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THE CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY OF EASTERN AFRICA

(CUEA)

FACULTY OF SCIENCE

BACHELOR OF EDUCATION SCIENCE

MODULE

PHY101 MECHANICS 1

Maera John

AUGUST 2013

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SYMBOLS USED
Take Note Further Reading

Question Written Exercises

A question: This symbol indicates that


there is a ?...

Activity Summary

S

A
Congratulations Definitions of Key Words

Words

Self-Diagnosis Test
Written Assignment

Written
Assignment

?
100
My score

Objectives

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Table of Contents
Symbols used ...................................................................................................................................................... 2
TOPIC 1: PHYSICAL QUANTITIES .............................................................................................................. 5
Self diagnostic Test ............................................................................................................................................. 5
Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ 5
Specific objectives ............................................................................................................................................... 5
Nature of Physics ................................................................................................................................................ 5
Physical Quantities, units and measurements .................................................................................................... 6
Symbols for physical quantities ...................................................................................................................... 6
Base quantities, derived quantities and dimensions ........................................................................................ 6
General Derived Quantities ............................................................................................................................. 7
Extensive and intensive quantities ..................................................................................................................... 7
Vectors and scalars ................................................................................................................................................. 7
Unit Vectors .................................................................................................................................................... 8
Vector Components ............................................................................................................................................ 8
Vector addition ................................................................................................................................................... 8
Dot Product or Scalar Product ............................................................................................................................ 9
The VECTOR PRODUCT or CROSS PRODUCT ....................................................................................................... 9
Written Exercise 1.1 .......................................................................................................................................... 11
Unit 2: Kinematics ................................................................................................................................................ 12
Self diagnostic Test ........................................................................................................................................... 12
introduction ...................................................................................................................................................... 12
TYPES OF MOTION ............................................................................................................................................ 12
Linear motion ................................................................................................................................................ 12
Equations of uniformly accelerated linear motion ........................................................................................ 12
Examples ....................................................................................................................................................... 13
Written Exercise 2.1 .......................................................................................................................................... 14
Projectile Motion .......................................................................................................................................... 14
Summary ....................................................................................................................................................... 15
Circular Motion ............................................................................................................................................. 15
Equations of circular motion ......................................................................................................................... 16

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Simple Harmonic Motion.............................................................................................................................. 16
Hooke's Law: ................................................................................................................................................ 18
Newton's laws of motion .................................................................................................................................. 19
Gyroscope ......................................................................................................................................................... 19
Applications of gyroscopes ........................................................................................................................... 20
Newton's law of universal gravitation ........................................................................................................... 20
Summary ....................................................................................................................................................... 22
Appedix 1: List of physical quantities .................................................................................................................. 24

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TOPIC 1: PHYSICAL QUANTITIES

SELF DIAGNOSTIC TEST


Answer all questions



?
100 1.
2.
What is Physics?
What is a physical quantity?
3. Distinguish between vectors and scalars giving five examples for each
4. Discuss the types of motion
5. Relate Newtons laws to Keplers laws of motion

INTRODUCTION
In this topic we shall discuss the physical quantities, their measurement units and classify them into
scalars and vectors. Operation of vectors is core in dealing with mechanical systems. We shall then
derive the equations of linear, rotational, circular motion and simple Harmonic motion. Finally we
shall relate Newtons law to Keplers laws.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
At the end of this TOPIC you should be able to:

o 1. Distinguish between vectors and scalars


2. Add, subtract and multiply vectors
3. Derive the equations of various types of motion
4. State Newtons laws of motion
5. State the conservation of energy and momentum

NATURE OF PHYSICS
Physics, is a major science, dealing with the fundamental constituents of the universe, the
forces they exert on one another, and the results produced by these forces. Sometimes in
modern physics a more sophisticated approach is taken that incorporates elements of the
three areas listed above; it relates to the laws of symmetry and conservation, such as those
pertaining to energy, momentum, charge, and parity.

The goal of science is to understand and explain the physical universe. Physicists observe the physical
world, and try to categorize and understand the phenomena they observe. Many people think that
science is something new - but scientific observation started before recorded history when people first
discovered reoccurring relationships in the environment. Through careful observation of these
relationships they began to know nature, and because of nature's dependability, they found they could
make reliable predictions that would seem to give them some control over their surroundings. In fact,

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even before entering school, everyone is already an active scientist, testing his or her surroundings,
describing general relationships, and consistently modifying ideas to fit new observations and
experiences.

PHYSICAL QUANTITIES, UNITS AND MEASUREMENTS


- A physical quantity is a physical property of a phenomenon, body, or substance, that can be quantified
by measurement
- A property of a phenomenon, body, or substance, where the property has a magnitude that can
be expressed as a number and a reference
- Hence the value of a physical quantity Q is expressed as the product of a numerical value {Q}
and a unit of measurement [Q].
- An example employing SI units and scientific notation for the number, might be a measurement
of power written as P = 42.3 x 103 W, Here, P represents the physical quantity of power, 42.3 x
103 is the numerical value {P}, and W is the symbol for the unit of power [P], the watt

Symbols for physical quantities

- Symbols for physical quantities are usually chosen to be a single letter of the Latin or Greek
alphabet, and are printed in italic type. Symbols can be modified by subscripts and superscripts,
to specify what they refer to for instance Ek is usually used to denote kinetic energy and cp
heat capacity at constant pressure.
- Note the difference in the style of the subscripts: k is the abbreviation of the word kinetic,
whereas p is the symbol for the physical quantity pressure rather than an abbreviation of the
word "pressure".
- Symbols for quantities should be chosen according to the international recommendations from
ISO 80000, the IUPAP red book and the IUPAC green book. For example, the recommended
symbol for the physical quantity 'mass' is m, and the recommended symbol for the quantity
'charge' is Q.

Base quantities, derived quantities and dimensions

The notion of physical dimension of a physical quantity was introduced by Fourier in 1822. By
convention, physical quantities are organized in a dimensional system built upon base quantities, each
of which is regarded as having its own dimension. The seven base quantities of the International
System of Quantities (ISQ) and their corresponding SI units are listed in the following table. Other
conventions may have a different number of fundamental units (e.g. the CGS and MKS systems of
units).

International System of Units base quantities

(Common) Quantity SI Unit SI Unit Dimension


Quantity Name/s
Symbol/s Name Symbol Symbol

Length, width, height,


a, b, c, d, h, l, r, w, x, y, z metre m [L]
depth

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Time t second s [T]

Mass m kilogram kg [M]

Temperature T, Kelvin K []

Amount of Substance,
n mole mol [N]
Number of Moles
Electric Current i, I Ampere A [I]

Luminous Intensity Iv Candela Cd [J]

Plane Angle , , , , , radian rad dimensionless

Solid Angle , steradian sr dimensionless

General Derived Quantities

Important/convenient derived quantities such as densities, fluxes, flows, currents are associated with
many quantities. Sometimes they are used interchangeably in the same context, sometimes they are
used uniquely.

EXTENSIVE AND INTENSIVE QUANTITIES

A quantity is called:

Extensive when its magnitude is additive for subsystems (volume, mass, etc.)
Intensive when the magnitude is independent of the extent of the system (temperature, pressure, etc.)

There are also physical quantities that can be classified as neither extensive nor intensive, for example
angular momentum, area, force, length, and time.

VECTORS AND SCALARS


Dfn: Vectors are quantities that have a size and a direction.
Examples: acceleration, momentum, velocity, electric field

Dfn: Scalar quantities have a magnitude but no direction.


Examples: Time, temperature, and Mass, mass, charge, or the temperature, or electric
potential at a point inside a medium

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Vectors are central to the study of PHYSICS. Early on in this study you will encounter types of vector
quantities. Besides displacement and velocity, other examples of vectors include acceleration, force,
gravitational field, torque, and electric and magnetic fields.

Classify the basic physical quantities into scalars and vectors?

Unit Vectors
- A unit vector is a vector pointing in a given direction with a magnitude of one. Essentially, it merely
indicates direction. In a Cartesian system the three unit vectors are called i, j, and k.

Figure 1:Unit-vectors-in-Cartesian-Coord

VECTOR COMPONENTS

Every vector may be expressed as the sum of its n unit vectors.

VECTOR ADDITION

The unit vectors i, j, and k are chosen so that through the addition of multiples of themselves
with each other, the three of them can describe all vectors possible in the space.
An arbitrary vector V, is described by specifying the amounts of i, j, and k which, when
summed together, make V.
The components of Vare Vx, Vy, and Vz .
To specify V, it is sufficient to specify its three components (Vx, Vy, and Vz). Hence, a three
dimensional vector is an ordered set of three numbers.
A seventy dimensional vector is an ordered set of 70 numbers.

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Two vectors, A and B, are equal if and only if each of their components are equal: Ax = Bx; Ay
= By; Az = Bz. It is interesting to observe that 1 vector equation (A = B) is equivalent to three
scalar equations. This brevity is a nice aspect to vector algebra.
When we add vectors, we add each of their components separately. By this it is clear that in
order to add two vectors, they must have the same dimension - otherwise the operation is
undefined. When we visualize this in space, we imagine moving the start point of one vector to
the endpoint of the other vector. The sum vector is the resultant.
In a two dimensional case, we have mathematically A + B = (4, 7) + (4, 1) = (8, 8). We should
also remember that multiplication of a vector by scalar is multiplication of each component by
the same scalar, namely cA = (cAx, cAy, cAz)
The length of a vector is called its magnitude and is usually denoted by |A|. The directionality
of the vector is lost for this quantity so it is a scalar.

DOT PRODUCT OR SCALAR PRODUCT

One way of combining two vectors is through an operation called the dot product. It is written as:

A B B A A B COS

Another form of the equation is


A B (Axi Ay j Az k) (Bxi By j Bzk) AxBx Ay By Az Bz

This last form can be seen clearly when we consider the dot product of the unit vectors i, j, and k.
Because they are fixed at 90 degrees from each other we have:


i i j j k k COS0 1 and i j j k k i COS 0
2

This property of these three vectors (the dot product with themselves produces 1 and the dot
product with each other produces 0) is what defines them as being a set of orthogonal,
normalized vectors or orthonormal, for short. In a 2 or 3 dimensional space, we can
characterize this condition as having the vectors placed at right-angles to each other. The
same concept holds in higher order spaces, but we are unable to visualize "right angles" in a
70 dimensional space!

With this information it is clear to see that this provides a quick route to the magnitude of a
vector, namely to take the dot product of a vector with itself.


1/ 2
A A A 2 A x2 A y 2 A z 2 A Ax2 Ay 2 Az 2

THE VECTOR PRODUCT OR CROSS PRODUCT

There is another way to combine vectors. This is the cross product but in this case the result
is another vector, rather than a scalar as with the dot product. It is a little more involving
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mathematically to remember the form of the operation so we cast it in the form of a
determinant (is that any easier to remember?)

Vector multiplication yielding another vector


Yields a vector which has a direction determined by the right hand rule
Yields a vector perpendicular to the plane containing the other two vectors
The cross product DOES NOT commute

a b = a1i (b1i + b2j + b3k)


+ a j(b i + b j + b k)
2 1 2

3 + a3k(b1i + b2 j + b3k)

a b = (a 2b3 - a3b2 )i + (a3b1 - a1b3)j + (a1b2 - a 2b1)k

i j k
a b = a1 a2 a3
b1 b2 b3

Take a look at the order of the subscripts in the result and you will see a cyclical
appearance of each one. Learn to appreciate the order in this for it will appear time
and again. There are a couple of other properties worth noting here.
Using the definition of cross product and right hand rule:

i i j j k k 0

i j k j i
j k i k i

k i j i k

Graphically, the concept to remember is that the cross product produces a vector which is
perpendicular to both vectors making up the argument of the product. This means it is
orthogonal to both (though the two argument vectors need not be orthogonal to each other).
When the two original vectors are orthogonal to each other, the cross product vector has the
greatest magnitude (it is at its longest). As the two vectors are rotated in towards each other, the
resultant vector shortens until it disappears when the two overlap. This same happens when the
two initial vectors rotate away from each other, the resultant disappearing when the point
opposite each other.

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WRITTEN EXERCISE 1.1
1. Write down five physical quantities and five non-physical quantities apart
from the ones given above
2. Find sum, difference, scalar product and cross product of the following
vectors (i) A 3i 5 j 10k and C 3 j - 2i - 6k
(ii) (5i - j + 2k)
and (2i + 3j - k)

3. What are the conditions for two vectors to be perpendicular?

Revision Exercises 1.1


1.1 What displacement at 70 has a component of 450 m? What is its y-component?
Ans. 1.3 km, 1.2km
1.2 What displacement must be added to a 50 cm displacement in the +x-direction to give a
resultant displacement of 85 cm at 25? Ans. 45 cm at 53

Suggestions for Further Readings

Resnick, Robert and Halliday, David (2009), Physics, Chapter 3 (Vol I


and II, Combined edition), Wiley International Edition, Library of
Congress Catalog Card No. 66-11527

Tipler P.A., Mosca G., "Physics for Scientists and Engineers", Chapter 2
(5th edition), W. H. Freeman and company: New York and Basing stoke,
2003.

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UNIT 2: KINEMATICS

SELF DIAGNOSTIC TEST


Answer all questions



?
100 2.
1. Distinguish between kinematics and dynamics?
What are the three types of motion?
3. State Newtons three laws of linear motion
4. Where is circular motion applied in the computer system?

INTRODUCTION
- Kinematics is that branch of physics which involves the description of motion, without examining the
forces which produce the motion.
- On the other hand, dynamics is the description of motion and the forces which produce it.
- An understanding of kinematics and dynamics is essential in PHYSICS. Newton's Laws of motion help
us to describe the forces in Dynamics and are therefore a very important part of this unit. Emphasis will
be placed on developing and understanding these laws.

TYPES OF MOTION
The equations of motion describe the behavior of a system (e.g., the motion of a particle under an
influence of a force) as a function of time. Sometimes the term refers to the differential equations that
the system satisfies (e.g., Newton's second law), and sometimes to the solutions to those equations.
Linear motion
- Linear motion is motion along a straight line, and can therefore be described mathematically using only
one spatial dimension. The linear motion can be of two types, Uniform Linear motion, with constant
velocity or zero acceleration, Non Uniform Linear motion, with variable velocity or non-zero
acceleration. The motion of a particle (a point-like object) along a line can be described by its position
x, which varies with t (time). Linear motion is also called as rectilinear motion.
- An example of linear motion is that of a ball thrown straight up and falling back straight down.

Equations of uniformly accelerated linear motion

The body is considered between two instants in time: one "initial" point and one "current".
Often, problems in kinematics deal with more than two instants, and several applications of
the equations are required. If acceleration, a is constant, a differential, adt, may be
integrated over an interval from 0 to t (t = t ti), to obtain a linear relationship for
velocity.

Integration of the velocity yields a quadratic relationship for position at the end of the
interval.
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1
v u at; s si ut a(t)2 and v 2 u2 2a(S Si )
2

where...

ui ----is the body's initial velocity;


si-----is the body's initial position

and its current state is described by:


v--- The velocity at the end of the interval
s---- the position at the end of the interval (displacement)
t--- the time interval between the initial and current states

a---- the constant acceleration, or in the case of bodies moving under the influence of
gravity, a = g.

Note that each of the equations contains four of the five variables. Thus, in this situation it is
sufficient to know three out of the five variables to calculate the remaining two.

The above equations are often written in the following form:

1 1
v u at; s ut at 2 ; s (u v)t and v 2 u2 2as
2 2

where

s = the distance between initial and final positions (displacement) (sometimes


denoted R or x)
u = the initial velocity (speed in a given direction)
v = the final velocity
a = the constant acceleration
t = the time taken to move from the initial state to the final state
Examples
Many examples in kinematics involve projectiles, for example a ball thrown upwards into
the air.
Given initial speed u, one can calculate how high the ball will travel before it begins to fall.
The acceleration is local acceleration of gravity g. At this point one must remember that
while these quantities appear to be scalars, the direction of displacement, speed and
acceleration is important. They could in fact be considered as uni-directional vectors.
Choosing s to measure up from the ground, the acceleration a must be in fact g, since the
force of gravity acts downwards and therefore also the acceleration on the ball due to it.

At the highest point, the ball will be at rest: therefore v = 0. Using the fourth equation, we have:

v2 u2 u2
s Substituting and cancelling minus signs gives: s
2g 2g

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WRITTEN EXERCISE 2.1

1. Derive the three equations of linear motion


2. How does motion under gravity affect the three equations?

Revision Exercises 2.1

2.11 A ball that is thrown vertically upward on the Moon returns to its starting point in 4.0 s. The
acceleration due to gravity there is 1.60 m/s 2 downward. Find the ball's original speed.
2.12 A truck starts from rest and moves with a constant acceleration of 5.0 m/s 2. Find its
speed and the distance traveled after 4.0 s has elapsed. Ans. 20 m/s, 40 m

2.13 A box slides down an incline with uniform acceleration. It starts from rest and attains a
speed of 2.7 m/s in 3.0 s. Find (a) the acceleration and (b) the distance moved in the first 6.0 s.
Ans. (a) 0.90 m/s2; (b) 16 m

2.14 A car is accelerating uniformly as it passes two checkpoints that are 30 m apart. The time
taken between checkpoints is 4.0 s, and the car's speed at the first checkpoint is 5.0 m/s. Find
the car's acceleration and its
speed at the second checkpoint. Ans. 1.3 m/s2, 10 m/s

2.15 An auto's velocity increases uniformly from 6.0 m/s to 20 m/s while covering 70 m in a straight
line. Find the acceleration and the time taken. Ans. 2.6 m/s2, 5.4 s

Projectile Motion

A projectile is any object that is cast, fired or thrown. The path of a projectile is called its
trajectory. Some examples of projectiles include

a bullet the instant it exits the barrel of a gun or rifle


a moving airplane in the air with its engines and wings disabled
the space shuttle or any other spacecraft after main engine cut off (MECO)

The force of primary importance acting on a projectile is gravity.

Every projectile problem is essentially two one-dimensional motion problems

The kinematic equations for a simple projectile are those of an object traveling with constant
horizontal velocity and constant vertical acceleration.

Horizontal Vertical Quantity

ax = 0 ay = g acceleration

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vx = ux vy = uy gt velocity-time

x = x0 + uxt y = y0 + uyt gt2 displacement-time

vy2 = uy2 2g(y u) velocity-displacement

Summary

A projectile is any object

S
o with an initial non-zero, horizontal velocity


o Whose acceleration is due to gravity alone?
The path of a projectile is called its trajectory.
he horizontal distance traveled by a projectile is called its range.
projectile launched on level ground with an initial speed u at an angle above
the horizontal
o Will have the same range as a projectile launched with an initial
speed u at (90 ). (Identical projectiles launched at complementary
angles have the same range.)
o will have a maximum range when = 45.

Revision Exercises 2.2

2.21 A marble, rolling with speed 20 cm/s, rolls off the edge of a table that is 80 cm high, (a)
How long does it take to drop to the floor? (b) How far, horizontally, from the table
edge does the marble strike the floor? Ans. (a) 0.40 s; (b) 8.1 cm
2.22 A body projected upward from the level ground at an angle of 50 with the horizontal has
an initial speed of 40 m/s. (a) how long will it take to hit the ground? (b) How far from
the starting point will it strike? (c) At what angle with the horizontal will it strike?
Ans. (a) 6.3 s; (b) 0.16 km; (c) 50
2.23 A body is projected downward at an angle of 30 with the horizontal from the top of a
building 170 m high. Its initial speed is 40 m/s. (a) How long will it take before striking
the ground? (b) How far from the foot of the building will it strike? (c) At what angle with
the horizontal will it strike? Ans. (a) 4.2 s; (b) 0.15 km; (c) 60

Circular Motion

Circular motion is rotation along a circle: a circular path or a circular orbit. It can be uniform, that
is, with constant angular rate of rotation, or non-uniform, that is, with a changing rate of rotation.
The rotation around a fixed axis of a three-dimensional body involves circular motion of its parts.
The equations describing circular motion of an object do not take size or geometry into account,
rather, the motion of a point mass in a plane is assumed. In practice, the center of mass of a body can
be considered to undergo circular motion

Examples of circular motion include: an artificial satellite orbiting the Earth in geosynchronous orbit, a
stone which is tied to a rope and is being swung in circles (cf. hammer throw), a racecar turning
through a curve in a race track, an electron moving perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field, and a
gear turning inside a mechanism.
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Equations of circular motion

The analogues of the above equations can be written for rotation:

1 1 1
= o + t; = ( + o )t; = o t + t 2 ; 2 = o2 + 2 and = t - t 2
2 2 2

where:
is the angular acceleration
is the angular velocity
is the angular displacement
0 is the initial angular velocity.

Revision questions 2.3

2.31 A flywheel turns at 480 rpm. Compute the angular speed at any point on the wheel and
the tangential speed 30.0 cm from the center. Ans. 50.3 rad/s, 15.1 m/s

2.32 It is desired that the outer edge of a grinding wheel 9.0 cm in radius move at a rate of 6.0
m/s. (a) Determine the angular speed of the wheel, (b) What length of thread could be
wound on the rim of the wheel in 3.0 s when it is turning at this rate? Ans. (a) 67
rad/s; (b) 18m

2.33 Through how many radians does a point on the Earth's surface move in 6.00 h as a
result of the Earth's rotation? What is the speed of a point on the equator?
Take the radius of the Earth to be 6370km. Ans. 1.57 rad, 463 m/s

2.34 A wheel 25.0 cm in radius turning at 120 rpm increases its frequency to 660 rpm
in 9.00 s. Find (a) the constant angular acceleration in rad/s 2 , and (b) the
tangential acceleration of a point on its rim. Ans. (a) 6.28 rad/s 2 ; (b) 157
cm/s 2
Simple Harmonic Motion

Simple harmonic motion (SHM) is the motion of a simple harmonic oscillator, a motion that is
neither driven nor damped. A body in simple harmonic motion experiences a single force which is

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given by Hooke's law; that is, the force is directly proportional to the displacement x and points in the
opposite direction.

The motion is periodic: the body oscillates about an equilibrium position in a sinusoidal pattern. Each
oscillation is identical, and thus the period, frequency, and amplitude of the motion are constant. If the
equilibrium position is taken to be zero, the displacement x of the body at any time t is given by

x(t) A cos( 2ft ) Where A is the amplitude, f is the frequency, and is the phase.

Definitions:

Amplitude (A): The maximum distance that an object moves from its equilibrium
position. A simple harmonic oscillator moves back and forth between the two
positions of maximum displacement, at x = A and x = - A.
Period (T): The time that it takes for an oscillator to execute one complete cycle of
its motion. If it starts at t = 0 at x = A, then it gets back to x = A after one full period
at t = T.
Frequency (f): The number of cycles (or oscillations) the object completes per unit
1
time. f
T
The unit of frequency is usually taken to be 1 Hz = 1 cycle per second.
Simple Harmonic Oscillator: Any object that oscillates about a stable equilibrium position and
experiences a restoring force approximately described by Hooke's law. Examples of simple
harmonic oscillators include: a mass attached to a spring, a molecule inside a solid, a car stuck
in a ditch being ``rocked out'' and a pendulum.

Note:

The negative sign in Hooke's law ensures that the force is always opposite to the direction of the
displacement and therefore back towards the equilibrium position (i.e. a restoring force).
The constant k in Hooke's law is traditionally called the spring constant for the system, even
when the restoring force is not provided by a simple spring.
The motion of any simple harmonic oscillator is completely characterized by two quantities: the
amplitude, and the period (or frequency).

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Hooke's Law:

d2x
F kx m 2
where the equilibrium position is chosen to have x -coordinate x =
dt
0 and k is a constant that depends on the system under consideration. The units of k are:
Newtons
k N/M (2)
metres

Energy of simple harmonic motion

The kinetic energy K of the system at time t is


1 1 1
K(t) = mv(t) 2 = m2 A 2sin 2 (t + ) = kA 2sin 2 (t + )
2 2 2
and the potential energy is
1 1
U(t) = kx(t) 2 = kA 2cos 2 (t + )
2 2
The total mechanical energy of the system therefore has the constant value
1
E = K + U = kA 2
2
Revision Exercises 2.4
2.41 A spring makes 12 vibrations in 40 s. Find the period and frequency of the
vibration. [Ans: 0.30 Hz]
2.42 A 50-g mass vibrates in SHM at the end of a spring. The amplitude of the motion is 12
cm, and the period is 1.70 s. Find: (a) the frequency, (b) the spring constant, (c) the
maximum speed of the mass, (d) the maximum acceleration of the mass, (e) the speed
when the displacement is 6.0 cm, and (f) the acceleration when x = 6.0 cm.

2.43 In Fig. below the 2.0-kg mass is released when the spring is unstretched. Neglecting
the inertia and friction of the pulley and the mass of the spring and string, find (a) the
amplitude of the resulting oscillation and (b) its center or equilibrium point .

k =300
3000300
N/m

2.44 Find the frequency of vibration on Mars for a simple pendulum that is 50 cm long. Objects
weigh 0.40 as much on Mars as on the Earth. Ans. 0.45 Hz
2.45 A "seconds pendulum" beats seconds; that is, it takes 1 s for half a cycle, (a) What is the
length of a simple "seconds pendulum" at a place where g = 9.80 m/s ? (b) What is the length
there of a pendulum for which T = 1.00 s? Ans. (a) 99.3 cm; (b) 24.8 cm

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NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION

Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that form the basis for classical mechanics.
They are:

First law
There exists a set of inertial reference frames relative to which all particles with no net
force acting on them will move without change in their velocity. This law is often
simplified as "A body persists its state of rest or of uniform motion unless acted upon by
an external unbalanced force." Newton's first law is often referred to as the law of inertia.
Second law
Observed from an inertial reference frame, the net force on a particle is equal to the time
rate of change of its linear momentum: F = d(mv)/dt. When mass is constant, this law is
often stated as, "Force equals mass times acceleration (F = ma): the net force on an object
is equal to the mass of the object multiplied by its acceleration."
Third law
Whenever a particle A exerts a force on another particle B, B simultaneously exerts a
force on A with the same magnitude in the opposite direction. The strong form of the law
further postulates that these two forces act along the same line. This law is often
simplified into the sentence, "To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction."

Note: These laws describe the relationship between the forces acting on a body and the motion
of that body. They were first compiled by Sir Isaac Newton in his work Philosophi
Naturalis Principia Mathematica, first published on July 5, 1687. Newton used them to
explain and investigate the motion of many physical objects and systems. For example, in
the third volume of the text, Newton showed that these laws of motion, combined with
his law of universal gravitation, explained Kepler's laws of planetary motion.

GYROSCOPE

A gyroscope is a device for measuring or maintaining orientation, based on the principles of conservation
of angular momentum. In essence, a mechanical gyroscope is a spinning wheel or disk whose
axle is free to take any orientation. Although this orientation does not remain fixed, it changes in
response to an external torque much less and in a different direction than it would without the
large angular momentum associated with the disk's high rate of spin and moment of inertia. Since
external torque is minimized by mounting the device in gimbals, its orientation remains nearly
fixed, regardless of any motion of the platform on which it is mounted.

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dL d(I)
The fundamental equation describing the behavior of the gyroscope is = = = I
dt dt
where the pseudovectors and L are, respectively, the torque on the gyroscope and its angular
momentum, the scalar I is its moment of inertia, the vector is its angular velocity, and the
vector is its angular acceleration.

Applications of gyroscopes

There are a number of computer pointing devices (in effect a mouse) on the market that have gyroscopes
in side them allowing you to control the mouse cursor while the device is in the air! They are
also wireless so are perfect for presentations when the speaker is moving around the room. The
gyroscope inside tracks the movements of your hand and translates them to cursor movements.

Gyrocompasses are basically navigation aids. Gyroscopes don't like to change direction, so if they are
mounted into a device that allows them to move freely (low friction gimbal). Then when
the device is moved in different directions the gyroscope will still point in the same direction.
This can then be measured and the results can be used in similar ways to a normal compass. But
unlike a standard magnetic compass is not magnetic environmental changes and readings are
move accurate. Gyrocompasses are commonly used in ships and aircraft.

Newton's law of universal gravitation

Newton's law of universal gravitation is an empirical physical law describing the gravitational
attraction between bodies with mass. It states that:

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Every point mass attracts every other point mass by a force pointing along the line intersecting
both points. The force is directly proportional to the product of the two masses and inversely
proportional to the square of the distance between the point masses:

m1m 2
FG , where:
r2
F is the magnitude of the gravitational force between the two point masses,
G is the gravitational constant = 6.673 1011 N m2 kg-2,
m1 is the mass of the first point mass,
m2 is the mass of the second point mass,
r is the distance between the two point masses.

Newton's law of gravitation resembles Coulomb's law of electrical forces, which is used to
calculate the magnitude of electrical force between two charged bodies. Both are inverse-square
laws, in which force is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the bodies.
Coulomb's Law has the product of two charges in place of the product of the masses, and the
electrostatic constant in place of the gravitational constant

Newton' law of universal gravitation can be written as a vector equation to account for the
direction of the gravitational force as well as its magnitude. In this formula, quantities in bold
represent vectors.

m1m 2
F12 G 2
r12
r12

where

is the force applied on object 2 due to object 1

G is the gravitational constant

m1 and m2 are respectively the masses of objects 1 and 2

r2 r1
r12 r2 r1 is the distance between objects 1 and 2 and r12
r2 r1
Revision Exercises 2.5
2.51 An empty 15000-kg coal car is coasting on a level track at 5.00 m/s. suddenly 5000
kg of coal is dumped into it from directly above it. The coal initially has zero
horizontal velocity. Find the final speed of the car. Ans. 3.75 m/s.
2.52 Sand drops at a rate of 2000 kg/min from the bottom of a hopper onto a belt
conveyer moving horizontally at 250 m/min. Determine the force needed to drive the
conveyer, neglecting friction. Ans. 139 N

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Summary
We have basically tackled three major issues in this TOPIC.

S
- There are three Newtons laws of motion Viz:
Every body persists in its state of being at rest or of
moving uniformly straight forward, except insofar
as it is compelled to change its state by force
impressed.
The change of momentum of a body is proportional
to the impulse impressed on the body, and happens
along the straight line on which that impulse is
impressed.
To every action there is always an equal and
opposite reaction: or the forces of two bodies on
each other are always equal and are directed in
opposite directions.

Note:

1. A vector quantity can not be added to


scalar quantity.

Written Assignments
SCT 102/1
Do the following assignment and post it to:
The Course Lecturer
Written
Assignment Department of CIT
CUEA
P.O. Box 43844,
Nairobi- Kenya

1. While driving on the interstate one day at 27.8 m/s (60.0 mph) I accidentally dropped the
Encyclopedia of PHYSICS out the window, 1.15 m above the ground. Determine the
following

a. the horizontal and vertical components of the book's velocity the instant I released it
b. the time the book was in the air
c. the horizontal distance the book traveled before hitting the ground
d. the horizontal and vertical components of the book's velocity the instant it hit the
ground

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2. A poorly constructed see-saw has a fulcrum 2/3 of the way along its length.
a) If the see-saw weighs 30 kg, where would a 20 kg child have to sit in
order to balance the see-saw?
b) What is the least mass that a child must have in order to balance the see-
saw?
3. A 10 m ladder weighs 50 N and balances against a smooth wall at 60 o to the
horizontal. If the ladder is just on the verge of slipping, what is the static coefficient
of friction between the floor and the ladder?

Suggestions for Further Readings

Resnick, Robert and Halliday, David (2009), Physics, Chapter 3


(Vol I and II, Combined edition), Wiley International Edition,
Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 66-11527

Tipler P.A., Mosca G., "Physics for Scientists and Engineers",


Chapter 2 (5th edition), W. H. Freeman and company: New York
and Basing stoke, 2003.

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APPEDIX 1: LIST OF PHYSICAL QUANTITIES
Sym
Base quantity Symbol for
bol Description SI unit Comments
dimension

The one
dimensional
Length l metre (m) L
extent of an
object.
The amount
Mass m of matter in kilogram (kg) M extensive
an object.
The duration
Time t second (s) T
of an event.
Rate of flow
Electric current I of electrical ampere (A) I
charge.
Average
energy per
Temperature T degree of kelvin (K) intensive
freedom of a
system.
Number of
particles
compared to
Amount of
n the number of mole (mol) N extensive
substance
atoms in
0.012 kg of
12
C.
Amount of
energy
Luminous emitted by a
L candela (cd) J
intensity light source in
a particular
direction.
Measure of a change in radian
Plane angle 1
direction or orientation. (rad)
Measure of the size of
steradian
Solid angle an object as projected 1
(sr)
on a sphere.
Absorbed dose Absorbed dose Gy s1 L2 T3

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rate received per unit of
time.
Rate of change of the
Acceleration a speed or velocity of an m s2 L T2 vector
object.
Rate of change in
Angular
angular speed or rad s2 T2
acceleration
velocity.
The angle incremented
Angular speed (or in a plane by a segment scalar or
or rad s1 T1
angular velocity) connecting an object pseudovector
and a reference point.
Measure of the extent
Angular and direction and M L2 conserved quantity,
L kg m2 s1
momentum object rotates about a T1 pseudovector
reference point.
The two dimensional
Area A m2 L2
extent of an object.
The amount of mass
Area density A per unit area of a two kg m2 M L2
dimensional object.
Measure for the
farad (F
amount of stored I2 T4
Capacitance C = A2 s4
charge for a given M1 L2
kg1 m2)
potential.
Change in reaction rate katal (kat
Catalytic activity due to presence of a = mol N T1
catalyst. s1)
Change in reaction rate
Catalytic activity due to presence of a N L3
kat m3
concentration catalyst per unit T1
volume of the system.
The amount of energy
Chemical M L2
needed to add a particle J mol1 intensive
potential T2 N1
to a system.
Molar Amount of substance
C mol m3 N L3 intensive
concentration per unit volume.
Amount of electric
Current density J current flowing through A m2 I L2
a surface.

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Measure for the
received amount of
sievert
radiation adjusted for
Dose equivalent H (Sv = m2 L2 T2
the effect of different
s2)
types of radiant on
biological tissue.
Measure for the
Dynamic resistance of an M L1
Pa s
Viscosity incompressible fluid to T1
stress.
Amount of electric coulomb extensive, conserved
Electric Charge Q IT
charge. (C = A s) quantity
Electric charge Amount of electric
Q C m3 I T L3 intensive
density charge per unit volume.
Electric Strength of the electric
D C m2 I T L2 vector field
displacement displacement.
Electric field Strength of the electric M I1
E V m1 vector field
strength field. L2 T3
siemens
Meausure for how
Electrical (S = A2 L2 M1
G easily current flows scalar
conductance s3 kg1 T3 I2
through a material.
m2)
The amount of work
volt (V =
required to bring a unit L2 M
Electric potential V kg m2 scalar
charge into an electric T3 I1
A1 s3)
field from infinity.
The degree to which an
ohm (
Electrical object opposes the L2 M
R = kg m2 scalar
resistance passage of an electric T3 I2
A2 s3)
current.
The capaPhysicsy of a joule (J =
M L2 extensive, scalar,
Energy E body or system to do kg m2
T2 conserved quantity
work. s2)
Amount of energy per M L1
Energy density E J m3 intensive
unit volume. T2
Measure for the
M L2
Entropy S amount of available J K1 extensive, scalar
T2 1
states for a system.
The cause of newton
ML
Force F acceleration, acting on (N = kg vector
T2
an object. m s2)

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The cause of a change
ML
Impulse p in momentum, acting kg m s1 vector
T1
on an object.
The number of times
hertz (Hz
Frequency f something happens in a T1
=s1)
period of time.
The time needed for a
Half-life t1/2 quantity to decay to s T
half its original value.
Amount of energy
transferred between M L2
Heat Q J
systems due to T2
temperature difference.
Amount of energy
needed to raise the M L2
Heat capacity Cp J K1 extensive
temperature of a T2 1
system by one degree.
Amount of heat
Heat flux density Q flowing through a W m2 M T3
surface per unit area.
Total luminous flux lux (lx =
Illuminance Ev incident to a surface cd sr J L2
per unit area. m2)
Measure for the
ohm (
resistance of an L2 M
Impedance Z = kg m2 complex scalar
electrical circuit against 2 3 T3 I2
A s )
an alternating current.
The factor by which the
Index of
n speed of light is reduce 1 intensive
refraction
in a medium.
Measure for the
amount of magnetic henry (H
M L2
Inductance L flux generated for a = kg m2
T2 I2
certain current run A2 s2)
through a circuit.
Power of
electromagnetic
Irradiance E radiation flowing W m2 M T2
through a surface per
unit area.
Linear density l Amount of mass per M L1

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unit length of a one
dimensional object.
lumen
Luminous flux (or Perceived power of a
F (lm = cd J
luminous power) light source.
sr)
Magnetic field Strength of a magnetic
H A m1 I L1 vector field
strength field in a material.
Measure of quantity of
weber
magnetism, taking
(Wb = kg M L2
Magnetic flux account of the strength scalar
m2 A1 T2 I1
and the extent of a
s2)
magnetic field.
Measure for the tesla (T =
Magnetic flux M T2
B strength of the kg A1 pseudovector field
density I1
magnetic field. s2)
Amount of magnetic
Magnetization M moment per unit A m1 I L1 vector field
volume.
Mass of a substance as
Mass fraction x a fraction of the total kg/kg 1 intensive
mass.
The amount of mass
(Mass) Density per unit volume of a
kg m3 M L3 intensive
(volume density) three dimensional
object.
Average time needed
Mean lifetime s T intensive
for a particle to decay.
Amount of energy
present is a system per M L2
Molar energy J mol1 intensive
unit amount of T2 N1
substance.
Amount of entropy
M L2
present in a system per J K1
Molar entropy T2 1 intensive
unit amount of mol1
N1
substance.
Heat capacity of a
Molar heat J K1 M L2
c material per unit intensive
capacity mol1 T2 N1
amount of substance.
Inertia of an object
Moment of inertia I with respect to angular kg m2 M L2 scalar
acceleration.

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Product of an object's ML
Momentum p Ns vector, extensive
mass and velocity. T1
Measure for how the
magnetization of
M L1
Permeability material is affected by H m1 intensive
I2
the application of an
external magnetic field.
Measure for how the
polarization of a
I2 M1
Permittivity material is affected by F m1 intensive
L2 T4
the application of an
external electric field.
The rate of change in M L2
Power P watt (W) extensive
energy over time. T3
pascal
Amount of force per M L1
Pressure p (Pa = kg intensive
unit area. T2
m1 s2)
becquerel
(Radioactive) Number of particles
A (Bq = T1 extensive
Activity decaying per unit time. 1
s )
Amount of energy gray
(Radioactive) absorbed by biological (unit)
D L2 T2
Dose tissue from ionizing (Gy = m2
radiation per unit mass. s2)
Power of emitted
electromagnetic
W m2
Radiance L radiation per solid M T3
sr1
angle and per projected
source area.
Power of emitted
electromagnetic M L2
Radiant intensity I W sr1 scalar
radiation per solid T3
angle.
Measure for speed of a mol m3 N L3
Reaction rate r intensive
chemical reaction. s1 T1
Rate of change of the
Speed v m s1 L T1 scalar
position of an object.
Amount of energy
Specific energy J kg1 L2 T2 intensive
present per unit mass.
Specific heat Heat capaPhysicsy per J kg1 L2 T2
c intensive
capaPhysicsy unit mass. K1 1

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The volume occupied
by a unit mass of
Specific volume v m3 kg1 L3 M1 intensive
material (reciprocal of
density).
Intrinsic property of
particles, roughly to be
interpreted as the M L2
Spin S kg m2 s1
intrinsic angular T1
momentum of the
particle.
Amount of force
M L1
Stress exerted per surface Pa 2-tensor. (or scalar)
T2
area.
Amount of work
needed to change the N m1 or
Surface tension M T2
surface of a liquid by a J m2
unit surface area.
Measure for the ease
Thermal W m1 M L1
k with which a material intensive
conductivity K1 T3 1
conducts heat.
Product of a force and the
Torque (moment perpendicular distance of M L2
T Nm pseudovector
of force) the force from the point T2
about which it is exerted.
Speed of an object in a
Velocity v m s1 L T1 vector
chosen direction.
The three dimensional
Volume V m3 L3 extensive
extent of an object.
Distance between
Wavelength repeating units of a m L
propagating wave.
Reciprocal of the
Wave number k m1 L1
wavelength.
Amount of gravitation newton
ML
Weight w force exerted on an (N = kg
T2
object. m s2)
Energy dissipated by a force
moving over a distance, joule (J =
M L2
Work W scalar product of the force kg m2 scalar
T2
and the movement s2)
vector.

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