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10/30/2014

Construction of Concrete Pavements


Pre-Paving
Considerations
Robert Rodden, P.E.
www.robertrodden.com

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10/30/2014
Robert Rodden, P.E.
www.robertrodden.com
Senior Director of
Pavement Technology Executive Director
American Concrete International Society for

Construction of Concrete Pavements


Pavement Association (ACPA) Concrete Pavements (ISCP)

www.acpa.org www.concretepavements.org
@PaveConcrete @ConcPaveSociety

today I am here as an
independent consultant. 2
10/30/2014
Construction of Concrete Pavements
EB237

Available in ACPAs online bookstore:

http://www.acpa.org/publications-for-purchase/
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Pre-Paving Considerations
Joint Layout

Construction of Concrete Pavements 10/30/2014


Hydration Consumes H2O

10/30/2014
Hot then Cold

Construction of Concrete Pavements


Drying Shrinkage HOT AT SET
Chemical Shrinkage

COOLED OFF     

Thermal Shrinkage

CONCRETE SHRINKS!
Primary Origins of Shrinkage of Concrete
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HOT AT SET, HIGH MOISTURE, UNHYDRATED CEMENT

without restraint

COOL, DRY, HYDRATED CEMENT

TEFLON | No Friction/Restraint

Construction of Concrete Pavements


WITH RESTRAINT

Subgrade/Subbase | Restraint

CONCRETE SHRINKS!
Shrinkage + Restraint = CRACKS!?!
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Why Joint Concrete Pavement?
Primary Reason: control natural cracking

Construction of Concrete Pavements


15-20 ft
40-80 ft
(4.5-6 m)
(12-24 m)

Sawcut
@ 15 ft (4.5 m)
or less

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Why Joint Concrete Pavement?
Other reasons we joint concrete pavements:
Divide pavement into construction lanes or increments.

Construction of Concrete Pavements


Accommodate slab movements.
Provide load transfer via placed dowels.
Provide uniform sealant reservoir.

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Why Joint Concrete Pavement?
Not for lane delineation!

Construction of Concrete Pavements


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Jointed Jointed Continuously

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Plain Reinforced Reinforced
Concrete Concrete Concrete
Pavement Pavement Pavement
(JPCP) (JRCP) (CRCP)

Steel Steel Steel


0% 0.06-0.25% 0.6-0.85%

Construction of Concrete Pavements


Joints Joints Joints
12-20 ft 40-100 ft N/A
(3.6-6 m) (12-30 m)

Cracks Cracks Cracks


N/A 15-20 ft 2-6 ft
(4.5-6 m) (0.6-1.8 m)

Types of Concrete Pavement


Steel Reinforcing, Joint Spacing, and Crack Spacing Differentiate Between the JPCP, JRCP, and CRCP
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0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Jointed

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Arizona
Plain Arkansas
Delaware
Concrete Florida
Pavement Hawaii
Idaho
(JPCP) Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Steel Michigan
Missouri
0% Montana
Nevada
North Carolina

Construction of Concrete Pavements


Joints Ohio
Oklahoma JPCP
12-20 ft South Carolina
(3.6-6 m) South Dakota JRCP
Tennessee
Utah CRCP
Cracks Virginia
Washington
N/A West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming

Types of Concrete Pavement


JPCP is the Most Common Type of Concrete Pavement in the United States
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Effects of Joint Spacing on Cracking
80%
Percent slab cracking

70%

Construction of Concrete Pavements


60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%
0 10 20 30 40 50
Traffic, million ESALs 12
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What is Maximum Joint Spacing?
EMPIRICAL
ML = T x Cs
ML = Maximum length between

Construction of Concrete Pavements


joints (in. or cm)
T = Slab thickness (in. or cm)
Cs = Support constant
Use 24 for subgrades or unstabilized [granular] subbases;
Use 21 for stabilized subbases (ATB, CTB, lean concrete)
or existing concrete or asphalt pavement;
Use 12 to 15 for thin bonded overlays on asphalt

Free Maximum Joint Spacing Calculator App @ apps.acpa.org

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Joint Spacing Recommendations
For Streets, Roads, and Highways:
Use ML = T x Cs
Keep ratio of transverse to
longitudinal spacing at
less than 1.5 Length is
1.5 x width
Keep maximum spacing of transverse or less!
joints to 15 ft (4.5 m) for plain
concrete unless local history
shows longer panels work
(e.g., low CTE aggregate)
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Joint Layout
Critical to crack control
Typically
decided by engineer and included in

Construction of Concrete Pavements


project plans
 No knowledge of contractor, equipment, processes
 Hard to precisely place things like utilities

Contractor may be allowed to develop plans


but, even if not, field adjustments can and
should be made

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Joint Layout:
The Intersection Dilemma
?

Construction of Concrete Pavements 10/30/2014


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Rules for Joint Layout
Things to Do:
 Match existing joints or cracks location AND
type!

Construction of Concrete Pavements


 Cut joints at the proper time
 Place joints to meet in-pavement structures
 Remember maximum joint spacing
 Place isolation joints where needed
 Understand that joint locations
can be adjusted in the field!
 Be Practical
Location Type 17
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Rules for Joint Layout
Things to Avoid:
 Slabs < 2 ft (0.6 m) wide

Construction of Concrete Pavements


 Slabs > 15 ft (4.5 m) wide
 Angles < 60 (90 is best)
 Dog-leg joints through curve
radius points
 Creating interior corners
 Odd Shapes (keep slabs near-
square or pie-shaped)

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Where to Place Isolation Joints

Construction of Concrete Pavements 10/30/2014


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Construction of Concrete Pavements
The ACPA 10 Step Method of Joint Layout for Intersections
Step 1: Draw all pavement edge and back-of-curb lines in the plan view.
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Construction of Concrete Pavements
1.5 ft = 0.5 m | 3.0 ft = 1 m

The ACPA 10 Step Method of Joint Layout for Intersections


Step 2: Lightly draw circumference-return, taper-return, and crossroad-return lines
as offsets of 1.5 3.0 ft (0.5 1.0 m) 21
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Construction of Concrete Pavements
The ACPA 10 Step Method of Joint Layout for Intersections
Step 3: Draw all lane lines on the mainline roadway and crossroad. Do not extend through return lines (offsets).
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Construction of Concrete Pavements
The ACPA 10 Step Method of Joint Layout for Intersections
Step 4: Define mainline lanes for paving. Extend only these lane lines through return lines (offsets) to allow for
slipform paving. Blockouts & doglegs will occur in the gutter pan at these locations. 23
10/30/2014
Construction of Concrete Pavements
The ACPA 10 Step Method of Joint Layout for Intersections
Step 5: Add transverse joints locations where a width change occurs in the pavement (begin & end of tapers,
tangents, curves, curb returns, etc.) and extend these joints through the curb & gutter. 24
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Construction of Concrete Pavements
The ACPA 10 Step Method of Joint Layout for Intersections
Step 6: Add transverse joints between and beyond the joints defined in Step 5, but not to the center of the
intersection. Attempt to keep the distance between joints less than ML. 25
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Construction of Concrete Pavements
The ACPA 10 Step Method of Joint Layout for Intersections
Step 7: By extending the edge of pavement lines for the cross road and any turning lanes, define the
intersection box. 26
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Construction of Concrete Pavements
The ACPA 10 Step Method of Joint Layout for Intersections
Step 8: Check the distances between the "intersection box" and the surrounding joints.
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Construction of Concrete Pavements
The ACPA 10 Step Method of Joint Layout for Intersections
Step 9: If the distance is more than the maximum desirable joint spacing, then add transverse joints at an equal
spacing. Do not extend these joints through return lines. 28
10/30/2014
Construction of Concrete Pavements
The ACPA 10 Step Method of Joint Layout for Intersections
Step 10: Extend lines from center of curb return radii to corners of intersection box panels. Draw joints along
these diagonal lines. Make adjustments to eliminate doglegs in pavement edges. 29
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Details
A, B, & C

Construction of Concrete Pavements


1.5 ft = 0.5 m | 3.0 ft = 1 m 30
10/30/2014
Field Adjustments are Necessary
Adjust joints that are within 5 ft (1.5 m) of a utility!
Must isolate utilities as shown on plans

Construction of Concrete Pavements


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Typical Box Out Fixture Details

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If Joints Arent Properly Adjusted

Construction of Concrete Pavements 10/30/2014


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What About Dead-end a Joint?

Construction of Concrete Pavements 10/30/2014


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What About Dead-end a Joint?

Construction of Concrete Pavements 10/30/2014


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Joint Layout
Design
References:
EB237 Concrete Pavement Field
Reference: Pre-Paving

Construction of Concrete Pavements


IS006, Intersection Joint Layout
IS061 Design and Construction of
Joints for Concrete Streets
R&T Update 6.03 Concrete
Roundabouts
TB010 Design and Construction of
Joints for Concrete Highways
TB017 Airfield Joints, Jointing
Arrangements and Steel
TB019 Concrete Intersections: A
Guide for Design and Construction
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Construction of Concrete Pavements
Subgrade
Construction
Pre-Paving Considerations

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It Starts from the Ground Up
Roadbed (subgrade and subbase) design and
construction are key to:

Construction of Concrete Pavements


 Long-term performance
 Smoothness (initial and long-term)

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What is Good Support?
Roadbeds for a concrete pavement structure
should:
 Be free from abrupt changes in character of the materials

Construction of Concrete Pavements


(should be uniform and constructed of a material that will
provide requisite stability over the life of the pavement)
 Resist erosion
 Be engineered to control subgrade soil expansion/frost
heave

Above all other concerns,


uniformity is of utmost
importance

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Subgrades
Obtain uniform support by controlling:
 Expansive soils
 Frost-susceptible soils (frost heave)

Construction of Concrete Pavements


 Pumping
 Wet Soils

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Controlling Wet Soils
Enhancement

Reinforcement/Separation

Construction of Concrete Pavements


Substitution

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Unstabilized Subgrades
1. Grade to match roadway plans
2. Cross haul to avoid abrupt changes

Construction of Concrete Pavements


3. Compact at optimum moisture content
4. Identify soft spots and fix
5. Protect from rain (if necessary) by tight blading
and finishing with smooth drum roller
6. Fine grade to plan elevations within tolerances

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Stabilized Subgrades
1. Trim to match roadway plans but finish the
grade below the final grade elevation

Construction of Concrete Pavements


2. Spread stabilized agent as evenly as possible
3. Mix, add water and
compact
4. Finish grade
5. Cure the subgrade

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Step 3 for Cement-Treated Soils
Mix,add water, and compact (within 2 hours)
in one continuous operation

Construction of Concrete Pavements


Moisture content within 2% of optimum
Minof 60% passing #4
(4.75 mm) sieve
Specialattention to
longitudinal overlap
Strictly
adhere to 2hr
working period

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Step 3 for Lime-Stabilized Soils
Mix and add water simultaneously
Moisture content of optimum to +5% of optimum

Construction of Concrete Pavements


Lightly compact and grade to drain excess water
Let soil sit idle for 24 to 72 hours
Re-mix, adding water as necessary to target
moisture content of optimum +3%; recompact
Min of 60% passing #4 (4.75 mm)

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Construction of Concrete Pavements
Subbase
Construction
Pre-Paving Considerations

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General Notes on Subbases
Thick subbases (greater than 6 in. [150 mm]) are
typically not beneficial, and therefore are not
recommended

Construction of Concrete Pavements


The width of the subbase should accommodate the
paving equipment by extending approximately 3 ft (1
m) beyond the width of the pavement on each side
Recommended
minimum thickness:
 Unstabilized: 4 in. (100 mm)
 CTB or LCB: 4 in. (100 mm)
 ATB: 2 in. (50 mm)
Recycled materials are
commonly used
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Unstabilized Subbases
1. Mix a uniformly moist, homogeneous material
2. Place using preferred method

Construction of Concrete Pavements


3. Compact to required density w/min effort
4. Trim to plan elevation and tolerances
5. Moisture content key
during construction
of subbase AND
immediately before
paving

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Cement-Treated Subbases (CTB)
1. Central-mix and place material or road-mix
2. Compact with rollers and trim to specified

Construction of Concrete Pavements


grade
a) Must place and trim within 4 hrs of mixing!

3. Cure the subbase


4. If trimmed after
curing, curing
compound must
be reapplied
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Lean Concrete Subbases (LCB)
1. Central-mix the concrete
2. Place to plan elevation and tolerances

Construction of Concrete Pavements


a) No additional finishing
b) No texturing

3. Cure (if necessary)


4. Joint (If necessary)

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Asphalt-Treated Subbases (ATB)
1. Mixed and placed with conventional asphalt
paving equipment

Construction of Concrete Pavements


2. Dense-graded mixtures require compaction

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Pre-Paving Considerations
Pre-Paving Setup

Construction of Concrete Pavements 10/30/2014


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Safety
Ride quality is pointless if
someone is hurt

Construction of Concrete Pavements


Plan out truck routes
Use of highway patrol
Daily safety meetings
Employees get bold
Teach employees to
watch traffic

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Safety
Pay attention to broom
handles, saws and
protrusions in traffic

Construction of Concrete Pavements


Watch for backing
trucks and make sure
alarms are functional
Be aware of
surroundings

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FREE Safety Training!
Available around the
clock, 365 days per year.

Construction of Concrete Pavements


No cost to participants.
Certificates of completion
may count toward a total
of 3.0 professional
development hours
(PDHs).

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Construction of Concrete Pavements
Steering
Control

Elevation
Control
Stringline

Stringline
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Stringline Considerations
Can be wire, cable, woven nylon,
polyethylene rope, or similar material

Construction of Concrete Pavements


Continuously check tension
Clean and tight splices
Stakes must be long enough
Maximum stake spacing of 25 ft (7.6 m)
See Staking Interval Calculator at
apps.acpa.org for recommendations on curves

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Stringline Considerations
(cont)
Place winches at
1,000 ft (305 m)

Construction of Concrete Pavements


Beneficial to have
stringlines on both
sides of paving
Some situations
require cantilever
or trusses for sensors
to reach stringline

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Setting the Stringline
1. Set reference hubs at proper interval and
place a stringline support stake outside of
each hub

Construction of Concrete Pavements


2. Set stake arm to
the proper elevation
3. Install stringline
4. Tighten stringline
5. Check installation

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Stringline Survey Reference Benchmark
Setup Point

Construction of Concrete Pavements


Control Points
(Paving HubsPins)

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Setup
Stringline

Construction of Concrete Pavements 10/30/2014


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Setup
Stringline

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Notes on Setting
Reference Hubs
Reference hubs are set using
a variety of methods

Construction of Concrete Pavements


Contractor determines offset
Grade info on identifier next
to where hubs will be set
Proper communication is KEY
to a successful operation!!

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Construction of Concrete Pavements
Once Set, the Paver Does the Rest
Uniform Slope in a Superelevation into and though a Horizontal Curve
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Construction of Concrete Pavements
Once Set, the Paver Does the Rest
Rooftop Slope in a Straight Section to Encourage Drainage to Each Edge of Pavement
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Construction of Concrete Pavements
Once Set, the Paver Does the Rest
Transition from Rooftop Slope to Uniform Slope into a Horizontal Curve
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Communication in Key!!

Construction of Concrete Pavements 10/30/2014


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Maintain the Stringline!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Construction of Concrete Pavements 10/30/2014


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or Go Stringless!

Construction of Concrete Pavements 10/30/2014


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Setting Forms

Construction of Concrete Pavements 10/30/2014


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or Just Slipform!

Construction of Concrete Pavements 10/30/2014


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Placing Embedded Steel
Pre-Placed in Baskets Placed with Insertion
Requires support system No support system needed

Construction of Concrete Pavements


Requires placement ahead of Dowels or tiebars are inserted after
paving or at the same time as concrete is placed
paving is occurring
Lower transport cost
Increased transport cost
Decreased labor in placement
Increased labor in placement

both methods can place dowel bars and tiebars


within typical specifications, though the concrete mixture
characteristics are more important with insertion.
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Placing Dowels

Construction of Concrete Pavements 10/30/2014


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Dowel Baskets
Placing & Staking

Construction of Concrete Pavements 10/30/2014


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Dowel Location Identification

Construction of Concrete Pavements 10/30/2014


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Placing Tiebars

Construction of Concrete Pavements 10/30/2014


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Construction of Concrete Pavements
Like extrusion processes but we pull the form.

Slipform Paver Equipment Setup


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Slipform Mold (Pan) Setup
Preliminaryleveling of paving machines frame
and then slipform mold

Construction of Concrete Pavements


Check joints in the pan
Adjust
center to
account for cross slope
Check alignment
Adjust
edges for
edge slump

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Setup
Vibrator

Construction of Concrete Pavements 10/30/2014


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Vibrator Setup

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Slipform Paver Setup

Construction of Concrete Pavements 10/30/2014


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Slipform Paver Setup

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and
Final

Cross
Slope
Grade

Check

Construction of Concrete Pavements 10/30/2014


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Concrete Mixture

Construction of Concrete Pavements


Analysis and
Approval
Pre-Paving Considerations

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Concrete Mix Proportioner App
apps.acpa.org

Construction of Concrete Pavements


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Tests
Which

To Use

Construction of Concrete Pavements 10/30/2014


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Tests
Which

To Use

Construction of Concrete Pavements 10/30/2014


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Cement
The glue that hold concrete together
Increase cement content = increase strength,

Construction of Concrete Pavements


but:
 Need more air entraining admixture for desired air
 Need more water, resulting in more drying shrinkage
 Increased risk of segregation with more paste
 More bleed water, increasing permeability
 Earlier sawing required
 Stiffer mixture
 Less fatigue capacity

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Cementitious Materials Content
Use least amount of cementitious materials
necessary to meet strength and workability
 Typical minimum is about 500 lb/yd3 (300 kg/m3) for slipform

Construction of Concrete Pavements


Dosage typically reported as cement
replacement:

SCMs may retard strength gain


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Water-Cementitious Mataerial Ratio
Lower w/cm = higher strength
 Slipform paving - maximum: 0.45; typical = 0.40
 Fixed-form paving/hand pours - max: 0.50; typ = 0.45

Construction of Concrete Pavements


Forw/cm below
about 0.40,
autogenous
shrinkage
becomes a
concern

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Aggregates
60-75% of mixture
Provide volume stability!

Construction of Concrete Pavements


Coarse to fine 60/40
Selection in critical
 All aggregate should be prequalified for durability to freeze-
thaw, ASR, alkali-carbonate, D-cracking

Coarse agg is major driver in concrete CTE


Agg hardness impacts sawing operations
Cleanliness and surface moisture important

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Aggregate Gradation
CONTROLS workability!!
Well-graded combined aggregate gradation

Construction of Concrete Pavements


will:
 Reduce water demand
 Lower drying shrinkage
 Increase workability
 Improve strength

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apps.acpa.org
Gradation Analyzer App

Construction of Concrete Pavements 10/30/2014


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apps.acpa.org
Gradation Analyzer App

Construction of Concrete Pavements 10/30/2014


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Testing
Temperature
ASTM C1064
EASY, just place thermometer in concrete

Construction of Concrete Pavements


Results
help verify conformance to
requirements

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Testing
Slump
ASTM C143 / AASHTO T119
Measures
consistency;

Construction of Concrete Pavements


NOT QUALITY!
Typical values:
 Slipform: 0.5-1.5 in. (13-38 mm)
 Fixed form: 3-4 in. (75-100 mm)

Slump is dependent on
mixture and also on time
of testing
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Testing
Density (Unit Weight)
ASTM C138 / AASHTO T121
Measures known volume

Construction of Concrete Pavements


Typically 130 to 150 lb/ft3 (2,000 2,400 kg/m3)
Indicates batch-to-batch variability
Reduction in density may indicate:
 Higher air content, higher water content, lower cement content,
change in proportions of ingredients, or change in aggregate
specific gravity or moisture

One of the most valuable tests for process control


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Max Agg Size Target Air
Testing 3/8 in. (9.5 mm) 7 %
in. (13 mm) 7%
Air Content in. (19 mm) 6%
1 in. (25 mm) 6%
ASTM C231 / AASHTO T152
1 in. (38 mm) 5 %
Target air depends on agg size

Construction of Concrete Pavements


Testing
at plant or in front of paver doesnt
account for air loss of up to 2% in paver
Quality critical to durability
AVA and petrography are
other means to measure
Super Air Meter latest tool!

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Testing
Air Content (continued)
Affected in the field by:
 Cement
 SCMs

Construction of Concrete Pavements


 Chemical admixtures
 Gradation of aggregates
 w/cm ratio
 Temperature
 Delays
 Placement/consolidation

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Testing
Compressive & Flexural Strength
ASTM C39 / AASHTO T22 for cylinders
ASTM C78 / AASHTO T97 for beams

Construction of Concrete Pavements


Typical strength requirements (low / avg / high)
 Compressive: 3,000 psi (20 MPa) / 3,500 (24) / 4,000 (28)
 Flexural 550 psi (3.8 MPa) / 600 (4.1) / 650 (4.5)

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Testing
Maturity to
Estimate
Strength

Construction of Concrete Pavements


ASTM
C1074 /
AASHTO T325

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Testing
Maturity to Estimate Strength

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Maturity
Testing

Construction of Concrete Pavements 10/30/2014


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apps.acpa.org
Maturity Calculator

Construction of Concrete Pavements 10/30/2014


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COMPASS
www.pccmix.com

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Construction of Concrete Pavements
Questions?
Robert Rodden, P.E.
www.robertrodden.com

106