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Geotechnical Engineering

journal homepage: www.rockgeotech.org

Asskar Janalizadeh, Ali Zahmatkesh*

Babol University of Technology, Babol, Iran

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Liquefaction has been a main cause of damage to civil engineering structures in seismically active areas.

Received 6 March 2015 The effects of damage of liquefaction on deep foundations are very destructive. Seismic behavior of pile

Received in revised form foundations is widely discussed by many researchers for safer and more economic design purposes. This

5 May 2015

paper presents a pseudo-static method for analysis of piles in liqueable soil under seismic loads. A free-

Accepted 6 May 2015

Available online 11 June 2015

eld site response analysis using three-dimensional (3D) numerical modeling was performed to deter-

mine kinematic loads from lateral ground displacements and inertial loads from vibration of the su-

perstructure. The effects of various parameters, such as soil layering, kinematic and inertial forces,

Keywords:

Pile foundations

boundary condition of pile head and ground slope, on pile response were studied. By comparing the

Lateral spreading numerical results with the centrifuge test results, it can be concluded that the use of the p-y curves with

Liquefaction various degradation factors in liqueable sand gives reasonable results.

Pseudo-static method 2015 Institute of Rock and Soil Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Production and hosting by

Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction been caused due to both lateral ground movement and inertial

loads transmitted to piles. Under earthquake loading, the perfor-

The liquefaction is one of the challenging issues in geotechnical mance of piles in liqueed ground is a complex problem due to the

engineering and it damages structures and facilities during earth- effects of progressive buildup of pore water pressures and decrease

quakes. This phenomenon was reported as the main cause of of stiffness in the saturated soil (Liyanapathirana and Poulos, 2005).

damage to pile foundations during the major earthquakes (Kramer, These effects involve inertial interaction between structure and pile

1996). In many earthquakes around the world, extensive damage to foundation, signicant changes in stiffness and strength of soils due

piles of bridges and other structures due to liquefaction and lateral to increase of pore water pressures, large lateral loads on piles,

spreading has been observed (Boulanger et al., 2003). Failures were kinematic interaction between piles and soils, nonlinear response

observed in both sloping and level grounds and were often of soils to strong earthquake motions, kinematic loads from lateral

accompanied with settlement and tilting of the superstructure ground displacements, and inertial loads from vibration of the su-

(Adhikari and Bhattacharya, 2008). The loss of soil strength and perstructure (Bradley et al., 2009; Gao et al., 2011).

stiffness due to excess pore pressure in liqueable soil may develop Various approaches including shaking table and centrifuge tests

large bending moments and shear forces in the piles. If the residual and also various numerical methods have been developed for the

strength of the liqueable soil is less than the static shear stresses dynamic response analysis of single pile and pile group. The soile

caused by a sloping site or a free surface such as a river bank, sig- pileestructure interaction has been investigated using the centri-

nicant lateral spreading or downslope displacements may occur. fuge test (e.g. Finn and Gohl, 1987; Chang and Kutter, 1989; Liu and

The moving soil can exert damaging pressures against the piles, Dobry, 1995; Hushmand et al., 1998; Wilson, 1998; Abdoun and

leading to failure (Finn and Fujita, 2002). The performance of Dobry, 2002; Su and Li, 2006) and shaking table test (e.g. Mizuno

structures above piles depends widely on the behavior of pile and Liba, 1982; Yao et al., 2004; Tamura and Tokimatsu, 2005;

foundations under earthquake loading. During past earthquakes, Han et al., 2007; Gao et al., 2011; Haeri et al., 2012). The obvious

because of inadequacy of the pile to sustain large shear forces and advantage of shaking table and centrifuge tests is the ability to

bending moments, the extensive damage in liqueable soil has obtain detailed measurements of response in a series of tests

designed to physically evaluate the importance of varying earth-

quake characteristics (e.g. level of shaking, frequency content), soil

* Corresponding author. Tel.: 98 9158342367. prole characteristics, and/or pileesuperstructure characteristics

E-mail address: A.zahmatkesh@stu.nit.ac.ir (A. Zahmatkesh). (Wilson, 1998). However, some limitations exist in centrifuge tests,

Peer review under responsibility of Institute of Rock and Soil Mechanics, Chi- for example, sand grains in centrifuge tests correspond to bigger

nese Academy of Sciences.

1674-7755 2015 Institute of Rock and Soil Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sci-

gravel particles in prototype (Towhata, 2008).

ences. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. To simulate the piles in liqueable soil layers, Finn and Fujita

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrmge.2015.05.001 (2002), Klar et al. (2004), Oka et al. (2004), Uzuoka et al. (2007),

A. Janalizadeh, A. Zahmatkesh / Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 7 (2015) 532e539 533

Cheng and Jeremic (2009), Comodromos et al. (2009), and Rahmani First, the time history of the ground surface acceleration and the

and Pak (2012) used three-dimensional (3D) nite element maximum ground displacement at each depth were obtained from

method. The complexity and time-consuming nature of 3D the free-eld site response analysis. Taboada and Dobry (1993) and

nonlinear nite element method for dynamic analysis makes it Gonzalez et al. (2002) showed that the pore pressure time histories

useful only for very large practical projects or research and not recorded at the same elevation are identical, indicating the 1D

feasible for engineering practice. However, it is possible to obtain behavior of the model. In free-eld analysis, the model consists of a

reasonable solutions for nonlinear response of pile foundations single column of 3D brick elements. The soil layers were modeled

with fewer computations by relaxing some of the boundary con- using cubic 8-noded elements with u-p formulation in which each

ditions in full 3D analysis (Finn and Fujita, 2002). node has four degrees of freedom: three for soil skeleton dis-

The simple approach for modeling and simulation of the piles in placements and one for pore water pressure. To consider the effect

liqueed grounds is based on scaling of p-y springs, where p and y of the laminar box in the numerical simulation, nodes at the same

are the soil resistance per unit length of the pile and pile lateral depths were constrained to have equal displacements in the hori-

displacement, respectively. Because of complexity and time- zontal and vertical directions. The pore water pressures were

consuming of two-dimensional (2D) and 3D numerical modeling, allowed to freely develop for all nodes except those at the surface

most of the designers and researchers prefer to use one- and above the water table. The bottom boundary was assumed

dimensional (1D) Winkler method based on nite element or xed in all directions.

nite difference method for the seismic analysis of pile foundations. The material model plays a key role in the numerical simulation

In pseudo-static method, a static analysis is carried out to obtain the of the dynamic behavior of liqueable soils. The model in Dafalias

maximum response (deection, shear force and bending moment) and Manzari (2004), a critical state two-surface plasticity model,

developed in the pile due to seismic loading. In Winkler models, p-y was used in this paper. This model requires fteen material pa-

curves are used to dene the behavior of the nonlinear spring at any rameters and two state parameters to describe the behavior of sands

depth. These p-y curves can be obtained from the results of model and has been amply tested for simulating the behavior of granular

tests or eld (Liyanapathirana and Poulos, 2005). The Winkler soils subjected to monotonic and cyclic loadings (Jeremic et al.,

assumption is that the soilepile interaction resistance at any depth 2008; Taiebat et al., 2010; Rahmani and Pak, 2012). The key advan-

is related to the pile shaft displacement at that depth only, inde- tages of the model are that (1) it is relatively simple and (2) it has a

pendent of the interaction resistances above and below (Wilson, unique calibration of input parameters. Thus, a single set of pa-

1998). rameters independent of void ratio and effective consolidation

This pseudo-static method has been suggested early by Miura stress level was used for the Dafalias and Manzaris material model.

et al. (1989), Miura and ORourke (1991), Liu and Dobry (1995), Table 1 presents the material parameters for Nevada sand. The

JRA (1996), AIJ (1998) and recently by Liyanapathirana and Poulos additional parameters used for free-eld analysis are presented in

(2005) and Elahi et al. (2010). This method for pile seismic anal- Table 2. It can be noted that at the onset of liquefaction, change of soil

ysis sometimes underestimates, and sometimes overestimates particles creates additional pathways for water. This leads to a sig-

shears, moments and deection of the piles. However, in many nicant increase in permeability coefcient (Rahmani et al., 2012).

practical conditions, the results of pseudo-static method are In this study, the permeability coefcient value was increased 10

reasonable (Tabesh, 1997). times the initial value (suggested by Rahmani et al. (2012)).

In this paper, a pseudo-static method has been applied for esti- For free-eld analysis, the simulations were carried out in two

mation of the response of pile during dynamic loading. First, de- loading stages. At the rst stage, the soil skeleton and pore water

nition of the geometry and the soil modeling parameters are weight were applied to soil elements. The values of stress and strain

presented. Next, the numerical model is vertied by means of the in this stage were used as initial values for the next stage of loading.

centrifuge test. And then the effects of various parameters, including At the second stage, dynamic analysis was performed by applica-

soil layering, kinematic and inertial forces, boundary condition of tion of an input motion to the model base.

pile head and ground slope, on the behaviors of piles are studied.

s

tational platform OpenSees (McKenna and Fenves, 2007). This

platform allows for developing applications to simulate the per-

formance of structural and geotechnical systems subjected to static

and seismic loadings. In this paper, the steps for calculation of pile

response are summarized as follows:

the dynamic loading using 3D numerical modeling. From this

analysis, time history of ground surface acceleration and the

maximum ground displacement along the length of the pile can

be calculated.

(2) The dynamic analysis was performed using the time history of

ground surface acceleration calculated in Step 1 for pile length

above ground and superstructure with a xed base. From this

Pile p-y materials

analysis, the maximum acceleration of superstructure can be

calculated.

(3) In 1D Winkler analysis, the maximum soil displacement prole

calculated in Step 1 and the maximum acceleration of super- Fig. 1. A beam on the nonlinear Winkler foundation (BNWF) model for pseudo-static

structure in Step 2 were applied to the pile as shown in Fig. 1. analysis.

534 A. Janalizadeh, A. Zahmatkesh / Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 7 (2015) 532e539

Table 1

Material parameters for Nevada sand (Rahmani and Pak, 2012).

Elasticity Critical state Yield surface parameter, m Plastic modulus Dilatancy Dilatancy-fabric

G0 n M c lc e0 x h0 ch nb A0 nd zmax cz

150 0.05 1.14 0.78 0.027 0.83 0.45 0.02 9.7 1.02 2.56 0.81 1.05 5 800

Additional parameters for pseudo-static and free-eld analysis (Wilson, 1998; spreading during dynamic loading) also occurred. Therefore, the

Rahmani and Pak, 2012).

excessive forces imposed on the foundation due to ground

Dr (%) Permeability Saturated unit Dry unit weight Friction Void displacement led to shearing of the piles and subsequent structural

(m s1) weight (kN m3) (kN m3) angle ( ) ratio, e collapse of the superstructure. There are three methods for

35 7.05 105 19.11 14.9 30 0.743 considering the inuence of liquefaction on p-y curves in sand. In

80 3.7 105 19.91 16.2 39.5 0.594 the rst case, the lateral resistance of liqueable sand is assumed to

be zero. This method can lead to large design responses and high

construction costs which may be very conservative (Rollins et al.,

In the second step, after free-eld analysis, pile length above

2005). Another approach is to treat liqueable sand as undrained

ground and superstructure were modeled. The pile was modeled as

soft clay and use the p-y curves for soft clay. The undrained shear

beam column elements with elastic section properties. The super-

strength used in this case is obtained as a ratio of undrained shear

structure was modeled at the pile head. Generally, the super-

strength to initial effective overburden stress using eld data, and it

structures above the pile foundations are multi-degree of freedom

is a function of overburden stress and relative density (Rollins et al.,

systems, but in the design of pile foundations, the superstructure

2005; Varun, 2010). The third method for the simulation of pile

was modeled as a single mass at the pile head to simplify the

response in liqueable soils is the use of reduction factors, called p-

analysis. In this step, the base model was also xed.

multipliers. The p-y curves in liqueable sand are multiplied by a

The model considered for the third step (pseudo-static analysis)

factor usually between 0.01 and 0.3 to decrease the strength of sand

is shown in Fig. 1. There are two versions of the pseudo-static BNWF

due to liquefaction (Rollins et al., 2005; Brandenberg et al., 2007;

method. These two methods are different in the way in which the

Varun, 2010). In this paper, the third method (p-multipliers) was

lateral load on pile due to ground movement (kinematic load) is

used. The free-eld soil displacement and lateral force in head pile

considered. The rst BNWF requires free-eld soil movements as an

were imposed incrementally using a static load control integrator.

input. The free-eld soil displacements are imposed on the free

ends of the p-y springs due to lateral dilatation layers. In the second

BNWF, the limit pressures over the depth of the lateral spreading 3. Validation of the proposed method

soil were applied and the p-y springs were removed in this interval.

In case of limit pressure, interaction of the soil and pile was not The performance and ability of the proposed approach to

modeled, because the analysis is simple and can be done by hand simulate pile behavior in liqueable soil have been demonstrated

calculation. Inertia forces from superstructure are represented as by comparison between the numerical simulations and centrifuge

static forces applied simultaneously with lateral spreading de- tests performed by Wilson (1998). In these tests, the soil prole

mands. When limit pressures are applied directly to the pile nodes, consisted of two horizontal layers of saturated uniformly graded

bending moments and cap displacements depend on acceleration Nevada sand (see Fig. 2). On prototype scale, the lower layer was

records and are greatly overpredicted for small to medium motions. 11.4 m thick with relative density of 80% (dense) and the upper was

This can be explained by the fact that the lateral spreading dis- 9.1 m thick with relative density of 35% (loose). The single pile was a

placements were not large enough to mobilize limit pressures and

actual pressures are smaller than limit pressures. However, for large

motions, the pile cap displacements were considerably under-

predicted (Brandenberg et al., 2007). In this paper, the free-eld soil

movement was used as an input. The cap mass, multiplied by the

maximum acceleration of the superstructure obtained from Step 2

as a lateral force (F), was applied at the pile head. The material

properties of p-y curves for non-liqueed sand were computed

based on API (1987). These curves are dened by the following

equation:

Kz

P Pu tanh y (1)

Pu

modulus of subgrade reaction, and y is the lateral deection. The

initial tangent stiffness (Kin), based on Eq. (1), is obtained as

Kin Kz. The p-y curves were modeled as zero-length elements

with PySimple1 materials. Under dynamic loading, the piles are

inuenced by kinematic loads from lateral ground displacements

and inertial loads from vibration of the superstructure. Fig. 1 shows

an idealized schematic of the BNWF model for kinematic (F) and

inertial (Ds) loads. The loss of bearing capacity for piles in loose Fig. 2. Layout of the model for centrifuge test by Wilson (1998).

A. Janalizadeh, A. Zahmatkesh / Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 7 (2015) 532e539 535

thickness. The pile tip was about 3.8 m above the container base.

Case (1)

The superstructure mass (Ms) was 49.1 Mg. Properties of Nevada

sand with Dr 35% and 80% are presented in Table 2. The Kobe Case (2)

20

Case (3)

acceleration record (Fig. 3) was used as an input to shake model.

Centrifuge test

It is important to specify stiffness and lateral resistance of the p-

y curves in liqueable soil as explained in Section 2. Three cases

were considered to evaluate the effects of variations in stiffness and 15

lateral resistance of the p-y curves on the testing results. These

cases include: (1) use of the p-y curves without the inuence of

liquefaction; (2) use of the p-y curves with a constant degradation 10

factor in liqueed sand; and (3) use of the p-y curves with various

degradation factors in liqueable sand. In case (2), different

degradation factors can be considered between 0.05 and 0.5 to

reduce the strength of liqueable soil. In this case, because of the 5

small strength of liqueable soil, especially that of surface ground, a

degradation factor of 0.1 was considered. In case (3), variation in

degradation factor with depth was taken from a small value (top of 0

liqueable layer) to 1.0 (bottom of liqueable layer). An exponential 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35

decay function from bottom to top of liqueed layer is proposed as Superstructure acceleration (g)

R R0 eH lnR0

z Fig. 4. Comparison of superstructure displacement in various cases with the centrifuge

(2)

tests by Wilson (1998).

top of the layer (z); H is the liqueable layer thickness; and R0 is the Fig. 5 compares the maximum bending moment recorded from

degradation factor at the top of the layer. Both the ultimate resis- the centrifuge tests with that obtained from present analysis. In this

tance and initial stiffness of the p-y curves in the liqueable layer gure, variation of R is similar to case (3) and Fig. 5 shows that the

were taken to be R% of their unreduced magnitudes. results obtained from the numerical analysis agree with the values

In free-eld analysis under the Kobe acceleration record scaled recorded during the centrifuge test. It can be said that increasing

to 0.04g, 0.12g and 0.22g, because of the ground level, lateral the value of R from a small value at the top of the layer to 1.0 at the

displacement (Ds) was less than about 5 cm and the effects of ki- bottom of the layer produces a reasonable response for the piles.

nematic loads on seismic response are small. Therefore, in these Therefore, this method was used for subsequent analysis.

tests, it is reasonable to only consider the inertial loads for calcu-

lation of the pile response. The superstructure displacement was

calculated using acceleration of the superstructure obtained from 4. Results and discussion

the tests carried out by Wilson (1998). The comparison between the

observed and simulated results of superstructure displacement is In this section, the behavior of pile for various conditions is

shown in Fig. 4. In cases (2) and (3), by considering the centrifuge discussed. The soil prole is the same as the one used in the

test results, the best predictions were obtained with degradation centrifuge test performed by Wilson (1998). The prole has two

factor of 0.1. These results clearly illustrate that the performance layers: the upper layer is liqueable (relative density of 35%) while

and accuracy of BNWF mainly depend on the accuracy in selection

of the correct curves. As seen in Fig. 4, the deections observed

Bending moment (kN m)

during the centrifuge test are much larger than those simulated

without the inuence of liquefaction. This is due to the loss of 0 500 1000 1500

0

bearing capacity for the piles in loose and medium sandy soils

during dynamic loading. It can be noted that use of constant

degradation factors at various depths gives unreasonable results.

The pile head displacements have a good agreement with the

available experimental data in case (3). 5

Depth (m)

10

Simulation

15 Centrifuge test

20

Fig. 3. Acceleration record of Kobe earthquake scaled to 0.22g used in the centrifuge Fig. 5. Comparison of bending moment proles with the centrifuge tests by Wilson

test by Wilson (1998). (1998).

536 A. Janalizadeh, A. Zahmatkesh / Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 7 (2015) 532e539

the lower layer (relative density of 80%) is not. Three different Bending moment (kN m)

ground slopes of 1%, 2%, and 4% were considered. The water table

-500 0 500 1000 1500 2000

was supposed to be 1 m, 2 m, 3 m, and 4 m below the ground. This 0

means that the thicknesses of non-liqueable surface crust are 1 m,

2 m, 3 m, and 4 m. The input motion for the model was a 20-cycles

-2

sinusoidal wave with a frequency of 2 Hz and the peak acceleration

1%

of 0.5g. It should be noted that the intensity, frequency content (e.g.

predominant period) and the duration of strong shaking are -4 2%

important characteristics of an earthquake (Rathje et al., 1998).

4%

These characteristics affected the response of piles. The pile re-

Depth (m)

-6

sponses largely depend on the shaking amplitude. Increase in the

shaking amplitude (because of more reduction of restraint on liq-

ueed soil) resulted in a decrease in the restraint against bending -8

under the lateral load, and the maximum bending moment in piles

signicantly increased (Gao et al., 2011). The frequency also had a

-10

signicant effect on pile response.

The free-eld analysis showed that displacement of level

ground is signicantly less than that of the sloping ground. Fig. 6 -12

compares the displacement of sloping ground when the thickness

of the non-liqueable surface layer is 1 m and 2 m with ground

-14

slope of 2%. This gure highlights the importance of non-liqueable

surface layer as a key parameter on ground displacement. When

liquefaction occurs in sloping ground, because of displacements Fig. 7. Variations in bending moment along the pile in different sloping grounds (free

developing up to several meters, large lateral forces may act on the head, without superstructure).

pile. This phenomenon is commonly called lateral spreading (Klar

et al., 2004). In lateral spreading, the driving forces only exceed occurred as the ground slope increased. After liquefaction, if the

the resisting forces during those portions of the earthquake that static shear stress caused by sloping ground is more than the shear

impose net inertial forces in the downslope direction. Each cycle of strength of liqueable soil, the non-liqueable surface crust over-

net inertial forces in the downslope direction causes the driving lying a liqueed soil layer can slide with a considerable amount of

forces to exceed the resisting forces along the slip surface, resulting displacement. In this condition (lateral spreading), the non-

in progressively and incrementally lateral movement (Day, 2002). liqueable surface layer was carried along with the underlying

Based on the results of free-eld analysis, the displacement prole fully liqueable soil and a large lateral force was imposed on the

can be matched with constant displacement across the upper soil embedded piles (Ashour and Ardalan, 2011). This force due to the

layer, a linear variation across the liqueable and non-liqueable lateral movement of the non-liqueable layer has the potential to

layers. induce large bending moments in the piles leading to failure.

The variations in bending moment along piles in different The boundary condition of the pile head has an important effect

ground slopes for various conditions are presented in Figs. 7e10. on the pile responses (moments, shear and deections). In layered

The results show that in sloping grounds, when a non-liqueable soil deposits, a liqueable soil layer is overlain by a non-liqueable

soil layer overlies a liqueable soil layer and piles are embedded layer; when the pile head is free, the maximum bending moment

in the non-liqueable soil layer, the lateral spreading has more

inuences on the damage of piles. An increase in bending moment

Bending moment (kN m)

0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

0

-2 1%

-2

2%

-4 -4

4%

-6

-6

Depth (m)

-8

Depth (m)

-10 -8

1m

-12

2m

-10

-14

-16 -12

-18

-14

-20

Fig. 6. Displacement prole at two different thicknesses of non-liqueable surface Fig. 8. Variations in bending moment along the pile in different sloping grounds (xed

layer when the ground slope is 2%. head, without superstructure).

A. Janalizadeh, A. Zahmatkesh / Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 7 (2015) 532e539 537

Bending moment (kN m) inuence of liquefaction on free-eld soil response and soilepilee

-500 0 500 1000 1500 2000 structure interaction, the magnitudes of inertial and kinematic

0 loads change (Han et al., 2007). When the acceleration of ground

surface or superstructure mass is large or lateral dynamic stiffness

-2 of pile group due to pile and/or soil stiffness is small, the inertial

1% effects may become important (Elahi et al., 2010). Figs. 7 and 8

2% illustrate that in the absence of a superstructure, the maximum

-4 bending moment near the pile head decreases signicantly, and a

4% major difference is observed at that location between piles with

-6 and without superstructure, but the values are approximately un-

Depth (m)

changed at large depths (Figs. 9 and 10). In other words, the same

kinematic forces were developed in the piles with and without

-8 superstructure. At greater depths, where the inertial effects from

the superstructure are less signicant, pile damage can occur due to

-10 the lateral loads arising from lateral spreading (the excessive

ground movement). Both inertial and kinematic loads can cause

damages at the pile head.

-12 The inertia effects of the superstructure before development of

the pore water pressures and liquefaction are important and the

-14 kinematic effects can often be neglected. Ishihara (1997) stated that

inertial forces are the cause of development of the maximum

bending moment near the pile head. These forces are predominant

Fig. 9. Variations in bending moment along the pile in different sloping grounds (free before liquefaction and are conrmed by the results of Figs. 7e10. If

head, with superstructure).

the shaking continues after liquefaction, the inertial forces are

combined with kinematic forces on the pile foundation arising from

large cyclic ground deformations. It can be said that the kinematic

develops at a depth corresponding to the interface of liqueable

loading in the areas of lateral spreading with relatively strong non-

and non-liqueable layers (see Figs. 7 and 9). When the pile head is

liqueable surface layers is important. Then, the pile failure near

xed, the maximum bending moment develops at two locations:

the bottom of the liqueable layer is likely inuenced by kinematic

(1) at the pile head and (2) at the interface of the two layers (see

loads from the liqueable layer, while failure near the pile head is

Figs. 8 and 10).

likely inuenced by inertial loads from the superstructure and ki-

The dynamic effects during earthquake on deep foundations are

nematic loads from the non-liqueable layer. It should be noted

critically important. These effects include the kinematic forces

that the bending moments are underpredicted when the structural

applied by the soil to the pile foundation and the inertial forces of

inertia forces are neglected.

the superstructure due to earthquake. The combination of cyclic

The pile response is sensitive to the thickness of the non-

horizontal kinematic loads due to ground displacements and in-

liqueable surface layer (H) and thickness of the liqueable layer

ertial loads from the superstructure determines the critical load for

(L). Fig. 11 shows variations in pile head displacement when the

piles during the shaking phase (Cubrinovski et al., 2009). The ki-

ratio of thickness (H/L) for different sloping grounds is increased.

nematic loads depend on the magnitude of ground deformations

The pile head displacement increases to a peak value and then

and the stiffness of the soil during a given loading cycle. Due to the

decreases with subsequent increase in thickness ratio. As the

thickness of the non-liqueable surface layer increases, horizontal

kinematic loads due to ground displacements also increase and

60

1%

50 2%

Pile head displacement (cm)

4%

40

30

20

10

0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

H /L

Fig. 10. Variations in bending moment along the pile in different sloping grounds

(xed head, with superstructure). Fig. 11. Variations in pile head displacement against ratio of thickness (H/L).

538 A. Janalizadeh, A. Zahmatkesh / Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 7 (2015) 532e539

result in higher pile head displacement. However, when the non- Cheng Z, Jeremic B. Numerical modeling and simulation of pile in liqueable soil.

Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 2009;29(11e12):1405e16.

liqueable surface layer is thick, because of increasing effective

Comodromos EM, Papadopoulou MC, Rentzepris IK. Pile foundation analysis and

stress on the liqueable layer, ground displacements are decreased, design using experimental data and 3-D numerical analysis. Computers and

resulting in smaller values of pile head displacement. In addition, Geotechnics 2009;36(5):819e36.

when the non-liqueable surface layer is thick, due to increase of Cubrinovski M, Ishihara K, Poulos H. Pseudo-static analysis of piles subjected to

lateral spreading. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engi-

static shear stress in ground with great slopes, ground displace- neering 2009;42(1):28e38.

ment and pile head displacement also increase. Dafalias YF, Manzari MT. Simple plasticity sand model accounting for fabric change

effects. Journal of Engineering Mechanics 2004;130(6):622e34.

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