Physics

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Physics

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(CUEA)

FACULTY OF SCIENCE

MODULE

PHY101 MECHANICS 1

Maera John

AUGUST 2013

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SYMBOLS USED

Take Note Further Reading

there is a ?...

Activity Summary

S

A

Congratulations Definitions of Key Words

Words

Self-Diagnosis Test

Written Assignment

Written

Assignment

?

100

My score

Objectives

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Table of Contents

Symbols used ...................................................................................................................................................... 2

TOPIC 1: PHYSICAL QUANTITIES .............................................................................................................. 5

Self diagnostic Test ............................................................................................................................................. 5

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ 5

Specific objectives ............................................................................................................................................... 5

Nature of Physics ................................................................................................................................................ 5

Physical Quantities, units and measurements .................................................................................................... 6

Symbols for physical quantities ...................................................................................................................... 6

Base quantities, derived quantities and dimensions ........................................................................................ 6

General Derived Quantities ............................................................................................................................. 7

Extensive and intensive quantities ..................................................................................................................... 7

Vectors and scalars ................................................................................................................................................. 7

Unit Vectors .................................................................................................................................................... 8

Vector Components ............................................................................................................................................ 8

Vector addition ................................................................................................................................................... 8

Dot Product or Scalar Product ............................................................................................................................ 9

The VECTOR PRODUCT or CROSS PRODUCT ....................................................................................................... 9

Written Exercise 1.1 .......................................................................................................................................... 11

Unit 2: Kinematics ................................................................................................................................................ 12

Self diagnostic Test ........................................................................................................................................... 12

introduction ...................................................................................................................................................... 12

TYPES OF MOTION ............................................................................................................................................ 12

Linear motion ................................................................................................................................................ 12

Equations of uniformly accelerated linear motion ........................................................................................ 12

Examples ....................................................................................................................................................... 13

Written Exercise 2.1 .......................................................................................................................................... 14

Projectile Motion .......................................................................................................................................... 14

Summary ....................................................................................................................................................... 15

Circular Motion ............................................................................................................................................. 15

Equations of circular motion ......................................................................................................................... 16

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Simple Harmonic Motion.............................................................................................................................. 16

Hooke's Law: ................................................................................................................................................ 18

Newton's laws of motion .................................................................................................................................. 19

Gyroscope ......................................................................................................................................................... 19

Applications of gyroscopes ........................................................................................................................... 20

Newton's law of universal gravitation ........................................................................................................... 20

Summary ....................................................................................................................................................... 22

Appedix 1: List of physical quantities .................................................................................................................. 24

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TOPIC 1: PHYSICAL QUANTITIES

Answer all questions

?

100 1.

2.

What is Physics?

What is a physical quantity?

3. Distinguish between vectors and scalars giving five examples for each

4. Discuss the types of motion

5. Relate Newtons laws to Keplers laws of motion

INTRODUCTION

In this topic we shall discuss the physical quantities, their measurement units and classify them into

scalars and vectors. Operation of vectors is core in dealing with mechanical systems. We shall then

derive the equations of linear, rotational, circular motion and simple Harmonic motion. Finally we

shall relate Newtons law to Keplers laws.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

At the end of this TOPIC you should be able to:

2. Add, subtract and multiply vectors

3. Derive the equations of various types of motion

4. State Newtons laws of motion

5. State the conservation of energy and momentum

NATURE OF PHYSICS

Physics, is a major science, dealing with the fundamental constituents of the universe, the

forces they exert on one another, and the results produced by these forces. Sometimes in

modern physics a more sophisticated approach is taken that incorporates elements of the

three areas listed above; it relates to the laws of symmetry and conservation, such as those

pertaining to energy, momentum, charge, and parity.

The goal of science is to understand and explain the physical universe. Physicists observe the physical

world, and try to categorize and understand the phenomena they observe. Many people think that

science is something new - but scientific observation started before recorded history when people first

discovered reoccurring relationships in the environment. Through careful observation of these

relationships they began to know nature, and because of nature's dependability, they found they could

make reliable predictions that would seem to give them some control over their surroundings. In fact,

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even before entering school, everyone is already an active scientist, testing his or her surroundings,

describing general relationships, and consistently modifying ideas to fit new observations and

experiences.

- A physical quantity is a physical property of a phenomenon, body, or substance, that can be quantified

by measurement

- A property of a phenomenon, body, or substance, where the property has a magnitude that can

be expressed as a number and a reference

- Hence the value of a physical quantity Q is expressed as the product of a numerical value {Q}

and a unit of measurement [Q].

- An example employing SI units and scientific notation for the number, might be a measurement

of power written as P = 42.3 x 103 W, Here, P represents the physical quantity of power, 42.3 x

103 is the numerical value {P}, and W is the symbol for the unit of power [P], the watt

- Symbols for physical quantities are usually chosen to be a single letter of the Latin or Greek

alphabet, and are printed in italic type. Symbols can be modified by subscripts and superscripts,

to specify what they refer to for instance Ek is usually used to denote kinetic energy and cp

heat capacity at constant pressure.

- Note the difference in the style of the subscripts: k is the abbreviation of the word kinetic,

whereas p is the symbol for the physical quantity pressure rather than an abbreviation of the

word "pressure".

- Symbols for quantities should be chosen according to the international recommendations from

ISO 80000, the IUPAP red book and the IUPAC green book. For example, the recommended

symbol for the physical quantity 'mass' is m, and the recommended symbol for the quantity

'charge' is Q.

The notion of physical dimension of a physical quantity was introduced by Fourier in 1822. By

convention, physical quantities are organized in a dimensional system built upon base quantities, each

of which is regarded as having its own dimension. The seven base quantities of the International

System of Quantities (ISQ) and their corresponding SI units are listed in the following table. Other

conventions may have a different number of fundamental units (e.g. the CGS and MKS systems of

units).

Quantity Name/s

Symbol/s Name Symbol Symbol

a, b, c, d, h, l, r, w, x, y, z metre m [L]

depth

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Time t second s [T]

Temperature T, Kelvin K []

Amount of Substance,

n mole mol [N]

Number of Moles

Electric Current i, I Ampere A [I]

Important/convenient derived quantities such as densities, fluxes, flows, currents are associated with

many quantities. Sometimes they are used interchangeably in the same context, sometimes they are

used uniquely.

A quantity is called:

Extensive when its magnitude is additive for subsystems (volume, mass, etc.)

Intensive when the magnitude is independent of the extent of the system (temperature, pressure, etc.)

There are also physical quantities that can be classified as neither extensive nor intensive, for example

angular momentum, area, force, length, and time.

Dfn: Vectors are quantities that have a size and a direction.

Examples: acceleration, momentum, velocity, electric field

Examples: Time, temperature, and Mass, mass, charge, or the temperature, or electric

potential at a point inside a medium

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Vectors are central to the study of PHYSICS. Early on in this study you will encounter types of vector

quantities. Besides displacement and velocity, other examples of vectors include acceleration, force,

gravitational field, torque, and electric and magnetic fields.

Unit Vectors

- A unit vector is a vector pointing in a given direction with a magnitude of one. Essentially, it merely

indicates direction. In a Cartesian system the three unit vectors are called i, j, and k.

Figure 1:Unit-vectors-in-Cartesian-Coord

VECTOR COMPONENTS

VECTOR ADDITION

The unit vectors i, j, and k are chosen so that through the addition of multiples of themselves

with each other, the three of them can describe all vectors possible in the space.

An arbitrary vector V, is described by specifying the amounts of i, j, and k which, when

summed together, make V.

The components of Vare Vx, Vy, and Vz .

To specify V, it is sufficient to specify its three components (Vx, Vy, and Vz). Hence, a three

dimensional vector is an ordered set of three numbers.

A seventy dimensional vector is an ordered set of 70 numbers.

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Two vectors, A and B, are equal if and only if each of their components are equal: Ax = Bx; Ay

= By; Az = Bz. It is interesting to observe that 1 vector equation (A = B) is equivalent to three

scalar equations. This brevity is a nice aspect to vector algebra.

When we add vectors, we add each of their components separately. By this it is clear that in

order to add two vectors, they must have the same dimension - otherwise the operation is

undefined. When we visualize this in space, we imagine moving the start point of one vector to

the endpoint of the other vector. The sum vector is the resultant.

In a two dimensional case, we have mathematically A + B = (4, 7) + (4, 1) = (8, 8). We should

also remember that multiplication of a vector by scalar is multiplication of each component by

the same scalar, namely cA = (cAx, cAy, cAz)

The length of a vector is called its magnitude and is usually denoted by |A|. The directionality

of the vector is lost for this quantity so it is a scalar.

One way of combining two vectors is through an operation called the dot product. It is written as:

A B B A A B COS

A B (Axi Ay j Az k) (Bxi By j Bzk) AxBx Ay By Az Bz

This last form can be seen clearly when we consider the dot product of the unit vectors i, j, and k.

Because they are fixed at 90 degrees from each other we have:

i i j j k k COS0 1 and i j j k k i COS 0

2

This property of these three vectors (the dot product with themselves produces 1 and the dot

product with each other produces 0) is what defines them as being a set of orthogonal,

normalized vectors or orthonormal, for short. In a 2 or 3 dimensional space, we can

characterize this condition as having the vectors placed at right-angles to each other. The

same concept holds in higher order spaces, but we are unable to visualize "right angles" in a

70 dimensional space!

With this information it is clear to see that this provides a quick route to the magnitude of a

vector, namely to take the dot product of a vector with itself.

1/ 2

A A A 2 A x2 A y 2 A z 2 A Ax2 Ay 2 Az 2

There is another way to combine vectors. This is the cross product but in this case the result

is another vector, rather than a scalar as with the dot product. It is a little more involving

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mathematically to remember the form of the operation so we cast it in the form of a

determinant (is that any easier to remember?)

Yields a vector which has a direction determined by the right hand rule

Yields a vector perpendicular to the plane containing the other two vectors

The cross product DOES NOT commute

+ a j(b i + b j + b k)

2 1 2

3 + a3k(b1i + b2 j + b3k)

i j k

a b = a1 a2 a3

b1 b2 b3

Take a look at the order of the subscripts in the result and you will see a cyclical

appearance of each one. Learn to appreciate the order in this for it will appear time

and again. There are a couple of other properties worth noting here.

Using the definition of cross product and right hand rule:

i i j j k k 0

i j k j i

j k i k i

k i j i k

Graphically, the concept to remember is that the cross product produces a vector which is

perpendicular to both vectors making up the argument of the product. This means it is

orthogonal to both (though the two argument vectors need not be orthogonal to each other).

When the two original vectors are orthogonal to each other, the cross product vector has the

greatest magnitude (it is at its longest). As the two vectors are rotated in towards each other, the

resultant vector shortens until it disappears when the two overlap. This same happens when the

two initial vectors rotate away from each other, the resultant disappearing when the point

opposite each other.

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WRITTEN EXERCISE 1.1

1. Write down five physical quantities and five non-physical quantities apart

from the ones given above

2. Find sum, difference, scalar product and cross product of the following

vectors (i) A 3i 5 j 10k and C 3 j - 2i - 6k

(ii) (5i - j + 2k)

and (2i + 3j - k)

3. What are the conditions for two vectors to be perpendicular?

1.1 What displacement at 70 has a component of 450 m? What is its y-component?

Ans. 1.3 km, 1.2km

1.2 What displacement must be added to a 50 cm displacement in the +x-direction to give a

resultant displacement of 85 cm at 25? Ans. 45 cm at 53

and II, Combined edition), Wiley International Edition, Library of

Congress Catalog Card No. 66-11527

Tipler P.A., Mosca G., "Physics for Scientists and Engineers", Chapter 2

(5th edition), W. H. Freeman and company: New York and Basing stoke,

2003.

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UNIT 2: KINEMATICS

Answer all questions

?

100 2.

1. Distinguish between kinematics and dynamics?

What are the three types of motion?

3. State Newtons three laws of linear motion

4. Where is circular motion applied in the computer system?

INTRODUCTION

- Kinematics is that branch of physics which involves the description of motion, without examining the

forces which produce the motion.

- On the other hand, dynamics is the description of motion and the forces which produce it.

- An understanding of kinematics and dynamics is essential in PHYSICS. Newton's Laws of motion help

us to describe the forces in Dynamics and are therefore a very important part of this unit. Emphasis will

be placed on developing and understanding these laws.

TYPES OF MOTION

The equations of motion describe the behavior of a system (e.g., the motion of a particle under an

influence of a force) as a function of time. Sometimes the term refers to the differential equations that

the system satisfies (e.g., Newton's second law), and sometimes to the solutions to those equations.

Linear motion

- Linear motion is motion along a straight line, and can therefore be described mathematically using only

one spatial dimension. The linear motion can be of two types, Uniform Linear motion, with constant

velocity or zero acceleration, Non Uniform Linear motion, with variable velocity or non-zero

acceleration. The motion of a particle (a point-like object) along a line can be described by its position

x, which varies with t (time). Linear motion is also called as rectilinear motion.

- An example of linear motion is that of a ball thrown straight up and falling back straight down.

The body is considered between two instants in time: one "initial" point and one "current".

Often, problems in kinematics deal with more than two instants, and several applications of

the equations are required. If acceleration, a is constant, a differential, adt, may be

integrated over an interval from 0 to t (t = t ti), to obtain a linear relationship for

velocity.

Integration of the velocity yields a quadratic relationship for position at the end of the

interval.

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1

v u at; s si ut a(t)2 and v 2 u2 2a(S Si )

2

where...

si-----is the body's initial position

v--- The velocity at the end of the interval

s---- the position at the end of the interval (displacement)

t--- the time interval between the initial and current states

a---- the constant acceleration, or in the case of bodies moving under the influence of

gravity, a = g.

Note that each of the equations contains four of the five variables. Thus, in this situation it is

sufficient to know three out of the five variables to calculate the remaining two.

1 1

v u at; s ut at 2 ; s (u v)t and v 2 u2 2as

2 2

where

denoted R or x)

u = the initial velocity (speed in a given direction)

v = the final velocity

a = the constant acceleration

t = the time taken to move from the initial state to the final state

Examples

Many examples in kinematics involve projectiles, for example a ball thrown upwards into

the air.

Given initial speed u, one can calculate how high the ball will travel before it begins to fall.

The acceleration is local acceleration of gravity g. At this point one must remember that

while these quantities appear to be scalars, the direction of displacement, speed and

acceleration is important. They could in fact be considered as uni-directional vectors.

Choosing s to measure up from the ground, the acceleration a must be in fact g, since the

force of gravity acts downwards and therefore also the acceleration on the ball due to it.

At the highest point, the ball will be at rest: therefore v = 0. Using the fourth equation, we have:

v2 u2 u2

s Substituting and cancelling minus signs gives: s

2g 2g

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WRITTEN EXERCISE 2.1

2. How does motion under gravity affect the three equations?

2.11 A ball that is thrown vertically upward on the Moon returns to its starting point in 4.0 s. The

acceleration due to gravity there is 1.60 m/s 2 downward. Find the ball's original speed.

2.12 A truck starts from rest and moves with a constant acceleration of 5.0 m/s 2. Find its

speed and the distance traveled after 4.0 s has elapsed. Ans. 20 m/s, 40 m

2.13 A box slides down an incline with uniform acceleration. It starts from rest and attains a

speed of 2.7 m/s in 3.0 s. Find (a) the acceleration and (b) the distance moved in the first 6.0 s.

Ans. (a) 0.90 m/s2; (b) 16 m

2.14 A car is accelerating uniformly as it passes two checkpoints that are 30 m apart. The time

taken between checkpoints is 4.0 s, and the car's speed at the first checkpoint is 5.0 m/s. Find

the car's acceleration and its

speed at the second checkpoint. Ans. 1.3 m/s2, 10 m/s

2.15 An auto's velocity increases uniformly from 6.0 m/s to 20 m/s while covering 70 m in a straight

line. Find the acceleration and the time taken. Ans. 2.6 m/s2, 5.4 s

Projectile Motion

A projectile is any object that is cast, fired or thrown. The path of a projectile is called its

trajectory. Some examples of projectiles include

a moving airplane in the air with its engines and wings disabled

the space shuttle or any other spacecraft after main engine cut off (MECO)

The kinematic equations for a simple projectile are those of an object traveling with constant

horizontal velocity and constant vertical acceleration.

ax = 0 ay = g acceleration

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vx = ux vy = uy gt velocity-time

Summary

S

o with an initial non-zero, horizontal velocity

o Whose acceleration is due to gravity alone?

The path of a projectile is called its trajectory.

he horizontal distance traveled by a projectile is called its range.

projectile launched on level ground with an initial speed u at an angle above

the horizontal

o Will have the same range as a projectile launched with an initial

speed u at (90 ). (Identical projectiles launched at complementary

angles have the same range.)

o will have a maximum range when = 45.

2.21 A marble, rolling with speed 20 cm/s, rolls off the edge of a table that is 80 cm high, (a)

How long does it take to drop to the floor? (b) How far, horizontally, from the table

edge does the marble strike the floor? Ans. (a) 0.40 s; (b) 8.1 cm

2.22 A body projected upward from the level ground at an angle of 50 with the horizontal has

an initial speed of 40 m/s. (a) how long will it take to hit the ground? (b) How far from

the starting point will it strike? (c) At what angle with the horizontal will it strike?

Ans. (a) 6.3 s; (b) 0.16 km; (c) 50

2.23 A body is projected downward at an angle of 30 with the horizontal from the top of a

building 170 m high. Its initial speed is 40 m/s. (a) How long will it take before striking

the ground? (b) How far from the foot of the building will it strike? (c) At what angle with

the horizontal will it strike? Ans. (a) 4.2 s; (b) 0.15 km; (c) 60

Circular Motion

Circular motion is rotation along a circle: a circular path or a circular orbit. It can be uniform, that

is, with constant angular rate of rotation, or non-uniform, that is, with a changing rate of rotation.

The rotation around a fixed axis of a three-dimensional body involves circular motion of its parts.

The equations describing circular motion of an object do not take size or geometry into account,

rather, the motion of a point mass in a plane is assumed. In practice, the center of mass of a body can

be considered to undergo circular motion

Examples of circular motion include: an artificial satellite orbiting the Earth in geosynchronous orbit, a

stone which is tied to a rope and is being swung in circles (cf. hammer throw), a racecar turning

through a curve in a race track, an electron moving perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field, and a

gear turning inside a mechanism.

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Equations of circular motion

1 1 1

= o + t; = ( + o )t; = o t + t 2 ; 2 = o2 + 2 and = t - t 2

2 2 2

where:

is the angular acceleration

is the angular velocity

is the angular displacement

0 is the initial angular velocity.

2.31 A flywheel turns at 480 rpm. Compute the angular speed at any point on the wheel and

the tangential speed 30.0 cm from the center. Ans. 50.3 rad/s, 15.1 m/s

2.32 It is desired that the outer edge of a grinding wheel 9.0 cm in radius move at a rate of 6.0

m/s. (a) Determine the angular speed of the wheel, (b) What length of thread could be

wound on the rim of the wheel in 3.0 s when it is turning at this rate? Ans. (a) 67

rad/s; (b) 18m

2.33 Through how many radians does a point on the Earth's surface move in 6.00 h as a

result of the Earth's rotation? What is the speed of a point on the equator?

Take the radius of the Earth to be 6370km. Ans. 1.57 rad, 463 m/s

2.34 A wheel 25.0 cm in radius turning at 120 rpm increases its frequency to 660 rpm

in 9.00 s. Find (a) the constant angular acceleration in rad/s 2 , and (b) the

tangential acceleration of a point on its rim. Ans. (a) 6.28 rad/s 2 ; (b) 157

cm/s 2

Simple Harmonic Motion

Simple harmonic motion (SHM) is the motion of a simple harmonic oscillator, a motion that is

neither driven nor damped. A body in simple harmonic motion experiences a single force which is

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given by Hooke's law; that is, the force is directly proportional to the displacement x and points in the

opposite direction.

The motion is periodic: the body oscillates about an equilibrium position in a sinusoidal pattern. Each

oscillation is identical, and thus the period, frequency, and amplitude of the motion are constant. If the

equilibrium position is taken to be zero, the displacement x of the body at any time t is given by

x(t) A cos( 2ft ) Where A is the amplitude, f is the frequency, and is the phase.

Definitions:

Amplitude (A): The maximum distance that an object moves from its equilibrium

position. A simple harmonic oscillator moves back and forth between the two

positions of maximum displacement, at x = A and x = - A.

Period (T): The time that it takes for an oscillator to execute one complete cycle of

its motion. If it starts at t = 0 at x = A, then it gets back to x = A after one full period

at t = T.

Frequency (f): The number of cycles (or oscillations) the object completes per unit

1

time. f

T

The unit of frequency is usually taken to be 1 Hz = 1 cycle per second.

Simple Harmonic Oscillator: Any object that oscillates about a stable equilibrium position and

experiences a restoring force approximately described by Hooke's law. Examples of simple

harmonic oscillators include: a mass attached to a spring, a molecule inside a solid, a car stuck

in a ditch being ``rocked out'' and a pendulum.

Note:

The negative sign in Hooke's law ensures that the force is always opposite to the direction of the

displacement and therefore back towards the equilibrium position (i.e. a restoring force).

The constant k in Hooke's law is traditionally called the spring constant for the system, even

when the restoring force is not provided by a simple spring.

The motion of any simple harmonic oscillator is completely characterized by two quantities: the

amplitude, and the period (or frequency).

Page 17 of 30

Hooke's Law:

d2x

F kx m 2

where the equilibrium position is chosen to have x -coordinate x =

dt

0 and k is a constant that depends on the system under consideration. The units of k are:

Newtons

k N/M (2)

metres

1 1 1

K(t) = mv(t) 2 = m2 A 2sin 2 (t + ) = kA 2sin 2 (t + )

2 2 2

and the potential energy is

1 1

U(t) = kx(t) 2 = kA 2cos 2 (t + )

2 2

The total mechanical energy of the system therefore has the constant value

1

E = K + U = kA 2

2

Revision Exercises 2.4

2.41 A spring makes 12 vibrations in 40 s. Find the period and frequency of the

vibration. [Ans: 0.30 Hz]

2.42 A 50-g mass vibrates in SHM at the end of a spring. The amplitude of the motion is 12

cm, and the period is 1.70 s. Find: (a) the frequency, (b) the spring constant, (c) the

maximum speed of the mass, (d) the maximum acceleration of the mass, (e) the speed

when the displacement is 6.0 cm, and (f) the acceleration when x = 6.0 cm.

2.43 In Fig. below the 2.0-kg mass is released when the spring is unstretched. Neglecting

the inertia and friction of the pulley and the mass of the spring and string, find (a) the

amplitude of the resulting oscillation and (b) its center or equilibrium point .

k =300

3000300

N/m

2.44 Find the frequency of vibration on Mars for a simple pendulum that is 50 cm long. Objects

weigh 0.40 as much on Mars as on the Earth. Ans. 0.45 Hz

2.45 A "seconds pendulum" beats seconds; that is, it takes 1 s for half a cycle, (a) What is the

length of a simple "seconds pendulum" at a place where g = 9.80 m/s ? (b) What is the length

there of a pendulum for which T = 1.00 s? Ans. (a) 99.3 cm; (b) 24.8 cm

Page 18 of 30

NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION

Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that form the basis for classical mechanics.

They are:

First law

There exists a set of inertial reference frames relative to which all particles with no net

force acting on them will move without change in their velocity. This law is often

simplified as "A body persists its state of rest or of uniform motion unless acted upon by

an external unbalanced force." Newton's first law is often referred to as the law of inertia.

Second law

Observed from an inertial reference frame, the net force on a particle is equal to the time

rate of change of its linear momentum: F = d(mv)/dt. When mass is constant, this law is

often stated as, "Force equals mass times acceleration (F = ma): the net force on an object

is equal to the mass of the object multiplied by its acceleration."

Third law

Whenever a particle A exerts a force on another particle B, B simultaneously exerts a

force on A with the same magnitude in the opposite direction. The strong form of the law

further postulates that these two forces act along the same line. This law is often

simplified into the sentence, "To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction."

Note: These laws describe the relationship between the forces acting on a body and the motion

of that body. They were first compiled by Sir Isaac Newton in his work Philosophi

Naturalis Principia Mathematica, first published on July 5, 1687. Newton used them to

explain and investigate the motion of many physical objects and systems. For example, in

the third volume of the text, Newton showed that these laws of motion, combined with

his law of universal gravitation, explained Kepler's laws of planetary motion.

GYROSCOPE

A gyroscope is a device for measuring or maintaining orientation, based on the principles of conservation

of angular momentum. In essence, a mechanical gyroscope is a spinning wheel or disk whose

axle is free to take any orientation. Although this orientation does not remain fixed, it changes in

response to an external torque much less and in a different direction than it would without the

large angular momentum associated with the disk's high rate of spin and moment of inertia. Since

external torque is minimized by mounting the device in gimbals, its orientation remains nearly

fixed, regardless of any motion of the platform on which it is mounted.

Page 19 of 30

dL d(I)

The fundamental equation describing the behavior of the gyroscope is = = = I

dt dt

where the pseudovectors and L are, respectively, the torque on the gyroscope and its angular

momentum, the scalar I is its moment of inertia, the vector is its angular velocity, and the

vector is its angular acceleration.

Applications of gyroscopes

There are a number of computer pointing devices (in effect a mouse) on the market that have gyroscopes

in side them allowing you to control the mouse cursor while the device is in the air! They are

also wireless so are perfect for presentations when the speaker is moving around the room. The

gyroscope inside tracks the movements of your hand and translates them to cursor movements.

Gyrocompasses are basically navigation aids. Gyroscopes don't like to change direction, so if they are

mounted into a device that allows them to move freely (low friction gimbal). Then when

the device is moved in different directions the gyroscope will still point in the same direction.

This can then be measured and the results can be used in similar ways to a normal compass. But

unlike a standard magnetic compass is not magnetic environmental changes and readings are

move accurate. Gyrocompasses are commonly used in ships and aircraft.

Newton's law of universal gravitation is an empirical physical law describing the gravitational

attraction between bodies with mass. It states that:

Page 20 of 30

Every point mass attracts every other point mass by a force pointing along the line intersecting

both points. The force is directly proportional to the product of the two masses and inversely

proportional to the square of the distance between the point masses:

m1m 2

FG , where:

r2

F is the magnitude of the gravitational force between the two point masses,

G is the gravitational constant = 6.673 1011 N m2 kg-2,

m1 is the mass of the first point mass,

m2 is the mass of the second point mass,

r is the distance between the two point masses.

Newton's law of gravitation resembles Coulomb's law of electrical forces, which is used to

calculate the magnitude of electrical force between two charged bodies. Both are inverse-square

laws, in which force is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the bodies.

Coulomb's Law has the product of two charges in place of the product of the masses, and the

electrostatic constant in place of the gravitational constant

Newton' law of universal gravitation can be written as a vector equation to account for the

direction of the gravitational force as well as its magnitude. In this formula, quantities in bold

represent vectors.

m1m 2

F12 G 2

r12

r12

where

r2 r1

r12 r2 r1 is the distance between objects 1 and 2 and r12

r2 r1

Revision Exercises 2.5

2.51 An empty 15000-kg coal car is coasting on a level track at 5.00 m/s. suddenly 5000

kg of coal is dumped into it from directly above it. The coal initially has zero

horizontal velocity. Find the final speed of the car. Ans. 3.75 m/s.

2.52 Sand drops at a rate of 2000 kg/min from the bottom of a hopper onto a belt

conveyer moving horizontally at 250 m/min. Determine the force needed to drive the

conveyer, neglecting friction. Ans. 139 N

Page 21 of 30

Summary

We have basically tackled three major issues in this TOPIC.

S

- There are three Newtons laws of motion Viz:

Every body persists in its state of being at rest or of

moving uniformly straight forward, except insofar

as it is compelled to change its state by force

impressed.

The change of momentum of a body is proportional

to the impulse impressed on the body, and happens

along the straight line on which that impulse is

impressed.

To every action there is always an equal and

opposite reaction: or the forces of two bodies on

each other are always equal and are directed in

opposite directions.

Note:

scalar quantity.

Written Assignments

SCT 102/1

Do the following assignment and post it to:

The Course Lecturer

Written

Assignment Department of CIT

CUEA

P.O. Box 43844,

Nairobi- Kenya

1. While driving on the interstate one day at 27.8 m/s (60.0 mph) I accidentally dropped the

Encyclopedia of PHYSICS out the window, 1.15 m above the ground. Determine the

following

a. the horizontal and vertical components of the book's velocity the instant I released it

b. the time the book was in the air

c. the horizontal distance the book traveled before hitting the ground

d. the horizontal and vertical components of the book's velocity the instant it hit the

ground

Page 22 of 30

2. A poorly constructed see-saw has a fulcrum 2/3 of the way along its length.

a) If the see-saw weighs 30 kg, where would a 20 kg child have to sit in

order to balance the see-saw?

b) What is the least mass that a child must have in order to balance the see-

saw?

3. A 10 m ladder weighs 50 N and balances against a smooth wall at 60 o to the

horizontal. If the ladder is just on the verge of slipping, what is the static coefficient

of friction between the floor and the ladder?

(Vol I and II, Combined edition), Wiley International Edition,

Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 66-11527

Chapter 2 (5th edition), W. H. Freeman and company: New York

and Basing stoke, 2003.

Page 23 of 30

APPEDIX 1: LIST OF PHYSICAL QUANTITIES

Sym

Base quantity Symbol for

bol Description SI unit Comments

dimension

The one

dimensional

Length l metre (m) L

extent of an

object.

The amount

Mass m of matter in kilogram (kg) M extensive

an object.

The duration

Time t second (s) T

of an event.

Rate of flow

Electric current I of electrical ampere (A) I

charge.

Average

energy per

Temperature T degree of kelvin (K) intensive

freedom of a

system.

Number of

particles

compared to

Amount of

n the number of mole (mol) N extensive

substance

atoms in

0.012 kg of

12

C.

Amount of

energy

Luminous emitted by a

L candela (cd) J

intensity light source in

a particular

direction.

Measure of a change in radian

Plane angle 1

direction or orientation. (rad)

Measure of the size of

steradian

Solid angle an object as projected 1

(sr)

on a sphere.

Absorbed dose Absorbed dose Gy s1 L2 T3

Page 24 of 30

rate received per unit of

time.

Rate of change of the

Acceleration a speed or velocity of an m s2 L T2 vector

object.

Rate of change in

Angular

angular speed or rad s2 T2

acceleration

velocity.

The angle incremented

Angular speed (or in a plane by a segment scalar or

or rad s1 T1

angular velocity) connecting an object pseudovector

and a reference point.

Measure of the extent

Angular and direction and M L2 conserved quantity,

L kg m2 s1

momentum object rotates about a T1 pseudovector

reference point.

The two dimensional

Area A m2 L2

extent of an object.

The amount of mass

Area density A per unit area of a two kg m2 M L2

dimensional object.

Measure for the

farad (F

amount of stored I2 T4

Capacitance C = A2 s4

charge for a given M1 L2

kg1 m2)

potential.

Change in reaction rate katal (kat

Catalytic activity due to presence of a = mol N T1

catalyst. s1)

Change in reaction rate

Catalytic activity due to presence of a N L3

kat m3

concentration catalyst per unit T1

volume of the system.

The amount of energy

Chemical M L2

needed to add a particle J mol1 intensive

potential T2 N1

to a system.

Molar Amount of substance

C mol m3 N L3 intensive

concentration per unit volume.

Amount of electric

Current density J current flowing through A m2 I L2

a surface.

Page 25 of 30

Measure for the

received amount of

sievert

radiation adjusted for

Dose equivalent H (Sv = m2 L2 T2

the effect of different

s2)

types of radiant on

biological tissue.

Measure for the

Dynamic resistance of an M L1

Pa s

Viscosity incompressible fluid to T1

stress.

Amount of electric coulomb extensive, conserved

Electric Charge Q IT

charge. (C = A s) quantity

Electric charge Amount of electric

Q C m3 I T L3 intensive

density charge per unit volume.

Electric Strength of the electric

D C m2 I T L2 vector field

displacement displacement.

Electric field Strength of the electric M I1

E V m1 vector field

strength field. L2 T3

siemens

Meausure for how

Electrical (S = A2 L2 M1

G easily current flows scalar

conductance s3 kg1 T3 I2

through a material.

m2)

The amount of work

volt (V =

required to bring a unit L2 M

Electric potential V kg m2 scalar

charge into an electric T3 I1

A1 s3)

field from infinity.

The degree to which an

ohm (

Electrical object opposes the L2 M

R = kg m2 scalar

resistance passage of an electric T3 I2

A2 s3)

current.

The capaPhysicsy of a joule (J =

M L2 extensive, scalar,

Energy E body or system to do kg m2

T2 conserved quantity

work. s2)

Amount of energy per M L1

Energy density E J m3 intensive

unit volume. T2

Measure for the

M L2

Entropy S amount of available J K1 extensive, scalar

T2 1

states for a system.

The cause of newton

ML

Force F acceleration, acting on (N = kg vector

T2

an object. m s2)

Page 26 of 30

The cause of a change

ML

Impulse p in momentum, acting kg m s1 vector

T1

on an object.

The number of times

hertz (Hz

Frequency f something happens in a T1

=s1)

period of time.

The time needed for a

Half-life t1/2 quantity to decay to s T

half its original value.

Amount of energy

transferred between M L2

Heat Q J

systems due to T2

temperature difference.

Amount of energy

needed to raise the M L2

Heat capacity Cp J K1 extensive

temperature of a T2 1

system by one degree.

Amount of heat

Heat flux density Q flowing through a W m2 M T3

surface per unit area.

Total luminous flux lux (lx =

Illuminance Ev incident to a surface cd sr J L2

per unit area. m2)

Measure for the

ohm (

resistance of an L2 M

Impedance Z = kg m2 complex scalar

electrical circuit against 2 3 T3 I2

A s )

an alternating current.

The factor by which the

Index of

n speed of light is reduce 1 intensive

refraction

in a medium.

Measure for the

amount of magnetic henry (H

M L2

Inductance L flux generated for a = kg m2

T2 I2

certain current run A2 s2)

through a circuit.

Power of

electromagnetic

Irradiance E radiation flowing W m2 M T2

through a surface per

unit area.

Linear density l Amount of mass per M L1

Page 27 of 30

unit length of a one

dimensional object.

lumen

Luminous flux (or Perceived power of a

F (lm = cd J

luminous power) light source.

sr)

Magnetic field Strength of a magnetic

H A m1 I L1 vector field

strength field in a material.

Measure of quantity of

weber

magnetism, taking

(Wb = kg M L2

Magnetic flux account of the strength scalar

m2 A1 T2 I1

and the extent of a

s2)

magnetic field.

Measure for the tesla (T =

Magnetic flux M T2

B strength of the kg A1 pseudovector field

density I1

magnetic field. s2)

Amount of magnetic

Magnetization M moment per unit A m1 I L1 vector field

volume.

Mass of a substance as

Mass fraction x a fraction of the total kg/kg 1 intensive

mass.

The amount of mass

(Mass) Density per unit volume of a

kg m3 M L3 intensive

(volume density) three dimensional

object.

Average time needed

Mean lifetime s T intensive

for a particle to decay.

Amount of energy

present is a system per M L2

Molar energy J mol1 intensive

unit amount of T2 N1

substance.

Amount of entropy

M L2

present in a system per J K1

Molar entropy T2 1 intensive

unit amount of mol1

N1

substance.

Heat capacity of a

Molar heat J K1 M L2

c material per unit intensive

capacity mol1 T2 N1

amount of substance.

Inertia of an object

Moment of inertia I with respect to angular kg m2 M L2 scalar

acceleration.

Page 28 of 30

Product of an object's ML

Momentum p Ns vector, extensive

mass and velocity. T1

Measure for how the

magnetization of

M L1

Permeability material is affected by H m1 intensive

I2

the application of an

external magnetic field.

Measure for how the

polarization of a

I2 M1

Permittivity material is affected by F m1 intensive

L2 T4

the application of an

external electric field.

The rate of change in M L2

Power P watt (W) extensive

energy over time. T3

pascal

Amount of force per M L1

Pressure p (Pa = kg intensive

unit area. T2

m1 s2)

becquerel

(Radioactive) Number of particles

A (Bq = T1 extensive

Activity decaying per unit time. 1

s )

Amount of energy gray

(Radioactive) absorbed by biological (unit)

D L2 T2

Dose tissue from ionizing (Gy = m2

radiation per unit mass. s2)

Power of emitted

electromagnetic

W m2

Radiance L radiation per solid M T3

sr1

angle and per projected

source area.

Power of emitted

electromagnetic M L2

Radiant intensity I W sr1 scalar

radiation per solid T3

angle.

Measure for speed of a mol m3 N L3

Reaction rate r intensive

chemical reaction. s1 T1

Rate of change of the

Speed v m s1 L T1 scalar

position of an object.

Amount of energy

Specific energy J kg1 L2 T2 intensive

present per unit mass.

Specific heat Heat capaPhysicsy per J kg1 L2 T2

c intensive

capaPhysicsy unit mass. K1 1

Page 29 of 30

The volume occupied

by a unit mass of

Specific volume v m3 kg1 L3 M1 intensive

material (reciprocal of

density).

Intrinsic property of

particles, roughly to be

interpreted as the M L2

Spin S kg m2 s1

intrinsic angular T1

momentum of the

particle.

Amount of force

M L1

Stress exerted per surface Pa 2-tensor. (or scalar)

T2

area.

Amount of work

needed to change the N m1 or

Surface tension M T2

surface of a liquid by a J m2

unit surface area.

Measure for the ease

Thermal W m1 M L1

k with which a material intensive

conductivity K1 T3 1

conducts heat.

Product of a force and the

Torque (moment perpendicular distance of M L2

T Nm pseudovector

of force) the force from the point T2

about which it is exerted.

Speed of an object in a

Velocity v m s1 L T1 vector

chosen direction.

The three dimensional

Volume V m3 L3 extensive

extent of an object.

Distance between

Wavelength repeating units of a m L

propagating wave.

Reciprocal of the

Wave number k m1 L1

wavelength.

Amount of gravitation newton

ML

Weight w force exerted on an (N = kg

T2

object. m s2)

Energy dissipated by a force

moving over a distance, joule (J =

M L2

Work W scalar product of the force kg m2 scalar

T2

and the movement s2)

vector.

Page 30 of 30

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