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InternationalStandard 4787
& INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATIONeMEJK.!IYHAPO.!lHAR OprAHI13ALll1R no CTAH.!IAPTI13ALll1l1eORGANISATION INTERNATlONALE DE NORMALISATlON

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.< - L..aboratoryglassware - Volumetric glassware Methods
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for use and testing of capacity
Verrerie de laboratoire-'- Verrerie volumtrique - Mthodes d'utilisation et de vrification de la capacit

First edition - 1984-11-15 I

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jj UDC 542.3: 531.73 Ref. No. ISO 4787-1984 (E)


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m Descriptors : laboratory equipment, laboratory glassware, volume measuring instruments, utilization, tests, volume measurement.
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 4787-1984 (E)

I
Laboratory glassware - Volumet~ic glassware - Methods
tor use and testing ot capacity

1 Scope and field of application ISO ~5/3, Laboratory glassware - Graduated pipettes -
Part 3~' Pipettes for which a waiting time of 15 s is specified.
This International Standard provides methods for the testing of
volumetric glassware in order to obtain the best accuracy in ISO ~5/4, Laboratory glassware - Graduated pipettes -
use. Part 4 : Blow-out pipettes.
I
I
The International Standards for the individual articles inelude ISO 1(i)42, Laboratory glassware - One-markvolumetric
clauses on the definition of capacity, which describe the flasks'l
method of manipulation in sufficient detail to define the ca- ISO 3507, Pyknometers.
pacity without ambiguity. This International Standard is sup- I
plementary to the information contained in these definitions. ISO 4788, Laboratory glassware - Graduated measuring
CYlindf's.
The procedures are applicable to small-capacity ware, usually
defined as items with capacities in the range of 0,1 to 2 000 mI.
These include transfer and one-mark pipettes without subdiv- 3 ~ummary of method
isions; graduated measuring pipettes and dilution pipettes, with
partial or complete subdivisions; burettes; volumetric flasks; The peneral procedure is based upon a determination of
vo,u e of water either contained in or delivered by the vessel.
graduated measuring cylinders. The procedures are not recom-
mended for testing of apparatus with capacities below 0,1 mi, This olume of water is based upon knowledge of its mass and
such as microglassware, for example.
fI
its ta ulated density.

NOTES
1 Testing is the process by which the conformity of the individual 4 J-efinitio!'s
article with the appropriate standard is determined, culminating in
the determination of its error at one or more points.
For ,he purpose of this International Standard, the following
defirlitions apply (see also ISO 384).
2 This International Standard does not deal specifically with
pyknometers as specified in ISO 3507.' However, the procedures 4.1 Unit of volume
specified below for the determination of vorume of glassware can, for
the greater part, also be followed for the calibration of pyknometers.
The lunit of volume shall be the cubic centimetre (cm3) or, in
speqial cases, the cubic decimetre (dm3) or cubic millimetre
2 References (mni3) for which the names millilitre (mI), litre (1) or
micrlolitre (~I) may be used.
ISO 384, Laboratory glassware - PrincipIes of design and con-
struction of volumetric glassware. NOTE - ThElterm millilitre (mil is commonly used as a special name
for t~e cubic centimetre (crn3) [and, similarly, the litre (1)for the cubic
ISO 385/1, Laboratory glassware - Burettes - Part 1: deciretre (crn3) and the microlitre (.IIIfor the cubic millimetre (mm3)),
Generalrequirements. in a~cordance with a decision of the twelfth Confrence Gnrale des
Poid; et Mesures. The term millilitre is acceptable, in general, for
refe~ences in International Standards to capacities of volumetric
ISO 385/2, Laboratory glassware - Burettes - Part 2 : glassware and it is used, in particular, in the present texto
Burettes for which no waiting time is specified.
4.21 Reference temperature
ISO 385/3, Laboratory glassware - Burettes - Part 3 : ~- /-
Burettes for which a waiting time of 30 s is specified. Th~ standard reference temperature, Le. the temperature at
which the artiele.of volumetric laboratory ware is intended to
ISO 648, Laboratory glassware - One-markpipettes. cortain or deliver its nominal volume (nominal capacity) shall
be 20C.
ISO 835/1, Laboratory glassware - Graduated pipettes -
Part 1 : General requirements. NOTE - When it is necessary in tropical countries to work at an am-
bient temperature considerably above 20C, and these countries do
ISO 835/2, Laboratory glassware - Graduated pipettes - not wish to use the standard refercnce temperature of 20C, it is
Part 2 : Pipettes for which no waiting time is specified. recommended that they adopt a temperature of 27C.

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ISO 4787-1984 (E)

5 Apparatus and materials NOTE -


The coefficient of cubical thermal expansion of glass from
which volumetric glassware is manufactured falls in the approximate
range 10 x 10-6 to 30 x 10-6 De-1. A vessel made of soda-lime
5.1 Balance glass having a coefficient of cubical thermal expansion of
30 x 10- 6 De- 1, which was adjusted at 20 De but used at 27 De
A laboratory balance is required with sufficient capa ity to would, at the temperature of use, show an extra error of only 0,02 %,
weigh the loaded vessel. The discrimination of the balan e will which is smaller than the limits of error for most articles of volumetric
be a limiting factor in the accuracy of the measurements. Either glassware. It follows, therefore, that the reference temperature is of
a single-pan, self-indicating instrument or an equal-arm b lance minor importance in practical use of the glass vessel, but in order to
of adequate discrimination and capacity may be use. The provide a sound basis for adjustment (see 8.1.4) it is important to
balance shall have a discrimination not greater than 1/10 of the specify a reference temperature and the vessel should be equilibrated
limits of error of the instrument to be tested. In either ca e, the at that temperature before testing.
instrument shall be calibrated with adequate accuracy (se 9.3).
The balance shall have dimensions to accept the size f the 6.2.2 Temperature of liquid
vessels which need to be weighed.
The temperature of the water used for the testing of volumetric
glassware shall be accurately measured to within :t 0,1 De.
5.2 Thermometer Corrections for differences in temperature from the reference
temperature shall be applied in accordance with annex B.
A thermometer is required to measure the temperature bf the
water. Its limits of error shall be 0,1 De (see 9.5). When using volumetric glassware ensure that all solutions used
in connection with each other are close to a common /' "')
temperature when their volumes are measured.
5.3 Barometer

A barometer capable of providing atmospheric pr~ssure 6.3


measurements consistent with appropriate tolerances lis re- Cleanliness of glass surface
quired.
The volume contained in or delivered by a glass vessel depends
NOTE - The barometer should preferably have limits of erlrorof on the cleanliness of the internal glass surface of the vessel.
1 mbar.H Lack of cleanliness can give rise to error through a badly
shaped meniscus involving two defects:

5.4 Water , incompletewetting of the glass surface, Le. the liquid


surface meets the glass at an appreciable angle instead of
Distilled or deionized water, suitable for generallaboratory pur- forming a curve such that it meets the glass tangentially;
poses, shall be used.
a generally increased radius of curvature, due to con-
tamination of the liquid surface reducing the surface
6 Factors affecting the accuracy of tension.
volumetric laboratory ware
In vessels used for delivery, lack of cleanliness can cause ad-
ditional errors due to the film of liquid on the walls being ----
6.1 General irregularly distributed or incomplete. .-----
The same sources of error are, naturally, inherent b h in In use, as distinct from testing, chemical contamination can/
testing and use. In the former, every attempt is made to r duce
these errors to a minimum; in the latter, the care nee ed is introduce an error even though it has no influence on th~
curacy of volume measurement.
dependent upon the degree of accuracy required; whe the
greatest possible accurlcy is desired, the article should be~used NOTE - Small residues of acid, for example, could impair the concen-
as nearly as possible in the manner in which it is tested. tration of the alkaline solution with which the vessel is filled.

Therefore, where vessels are fitted with grOtmd stoppers,


6.2 Temperature special attention shall be paid to cleaning the ground zone.

6.2.1 Temperature of the vessel A satisfactory method of cleaning is described in annex A. To.
ascertain whether. a piece of glass apparatus is satisfactorily
The capacity of a glass vessel varies with Chang of clean, it shall be observed during filling. A delivery vessel
temperature; the particular temperature at which a vessells in- should preferably be filled from below the liquid surface (Le.
tended to contain or deliver its nominal capacity i~ the through the stopcock in the case of a burette or through the jet
"reference temperature" of the vessel (see 4.21. of a pipette). The rising liquid meniscus shall not change shape

1) 1 mbar = 100Pa

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1504787-1984 (E)

(Le. it shalll not crinkle at its edges). After over-filling and The I ghting should be arranged so that the meniscus appears
withdrawing a little liquid (through the jet in the case of a dark and distinct in outline. For this purpose, it should be
delivery Nessel, by means of a drawn-down glass tube in the view d against a white background and shaded from
case of a content vessel), the surface of the glass above shall unde irable iIIumination. This can be achieved, for example, by
remain uniformly wetted and the meniscus shall not crinkle at - secu ing a strip of black paper round the vessel not more than
its edgeso Additionally, an experienced operator can recognize 1 m below the level of the setting or by using a short section
the shape of an uncontaminated meniscus, in relation to its of th ck black rubber tubing cut open at one side and of such
diameter. size s to clasp the tu be firmly. Parallax is avoided when the
grad ation lines are of sufficient length to be seen at the front
and ack of the vessel simultaneously. On apparatus provided
7 5etting' of the meniscus (see the figure) with graduation lines on the front only, parallax can be made
negli ible when making a setting on the top edge of the line by
Most items of volumetric glassware employ the principie of set- usin the black shading strip, taking care that the top edge of
o ting or reading a meniscus (the interface between air and the this i in a horizontal plane. In this case, the eye shall be placed
liquid the volume of which is being measured) against a so t at the front and back portions of the top edge appear to be
reference line or scale. coin ident.

The meniscus shall be set so that the plane of the upper edge of
8 elivery time
the graduation line is horizontally tangential to the lowest point
of the meniscus, the line of sight being in the same plane. In the
case of a mercury meniscus, however, the highest point of the For rticles used tor delivery of a liquid, the volumedelivered is
meniscus shall be set to the lower edge of the graduation line. alwa s less than the volume contained, due to the film of liquid
When the article is used with opaque wetting liquids, the left n the walls of the vessel. The volume of this film depends
on t e time taken to deliver the liquid, and the volume delivered
horizontalline of sight shall be taken through the upper edge of
the meniscus, and, where necessary, an appropriate correction decr ases with decreasing delivery time. It follows, therefore,
that uch a vessel can deliver a particular volume for one value
shall be applied. (See the figure.)
only of the delivery time. The shorter the specified delivery
tim the greater is the variation in the volume delivered due to
sma I variations in delivery time which inevitably occur. Pro-
vide that the delivery time is never less than a certain value,
the olume of -the residual film is sufficiently small and uniform
to e sure that departures from the nominal delivery time which
occ r in practice have a negligible effect on the volume
deli ered and that the drainage occurring after delivery is
neg igibly small.

Th same effect may be achieved by splitting the time into a


sig Ificantly shorter delivery time "nd a definite waiting time. It
foil ws that the jet shall not be interfered witho Any alteration

l
of t e jet in order to in crease the speed of delivery will cause
----
the cale reading to be in error, which cannot be estimated, as
wel as decrease the consistency of reading.

Meniscus In ew of the above, delivery times are specified in the Interna-


tio al Standards on volumetric glassware adjusted for delivery,
usi 9 water as the liquid. The delivery ranges should be
spe fied so that no reasonable differences in volume will ap-
pe if the actual delivery time varies in that range caused, for
exa pie by traces of dust. As a safeguard, nevertheless, the
deli ery time may be marked on burettes and pipettes made to
ela s A tolerances to enable the user to check whether the jet
ha become blocked or damaged, by measuring the delivery
tim . Such inscription is required, in some countries, by legal
me rology authorityo

9 Testing procedure
9. General
Th vessel to be tested shall be cleaned and kept filled with
pu e water until shortly before required (see annex Al. Vessels
adj sted to contain shall then be dried, for example by rinsing
wi ethanol and using a current of warm air. Vessels adjusted

Figure - Setting of the meniscus !


to deliver shall be appropriately cleaned. Disposable pipettes
ne d not be cleaned before testing.

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ISO 4787-1984 (E)

9.2 Temperature conditions Th' m,nu'",",,,', ;n","c';on, ,h,1Ib, ,01l01d;n m'k;n9'h,


requisite measurements.Weighings shall bel made with care
AIItests shall be carried' out in a room, the temperature of
and made
would expeditiously
constitute a sourcetoofminimize evapora~ion
error. The losses
balanc e used shallwhich
be in
which is constant to at least 1 DC/h.

Make sure that the vessel or weighing bottle and thelwater are
at room temperature.
good working order. The vessels that are
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eighed shall be
clean and shall be handled carefully to avoi, contamination.
They may be wiped with a clean cotton cleth as required.
Handling with clean cotton gloves is consid~red to be good
practice.
9.3 Tare
9.6 Evaluation
The vessel to be tested, or a weighing bottle if a vesse intended
for delivery is to be tested, shall be appropriately wei hed,i.e. The difference of the results of the first and ~econd weighings
to an accuracy better than 10 % of the tolerance lai~ down. is the apparent mass of the water contained ,n or delivered by
the tested vessel.

9.4 Filling NOTE- The apparent mass, thus obtained, is the Imass not corrected
for air buoyancy.

A vessel adjusted to contain shall either be filled to a istance of


a few millimetres above the graduation line to be t sted; the In order to obtain the volume contained in 01 delivered by the
vessel under test at the reference temperature from the/
final setting to the line shall be made by withdr wing the
surplus water by means of a glass tube drawn down o a jet or, apparent mass of water, the following facto~s shall be taken -
into account :
in the case of pipettes adjusted to contain, by mea s of filter
paper. Alternatively, the walls of the vessel shall be mpletely a) the density of water at the temperatu e of test;
wetted for a considerable'distance above the graduat on line to
be tested. The vessel shall be filled to a few millime res below b) the thermal expansion of the gla s betweenl the
the graduation line by running water down the wett d wall of temperature of test and the reference temberature;
the neck. Two minutes drainage time shall be obs rved; the
final setting shall then be made by discharging th required c) the effect of air buoyancy on the vJater and on the
water against the wall about 1 cm above the grad ation line weights used. r
and rotating the vessel to re-wet the wall uniformly.
Instructions for calculating the volume of +e vessel at the
Vessels adjusted to deliver shall be clamped in a ve tical pos- reference temperature of 20 DC, in which thf'!se factors have
ition and filled to a few millimetres above the graduat on line to been taken into account, are given in annex B.
be tested; any liquid remaining on the outside of the j t shall be
removed. The setting shall then be made by running out the 10 Use
surplus water through the jet. Any drop of liquid a hering to
the jet shall be removed by bringing an inclined gla s surface
10.1 General
into contact with the tip of the jet. Delivery into the tared
weighing bottle shall then be made with the flow un estricted.
Other precautions which are necessary to obtain t e correct Where the greatest attainable accuracy is r1quired, a vessel
delivered volume vary from vessel to vessel and are d scribed in shall be manipulated in a manner as similar a~ possible to that~
the appropriate standards in the clause defining cap city. employed during testing, and corrections for sale error shall bt
used. The vessel shall be cleaned before use (bee annex AL If,
during test, deviations from indicated volum~s were noticed,
9.5 Weighing the appropriate corrections shall be applied.

The filled vessel or weighing bottle shall be weig d to the 10.2 Flasks (see ISO 1042)
same accuracy as in 9.3 and the temperature of the ater shall
be measured using a thermometer graduated and a

0,1 DC, either situated in the water supply line or inse
filled vesseJ after weighing.
curate to
ted in the
A flask need not be dried after cleaning and rinSing with dis-
tilledwater, if it is to be used for making up J n aqueous stan-
dard solution. 1

Two weighings are required, namely lL' referring to t e loaded The procedure for setting of the meniscus ~n the line shall
vessel, and lE' referring to the empty vessel. Norma Iy, lE and reproduce the conditions of test and is illustrated by the follow-
lL are observed under the same conditions, hence a precise ing example in the case of dilute aqueous solution. Introduce'
zero adjustment of the balance is not necessary. Eith r a single- the material to be dissolved with sufficient water to dissolve it
pan balance or a double-pan balance may be used. I the latter by shaking, assisted by no more than modelrate warming, if
case, a vessel similar to the one being weighed is pla ed on the necessary. Then add water to bring the liquid ~urface to within
opposite pan, during both weighings, to serve as a are. 80th a few centimetres of the graduation line. PIU ' mix;' then rinse
of the required weighings shall be carried out in as sh rt a time- by gathering the water in the flask to bring the liquid surface to
interval as convenient to ensure that they have b en made within 1 cm of the graduation line. Leave t~ e flask to stand
under similar conditions. The temperature of the ir in the
balance housing and the barometric pressure shall b recorded without its stopper for 2 min to allow liquid in ~he neck to drain.
If it is necessary to wait a further time for the t1ution to regair
for use in the subsequent calculations. roomtemperature,thenthestoppermaybereplaced.Thenset

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ISO 4787-1984 (E)
1

the bottom of the meniscus Ion the line by running the curac"1 also deteriorates when using non-aqueous liquids, since
necessary water down the nec~ from a point less than 1 cm their ~urface tension may differ considerably from that of
above the graduation line. water.
I
Finally, shake the flask thoroUg~IY, after the stopper has been LiqUid which are too opaque for the bottom of the meniscus to
replaced, and check for the correct level of solution in the flask. be vis ble may be read on the "upper edge" of the meniscus,
I with ther less precision than is possible when viewing the
lowes~ point of the' meniscus.
10.3 Cylinders (see ISO 4788)

After cleaninb' and drying, fill t~e cylinder with the relevant li- 10.5 Pipettes
quid to a few millimetres abovle the nominal capacity line or
selected graduation line. Then withdraw the surplus of liquid by Pipettes adjusted to deliver (see ISO 648 and
means of a glass tu be drawn dpwn to a jet. 5).

I
10.4 Burettes (see ISO 385/1, ISO 385/2 and ISO 385/3)
I l
After c1eaning and rinsing with distilled water, rinse a pipette
with he reagent to be used.

" After cleanil7g and rinsing wit~ distilled water, rinse a burette
(including the stopcock and jet) with the reagent to be used.
FiII tHe pipette by suction to a few millimetres above the zero
line dr selected graduation line.
I
Clamp a plain glass test tube! large enough to hold a ther- WA NING - If the pipette is to be filled with any pote n-
mometer, nJar the burette if the burette is of such a size that it
tiall dangerous liquid, it is essential that an appropriate
is not large enough to insert aithermometer in the top for ob- pipe ting aid be used in order to avoid danger to the
serving the temperature of the liquid.
1
oper toro This rule applies to poisonous and corrosive
FiII the burette, clamped in a vertical position, without wetting liqui s, and to all biological fluids beca use of the pote n-
the walls above the zero gradLation line for more than a few tial isk of infection. It is recommended that pipetting
aids which allow the unrestricted outflow of the liquid
millimetres.lf the walls do bec1me wetted, allow adequate time sho Id be used.
for drainage before setting the zero line. The stopcock and jet
shall be free from air bubbles and shall be filled prior to setting
To tain the 'correct delivered volume, handle the pipette in
the meniscus by running some liquid out through the jet.
I the anner described under "definition of capacity" in the ap-

Determine the delivery time by' the unrestricted outflow of the


$
pro riate International Standard.
liquid from the zero mark to the lowest graduation mark with
the stopcock fully open. Thel best accuracy is attained when Obs~rve any waiting time specified before removing the pipette
scale corrections are used and delivery takes place with the frorrl contact with the receiving vessel.
stopcock fully open and the iet not being in contact with the
Th waiting time of 3 s in the case' of pipettes for delivery down
receiving vessel or with the liquid surface in that vessel, as in
test. For titration therefore, it is desirable to know roughly what to t e jet is not critical and does not require timing; remove the
pip te from contact with the receiving vessel as soon as it is
.--'- volume of reagent is going tb be required to reach the end-
1
cert in that the meniscus has come to resto
point; this can be achieved by, carrying out a preliminary titra-
tion if sufficient sample is available. If this is not possible, the
Th drop remaining in the jet shall not be expelled except in the
error incurred will in generallbe less than 0,5 t mi, where the
capacity tolerance is :f: t mi, provided that the titration time cas of "blow-out" type pipettes in which the last drop forms a
par of the volume to be delivered (see ISO 835/4). As with
does not e'xceed the natural delivery time by more than 60 S. A
bur ttes, very viscous liquids cannot accurately or easily be
waiting tirre, if specified, shall be observed before making the use in pipettes. No significant error is introduced
final setting for delivery of la given volume. A waiting time
usi 9 dilute aqueous solutions such as are ordinarily used in
should normally not be observed when performing a titration, vol metric analysis.
since establishing the end-point of the titration will in general
take more' time than the spebfied waiting time.
10.5.2 Pipettes adjusted to contain
The above remarks apply to the use of a burette with
1

transparent liquids with a viscosity not very different from Af r cleaning and rinsing with distilled water, dry or rinse out a
water. Very viscous liquids dannot accurately or easily be used pi ette with the reagent to be used. Fill the pipette by s4ction
in burettes beca use of the ~uantity left on the walls and the (s the note in 10.5.1) to as close as possible above the total
slow rate of flow. Dilute aqueous solutions, however, such as ~
ca acity line or selected graduation line.
are ordin~rilY employed in ~olumetric analysis, can be used
without significant error; for example 1 molfl solutions
1
T obtain the correct contained volume, handle the pipette in
introduce errors smaller than Class A tolerances and 0,1 mol/I th manner described under "definition of capacity" in the ap-
solutions introduce corresJondingly smaller errors. The ac- pr~ priate International Standard.

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ISO 4787-1984 (E)

Annex A
1

\
or cleaning of volumetric glassware I

Recommended method
. . . . moved mech. nicallv b) a mixture of equal parts of a 30 gIl solution of
A 1 Obvious loose contamlnatlon IS re. k
.th potassium permanganate (KMn04) and 1 mol/l solution of
. f le by brushmg, sha I 9 WI
from the glass vessel, or .e~amp ieces of filter paper) Oil or 50dium hydfOxide \NaOH). \1",this GaSe,
l H~s\tlue
01 MnG1
water (if
. necessary b contammg P
suitable solveots. ,he vessel so uld be
grease IS removed v . I wh\ch ma~b~ t~mO~~~
wi\\ OCC\1t ~~ m~Q~~ ~ n~
nearlv filled with ao aqueous solutloo oi a soapless de er<aent, h\fdro~h\~,i~ao\dor oxalic acid.1 ~ m\~
and shaken vigofOuslV. It should th~n be repeatedly rin~ed with
distilled water, until all traces of the detergent are rem,pved. It This should be allowed to stand for several hours.
should be ascertained in the way specified in 6.3 that tl11ewalls
of the vessel are sufficiently clean.
The vessel should then be rinsed with distilled water and it
A.2 If the walls are not sufficiently clean after the\ above should again be ascertained that the walls are sufficiently clean;
treatment, the vessel should be filled with either onelofthe if they are not, the procedure should be repeated.
following :

al a mixture of equal parts of a saturated solu~on of A.3 Vessels thus cleaned, if not required for immediate use,
potassium dichromate an.d concentrted sulfuric aci~; should be kept filled with distilled water.

WARNING - Potassium dichromate is pote iallY


hazardous in contact with organic reducing a ents NOTE- As asateguard, it is recommendedthat volumetricglassware
and materials; it is irritating to the eyes, respi tory should not be heated to a temperature considerably a,bove 150 DC.
system and skin. Protective face-shield and 9
shall be worn when handling the dichromate/ su
acid mixture.
[ oves
furic
Although the strain point ot glasses used tor volumetric purposes is in
the range ot 500 DC, alterations ot volume might occur at temperatures
considerably below the strain point.

6
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1504787-1984 (E)

Annex B

:I Calculation of volume
1) I

B.1 General calculation B.1.3 The largest source of experimental error associated
with the determination of volume is in the adjustment of the
meniscus, which will depend on operator care, and is related to
B.1.1 The general equation for calculationof the volume at the cross-section of the tubing where the meniscus is located.
the referElnetemperature of 20 DC, V20,from the apparent Some typical values are given in table 2.
mass of the water, contained or delivered,is as follows :

(h - )x( \x
V20=
I
lE 1
ew - eA) ( ) 1 - eA
eB
Table 2 - Experimental errors relating
to the adjustment of the meniscus

x (1 - y(1 - 20)) ...(1) Error in


Typical neck diameters
meniscus position
where
5mm 10mm 20mm 30mm

(, h islthe balance reading of vessel with water, in grams; 0,05 mm 1 111 4111 16 111 35111
0,1 mm 2 111 8111 31 111 71 111
lE is the balance reading of empty vessel, in grams; 0,5 mm 10 111 39 111 157 111 353 111
eA is the density of air, in grams per millilitre; 1 mm 20111 781-11 314 1-11 707 1-11
2 mm 39111 157 111 628 1-11 1 4141-11
eB i~either the actual density of the balance weights when
thesel are adjusted to their nominal mass, or the reference
density for which the weights have been adjusted (see the B .1.4 When the temperature at which the vessel is used (/2)
note), in grams per millilitre, or, when using an electronic differs from the reference temperature (/1), the volume of the
balance without weights, the (reference) density of the vessel at 12can be calculated from the following equation :
weig~ts with which it has been adjusted (see noteL
ew is the density of water at 1 DC, in grams per millilitre; VI2 = VI1 -( 1 + y (/2 - (1))
y is the coefficient of cubical thermal expansion of the
where y is the coefficient of cubical thermal expansion as
mate~ial of which the item ofglassware tested is made, in before (see table 5).
reciprlocal degrees Celsius;

1 is the temperature of the water used in testing, in


degrees Celsius. B.2 Calculation of volume of glass vessels
NOTE JWeights conforming to International Recommendation
No. 33 of the Organisation Internationale de Mtrologie Lgale (OIMU B .2.1 To facilitate calculation of the volume of glass vessels
have been adjusted to give correct results when weighing in air as from apparent mass obtained by using a balance with weights,
though the density of the weights was 8,0 g/mI. Electronic balances tables 6,7,8 and 9 have been included listing conversion values
versus temperature. In these tables, the combined effect of the
are nOrm"y adjusted by means of these weights.
density of the water, the thermal expansion of the glass and the
Appropriate values for ew' eA and y can be found in tables 3, 4 air buoyancy have been taken into account.
and 5 or in literature.
The conversion values have been derived from equation(1) as
follows :
B.1.2 Iln order to give an impression of the extent to which
the various parameters influence the result, some parametric
tolerances, with the corresponding error in the volume deter- If the product of terms 2, 3 and 4 of equation( 1) is represented
mined, are given in table 1. It is evident from these figures that by Z, the equation may by approximation be written as

the mearurement
factor . of the water temperature is the most criticar
...(2)
V20 =(IL - IE)+ Vn (Z - 1)
Table 1 - Parametric tolerances
where Vn is the nominal volume of the vessel.
Iwith the corresponding volumetric error
~ I

Para meter Parametric Volumetric Tables 6, 7, 8 and 9 list the values Vn(Z - 1) for Vn = 1 000 mi,
tolerance error assuming that
.1
Water temperature :!: 0;5 De :!: 10-4
Air pressure :!: 10-5
eA = 1,2 kg/m3;
:!: 8 mbar (0,8 kPa)
A' Ir I
temperature :!: 2,5 De :!: 10-5 eB = 8000,0 kg/m3 (see the note in 8.1);
Relatille humidity :!: 10 % :!: 10-6
:!: 0,6 g/mi :!: 10-5
y = 10 x 10-6, 15 x 10-6, 25 x 10-6 and 30 x 10-6
Density of weights DC - 1 respectively.

+ -- --~- - u_u_-- --u---u--_O'-


...

ISO 4787-1984 (E)

The value of 1,2 kg/ m3 for eA is close to the average and cor- 1 000 mi, according as the coefficient of cubical the~mal expan-
responds, for example, to an air pressure of about 975 mbar at sion of the glass is 10 x 10-6 DC-l, 15 x 10-r DC-l, or
10C, 1 015 mbar at 20C or 1 055 mbar at 30C. Corrections 30 x 10-6 DC-l respectively.
to the conversion values applicable to other air pressures and
temperatures are tabulated in table 10. These corrections also Table 3 - Density of air-free water
apply to a vessel with a nominal capacity of 1 000 mi and have
Temperature, De Density, g/mi
been calculated on the assumption that the air has a relative
humidity of 50 % and contains 0,04 % (V/ V)of carbon dioxide. 15 0,999098
16 0,998 94
Normal departures in practice from these conditions will in-
17 0,99877
troduce negligible error. 18 0,998 593
19 0,998 403
8.2.2 Depending on the cubical thermal coefficient of ex- 20
pansion of the glass from which the vessel is made, a conver- 21 0,997 99
22 0,998 23
0,997 7
sion value appropriate to the measured water temperature shall
23 0,997 536
be taken from table 6, 7, 8 or 9. This figure shall be added to the 24 0,997294
numerical value of the apparent mass, in grams, of water at the 25 0,997 O4
temperature of the test, to obtain the volume, in millilitres, of a 26 0,996 78
vessel of 1 000 mi capacity at 20C. To allow for the departure 27 0,996 511
of the actual air density from the value of 0,001 2 g/mi, a cor- 28 0,996232
rection shall be taken from table 10. This correction shall be 29 0,995
added (or subtracted when negative) to the conversion value 30 0,99564
from table 6, 7, 8 or 9. Converson values for vessels of other 31 0,995339
32 0,995 024
capacities shall be derived by proportion.
33
34 0,994 36
0,994 70$
Where the reference temperature is 27 DC, an additional figure 35 0,994 030
shall be added of 0,07 mi, 0,10 mi, 0,18 mi or 0,21 mi per

Table 4 - Density of dry air, in grams per cubic centimetre, in the temperature range 10 ta 30 e,
and at absolute pressures between _930and 1 040 mbar I
el (p, ti x 103

e 930 940 950 960 970 980 990 1000 1010 1020 10301 1040
10 1,145 1,157 1,169 1,182 1,194 1,206 1,219 1,231 .1,243 1,256 1,268 1,280
11 1,141 1,153 1,165 1,178 1,190 1,202 1,214 1,227 1,239 1,251 1,263 1,276
12 1,137 1,149 1,161 1,173 1,186 1,198 1,210 1,222 1,235 1,247 1,259 1,271
13 1,133 1,145 1,157 1,169 1,182 1,194 1,206 1,218 1,230 1,243 1,25$ 1,267
14 1,129 1,141 1,153 1,165 1,177 1,190 1,202 1,214 1,226 1,238 1,250 1,262
--..
15 1,125 1,137 1,149 1,161 1,173 1,185 1,197 1,210 1,222 1,234 1,246 1,258
16 1,121 1,133 1,145 1,157 1,169 1,181 1,193 1,205 1,217 1,230 1,242 1,254
17 1,117 1,129 1,141 1,153 1,165 1,177 1,189 1,201 1,213 1,225 1,237 1,249
18 1,113 1,125 1,137 1,149 1,161 1,173 1,185 1,197 1.209 1,221 1,233 1,245
19 1,109 1,121 1,133 1,145 1,157 1,169 1,181 1,193 1,205 1,217 1,229 1,241
20 1,106 1,118 1,129 1,141 1,153 1,165 1,177 1,189 1,201 1,213 1,225 1,236
21 1,102 1,114 1,126 1,137 1,149 1,161 1,173 1,185 1,197 1,208 l,22P 1,232
22 1,098 1,110 1,122 1,134 1,145 1,157 1,169 1,181 1,193 1,204 1,216 1,228
23 1,094 1,106 1,118 1,130 1,141 1,153 1,165 1,177 1,189 1,200 1,212 1,224
24 1,091 1,102 1,114 1,126 1,138 1,149 1,161 1,173 1,185 1,196 1,208 1,220
25 1,087 1,099 1,111 1,122 1,134 1,145 1,157 1,169 1,181 1,192 1,2 1,216
26 1,083 1,095 1,107 1,118 1,130 1,142 1,153 1,165 1,177 1,188 1,200 1,212
27 1.080 1,091 1,103 1,115 1,126 1,138 1,150 1,161 1,173 1,184 1,196 1,208
28 1,076 1,088 1,099 1,111 1,122 1,134 1,146 1,157 1,169 1,180 1,192 1,204
29 1,073 1,084 1,096 1,107 1,119 1,130 1,142 1,153 1,165 1,176 1,1 1,200
30 1,069 1,081 1,092 1,104 1,115 1,126 1,138 1,150 1,161 1,172 1,1 1,196

- _.L
.
ISO 4787-1984 (E)

Table 5 - Coefficient of cubical thermal expansion, J

Material Coefficient of cubical


thermal expansion, J
C-l x 106
Fused silica (quartz) 1,6
Borosilicate glass 10
Soda-lime glass 25

T ble 6 - Corrections appropriate to a vessel wlth a nominal capaclty of 1 000 mi made of glass having
a cu bical thermal coetticient of cubical thermal expansion of 10 x 10-6 C-1 (for example borosilicate glass)

Temperture 0,0 0,2 Temperature


0,1 0,3 0.4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 of water
of tWqter
t C
() I 5 1,24 1,24 1,24 1,24 1,24 1,24 1,24 1,24 1,25 1,25 5
6 1,25 1,25 1,25 1,26 1,26 1,26 1,27 1,27 1,27 1,27 6
7 1,28 1,28 1,29 1,29 1,29 1,30 1,30 1,31 1,31 1,32 7
8 1,32 1,33 1,33 1,34 1,34 1,35 1,35 1,36 1,37 1,37 8
9 1,38 1,39 1,39 1.40 1.41 1.41 1.42 1.43 1.43 1,44 9
10 1.45 1.46 1.47 1.47 1,48 1.49 1,50 1,51 1,52 1,53 10
11 1,53 1,54 1,55 1,56 1,57 1,58 1,59 1,60 1,61 1,62 11
12 1,63 1,64 1,65 1,66 1,67 1,69 1,70 1.71 1,72 1,73 12
13 1,74 1,75 1,77 1,78 1,79 1,80 1,81 1,83 1,84 1,85 13
14 1,86 1,88 1,89 1,90 1,92 1,93 1,94 1,96 1,97 1,99 14
15 2,00 2,01 2,03 2,04 2,06 2,07 2,09 2,10 2,12 2,13 15
16 2,15 2,16 2,18 2,19 2,21 2,22 2,24 2,26 2,27 2,29 16
17 2,30 2,32 2,34 2,35 2,37 2,39 2.40 2.42 2.44 2.46 17
18 2.47 2,49 2,51 2,53 2,54 2,56 2,58 2,60 2,62 2,64 18
19 2,65 2,67 2,69 2.71 2,73 2,75 2,77 2.79 2,81 2,83 19
20 2,84 2,86 2,88 2,90 2,92 2,94 2,96 2,98 3,01 3,03 20
21 3,05 3,07 3,09 3,11 3,13 3,15 3,17 3,19 3,22 3,24 21
22 3,26 3,28 3,30 3,32 3,35 3,37 3,39 3.41 3.43 3,46 22
23 3,48 3,50 3,53 3,55 3,57 3,59 3,62 3,64 3,66 3,69 23
24 3,71 3,74 3,76 3,78 3,81 3,83 3,86 3,88 3,90 3,93 24
25 3,95 3,98 4,00 4,03 4,05 4,08 4,10 4,13 4,15 4,18 25
26 4,20 4,23 4,26 4,28 4,31 4,33 4,36 4,39 4.41 4.44 26
27 4.47 4.49 4,52 4,55 4,57 4,60 4,63 4,65 4,68 4,71 27
28 4,73 4,76 4,79 4,82 4,85 4,87 4,90 4,93 4,96 4,99 28
29 5,01 5,04 5,07 5,10 5,13 5,16 5,18 5,21 5,24 5,27 29
30 5,30 5,33 5,36 5,39 5.42 5.45 5,48 5,51 5,54 5,57 30
31 5,60 5,63 5,66 5,69 5,72 5.75 5,78 5,81 5,84 5,87 31
32 5,90 5,93 5,96 6,00 6,03 6,06 6,09 6,12 6,15 6,18 32
33 6,22 6,25 6,28 6,31 6,34 6,38 ,6.41 6,44 6,47 6,50 33
34 6,54 6,57 6,60 6,63 6,67 6,70 6,73 6,77 6,80 6,83 34
35 6,87

9
1.504787-1984 (E)
.

I
Table 7 - Corrections appropriate to a vessel with a nominal capacity of 1 000 mi made of glass having
a coefficient of cubical thermal expansion of 15 x 10-6 DC-1 (for example neutral glass)

Temperature 0,0 0,2 Temperature


of water 0,1 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 of water
loe loe
5 1,31 1,31 1,31 1,31 1,31 1,31 1,31 1,32 1,32 1,32 5
I
6 1,32 1,32 1,32 1,33 1,33 1,33 1,33 1,33 1,34 1,34 6
{'\
7 1,34 1,35 1,35 1,35 1,36 1,36 1,36 1,37 1,37 1,38 7
8 I
1,38 1,39 1,39 1,40 1,40 1,41 1,41 1,42 1,42 1,43 8
9 1,43 1.44 1,45 1,45 1,46 1,47 1,47 1,48 1,49 1,49 9
10 1,50 1,51 1,51 1,52 1,53 1,54 1,55 1,55 1,56 1,57 I 10
11 1,58 1,59 1,60 1,61 1,61 1,62 1,63 1,64 1,65 1,66 11
12 1,67 1,68 1,69 1,70 1,71 1,72 1,73 1,74 1,76 1,77 I 12
13 1,78 1,79 1,80 1,81 1,82 1,83 1,85 1,86 1,87 1,88 13
14 1,89 1,91 1,92 1,93 1,95 1,96 1,97 1,98 2,00 2,01 14
15 2,02 2,04 2,05 2,07 2,08 2,09 2,11 2,12 2,14 2,15 I 15
16 2,17 2,18 2,20 2,21 2,23 2,24 2,26 2,27 2,29 2,30 16
17 2,32 2,34 2,35 2,37 2,38 2,40 2,42 2,43 2,45 2,47 I 17
18 2,48 2,50 2,52 2,53 2,55 2,57
- 2,59 2,60 2,62 2,64 18
19 2,66 2,68 2,70 2,71 2,73 2,75 2,77 2,79 2,81 2,83 19
20 2,84
I
2,86 2,88 2,90 2,92 2,94 2,96 2,98 3,00 3,02 20
21 3,04 3,06 3,08 3,10 3,12 3,14 3,16 3,19 3,21 3,23 21
22 3,25 3,27 3,29 3,31 3,33 3,36 3,38 I 22
3,40 3,42 3,44
23 3,47 3,49 3,51 3,53 3,55 3,58 3,60 3,62 3,65 3,67 23
24 3,69 3,72 3,74 3,76 3,79 3,81 3,83 3,86' 3,88 3,90 I 24
25 3,93 3,95 3,98 4,00 4,03 4,05 4,08 4,10 . 4,12 4,15 25
26 4,17 4,20 4,23 4,25 4,28 4,30 4,33 4,35 4,38 4,40 26
I
27 4,43 4,46 4,48 4,51 4,54 4,56 4,59 4,61 4,64 4,67 27 ~
28 4,69 4,72 4,75 4,78 4,80 4,83 4,86 4,89 4,91 4,94 28
29 4,97 5,00 5,02 5,05 5,08 5,11 5,14 5,17 5,19 5,22 I 29
30 5,25 5,28 5,31 5,34 5,37 5,40 5,42 5,45 5,48 5,51 30
31 5,54 5,57 5,60 5,63 5,66 5,69 5,72 5,75 5,78 5,81 I 31
32 5,84 5,87 5,90 5,93 5,96 6,00 6,03 6,06 6,09 6,12 32
33 6,15 6,18 6,21 6,24 6,28 6,31 6,34 6,37 6,40 6,44 33
34 6,47 6,50 6,53 6,56 6,60 6,63 6,66 6,69 6,73 6,76 I 34
35 6,79

10
;
L
---"- - -'
.
ISO 4787-1984 (E)

Table 8 - Corrections appropriate to a vessel with a nominal capacity of 1 000 mi made of glass having
a coefficient of cubical thermal expansion of 25 x 10-6oC-1

Temperature 0,0 0,1 Temperature


of water 0,2 0,3 0.4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 of water
t e t e
( 5 1.46 1,46 1.46 1.46 1.46 1.46 1.46 1.46 1,46 1.46 5
6 1.46 1,46 1,46 1.46 1.46 1,46 1.47 1.47 1.47 1.47 6
7 1.47 1,48 1,48 1,48 1,48 1.49 1,49 1.49 1.49 1,50 7
8 1,50 1,50 1,51 1,51 1,52 1,52 1,52 1,53 1,53 1,54 8
9 1,54 1,55 1,55 1,56 1,56 1,57 1,58 1,58 1,59 1,59 9
10 1,60 1,61 1,61 1,62 1,63 1,63 1,64 1,65 1,65 1,66 10
11 1,67 1,68 1,68 1,69 1,70 1,71 1,72 1,73 1,73 1,74 11
12 1,75 1,76 1,77 1,78 1,79 1,80 1,81 1,82 1,83 1,84 12
13 1,85 1,86 1,87 1,88 1,89 1,90 1,91 1,92 1,93 1,94 13
14 1,95 1,97 1,98 1,99 , 2,00 2,01 2,03 2,04 2,05 2,06 14
15 2,07 2,09 2,10 2,11 2,13 2,14 2,15 2,17 2,18 2,19 15
16 2,21 2,22 2,23 2,25 2,26 2,28 2,29 2,30 2,32 2,33 16
17 2,35 2,36 2,38 2,39 2.41 2.42 2,44 2.46 2.47 2.49 17
18 2,50 2,52 2,54 2,55 2,57 2,58 2,60 2,62 2,63 2,65 18
19 2,67 2,69 2,70 2,72 2,74 2,76 2,77 2,79 2,81 2,83 19
20 2,84 2,86 2,88 2,90 2,92 2,94 2,96 2,97 2,99 3,01 20
21 3,03 3,05 3,07 3,09 3,11 3,13 3,15 3,17 3,19 3,21 21
22 3,23 3,25 3,27 3,29 3,31 3,33 3,35 3,37 3,39 3.41 22
23 3.44 3.46 3,48 3,50 3,52 3,54 3,56 3,59 3,6 3,63 23
24 3,65 3,67 3,70 3,72 3,74 3,76 3,79 3,81 3,83 3,86 24
25 3,88 3,90 3,93 3,95 3,97 4,00 4,02 4,04 4,07 4,09 25
26 4,12 4,14 4,16 4,19 4,21 4,24 4,26 4,29 4,31 4,34 26
27 4,36 4,39 4.41 4,44 4.46 4.49 4,51 4,54 4,56 4,59 27
28 4,62 4,64 4,67 4,69 4,72 4,75 4,77 4,80 4,83 4,85 28
29 4,88 4,91 4,93 4,96 4,99 5,01 5,04 5,07 5,10 5,12 29
30 5,15 5,18 5,21 5,24 5,26 5,29 5,32 5,35 5,38 5,40 30
31 5,43 5,46 5.49 5,52 5,55 5,58 5,61 5,64 5,66 5,69 31
32 5,72 5,75 5,78 5,81 5,84 5,87 5,90 5,93 5,96 5,99 32
33 6,02 6,05 6,08 6,11 6,14 6,17 15,20 6,24 6,27 6,30 33
34 6,33 6,36 6,39 6.42 6.45 6,48 6,52 6,55 6,58 6,61 34
35 6,64

11

-"
'\

ISO 4787-1984 (E)

Table 9 - Corrections appropriate to a vessel with a nominal capacity of 1 000 mi made of glass having
a coefficient of cubical thermal expansion of 30 x 10-6 C-1 (tor example soda-lime glass)

Temperature 0,0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 Temperature
of water 0,8 0,9 of water
f De f De
5 1,53 1,53 1,53 1,53 1,53 1,53 1,53 1,53 1,53 1,53 5
()
6 1,53 1,53 1,53 1,53 1,53 1,53 1,53 1,53 1,54 1,54 6
7 1,54 1,54 1,54 1,54 1,55 1,55 1,55 1,55 1,56 1,56 7
8 1,56 1,56 1,57 1,57 1,57 1,58 1,58 1,59 1,59 1,59 8
9 1,60 . 1,60 1,61 1,61 1,62 1,62 1,63 1,63 1,64 1,64 9
10 1,65 1,66 1,66 1,67 1,67 1,68 1,69 1,69 1,70 1,71 10
11 1.71 1.72 1,73 1.74 1,74 1.75 1.76 1,77 1,78 1,78 11
12 1,79 1,80 1,81 1,82 1,83 1,84 1,84 1,85 1,86 1,87 12
13 1,88 1,89 1,90 1,91 1,92 1,93 1,94 1,95 1,96 1,97 13
14 1,98 2,00 2,01 2,02 2,03 2,04 2,05 2,06 2,08 2,09 14
15 2,10 2,11 2,12 2,14 2,15 2,16 2,17 2,19 2,20 2,21 15
16 2,23 2,24 2,25 2,27 2,28 2,29 2,31 2,32 2,34 2,35 16
17 2,36 2,38 2,39 2,41 2,42 2,44 ' 2,45 2,47 2,48 2,50 17
18 2,51 2,53 2,54 2,56 2,58 2,59 2,61 2,62 2,64 2,66 18
19 2,67 2,69 2.71 2,72 2,74 2,76 2,78 2.79 2,81 2,83 19
20 2,84 2,86 2,88 2,90 2,92 2,93 2,95 2,97 2,99 3,01 20
21 3,03 3,05 3,06 3,08 3,10 3,12 3,14 3,16 3,18 3,20 21
22 3,22 3,24 3,26 3,28 3,30 3,32 3,34 3,36 3,38 3,40 22
23 3,42 3,44 3,46 3,48 3,50 3,53 3,55 3,57 3,59 3,61 23
24 3,63 3,65 3,68 3,70 3,72 3,74 3,76 3,79 3,81 3,83 24
25 3,85 3,88 3,90 3,92 3,95 3,97 3,99 4,01 ,4,04 4,06 25
26 4,09 4,11 4,13 4,16 4,18 4,20 4,23 4,25 4,28 4,30 26
27 4,33 4,35 4,38 4,40 4,42 4,45 4,47 4,50 4,52 4,55 27 ,)
28 4,58 4,60 4,63 4,65 4,68 4,70 4.73 4,76 4,78 4,81 28
29 4,83 4,86 4,89 4,91 4,94 4,97 4,99 5,02 5,05 5,07 29
30 5,10 5,13 5,16 5,18 5,21 5,24 5,27 5,29 5,32 5,35 30
31 5,38 5,41 5,43 5,46 5,49 5,52 5,55 5,58 5,61 5,63 31
32 5,66 5,69 5,72 5,75 5,78 5,81 5,84 5,87 5,90 5,93 32
33 5,96 5,99 6,02 6,05 6,08 6,11 6,14 6,17 6,20 6,23 33
34 6,26 6,29 6,32 6,35 6,38 6,41 6,44 6,47 6,51 6,54 34
35 6,57

"

12

' ~-
r

"'~

ISO 4787-1984 (E)

.>

Table 10 - Additional corrections for air temperature


and pressure appropriate to a vessel with a nominal capacity 1000 mi

Temperature
of air Pressure, mbar (kPa)
975 980 985 990 995 1000 1005 1 010 1 015 1020 1025 1030 1035 1040 1045 1050
c (981 (991 (100)
(97,51 (98,51 /99,51 (100,5) (1011 (101,51 (1021 (102,5) (103) (103,5) (1041 /104,5) (1051
5 + 0,02 + 0,02 + 0,03 + 0,03 + 0,04 + 0,04 + 0,05 + 0,06 + 0,06 + 0,07 + 0,07 + 0,08 + 0,08 + 0,09 + 0,09 + 0,10
6 + 0,01 + 0,02 + 0,02 + 0,03 + 0,04 + 0,04 + 0,05 + 0,05 + 0,06 + 0,06 + 0,07 + 0,07 + 0,08 + 0,08 + 0,09 + 0,10
7 + 0,01 + 0,01 + 0,02 + 0,03 + 0,03 + 0,04 + 0,04 + 0,05 + 0,05 + 0,06 + 0,06 + 0,07 + 0,07 + 0,08 + 0,09 + 0,09
8 + 0,01 + 0,01 + 0,02 + 0,02 + 0,03 + 0,03 + 0,04 + 0,04 + 0,05 + 0,05 + 0,06 + 0,07 + 0,07 + 0,08 + 0,08 + 0,09
9 - + 0,01 + 0,01 + 0,02 + 0,02 + 0,03 + 0,03 + 0,04 + 0,04 + 0,05 + 0,06 + 0,06 + 0,07 + 0,07 + 0,08 + 0,08
10 - - + 0,01 + 0,01 + 0,02 + 0,02 + 0,03 + 0,04 + 0,04 + 0,05 + 0,05 + 0,06 + 0,06 + 0,07 + 0,07 + 0,08
11 - 0,01 - - + 0,01 + 0,02 + 0,02 + 0,03 + 0,03 + 0,04 + 0,04 + 0,05 + 0,05 + 0,06 + 0,06 + 0,07 + 0,07
12 - 0,01 - - + 0,01 + 0,01 + 0,02 + 0,02 + 0,03 + 0,03 + 0,04 + 0,04 + 0,05 + 0,05 + 0,06 + 0,06 + 0,07
13 - 0,01 - 0,01 - - + 0,01 + 0,01 + 0,02 + 0,02 + 0,03 + 0,03 + 0,04 + 0,04 + 0,05 + 0,06 + 0,06 + 0,07
14 - 0,02 - 0,01 - 0,01 - - + O,O + 0,01 + 0,02 + 0,02 + 0,03 + 0,04 + 0,04 + 0,05 + 0,05 + 0,06 + 0,06
15 - 0,02 - 0,02 - 0,01 - 0,01 - + 0,01 + 0,01 + 0,02 + 0,02 + Q,03 + 0,03 + 0,04 + 0,04 + 0,05 + 0,05 + 0,06
16 - 0,03 - 0,02 - 0,01 - 0,01 - - + 0,01 + 0,01 + 0,02 + 0,02 + 0,03 + 0,03 + 0,04 + 0,04 + 0,05 + 0,05
17 - 0,03 - 0,02 - 0,02 - 0,01 - 0,01 - - + 0,01 + 0,01 + 0,02 + 0,02 + 0,03 + 0,03 + 0,04 + 0,04 + 0,05
18 - 0,03 - 0,03 - 0,02 - 0,02 - 0,01 - 0,01 - - + 0,01 + 0,01 + 0,02 + 0,02 + 0,03 + 0,04 + 0,04 + 0,05
19 - 0,04 - 0,03 - 0,03 - 0,02 - 0,02 - 0,01 - 0,01 - + 0,01 + 0,01 + 0,02 + 0,02 + 0,03 + 0,03 + 0,04 + 0,04
20 - 0,04 - 0,04 - 0,03 - 0,02 - 0,02 - 0,01 - 0,01 - - + 0,01 + 0,01 + 0,02 + 0,02 + 0,03 + 0,03 + 0,04
21 - 0,04 - 0,04 - 0,03 - 0,03 - 0,02 - 0,02 - 0,01 - 0,01 - - + 0,01 + 0,01 + 0,02 + 0,02 + 0,03 + 0,03
22 - 0,05 - 0,04 - 0,04 - 0,03 - 0,03 - 0,02 0,02 - 0,01 - 0,01 - - + 0,01 + 0,01 + 0,02 + 0,02 + 0,03
23 - 0,05 - 0,05 - 0,04 - 0,04 - 0,03 - 0,03 - 0,02 - 0,02 - 0,01 - 0,01 - + 0,01 + 0,01 + 0,02 + 0,02 + 0,03
24 - 0,06 - 0,05 - 0,04 - 0,04 - 0,03 - 0,03 - 0,02 - 0,02 - 0,01 - 0,01 - - + 0,01 + 0,01 + 0,02 + 0,02
25 - 0,06 - 0,05 - 0,05 - 0,04 - 0,04 - 0,03 - 0,03 - 0,02 - 0,02 - 0,01 - 0,01 - - + 0,01 + 0,01 + 0,02
26 - 0,06 - 0,06 - 0,05 - 0,05 - 0,04 - 0,04 - 0,03 - 0,03 - 0,02 - 0,02 - 0,01 - 0,01 - - + 0,01 + 0,01
27 - 0,07 - 0,06 - 0,06 - 0,05 - 0,05 - 0,04 - 0,04 - 0,03 - 0,03 - 0,02 - 0,02 - -
0,01 0,01 - - + 0,01
28 - 0,07 - 0,06 - 0,06 - 0,05 - 0,05 - 0,04 - 0,04 - 0,03 - 0,03 - 0,02 - 0,02 - -
0,01 0,01 - - + 0,01
29 - 0,07 - 0,07 - 0,06 - 0,06 - 0,05 - 0,05 - 0,04 - 0,04 - 0,03 - 0,03 - 0,02 - 0,02
- - 0,01 0,01 - -
30 - 0,08 - 0,07 - 0,07 - 0,06 - 0,06 - 0,05 - 0,05 - 0,04 - 0,04 - 0,03 - 0,03 - 0,02
- - 0,02 0,01 - 0,01 -
31 - 0,08 - 0,08 - 0,07 - 0,07 - 0,06 - 0,06 - 0,05 - 0,05 - 0,04 - 0,04 - 0,03 - 0,03 - - 0,02 0,02 - 0,01 - 0,01
32 - 0,08 - 0,08 - 0,07 - 0,07 - 0,06 - 0,06 - 0,05 - 0,05 - 0,04 - 0,04 - 0,03 - 0,03 - - 0,02 0,02 - 0,01 - 0,01
33 - 0,09 - 0,08 - 0,08 - 0,07 - 0,07 - 0,06 - 0,06 - 0,05 - 0,05, - 0,04 - 0,04 - 0,03 - - 0,03 0,02 - 0,02 - 0,01
34 - 0,09 - 0,09 - 0,08 - 0,08 - 0,07 - 0,07 - 0,06 - 0,06 - 0,05 - 0,05 - 0,04 - 0,04 - 0,03 - 0,03 - 0,02 - 0,02
35 - 0,10 - 0,09 - 0,09 - 0,08 - 0,08 - 0,07 - 0,07 - 0,06 - 0,06 - 0,05 - 0,05 - 0,04 - 0,04 - 0,03 - 0,03 - 0,02

13

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