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4.1 Introduction To Steady State Heat Transfer

Heat transfer often occurs in combination with other unit operations, such as
drying of lumber or foods, alcohol destilation, burning of fuel, and evaporation. The
heat transfer occurs because of a temperature difference driving force and heat flows
from the high to the low temperature region. Writing a similar equation but specifically
for heat transfer,


4.2 Basic Mechanisms of Heat Transfer

Heat transfer may occur by any one or more of the three basic mechanisms of heat
transfer as,
1. Conduction
In conduction, heat can be conducted through solids, liquids, and gases. The heat
is conducted by the transfer of the energy of motion between adjacent molecules. In a
gas the hotter molecules, which have greater energy and motions, impart energy to the
adjacent molecules at lower energy levels. In conduction, energy can also be transferred
by free electrons, which is quite important in metallic solids. Examples of heat
transfer mainly by conduction are heat transfer through walls of exchangers or a
refrigerator, heat treatment of steel forgings and so on.

2. Convection
The transfer of heat by convection implies the transfer of heat by bulk transport
and mixing of macroscopic elements of warmer portions with cooler portions of a gas or
a liquid. It also often involves the energy exchange between a solid surface an a fluid.
Examples of heat transfer by convection are loss of heat from a car radiator where the
air is being circulated by a fan, cooking of foods in a vessel being stirred, and so on.
3. Radiations
Radiation is the transfer of energy through space by means of electromagnetic
waves in much the same way as electromagnetic light waves transfer light. The same
laws which govern the transfer of light govern the radiant transfer of heat. Solids and
liquids tend to absorb the radiation being transferred through it, so that radiation is
important primarily in transfer through space or gases. The most important example of
radiaton is the transport of heat to the earth from the sun.

4.3 Fourier`s Law of Heat Conduction

The transfer of heat by conduction also follows this basic equation and written as
fourier`s law for heat conduction in fluids or solids.


Where : A = area of isothermal surface (cm2)

x = distance measured normally to surface (cm)
q = rate of heat flow across surface in direction normal to surface (cal/s)
T = temperature (

k = proportionality constant (cal/s. . cm)

The fourier`s law can be integrated for the case of steady state heat transfer through a
flat wall of constant cross sectional area A, where temperature at point 1 is T 1 and T2 at
point 2 a distance od x2 x1 m away. Rearranging equation


Integrating assuming that k is constan and does not vary with temperature and dropping
the subscript x on qx for convenience,

Where qx is the heat transfer rate in the x direction in watts (W), A is the cross sectional
area normal to the direction of flow of heat in m 2, T is temperature in K, x is distance in
m, and k is the thermal conductivity in W/m 2. The quantity dT/dx is the temperature
gradient in the x direction. The minus sign in Eq. (4.1-2) is required because if the heat
flows is positive in a given direction, the temperature decreases in this direction.

4.4 Thermal Conductivity

1. Gases
In gases the mechanism of thermal conduction is relatively simple. The molecules
are in continuous random motion, colliding with one another and exchanging energy
and momentum. If a molecule moves from a high temperature region to a region of
lower temperature, it transports kinetic energy to this region and gives up this energy
through collisions with lower energy molecules. Since smaller molecules move faster,
gases such as hydrogen should have higher thermal conductivities.
2. Liquids
The physical mechanism of conduction of energy in liquids is somewhat similar to
that of gases, where higher energy molecules collide with lower energy molecules,
however, the molecules are packed so closely together that molecular force fields exert
a strong effect on the energy exchange. The thermal conductivity of liquids varies
moderately with temperature and often can be expressed as a linear variation.
Where a and b are empirical constants. Thermal conductivities of liquids are essentially
independent of pressure.
4. Solids
Heat or energy is conducted through solids by two mechanisms. In the first, which
applies primarily to metallic solid, heat, like electricity, is conducted by free electrons
which move through the metallic lattice. In the second mechanism, present in all solids,
heat is conducted by transmission of energy of vibration between adjacent atoms.

Example 4.1.1 heat loss through an insulating wall

Calculate the heat loss per m2 of surface area for an insulating wall composed of
25,4 mm thick fiber insulating board, where the inside temperature is 352,7 K and
the outside temperature is 297,1 K.
Form appendix A.3, the thermal conductivity of fiber insulating board is 0,048
W/m.K. the thickness x2 x1 = 0,0254 m. substituting into equation :

105,1 W/m2

(105,1 W/m2)

= 33,30 btu/h . ft2

4.5 Steady State Conductivity

Simple examples of steady state conduction are shown in figure 4.1 in figure

4.1(a) a flat walled insulated tank contains a refrigerant at perhaps -10 , while the air

outside the tank is at 28 . The temperature falls linearly with distance across the layer

of insulation as heat flows from the air to the refrigerant. As we will see in a later
section, there may actually be a temperature drop between the bulk of the air and the
outside surface of the insulation, but it is assumed to be negligible in fig 4.1 (a), fig

4.1(b) shows a similar tank containing boiling water at 100 , losing heat to air at 20

The rate of heat flows is found as follows, assuming that k is independent of
temperature, q is constant along the path of heat flows. If x is the distance from the hot




Where x2 x1 = thickness of layer of insulation

T1 T2 = temperature drop across layer

When the thermal conductivity k varies linearly with temperature, in accordance

still can be used rigorously by taking an average value k for k, which may be found
either by using the arithmetic average of the individual values of k for the two surface
temperatures, T1 and T2 or by calculating the arithmetic average of the temperatures and
using the value of k at that temperature.

4.6 Compound Resistances in Series

Consider a flat wall constructed of a series of layers, as shown in figure 4.2 let the
thicknesses of the layers be BA, BB, and Bc and the average conductivities of the

materials of which the layers are made be , respectively. Let

be the temperature drops across layers A,B and C respectively.


Figure 4.2 Thermal resistance in series

Equation 10.5 can be written for each layer, using in place of k


Adding equation 10.8 gives

(4.6 -3)

Since in steady heat flow, all the heat that passes through the first resistance must pass
through the second and in turn pass through the third, qA, qB, and qC are equal and all
can be denoted by q. using this fact and solving for q/A gives


Where RA, RB, RC = resistance of individual layers

R = overall resistance

4.7 Heat Flow Through a Cylinder

Consider a hollow cylinder of length L with an inside radius r i and an outside ro.
The cylinder is made of material with a thermal conductivity k. The temperature of the

outside surface is To that of the inside surface is Ti with Ti To. At radius r from the

center the heat flow rate is q and the area through which it flows is A.

Figure 4.3 Flow of Heat Through Thick Walled Cylinder

Consider a very thin cylinder, concentric with the main cylinder, of radius r, where r is
between ri and ro. the thickness of the wall of this cylinder is dr and if dr is small enough
with respect to r for the lines of heat to be considered parallel





That AL is the area of a cylinder of length L and radius rL where


The logarithmic mean is less convenient than the arithmetic mean and the latter can be
used without appreciable error for thin walled tubes, where r 0/ri is nearly 1. The ratio of

the logarithmic mean to the arithmetic mean ia a function of r0 /ri as shown in

figure 4.5.

Figure 4.5 Relation Between Logaritmic and Arithmetic Means