, which can be explained by:
the fact that the hinges in the idealized truss system are not
hinges at all in reality; the nodes of the truss transfer also
moments;
crack surfaces are not smooth and straight, but are very irregular
in shape;
a part of the load is transferred by the uncracked compression
arch to the supports and by the dowel action of the main
reinforcement.
The sum of all non-truss mechanisms can be called Vc; it is as if this part of the load
transfer is taken care off by the concrete (c < concrete). It is observed that
- Vc is practically constant during loading, on the condition that the
mechanisms which explain the concrete part Vc are not too much destroyed
by too large crack widths;
- Vc is practically equal to the shear load that causes inclined cracks to appear.
This leads to the assumption that this shear load is nothing else than the
shear load bearing capacity VRd,c of the same beam but without shear
reinforcement.

The experimental result mentioned above, has been confirmed for cross-sections with
various shapes and reinforcement ratios. It is an important result which has lead to the
rule in earlier versions of EC2 (1995, 1998) that shear reinforcement in beams could be
calculated for the shear load (V-VRd,c) only. The actual version of EC2 (2004) adopts
another point of vue (see further).

## 7.3.3 Analogous truss models

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Figure 7.3.3-1
Basic model of analogous truss system for the development of the formulas for shear
load verification of a beam in reinforced concrete

Figure 7.3.3-1 presents the general truss model that is used for the development of the
formulas for shear load verification of a beam in reinforced concrete. The inclination
angle of the shear reinforcement with the beams axis is called . For inclined bars:
< 90 (typical 45); for vertical links: = 90. The inclination angle of the cracks, and
thus also the inclination angle of the concrete compression strut, is called . The limit
values for the angle are fixed in the standard:

EN 1992-1-1:2004; 6.2.3(2):

## 45,0 21,8 (7.3.3-2)

The Belgian ANB takes account of the effect of an eventual axial force or prestressing
force which lead to less inclined cracks; this is illustrated by the principle reasoning by
means of MOHRs circle in figure 7.3.3-2. The ANB defines the limit values for as
follows:

## 1,0 cotg cotg max (7.3.3-3)

with

(7.3.3-4)

where:
k1, cp, bw, d : defined in paragraph 7.2.5;

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Asw = cross-sectional area of one shear reinforcement: one inclined bar or two
s = spacing of the adjacent shear reinforcement;
z = lever arm between the compression and tensile members of the truss;
ANB accepts z = 0,9.d if cp = 0;
fywd = design yield strength of shear reinforcement.

With cp non 0, one may even adopt cotg = 3; this assumption corresponds to very
slightly inclined cracks, with an inclination angle of only 18,4.

## If cp = 0, application of ANB leads to the following limit values:

1 cotg 2 (7.3.3-5)

## 45,0 26,6 (7.3.3-6)

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Figure 7.3.3-2
Auxiliary reasoning by means of MOHRs circle to show that the presence of
axial compression stresses leads to a less inclined crack angle

7-16
Note:
It is thus observed that the actual standard accepts the choice of rather small
values of the crack inclination angle and thus of the concrete compression
struts in the truss model. The justification for this choice and the discussion of its
consequences is presented further in this chapter.

## 7.3.4 Design of the truss members

7.3.4.1 Introduction
The truss model in figure 7.3.3-1 contains four components:
the vertical or inclined tension reinforcement which represent the shear
reinforcement (links or stirrups or inclined bars);
the concrete compression struts, with an inclination angle ;
the compression member on top;
the tension member at the bottom (the bottom chord member).
Design for shear means that each of all four members of the truss is designed strong
enough in order to make the beam able resisting the imposed shear load.

## 7.3.4.2 The shear reinforcement

1. The force in the truss member
The assumed truss model is once again presented in figure 7.3.4-1. The method of
sections (method of RITTER) may be applied to determine the force T in the
inclined truss member; vertical translation equilibrium leads to:

(7.3.4-1)

Figure 7.3.4-1
Application of the method of sections (RITTER) to determine the force in the
inclined truss member

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2. The maximum shear load VRd,s that can be resisted by the shear reinforcement
A schematic representation of the truss is shown in figure 7.3.4-2; the figure
shows clearly that each single stirrup or inclined bar that is represented as
inclined truss member (associated with each inclined strut), represents in fact a
series of stirrups or bars distributed along each crack with spacing s.

Figure 7.3.4-2
Auxiliary figure for the determination of the shear reinforcement

The maximum value of the shear load VRd,s that may be resisted by the inclined
tensile truss member is:

(7.3.4-2)

with:
the cross-sectional area of 1 stirrup (2 legs!) or of 1 inclined bar;
the design yield strength of the shear reinforcement;
n the number of links or bars that is distributed along the distance
z (cotg + cotg ). The number is equal to:

## with s = the spacing of the stirrups or bars;

sin for the vertical projection.

The formula for the maximum shear load that may be resisted by the shear
reinforcement is thus:

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(7.3.4-3)

## For vertical links with , the formula is:

(7.3.4-4)

Note 1:
With cp = 0, z = 0,9.d may be assumed.

Note 2:
The earlier versions of the standard (1995, 1998) proposed to apply the
so called standard method in which the inclination angle of all
compression strut was = 45. With this assumption, the formulas are:
- with inclined shear reinforcement:

(7.3.4-5)

## - with vertical stirrups:

(7.3.4-6)

3. The necessary shear reinforcement to resist the imposed shear load VEd
The necessary shear reinforcement per unit length (along the beams axis) can be
deduced from expression (7.3.4-3):
- for inclined shear reinforcement:

(7.3.4-7)

## - for vertical stirrups:

(7.3.4-8)

Note:
The last formula allows to conclude that the choice of a smaller value of
the angle leads to a smaller cross-sectional area of shear reinforcement

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( smaller cotg larger). The adoption of less inclined cracks in the
truss model thus leads to savings in shear reinforcement.
This conclusion can also be explained in another way: if cracks are less
inclined, the principal tensile stress (which is perpendicular to the crack)
is oriented more vertically; this means that vertical stirrups are used
more efficiently which leads to the reduction of the number of stirrups
needed.

## 7.3.4.3 The concrete compression struts

1. The force in the truss member
The truss model is shown in figure 7.3.4-3. Vertical translation equilibrium leads
to the identification of the force D in the inclined compression member:

(7.3.4-9)

Figure 7.3.4-3
Application of the method of sections (RITTER) to determine the force in the
inclined concrete compression member

2. The maximum shear load VRd,max that can be resisted by the concrete compression
member
The maximum value of the compression force D that may be resisted by the
inclined concrete strut is equal to the product of the maximum concrete
compression strength with the cross-sectional area of the strut; the last one is
deduced from figure 7.3.4-2: cross-sectional area of the strut = .

The maximum concrete compression strength to be used for the strut calculation,
is defined in EN 1992-1-1:2004; 6.2.3(3) and is limited to v.fcd
with fcd = fck / 1,5 (and not fcd = 0,85 . fck / 1,5 !)

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Note:
It should be remembered here that EN 1992-1-1:2004; 3.1.6 defines fcd as
fcd = cc . fck / c
with cc a factor for which the value 1 is recommended.
In Belgium, the National Annex (NBN EN 1992-1-1 ANB) recommends
the use of the value cc = 0,85 for verification in ULS for axial loads,
(shear and torsion), cc = 1 should be used. This means in practice that
for calculations in accordance with NBN EN 1992-1-1 ANB, the
following design values have to be used for the compressive strength of
concrete:
- for ULS design of the main reinforcement (thus for normal
stresses due to axial loads and bending moments): fcd = 0,85 . fck /
1,5
- for ULS design of shear reinforcement (necessary to take up shear
loads and torsion): fcd = fck / 1,5

(7.3.4-10)

## in which fck is expressed in N/mm2.

The additional strength reduction factor has to be applied to the concrete design
strength for the calculation of the struts in order to take account of the complex,
two-dimensional stress situation in the struts. Indeed, the struts are intersected by
between steel and concrete, the transverse tensile stresses cause the weakening of
the compressive struts. Formula (7.3.4-10) is the result of experimental tests.

Note:
EN 1992-1-1:2004; 6.2.3(3) stipulates that when the design stress in the
shear reinforcement is less than 80% of fywk, the following values may be
adopted for the reduction factor :
- = 0,6 for fck 60 MPa;
- = 0,9 fck/200 > 0,5 for fck > 60 MPa

The maximum compression force D that can be resisted by the strut is thus:
v.fcd.b.dstrut. The vertical projection of this force is designated in EN 1992-1-
1:2004 with the symbol VRd,max; this force has to be compared to the imposed shear
VRd,max may be further expressed as (see figure 7.3.4-2):

(7.3.4-11)

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with

(7.3.4-12)

## With vertical links , the formula is:

or also: (7.3.4-13)

Note 1:
If cp = 0, z = 0,9.d may be assumed.

Note 2:
The earlier versions of the standard (1995, 1998) proposed to apply the
so called standard method in which the inclination angle of all
compression strut was = 45.

## With this assumption, the formulas are:

- with inclined shear reinforcement:

(7.3.4-14)

(7.3.4-15)

## 3. Stress control in the concrete compression strut

The stress is deduced from expression (7.3.4-12):

(7.3.4-16)

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This formula allows to observe that the choice of a smaller value of inclination
angle leads to larger compression stresses in the concrete strut. This result is
obvious when looking at figure 7.3.4-4: a less inclined strut has to transfer a
larger compression force D in order to generate the same resisting shear force. It
is observed that this does not cause problems in most practical normal cases,
because the stress is in general quite smaller than the acceptable stress v.fcd (see
applications). Yet, problems may arise when small inclination angles are chosen.
Expression (7.3.4-16) also shows that the stress in the concrete compression strut
gets smaller with the use of inclined bars ( < 90).

Figure 7.3.4-4
A less inclined strut has to transfer a larger compression force D in order to
generate the same resisting shear force

Note:
EN 1992-1-1:2004; 6.2.3(3) stipulates that when prestressing is applied,
the value of VRd,max may be increased, in order to take account of the fact
that cracks are closed.

7.3.4.4 The upper chord and the bottom chord of the truss model
1. The forces in the truss members
The forces in the upper and bottom chord can be determined by expressing the
equilibrium of the forces applied to the part of the beam shown in figure 7.3.4-5.
At the level of the considered cross-section, a whole series of compression struts
are cut; all these compression forces have a resultant force which is D and which
is applied at half depth; the magnitude of its vertical component Dy is equal to V.
In the same cross-section, a whole series of tensile reinforcement bars (stirrups or
bars) are cut; the resultant force of all these tensile forces is T, which is applied at
half depth; the magnitude of its vertical component Ty has to be equal to V.
Consequently, the horizontal components are:

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Figure 7.3.4-5
Auxiliary figure for the determination of the member forces in the upper truss
member and in the bottom chord

The other forces that are applied to the isolated left part of the beam, are:
the imposed uniformly distributed load q;
the support reaction force R;
the force Nc in the arch of compressed non-cracked concrete;
the tensile force Ns in the main reinforcement.

## Rotation equilibrium written around point S (figure 7.3.4-5) leads to:

The first member of this equation is nothing else than the bending moment Mz in
the considered cross-section, and thus:

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(7.3.4-17)

## In an analogous way, the rotation equilibrium around point C (figure 7.3.4-5)

(7.3.4-18)

2. Discussion
The result of expression (7.3.4-18) is important because this shows that, in zones
with shear loads, the force to be transmitted by the main reinforcement does not
only depend on the bending moment Mz; indeed: . The main
decreasing value of (a disadvantage of choosing less inclined cracks and thus
less inclined concrete struts). The consequences of this observation are illustrated
in a visual way for the particular case with the choices: and
vertical stirrups with = 90 (cotg = 0); expression (7.3.4-18) is than written:

(7.3.4-19)

## Expression (7.3.4-19) is represented in a schematic way in figure 7.3.4-6, for a

Figure 7.3.4-6

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Schematic representation of the increase in tensile force in the main
reinforcement due to the shear load, for two beams (a) and (b), and with the
assumptions = 45 and = 90 (vertical stirrups)

In the case of the concentrated load (figure 7.3.4-6(b)), one notes Mz=V.x.
Substitution in expression (7.3.4-19) leads to:

(7.3.4-20)

Expression (7.3.4-20) shows that in order to calculate the force Ns in the section x,
one may not use the bending moment at the distance x from the support, but
instead of that, has to use the bending moment at the distance from the
support. The bending moment diagram has thus to be shifted over the
distance , in unfavourable direction. In the more general case with arbitrary
values of and , the distance over which the bending moment diagram has to be
shifted is .

Note:
The additional tensile force in the main reinforcement disappears when
inclined bars with are used in combination with the
assumption = 45.

3. Prescriptions EN 1992-1-1:2004
The main reinforcement has to be designed for a supplementary force which is
due to the shear load; the problem is due to the fact that the orientation of the
reinforcement does not coincide with the orientation of the principal tensile stress.
EN 1992-1-1:2004; 6.2.3(7) stipulates that the main reinforcement should be
calculated for an additional tensile force Ftd which is due to the imposed shear
force VEd and which may be determined by means of expression (7.3.4-18):

## in which MEd,max is the maximum moment along the beam.

7-26
In practice, the rule just mentioned above is translated into the much more
practical alternative which is called the shift rule: the bending moment diagram
is shifted over the distance al, which also means that the length of the main
reinforcement bars is increased with al at each end. The shifting has thus
essentially consequences for the curtailment of the longitudinal tension
reinforcement. The prescriptions in EN 1992-1-1:2004; 9.2.1.3 can be
summarized as follows:

for structural members without shear reinforcement, the moment curve may
be shifted over the distance al = d;
for structural members with shear reinforcement, the moment curve may be
shifted over the distance al = z/2.(cotg - cotg ). As already said before,
in the absence of axial compression loads, z may be assumed equal to 0,9.d;
the curtailed bars should be anchored with lbd from the point on where the
bars are not useful anymore. The diagram of the resisting tensile forces
should engulf the envelope diagram of the imposed tensile forces, after
application of the shift rule: see figure 7.3.4-7;
the anchorage length of a bent-up bar which contributes to the resistance to
shear, should not be less than 1,3.lbd in the tension zone and 0,7.lbd in the
compression zone.

Figure 7.3.4-7
Envelope diagram for the calculation of structural members subjected to bending,
with indication of the anchorage lengths to be applied
(figure 9.2 in EN 1992-1-1:2004)

7-27
7.3.4.5 Discussion of the variable strut inclination method
The previous versions of the standard (1995,1998) recommended the so called standard
method, which is characterized by the choice of the inclination angle of all concrete
compression struts equal to 45. This assumption leads to a relatively simple
verification of successive cracks with a constant inclination angle, starting with the first
crack for the largest imposed shear load: see figure 7.3.4-8. However, the variable strut
inclination method was also mentioned in parallel to the standard method. The
- less shear reinforcement per unit length along the beam;
- more important loading of the concrete compression struts, with higher stress
levels;
- larger shift length al and thus longer main reinforcement bars.

The 2004 version of EC2 does not mention the standard method anymore. Moreover, it
is observed that the standard accepts rather small values for the inclination angle :
EN 1992-1-1: 2004: 45,0 21,8
ANB:
- with cp = 0: 45,0 26,6
- with cp 0: 45,0 18,4

With the new prescriptions, the standard wants to take account of the observation that in
the case of shear failure of the structural member, the most important crack close to the
support and with the highest imposed shear load, is indeed characterized by a smaller
inclination angle; see figure 7.3.4-9. Adopting = 45 in this zone of the structural
member, leads to over-estimation of the necessary shear reinforcement.

Note:
Low inclination cracks only appear with lack of shear resistance. Figure
7.3.4-10 shows the crack pattern in a beam with sufficient shear
reinforcement; the beam has failed in bending and only nearly vertical
cracks are observed in the zone with shear loads.

Finally, it should be stressed that the design of shear reinforcement by means of a truss
model with variable strut inclination, is in full accordance with the principles of plastic
design which occupies a prominent place in the present version of the standard. Design
on the basis of the assumption of a strut inclination which does not fully coincide with
the real inclination, leads to a slightly different failure mechanism: the beam fails in a
way that is determined by the designer. With the adoption of a too small inclination
angle and thus the provision of less shear reinforcement, the designer asks to the
beam for a rearrangement of tasks with a heavier loading of the struts and of the main
reinforcement. Practically speaking, this rearrangement will be visible by a more
the struts. The principles of plastic design are discussed in chapter 11 in these course
notes.

7-28
Figure 7.3.4-8
Comparison of truss models with the standard model ( = 45) on one hand and
the variable strut inclination method on the other hand

Figure 7.3.4-9
Shear failure of a beam without sufficient shear reinforcement: the most
important crack, associated with the maximum shear load, is characterized by an
inclination angle smaller than 45

7-29
Figure 7.3.4-10
Crack pattern in a beam subjected to a four point bending test; failure is in
bending and not in shear; shear reinforcement has been well designed

## 7.4 Design for shear

7.4.1 Introduction
This paragraph focuses on the ULS design calculation of shear reinforcement according
to EN 1992-1-1:2004; 6.2 and the complementary Belgian ANB prescriptions.

7.4.2 Definitions
The verification of shear resistance is based on three design values of resisting shear
forces:
VRd,c design shear resistance of the member in a section without shear
reinforcement. VRd,c is calculated by means of expressions (7.2.5-3) and (7.2.5-4)
in these course notes;
VRd,s design value of the shear force which can be sustained by the yielding
shear reinforcement. VRd,s is calculated by means of expressions (7.3.4-3) and
(7.3.4-4) in these course notes;
VRd,max design value of the maximum shear force which can be sustained by the
member, limited by crushing of the compression struts. VRd,max is calculated by
means of expressions (7.3.4-12) and (7.3.4-13) in these course notes.

VEd is the imposed design shear force in the section to be verified, resulting from

7-30
7.4.3 The principles of the shear verification procedure
- In the regions of the member where VEd VRd,c no calculated shear reinforcement
is necessary. Yet, when on the basis of the design calculation, no shear
reinforcement is required, minimum (technological) shear reinforcement should
be provided. The minimum shear reinforcement may be omitted in certain special
cases such as:
- slabs where transverse redistribution of loads is possible;
- members of minor importance which do not contribute significantly to the
overall resistance and stability of the structure; example: lintels with span
2 m.

- In regions where VEd > VRd,c sufficient shear reinforcement should be provided in
order that VEd VRd.. VRd is the resisting shear force and is equal to the smallest of
the two values VRd,s and VRd,max.

Important note:
It was already mentioned in figure 7.3.2-2, that there is experimental
evidence for the fact that the shear reinforcement only starts to work
as a member in a truss sytem, for a reduced value of the imposed shear
load. In the previous versions (1995, 1998) of EC2, it was accepted that
the reduction could be taken equal to the shear force VRd,c which is in
fact the shear load resisted without shear reinforcement, by the
following mechanisms:
- the shear resistance of the non-cracked compression concrete arch;
- the granulate interlocking effect along the shear crack;
- the dowel action of the main reinforcement.
It was thus accepted in the previous versions of EC2, in which the
standard method was used for shear verification (struts with constant
inclination angle of 45), to design shear reinforcement for the force
VEd - VRd,c.
This is not the case anymore in the present version (2004) of EC2, in
spite of the experimental evidence shown in figure 7.3.2-2; shear
reinforcement has now to be calculated for the full imposed shear force
VEd. The reason for this is that the present standard does not want to
accumulate too much favourable effects. Indeed, the present EC2
allows adopting small inclination angles in the regions where high shear
not want to accumulate this positive effect on the shear reinforcement
with a second one generated by the reduction with VRd,c of the imposed
shear force VEd.

## - The longitudinal tension reinforcement should be able to resist the additional

tensile force caused by shear; in practice, the shift rule is used.

## - For members subjected to predominantly uniform distributed loading, the design

shear force need not to be checked at a distance less than d from the face of the

7-31
support; see figure 7.4.3-1. This rule takes into account that the loads applied
close to the support, are directly transmitted to the support without causing
bending and shear of the beam itself. The shear verification thus starts with the
first crack which is initiated at the tensile side of the beam and which develops
upwards with a certain inclination angle. Any shear reinforcement required in the
first verified section, should continue to the support. On top of that, it should
always be verified that the imposed shear force at the support is not larger than
VRd,max.

Figure 7.4.3-1
In the case of uniformly distributed loads, direct transmission to the support of the loads
applied close to the support may be assumed

Note 1:
For members with inclined chords (upper side and lower side), the value
components (see figure 7.4.3-2):
VRd = minimum(VRd,s; VRd,max) + Vccd + Vtd
with:
- Vccd = the design value of the shear component of the force in the
compression area, in the case of an inclined compression chord (upper
side);
- Vtd = the design value of the shear component of the force in the
tensile reinforcement, in the case of an inclined tensile chord (lower
side).

7-32
Figure 7.4.3-2
Additional shear resistance due to the presence of inclined chords in structural
members
(adaption of figure 6.2 in EN 1992-1-1:2004)

Note 2:
When loads are applied to the lower side of a structural member,
sufficient vertical reinforcement, in addition to the shear reinforcement,
is needed in order to transfer the loads to the upper side: see figure 7.4.3-
3.

Figure 7.4.3-3
Additional reinforcement is needed to transfer loads applied to the lower side of
the beam to the upper side

## 7.4.4 Members not requiring design shear reinforcement: VEd VRd,c

Some prescriptions:
- in the regions where VEd VRd,c no calculated shear reinforcement is necessary, but
minimum (technological) shear reinforcement should be provided: see further in
the paragraph on technological prescriptions;
- for the design of the longitudinal reinforcement, the MEd-diagram should be
shifted over a distance al = d in the unfavourable direction;
- for members with concentrated loads applied on the upper side and rather close to
the support, it may be assumed that a part of the load is transferred directly to the
support (without interaction of the beam itself), which gives a reduction of the
imposed shear force VEd. The prescriptions stipulate that when the concentrated
load is applied on the upper side within a distance 0,5d av 2d (see figure 7.4.4-
1) from the edge of the support, the contribution of this load to the shear force VEd

7-33
may be reduced by multiplying the load by the factor = av/2d. This reduction is
only valid provided that the longitudinal reinforcement is fully anchored at the
support. For av 0,5d the value av = 0,5d should be used.

Important remark: the imposed shear force VEd, calculated without reduction by
the factor , should always satisfy the condition:

(7.4.4-2)

## This condition corresponds in fact to the verification of a fictive concrete

compression strut right above the support. Expression (7.4.4-1) is deduced from
expression (7.3.4-13) which defines the maximum shear force that can be resisted
from the point of view of strut failure:

By introduction of the lever arm z taken equal to d and = 45, expression (7.4.4-
1) is obtained, which corresponds to a sort of upper limit for VEd. Indeed, taking
into account the following evolution of the term sin.cos:

sin.cos
45 0,5
40 0,49
35 0,47
30 0,43

one finds the condition VEd ...sin.cos more severe for VEd in order to take into
account that the strut is more heavily loaded in compression when it is less
inclined.

7-34
Figure 7.4.4-1
It may be assumed that a fraction of the loads applied near supports, is
transmitted directly to the support and does not give a contribution to the
imposed shear force VEd, on the condition that the main reinforcement is
sufficiently anchored (figure 6.4 in EN 1992-1-1:2004)

7.4.5 Structural members requiring design shear reinforcement: VEd > VRd,c
In regions where VEd > VRd,c, sufficient shear reinforcement should be provided in order
that VEd VRd. VRd is the resisting shear force and is equal to the minimum of the two
values VRd,s and VRd,max. The formulas for VRd,s and VRd,max are developed on the basis of an
analogous truss model which is once again represented in figure 7.4.5-1.

7-35
Figure 7.4.5-1
Truss model used for the calculation of the shear reinforcement in structural members
(figure 6.5 in EN 1992-1-1:2004)

## 7.4.5.1 When vertical shear reinforcement is used

(7.4.5-1)

(7.4.5-2)

with the additional condition that defines the maximum effective cross-sectional area of
shear reinforcement for = 45 ( cotg = 1 ):

(7.4.5-3)

## 7.4.5.2 When inclined shear reinforcement is used

(7.4.5-4)

(7.4.5-5)

with the additional condition that defines the maximum effective cross-sectional area of
shear reinforcement for = 45 ( cotg = 1 ):

(7.4.5-6)

Just as in the case where shear reinforcement is not necessary, the rule for direct
transmission to the support of a fraction of the loads that are applied near supports, can
be applied here too. The prescriptions stipulate that when the load is applied on the
upper side within a distance 0,5d av 2d (see figure 7.4.4-1) from the edge of the
support, the contribution of the load to the imposed shear force VEd may be reduced by
multiplying the load by the factor = av/2d. This reduction may only be applied if the
main reinforcement is fully anchored above the support. For av 0,5d, the value
av = 0,5d may be adopted.

7-36
Important: the imposed shear force VEd, calculated in this way (thus with application of
the reduction factor ), should satisfy the condition:

## VEd Asw . fywd . sin

where Asw . fywd = the resistance of the shear reinforcement crossing the inclined shear
crack between the loaded areas (see figure 7.4.5-2); only the shear reinforcement within
the central 0,75.av should be taken into account.

Note:
The reduction with the factor may only be applied
- for the calculation of shear reinforcement and not for the strut verification;
- provided that the longitudinal reinforcement is fully anchored at the
support.

Figure 7.4.5-2
Auxiliary figure for the calculation of shear reinforcement with direct strut action close
to the support (figure 6.6 in EN 1992-1-1:2004)

## 7.5.1 The first value of VEd to be considered: in principle

In principle, the largest value of VEd should be considered for the first shear design
calculation. To remember, design of shear reinforcement is performed in ULS; the
design values of the loads have thus to be considered (use of partial safety factors). See
example in figure 7.5.1-1.

7-37
Figure 7.5.1-1
In principle, the largest value of VEd should be considered for the first shear design
calculation; that is the value at the support

7.5.2 Reduction of VEd to take account of direct load transfer to the supports
The shear calculation is performed by considering successive shear cracks, starting with
the first crack in the region with the largest value of the imposed shear force. The crack
is initiated on the tensile side (at the bottom of the beam in figure 7.5.1-1) at the edge of
the support; the crack is assumed to be vertical in the concrete cover, but starting from
the main reinforcement, develops upwards with an inclination angle. In reality, the
crack gets stuck in the concrete compression arch, but in the simplified truss model, the
crack is extended up to the upper side of the beam with a constant inclination angle.

When the first crack is considered with the inclination angle , the assumption is
adopted that the uniformly distributed load to the left of the upper end of the crack is
transferred directly to the support: see figure 7.5.2-1. The first value of VEd to be
calculated is thus the imposed shear force in the cross-section at the distance d.cotg (d
when = 45) from the edge of the support (cross-section C in figure 7.5.2-1). The
value of (VEd)C is equal to the maximum shear force in support A (due to g and Q)
reduced with the portion of shear load due to g over the distance a + d.cotg:

with
a: see determination of the design span for different support conditions in paragraph
2.5.2.2.

7-38
Figure 7.5.2-1
First shear verification in the cross-section with the largest imposed shear force VEd,
taking account of the reduction due to the direct transfer of g to the support

Note:
The adoption of smaller values of (than 45) leads to smaller values of VEd
(see figure 7.5.2-1). But with this assumption, it is very important to verify the
concrete compression strut above the support with the formula:

## VEd (with reduction of g only) bw . z . . fcd . sin . cos

If this condition is OK, then further comparison of VEd with VRd,c can be
performed.

## 7.5.2.2 Concentrated loads close to supports

For concentrated loads which are applied at the distance av from the edge of the support,
with 0,5.d av 2.d, a reduction may be adopted of the imposed shear force. The
contribution of the concentrated force to the shear force VEd may be reduced by
multiplying the concentrated force with the reduction factor = av/2d ( 1). This rule is
independent from the choice of the inclination angle .
Figure 7.5.2-2 shows the example of the concentrated force Q applied within the
distance av = 2.d from the edge of the support. The imposed shear load (VQ)dA in cross-

7-39
section A may be reduced to .(VQ)dA; this means that the difference (VQ)dA - .(VQ)dA is
directly transferred to the support. The shear force (VEd)C to be considered in cross-
section C, at the distance d.cotg from the edge of the support is thus:

Figure 7.5.2-2
Reduction of the imposed shear force due to direct transfer of a portion of the
concentrated force to the support

Important note:
The reduction by means of the factor is not allowed for the verification of the
concrete compression struts. The reduction is only considered for:
- the comparison between VEd and VRd,c;
- the calculation of the shear reinforcement.
It is thus recommended to calculate two distinct values of VEd for further use:
- VEdg in cross-section C (with only the reduction of the contribution of g);
- VEdg+Q in cross-section C (inclusive the reduction of g and Q).

## 7.5.3 The verifications to be performed for the first crack

The following verifications have to be performed.

7-40
7.5.3.1 VRd,c
Calculation of the resisting shear force VRd,c. The crack that has to be considered with
(VEd)C in cross-section C, starts from the tensile side at the edge of the support and
develops with an inclination angle up to the cross-section C. This crack is determining
for the area of reinforcement Asl that has to be considered for the calculation of VRd,c.
This value of VRd,c which is calculated in order to be compared with (VEd)C in cross-
section C, has to take account of the main reinforcement that contributes to the shear
resistance by means of the dowel action in the crack. Again, only that reinforcement can
be considered that is sufficiently anchored with lbd beyond the section where the dowel
action takes place; this is thus Asl which continues over the length d+lbd such as pointed
out in figure 7.2.5-1(a) and in the definition of Asl in expression (7.2.5-1).

## 7.5.3.2 VEd VRd,c

Is VEd (with reduction of g and Q) VRd,c , then:
- the technological shear reinforcement is sufficient (see further);
- the strut above the support should be verified by means of expression (7.4.4-1):

## This expression takes account of = 90, as the technological reinforcement is

composed of stirrups.

## 7.5.3.3 VEd > VRd,c

First, the strut-condition has to be verified. At this stage, if necessary, one can still make
a new choice of the inclination angle :
- with stirrups

(7.5.3-1)

## - with bent-up bars

(7.5.3-2)

Next, the necessary shear reinforcement per unit length can be determined by means of
the following formulas:

- with stirrups

(7.5.3-3)

## - with bent-up bars

7-41
(7.5.3-3)

Once Asw/s calculated, one has to verify if this reinforcement is at least equal to the
minimum reinforcement ration (see further in detailing of reinforcement). The
practical translation of Asw/s into a suitable diameter and spacing, can be realized by
means of table 7.5.3-1.

Table 7.5.3-1

## Values of Asw and for stirrups with two vertical legs

(mm) 6 8 10 12 14 16
Asw (mm2) 56,5 100 157 226 308 402

s (mm) (mm2/mm)

## 50 1,131 2,011 3,141 4,524 6,158 8,042

60 0,942 1,676 2,618 3,770 5,131 6,702
70 0,808 1,436 2,244 3,231 4,398 5,745
80 0,707 1,257 1,963 2,827 3,848 5,027
90 0,628 1,117 1,745 2,513 3,421 4,468
100 0,565 1,005 1,571 2,262 3,079 4,021
120 0,471 0,838 1,309 1,885 2,566 3,351
140 0,404 0,718 1,122 1,616 2,199 2,872
150 0,377 0,670 1,047 1,508 2,053 2,681
160 0,353 0,628 0,982 1,414 1,924 2,513
180 0,314 0,559 0,873 1,257 1,710 2,234
200 0,283 0,503 0,785 1,131 1,539 2,011
250 0,226 0,402 0,628 0,905 1,232 1,608
300 0,188 0,335 0,524 0,754 1,026 1,340

Note:
The additional condition related to the use of the -factor for concentrated loads
should not be forgotten: the imposed shear force VEd, calculated with application
of the -factor, should always respect the following condition:

## VEd Asw . fywd . sin (7.5.3-5)

where Asw . fywd = the force that is generated by the shear reinforcement in this
area (at the support); only the reinforcement in the central part 0,75.av should be
taken into account (see figure 7.4.5-2).

7-42
7.5.4 Verification of further cracks
After the control of the first crack, the second crack has to be verified: as long as
VEd > VRd,c (and a calculated shear reinforcement is necessary), a next crack has to be
verified. In other words: if it is found in the considered cross-section that the calculated
shear reinforcement is larger than the minimum reinforcement, a next crack has to be
verified.

Figure 7.5.4-1 presents the example of an end support, with indication of the cross-
sections C1, C2, C3... that have to be verified successively. The cracks start in the tensile
region at the bottom side of the beam; this determines the areas of the main
reinforcement Asl to be considered in the calculation of VRd,c; see figure 7.2.5-1(a) and
the definition of Asl in expression (7.2.5-1): Asl1, Asl2, Asl3 are the areas of main
reinforcement that continue over the distance d+lbd to the left beyond the cross-sections
that are considered.

Figure 7.5.4-1
The cross-sections to be considered successively in shear verification, in a beam close to
an end support

## Figure 7.5.4-2 presents the example of an intermediate support in a continuous beam.

The first crack is easy to identify on the basis of the cone with direct load transfer to the
support. The first cross-section to be calculated is C1 with (VEd)C1. The crack that
corresponds to this (VEd)C1 starts in the tensile region, at the upper side in C2; this is the
place where the dowel action of the main reinforcement is activated. In accordance with
figure 7.2.5-1(b) and the definition of Asl in expression (7.2.5-1), the main reinforcement
Asl1 should continue over the distance d+lbd beyond C2, in order to assure for 100% the
dowel resistance in C2.

7-43
Figure 7.5.4-2
The cross-sections to be considered successively in shear verification, in a beam close to
an intermediate support

## 7.6 Detailing of shear reinforcement

Reference: EN 1992-1-1:2004; 9.2.2

## 7.6.1 Shape and nature of shear reinforcement

- The shear reinforcement should form an angle between 45 and 90 to the
longitudinal axis of the structural element.
- The shear reinforcement may consist of a combination of:
links enclosing the longitudinal tension reinforcement and the concrete
compression zone: see figure 7.6.1-1;
bent-up bars;
cages, ladders, etc. which are cast in without enclosing the longitudinal
reinforcement but are properly anchored in the compression and tension
zones.

Figure 7.6.1-1
Examples of shear reinforcement (figure 9.5 in EN 1992-1-1:2004)

## - Links should be effectively anchored. Stirrups should form a closed rectangle; a

lap joint on the vertical leg is permitted provided that the link is not required to
resist torsion (see chapter on torsion).
- At least 50 % of the necessary shear reinforcement should be in the form of links.

7-44
7.6.2 Minimum shear reinforcement
The geometric ratio of shear reinforcement is defined as:

(7.6.2-1)

where:

## : geometric ratio of shear reinforcement, with w w,min;

: area of shear reinforcement within length s;
s : spacing of the shear reinforcement measured along the longitudinal axis of
the structural member;
: width (or breadth) of the web of the structural member;
: angle between the shear reinforcement and the longitudinal axis.

(7.6.2-2)

## with fck and fywk in MPa.

w,min depends of the steel grade of the shear reinforcement and of the concrete class.
Table 7.6.2-1 presents the values for w,min for different combinations.

7-45
Table 7.6.2-1
Values of w,min for different concrete-steel combinations
S220 S400 S500 S600
Concrete class (fywk = 220 MPa) (fywk = 400 MPa) (fywk = 500 MPa) (fywk = 600 MPa)
C12/15 (fck = 12 MPa) 1,26E-03 6,93E-04 5,54E-04 4,62E-04
C16/20 (fck = 16 MPa) 1,45E-03 8,00E-04 6,40E-04 5,33E-04
C20/25 (fck = 20 MPa) 1,63E-03 8,94E-04 7,16E-04 5,96E-04
C25/30 (fck = 25 MPa) 1,82E-03 1,00E-03 8,00E-04 6,67E-04
C30/37 (fck = 30 MPa) 1,99E-03 1,10E-03 8,76E-04 7,30E-04
C35/45 (fck = 35 MPa) 2,15E-03 1,18E-03 9,47E-04 7,89E-04
C40/50 (fck = 40 MPa) 2,30E-03 1,26E-03 1,01E-03 8,43E-04
C45/55 (fck = 45 MPa) 2,44E-03 1,34E-03 1,07E-03 8,94E-04
C50/60 (fck = 50 MPa) 2,57E-03 1,41E-03 1,13E-03 9,43E-04
C55/67 (fck = 55 MPa) 2,70E-03 1,48E-03 1,19E-03 9,89E-04
C60/75 (fck = 60 MPa) 2,82E-03 1,55E-03 1,24E-03 1,03E-03
C70/85 (fck = 70 MPa) 3,04E-03 1,67E-03 1,34E-03 1,12E-03
C80/95 (fck = 80 MPa) 3,25E-03 1,79E-03 1,43E-03 1,19E-03
C90/105 (fck = 90 MPa) 3,45E-03 1,90E-03 1,52E-03 1,26E-03

7.6.3 Spacing
7.6.3.1 In the longitudinal direction
The recommended value for the maximum longitudinal spacing sl,max between adjacent
stirrups, is determined by the formula:

## sl,max = 0,75.d.(1 + cotg ) (7.6.3-1)

The recommended value for the maximum longitudinal spacing sb,max between adjacent
bent-up bars, is determined by the formula:

## sb,max = 0,60.d.(1 + cotg ) (7.6.3-2)

Table 7.6.3-1 presents some values for bent-up bars with = 45 and vertical stirrups (
= 90).

Note:
The longitudinal spacing between stirrups may be quite large. The earlier
editions of EC2 were more severe at this point, with a maximum value of 300
mm. In practice, it is observed that the spacing criterion of 30 mm is still
adopted in workshops, because of practical considerations in the realization of
the reinforcement cages.

7-46
Table 7.6.3-1
Values of recommended maximum longitudinal spacing sl,max between adjacent bent-up
bars (with = 45) and vertical stirrups ( = 90)

## Bent-up bars with = 45 Stirrups with

( cotg = 1 ) = 90
( cotg = 0 )
sb,max = 0,6.d.(1+cotg ) sl,max = 0,75.d.(1+cotg )
d sb,max = 1,2.d sl,max = 0,75.d
(mm) (mm) (mm)
400 480 300
600 720 450
800 960 600
1000 1200 750

## 7.6.3.2 In the transverse direction

The transverse spacing of the legs in a series of shear links should not exceed st,max,
determined by the formula:

## 7.7.1 Analysis of the compression flange

7.7.1.1 Identification of the problem and the truss analogy
Figure 7.7.1-1 shows a T-beam subjected to simple bending. The NA is situated in
principle in the upper part of the cross-section; the assumption may be adopted that the
flange corresponds to the compression part of the cross-section. The force N' in the
compression zone (distributed over the whole width of the flange) changes over the
distance x with the value:

The indication N'f ( f < flange) corresponds to the compression force in 1 part of the
flange left or right of the web (abstraction is made of an eventually compressed small
part of the web); N'f is thus a fraction of N' as expressed by the formula:

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(7.7.1-1)

The force N'f in 1 part of the flange left or right from the web, changes over the distance
x with the value:

(7.7.1-2)

Figure 7.7.1-1

One of the two hatched pieces of flange in figure 7.7.1-1 is now isolated: see detail in
figure 7.7.1-2. The difference in compression force (N'f)x has to be equilibrated by the
shear force distributed over the contact surface I-I with area: hf.x.

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Figure 7.7.1-2
Detail: equilibrium of a part of the flange, left or right of the web

The equilibrium equation leads to the expression for the mean shear stress in the
contact surface I-I, in the uncracked elastic phase:

(7.7.1-3)

## And as , one can thus also write:

(7.7.1-4)

If this shear stress is too large, causing the principal tensile stress to reach the tensile
strength of the concrete, cracks will appear with an inclination angle with respect to the
longitudinal axis. Shear reinforcement is necessary in that case, in order to allow the
build-up of the longitudinal forces in the flange. The design of this shear reinforcement
can again be done by means of an analogous truss system in which shear is resisted by
the combined action of struts and tensile rods. Figure 7.7.1-3 shows the decomposition
of the shear force into two forces: a compression force which has to be resisted by the
concrete struts and a tensile force perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the beam.

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Figure 7.7.1-3
Decomposition of the shear force at the level of the contact surface flange-web, into two
forces: a compression force to be resisted by concrete struts and a tensile force
perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the beam, which has to be resisted by steel
reinforcement

## 7.7.1.2 Transverse reinforcement

It is assumed that the orientation of the compression diagonals in the flange is
characterized by the inclination angle f. As:

(7.7.1-5)

one finds that the transverse reinforcement should be able to transfer a force (indicated
by Freinforcement in figure 7.7.1-3) equal to:

It is assumed that the transverse reinforcement is composed of rods with sectional area
Asf and spacing sf; this means that the ratio Asf/sf represents the transverse reinforcement
per unit length. The necessary reinforcement is thus:

This leads to the transverse reinforcement in the flange per unit length of the beam :

(7.7.1-7)

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or, when expression (7.7.1-2) is used:

(7.7.1-8)

or

(7.7.1-9)

## 7.7.1.3 The concrete struts

It is also necessary to verify if the concrete struts are able to withstand the imposed
compression force (indicated by Fstrut in figure 7.7.1-3). This means that the
compression stress in the strut should be limited to .fcd.

(7.7.1-10)

zodat

## with bstrut = x.sin f (see figure 7.7.1-4).

The condition thus becomes:

(7.7.1-11)

## As (N'f) x = .hf.x , expression (7.7.1-11) also allows to develop a condition for :

or
(7.7.1-12)

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Figure 7.7.1-4
Auxiliary figure for the determination of the width of the compression strut

7.7.1.4 Alternative formulation of the shear problem between web and flanges by means
of the strut and tie method
The following reasoning is based on the philosophy of the strut and tie method, which is
discussed in a separate chapter in these course notes (see further); this method presents a
further generalization of the truss system analogy that was already introduced for the
shear verification of beams loaded in bending.

The analysis of the analogous truss system model, presented in figure 7.7.1.5, reveals
that the upwards inclined compression diagonal in the web makes equilibrium with the
tensile force in the vertical member and the compression force in the flange. In order to
install equilibrium in the flange, the force has to be spread out over the whole width of
the flange (effective width!). A new analogous truss model appears in the flange: the
force spreads out via two compression diagonals ab and ab', which on their turn have to
make equilibrium with the compression forces N'f in the flange. This equilibrium needs
the tensile member bb'. The further development of this model leads to the same
formulas as developed before.

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Figure 7.7.1-5
Transfer of forces in the flange of a T-beam; (a) truss model for beam with
compression flange; (b) top vue of the beam (WALRAVEN, 1995)

## 7.7.2 The tension flange

The developments presented for the compression flange are also applicable to the
tension flange; see figure 7.7.2-1.

Figure 7.7.2-1
The shear problem in the tension flange

In analogy with expression (7.7.1-4), the shear stress in the contact section II-II in figure
7.7.2-1, is defined by:

(7.7.2-1)

with
= the total area of longitudinal reinforcement in the whole tension
flange;
= the area of the longitudinal reinforcement in the isolated part of the
tension flange.

In analogy with expression (7.7.1-9), the necessary transverse reinforcement per unit
length of the beam, is determined by:

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(7.7.2-2)

Figure 7.7.2-2 presents a model of force transfer in the tension flange and web
(philosophy of the strut and tie method).

Figure 7.7.2-2
Model of force transfer from web to tension flange, based on the philosophy of the strut
and tie method (WALRAVEN, 1995)

7.7.3 Prescriptions concerning the passage from the web to the flanges in T-beams
7.7.3.1 Principles
Reference: EN 1992-1-1:2004; 6.2.4

The shear strength of the flange may be calculated by considering the flange as a system
of compressive struts combined with ties in the form of tensile reinforcement. The
notations in figure 7.7.3-1 have to be applied:
Fd = the variation of the normal force in one part of the flange, over the length x
(notation (Nf)x was used in the text before);
hf = the heigth (or thickness) of the flange at the contact surface between web and
flange;
vEd = the longitudinal shear stress (notation was used in the text before) at the contact
surface between web and flange. Consequently: vEd = Fd / (hf. x);
Asf = the cross-sectional area of one transverse reinforcement bar;
sf = the spacing between the transverse reinforcement bars.

Note:

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The bar which is indicated with the letter B in figure (7.7.3-1) corresponds to
longitudinal reinforcement bars which are eventually present (for example to
take up occasional fixing moments 25% of the moment in the span).

Figure 7.7.3-1
Notations used in the standard for the analysis of the force transfer between web
and flange via compression struts and transverse reinforcement (figure 6.7 in EN
1992-1-1:2004)

For the length x to be used, the standard presents the following recommendations:
- x the half of the distance between the cross-sections with bending
moments M = 0 and Mmax. Example: see figure 7.7.3-2;
- where point loads are applied, the length x the distance between the point

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Figure 7.7.3-2
Indication of the length x to be used for the calculation of the transverse
reinforcement to assure the force transfer web-flange: in the particular case of a
simply supported beam with uniformly distributed load, there are at least four
regions to be considered

The value for the inclination angle f which determines the orientation of the struts,
should be in accordance with the following conditions:
- for compression flanges
1 cotg f 2 or 45 f 26,5
- for tension flanges
1 cotg f 1,25 or 45 f 38,6

## 7.7.3.2 The transverse reinforcement

The transverse reinforcement per unit length Asf/sf is determined by means of the

and thus:

or finally:

(7.7.3-1)

## 7.7.3.3 The verification of the compression struts

The verification of the compression struts is performed in accordance with figure 7.7.3-
3, which leads to the following formula:

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As:

one finds:
(7.3.3-2)

Figure 7.7.3-3
Auxiliary figure for the development of the formulas for the calculation of the
transverse reinforcement to assure the force transfer web-flange and for the
verification of the compression struts

## 7.7.3.4 Combined actions

In the case of combined
- shear between the flange and the web, and
- transverse bending (bending in the horizontal plane),
two possible solutions are available:
- the area of steel should be greater than the one given by expression (7.7.3-1);
- half of the area of steel given by expression (7.7.3-1) in combination with the
reinforcement needed to resist transverse bending.

7.7.3.5 Remark
Extra transverse reinforcement (in addition to the normal one for bending) is not
necessary when the following conditions are met:
- vEd 0,4.fctd according to EN 1992-1-1:2004; 6.2.4(6)
- vEd 0,5.fctd according to NBN EN 1992-1-1 ANB:2009; 6.2.4(6)

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