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UNCLASSIFIED.
N CHARACTERISTICS OF CRYSTAL-VIDEO RECEIVERS
EMPLOYING R-F PREAMPLIFICATION

by
W. E. AYER
'C
Technical Report No. 150-3
September 20, 1956

Prepared under
Air Force Contract AF 33 (600)47784

Stanford Electroydes L.:':,;ratories


STANFORD UNI'ERSII Y
STANFn)O, CAUORNMA
P--- - T-~ T---~ ~h IY ~ ~ - F F-pw w'-WW- I WWWW wVww-

Stanford Electronics Laboratories


Stanford University
SLanford, California

1*

CHARACTERISTICS OF CRYSTAL-VIDEO RECEIVERS


EMPLOYING R-F PREAMPLIFICATION

by

W. E. Ayer

Technical Report No. 150-3


Septerrnbev 20, 1956

Pre~pared under
Air For-ce Contract AF 33(600)-27784
I I

SUMMARY

The operating characteristics of crystal-video receiving


systems with r-f preamplification are discussed, and equations
given for the maximum sensitivity (Smax). and for the gain
required in the preamplifier to realize Smax . Use of the
equations is demonstrated by means of specific examples.
An analysis of the behavior of this type of system is
presented in the Appendix, the derivation of the Smax equa~ion
being given there.

-iii-
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
1.0 Introduction . * 0 0 a 6 a 0
* 1
2.0 The simple crystal-video receiver-., . . . . . , 2

3.0 Effects of preamplification. . . . . . . . . . .


3.1 Determination of maximum system sensitivity,
Smax .
G 4 . a. .. 4. . . a. 0. a
3.2 Preamplifier gain required to realize Smax. # 6
4.0 Practical examples . . ae v . . . . .a. . . & . . '7
4.1 Microwave pulse receiver. 0 a . . * . . . . a 7
4.2 C-w detection system. . . . . . . . . . 9
5,0 Conclusions . . . .. .. . . . .. .* 10
Appendix: Derivation of maximum sensitivity of crystal-
video receiver with r-f preaiplification . . . 12

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure Page
1. Block diagram of receiver 1
2 Threshold sensitivity (Sx) of crystal - video re-
ceivers as a function of band ;idth (By) . ... . . 4
3 Variation of sensitivity with r-f gain. * ..... 5
4
gain*. oo o
. 9:
e......m
Variation of system sensitivity with preamplifier
:* . . o * 8
5 C-w detection receiver. . r c . a 9
A.1 Model of noise spectrum . . . . .. . . . . 12
A.2 Idealized noise output spectrum . . . ...... . 15

- iv -
CHARACTERISTICS OF CRYSTAL-VILZO RECEIVERS
EMPLOYING R-F PREAMPLIFICATION

1.0 INTRODUCTION

The development, in recent years, of high-gain broadband


traveling-wave tubes has greatly increased the potential useful-
ness of receiving systems of the crystal-video type. A .ery
simple receiver can be realized by preceding a simple crystal-
video .ystem with a traveling-wave tube operating as an ampli-
fier in the radio-frequency range of interest. The general
arrangement of such receiving systems is illustrated in
Fig. 1.

F R-f amplifier
Bandwidth = Br Square- Video amplifier
Power gain = Gdetector lawbnddh
andwidth
Noise figure = F

FIG. l.--Block diagram of receiver.

Addition of the traveling-wave-tube preamplifier can result


in an appreciable increase in threshold sensitivity, making
such an arrangement sitable for many applications where
superheterodyne receivers would otherwise be necessary.
A brief discussion of the operation of crystal-video
systems without preamplification is presented in Sec. 2. Data
on the threshold sensitivities nbtainable with practical micro-
wave detectors is given in graphical form.
i
Seution 3 is devoted to nonsideration of the effect-,, of
various amounts of preamplification upon overall. system sensi-
tivity. The derivation of the necessary relations is indicated,
and the working equations presented.

-1 -I
I - 5 w-

In Sec. 4 the design procedure is demonstrated by means


of a practical example. Also, a circuit arrangement for indi-
cating the presence of a c-w signal is described, and perform-
ance capabilities are cleculated.
In the last section the characteristics of this general
class of receivers is reviewed briefly, performance being
compared with that of superheterodynes.

2.0 THE SIMPLE CRYSTAL-VIDEO RECEIVER

As the name implies, a crystal-video receivar consists of


a crystal detector followed by a suitable video amplifier.
The choi-ce of video bandwidth is made in the usual way, on the
basis of the type of signal to be rpcelved. Thus, if the
applied signals are rectangular pulses, the bandwidth is
typically made equa2 to 0.6/6 where 6 is the pulse length.
R-f selectivity can be provided by meons of tuned circuits
ahead of the detector. It should be noted that such selectiv-
ity will not improve the sensitivity of this type of receiver,
because the noise level is set by the crystal detector.
The sensitivity of crystal-video receivers is inherently
low because of the low rectification efficiency of the detect-
ing element at small signal levels. The effects,-
threshold is determined by the magnitude of the video resist-
ance of the detector, and the bandwidth of the detector--
Video amplifier combination. The video resistance behaves
like an ordinary resistor in producing thermal noise.
A variety of silicon crystal types.--iN23B, lN26, IN32,
etc.--have been used at this laboratory in various detector
mounts. The video resistance for t-?se rectifiers generally
falls in the range of 5,000 to 20,000 ohms, which is suffi-
ciently great to override noise produned in the video amplircer
if reasonable care is taken in amplifier design. A particular
practical precaution worth mentioning is the use of wire-
wound resistors in un-bypassed current-carrying circuits near

-2-
the front end of the amplifier. If carbon or composition
resistors are used, considerable amounts of "excess" noise
are produced, and overall performance will be degraded.
In Fig. '? data on the sensitivity of crystal-video
*receivers is presented. These curves are based upon the per-
formance of wideband detector mounts developed at this labo-
"atory. These mounts have been designed to work from a
50-ohm source. The threshold sensitivity figure (S ) gives
x
the amount of pulse power which must be applied in order to
produce an output Just discernible in the noise on a synchro-
nized CRT display. This measure of sensitivity corresponds
roughly to pulse power equal to average noise power. The
data are based upon input pulse lengths approximately equal to
0.6/B --conditions for maximum sensitivity. The "good" and
v
!poor" lines indicate the limits of performance for crystals
selected at random.
The sensitivity, as plotted in Fig. 2, varies inversely
with . This characteristic results from the square-law
nature of the detector. The noise output power will vary
directly with the video bandwidth; the square-law action causes
the output signal amplitude to increase as the square of the
input signal. Thus a doubling of the video bandwidth will
cause a 3 db increase In output noise, while a similar increase
in output signal will Le realized by a 1.5 db increase in
applied sigral.

1
D. J. Grace, "Analysis of two broadband untuned crystal
detector mounts," TR No. 14, (Nbonr 25132), rlectronics
Research Laboratory, 5t*.nford University, 10 June 1952.
2
D. J. Grace, 'Arialysis of a broadband untuned ur~stl
mount for X-band operation," TR No. 7, (Nonr 22510), Elec-
tronics Recearch Laboratory, Stanfo'-rd University, 10 March
1953.
-r-7 77.
-77

>

ICYi__ _ _,

4
- 0 T 3

____i c. Ulr

0 E'1

0 0 H
o% A I _A0
w.qp p Iqsatl.
3.0 EFFECTS OF PREAMPLIFICATIoN

A qualitative picture of the effect of r-f amplification


on system sensitivity can be obtained by considering pro-
gressively greater amounts of gain ahead of the crystal de-
Lector. For unity gain in the preamplifier the sensitivity
will be the same as for a simple crystal-video system, since
the noise at the output of the system will C:e due only to the
crystal detector. As che r-f gain is increased, there will
generally be a considerable region in which the system sensi.-
tivity increases linearly with r-f gain. For sufficiently
large gains, the output noise due to the preamplifier will
override that due to the detector. Further increase in gain
will no longer increase sensitivity, once the threshold is
cet by the r-f amplifier. The behavior described is sketched
in Fig. 3.

3.1 DETERMINATION OF MAXIMUM SYSTEM SENSITIVITY, S

An analysis of system performance has been made for the


maximum-sensitivity condition, corresponding to predominance

Maximum sensitivity

, -Crystal-video aenettivity

0 R-f amplifier gain, db---

FIG. 3.--Variation of sensitivity with r-f gain.


I I

of r-f amplifier noise at the output. This analysis is pre-


sented in the Appendix. The maximum sensitivity is given by:

Smax = -114 (Ibm + F + 10 iOgl o [Be' ()

where -114 dbm is the available thermal noise power per


megacycle at the input of the preamplifier, F is the noise
figure of the preamplifier in db, and Be is the effective
bandwidth of the system in megacycles. The effective band-
width is given by:

Be = [2BEv
r -B
vv (2)

where Br and B v are the preamplifier and video bandwidths,


respectively, in magacyales. When the r-f bandwidth is at
least 10 times the video bandwidth, Be is given quite accu-
rately by:

Be = [2B ]v3l (3)

3.2 PREAMPLIFIER GAIN REQUIRED TO REALIZE Smax

The gain requirement for realization of .uz- t. tem


sensitivity can be deduced from a plot of the type shown in
Fig. 3. With the sensitivity of the crystal-video portion of
the system known, the slop..ng line cor'esponding to small
amr- s of pream.plifier gain is established quantitatively.
The horizontal line, corresponding to maximum possible system
sensitivity, is found fron Eqs. (D% and (2) or (I) and (3).
The intersection of these two stra.ght lines gives the pre-
amplifier gain required for the output naoise due to the pre-
amplifier to equal that due to the Ctector. This conditlon
corresponds to an output signal/noise ratio which is 3 db
worse than tnat which will be obtained wrien there is sufficient
r-f gain to completely override crystal noise. Since the

- 6-
detector action is square-law, a 1.5 db increase in input
signal will bring the output signal/noise ratio up by 3 db,
so that, for this particular amount of preamplifier gain, the
system sensitivity will be 1.5 db below Smax*
A plot of the variation of sensitivity with r-f gain in
= the region of G - Isax - Sxj is given in Fig. 4. When the
gain is 3 db greate;, than IS - Sxl, the sensitivity is
only 0.5 db lesn than S Accordingly, a reasonable prac-
tical rue for determinIng galn is:

Gt Sax - +
* (4)

where all quantities are in terms of decibels.

4.0 PFRAOTICAL EXAMPLES

Calculation o! the performance chrp:teristics of


pveapli.fier--trytital-'ideo combinations is a relatively
straght-forwa-d prced, re. .n order to illustrate the cal-

culations and, as %:ell, to point out certain pr'actical pre-


rcautions, twc. examples will b,' considered.

4.1 MICROWAVE PULSE RECEIVER

Consider the following system characteristics:

S = -52 dbm
B = 0.6 Mc
B3r -. ?0 M.
r
F = 20 db

These numbers are consistent with piuise receiving applications


in the kMc range, where a T-W tube followed by a tuned cavity
is utilized as the preamplifier. (Note that the cavity must
follow the 'T1 if'high sensitivity is to be realized--otherwise

7
7.7

> 4
A-6 I

C)
I

S-8 -6 -4 -2 0 +2 +4 +6 +8 +0
Gain of preamplifier relative to s.. S, db

FIG. 4.--Varlatlon of, system eenpitivity


wiLh preamplifier gain.

-8-
all of the TWT noise will be applied to the crystal. In some
applications an additional cavity ahead of the tube might be
needed to prevent overloading). From Eq. (3),

Be (2 x 20 x .6 = 4.9 Mc

LThen Smax = -114 dbm + 20 db -t 10 loglo(4.9)

- -114 + 20 + 7 ---87 db

The 'rnimum preamplifier gain is then, from Eq. (4):

01a 1-87 +521 +3 38 db

4.2 C-W DETECTION SYSTEM

An arrangement for determining the presence of a c-w


signal is illustrated In Fig. 5. The purpose of the modulation
of the r-f input is to produce a video component in the
envelope of the signal which, when detected, will pass through

, F.
___
Lossy
Modulator Preamplifier Detector
Tunedne
(Ikfv: I

FIG 5.--C-w detection receive.

the tuned video amplifier. The actual modulator could be a


ferrite devicc, or perhaps a transmA..Ion-line structure with
seml-conductor diodes whose charactoristics are changed by
the modulating voltage at the frequency fv
For this sort of application, where it is desired to close
a relay or perform some other simple function when a continuous
signal is yr. ved, a very narrow video bandwidth may be
employed.
Assuming, for sake of simplicity, that the modulatcr
goes from a "full-on" (zero loss) to a "full-off" (infinite
loss) condition in a square-wave fashion at a fundamental
frequency fv' the maximum system sensitivity may be calculated
in much the same manner as was used in the preceding example.
On the basis of a 1 Ice video bandwidth, the crystal-video
sensitivity for a "typical detector" is found from Fig. 2 to
be -63 dbm. Assuming an r-f bandwidth Br of 20 Mc and a pre-
amplifier noise figure of 20 db, Eqs. (3) and (1), respectively,
yield an equivalent bandwidth of 0.45 Mo, and an Smax of
-97 dbm. From Eq. (4), the required preamplifier gain is
found to be 37 db.
There are two points regarding the performince of such a
device which should be discussed. First, one might wonder why
a modulator is needed at all: ;hat is, why not use a d-c
amplifier to provide "direct detection",*f t*Ie c-w signal?
Tho answer lies in the fact that there fs.a.arge component of
1"noise" at d-c at the output of the detector which would make
the system sensitivity extremely low. This is shown in the
Appendix.
A second question is: why not introduce the modulation
by appropriate variation of the voltage on a control element
in the preamplifier? The trouble with this technique is that
the entire noise output of the preamplifier becomes in effect
a "carrier" for the modulation, and the sensitivity is again
drastically reduced.

5.0 CONCLUSIONS

If it can be assumed that sufficient r-f selectivity is


obtainable to limit Br to the actual value required for the
intended application, then the ser sitivity of the type of
receiver considered here can be made essentially equal to that

- 10 -
realizable by superheterodyno techniques. For, such cases the
simplicity of the preamplifier crystal-video combination may
well indicate its use in preference to a superheterodyne.
Again, in many applications the simpler system wiil not
provide the ultimate in sensitivity, but its performance may
be entirely adequate for the specific problem at hand.

- 1
APPEINDIX: DERIVATION OF MAXIMUM SENSITIVITY 0? CRYSTAL-VIDEO
RECEIVER WITH R-F PREAMPLIRICATION

In order to simplify the calculation of system perform-


ance, an idealized noise spectrum will be assumed at the input
to the detector. The noise, '-hich in reality is continuously
distributed in frequency, will be considered as a discrete
line spectrum. The components will be arbitrarily assumed
to be spaced uniformly at 1 cycle intervals across the r-f
bandwidth Br, each amplitude corresponding to the thermal
noise in 1 cycle of bandwidth. The phase of each such "equiv-
alent noise signals" will be considered to be random with
respect to all the other components. This equivalent noise
spectrum will appear as shown in Fig. A.l.

43

wI
0
R I ___

I .. llHLIII

FIG. A.l.--Mode). of noise spectrum.

The detector will be considered to operate in its square-

law region, as given by!

eo x e (A-1)
-3i.4 -

where ei is the instantaneousH voltage at~Lthe input to the HP


detector, and eo is the corresponding output voltage. K.
accounts for the overall effcien - of detector mount and
, crystal.
1'I
S

Calculation of the noise at the output of the detector is


accomplished by substituting the expression for the model of the
Input noise spectrum into the relation for the detector
characteristic:

e. =Kx[Vn sin(wlt + 01 ) + V n sin(w2t + 0


) +.....

L. -

+n ain cunt + On] (A-2)

where V is the peak value of the applied noise voltage per


cycle. If the r-f bandwidth B is expressed In cycles/sec,
there will be a total number of components in the noise spectrum
model equal to IBl
For convenience in manipulation, the expressions for
Ssin(coit + 01), sin(a 2 t + 2), etc., will be represented by
a,, a2 , etc. Taking the common amplitude term outside of the
brackets and substituting rms for peak voltage (vn for Vn) ,
the expression is:

eo = 2KxVn 2 [aI
[ -a2 + ... SBr] 2 (A-3)

Expanding, the output voltage is:

e 2KxVn 2 {l2 + a22 + a 3 +. -- + 2a 2 a33

+ 2a1 3 '24
2 I.....+ 2ala 4 + 2a2 a5

'A-4)

Remembering that the vario-us noefficients a1 , a,, et.,


represent sine waves, the squarcd Germs reduce to d-c and
second harmonic components, while the product terms reduce
Lo sum- and difference-frequency components. Restricting the
analysis to cases where the video bandwidth B v is eqiual to or
Sltss than the r-f bandwdth Br, only the d-c and difference-
frequency components need be considered.

-13 -
There will be IBr d-c components, each of amplitude 1/2.
The difference frequency terms at 1 cycle/sec result from the
products of adjacent components 2ala,, 2a2 a3 , etc. There will
be a total of IBr - 1 such components, each of unit amplitude.
Similarly, at m cycles per second there will be IBr - Iml
components, each of unit amplitude.
Because of the random phase of the components oC the ori-
ginal r-f spectrum model, the difference-frequency components
occurring at each cycle in the video band must be added power-
wise. The expression for the video output is thus:

e O = 2Kxv [0a) + [IBrV -111 cos(Pt +


xn
x 1 +Ir -2 o~at%

+ CIBr -211 cos(11vt+b ) + CIBr - 3]1 cos(6't+ ) ......


0

(A-5)

The output noise spectrum, in terms of the squares of the


rms values of each component, is sketchcd in Fig. A.2. To
find the total noise voltage output within a video bandwidth
Bv, the spectrum is integrated over B v . This miist be done
power-wise, and then the square root taken. Assuming that rhe
video amplifier response approaches, but does not include the
d-c term, the expression is:
By
V = Kxvn2[} 2B [ dJ (A-6)
0+r

Integrating, the output noise voltage is found to be:

Vno = KxVn 2 [2BrFv - Bv (A-7)

The threshold sensitivity of the system corresponds to


the condition oi the signal voltage at the output of the

- 14 -

1A
1 KC2vn 4Br 1J2
0
04 2Kv 4 I

H I 2
0 r

Video frequency -k-

Br

FIG. A.2.--Idealized noise output spectrum.

detector (Vso) being equal to the above determined noise


voltage. (It is assumed here that the noise due to the crystal
itself is negligible: This is necessary for the realization
of maximum system sensitivity).
The signal output voltage of the detector will be:

es= Kx[V s sin wst] 2 (A-8)

where V. is the peak value of the signal voltage applied to


the detector. The peak output voltage for, a c-w input, or
f . a pulse which is sufficientlv wide to pass through thc
video ampifier, will be given by tne d-c term obtained when
the squaring is performed. Tha:

KxV s
=
Vs 2- K-xV-s2 where (A-9)

VS is the rms value of the input Vignal. Equating sigral


and noise output voltages,

-15
V n (A-l0)

where v is the thermal noise voltage per cynIe of r-f band-


width, as previously defined. This may be rewritten in terms
of available powers at the input to the detector:

Ps = Fn [2BrBv - By2 (A-1l)

Putting noise puwer and bandwidths on a megacycle basis, and


converting to decibel measure:

PSdbm = -114 dbm + 10 log 10 [2BrB v - Bv2]1 (A-12)

The above relation applies at the detector input. This


is readily translated to the input of the preamplifier by
adding in the effect of the excess noisiness of the preampli-
fier. The resulting relation for the maximum sensitivity of
the system is:

Smaxdbi = -114 + F + 10 log 1 0 [Be] (A-13)

Where F is the pre;^kmplifier noise figure in db ana B_ is the


effective system bandwidth:

Be = [2BrB v - By 2 (A-14)

When Br is at least 10 times Bv, Be is given with good


accuracy by:

Be [2rBv]l/ ' (A-15)

- 16 -
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