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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

On November 8, 2013, Haiyan or to use its local designation, Yolanda, made landfall in

Eastern Visayas, Philippines. Based on the report made USAID (2014), the Category 5 storm was

one of the strongest to hit land coming in only second to Typhoon Patricia in Mexico, causing

unparalleled damage to nine regions, including 591 municipalities and 56 cities spread across 44

provinces. The utter strength of the typhoon destroyed 550,928 houses and partially damaged

another 589,404. An estimated 16 million people were affected, many of whom lost their sources

of livelihood, while approximately 4.4 million were displaced (USAID, 2014).

A significant number of LGUs were claimed by the typhoon. This fact has never been more

apparent than in Barangay 88, also known as San Jose, wherein most of its residents were displaced

and in need of relocation. In relation to the city proper it is situated on a peninsula 1,600 feet wide

at its narrowest point in the southeast corner. Its residents being composed by some of the poorest

inhabitants in Tacloban whose forms of livelihood is reliant on their geographical location.

Now being one of the settlements with the densest population in Tacloban one can see from

above that houses are jumbled from down the road. Now the view is sea and mountains in the

distance. The houses have been turned to rubble barely three feet high at its tallest points. The

devastation here has raised questions about whether it is safe to live on such a low-lying strip of

land, and ultimately, where the survivors will be housed.

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With their homes destroyed, residents had to relocate and resettle in order to start their lives

anew. This barangay being dubbed as a no build zone for its proximity to the sea, residents were

not allowed to rebuild their homes. A significant number of residents from the barangay were

relocated to the transitional home and then finally in Permanent shelters. Most of which were

transferred to GMA Kapuso permanent shelters. More or less 400 families were given a chance to

avail a program to build their own house in the area allotted by the GMA Kapuso Foundation. The

area allotted to them by GMA is located in Barangay Kawayan, far from the natural resources like

the sea.

Perceived gender roles play a big part in adapting to a post disaster setting. Whether it is

economic or social, men and women base their actions and decisions on how they perceive their

roles in their family and society. When men for example see themselves as the provider for their

families then their priorities and decisions will be based around that fact. With this, we are able

analyze the effects of climate change on both genders and examine their perspectives on adaptation

priorities and strategies. But this study will be anchored on the male perspective of fishermen from

Barangay 88 and how they adapted to resettlement in a completely different location from their

place of origin.

With recognition that there will always be a degree of uncertainty about the impacts of

climate change, global preparations for the range of possible impacts must incorporate the gender

dimension of climate change.

Incorporating the gender dimension of resilience into adaptation can be met by drawing on

years of development planning and disaster relief experience and, perhaps more importantly,

mens and womens existing knowledge and coping mechanisms. This is significant to how

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different gender roles adapt to the instances they are exposed to in agreement to resettlement

programs. This study will specifically aim at how men see their gender roles in post-disaster setting

and how they adapted based on this perceived role.

With this in mind, the researcher aims to study the various economic adaptation methods

undergone by men in order to provide and support their families in the midst of settling in the

GMA Kapuso Foundations permanent shelters.

Statement of the Problem

Since the importance of gender has been noted in adaptation in a post disaster setting, the

researchers would like to ask:

1 How do fathers from barangay 88 perceive their gender roles in their families and

society?

2. What forms of adaptation these fathers employed after super Typhoon Yolanda?

3. What were the changes brought about by Typhoon Yolanda?

4. What facilitated/obstructed these changes?

5. How did Typhoon Yolanda changed their roles as a father in their respective

families?

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Theoretical Framework

This study will incorporate the work of Allen Tan on Four Meanings of Fatherhood. The

focus of this paper is on the male parent using the four typology which represents four different

conceptions of the role of fathers in their family. The four typology of fatherhood is fundamentally

based on two dimensions; activity and affective dimensions. According to Allen Tan (1994), the

activity dimension refers to how active a man is as a father to his degree of involvement in the role

of fatherhood. The affective dimension refers to the emotional tone of his involvement with the

role; whether he positively relishes it or negatively disdains it. Combining these two dimensions,

he arrived at a fourfold typology of fathers.

As what Allen Tan (1994) stipulated, the first typology is called the procreative type of

fathers. It is consist of a father who is low on the activity dimension and negative on the affective

dimension. He does not enjoy fathering and does not spend much time or effort on the role (Tan,

1994). The idea of being a father does not transcend the biological. Fatherhood is simply the siring

of and providing for his offspring. He sees his child as a symbol of immortality. To the lower

socioeconomic classes, this represents the continuity of his name and genetic immortality. On the

other hand, for the upper class, the child represents an heir, a continuity of lineage of family

traditions and prominence. In addition, the fathers in the first typology sees their role as a father

as the provider. For him, being a provider is a major role to fulfill.

The second typology is called the dilettante type of father. Allen Tan (1994), defined this

typology as a father who is not very active but whose involvement tends to be positive. For him,

the child is like a pet (Allen 1994). He enjoys the company of his child, but at his own convenience.

He perceive his role as a supporting one next to the mother. He is there to provide emotional

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support for the child only when it is needed or demanded by the child. As Allen (1994) would put

it, he is a friend of second resort who the child can turn to when the main parent fails to his needs.

The third typology is described as someone who perceive fatherhood as a task, an

obligation, a responsibility to bear and even as a mission. As Tan (1994) stipulated, the task of a

fatherhood is clear cut, meaning there are specific objectives to be obtained and or accomplished.

Further, he actively seeks control on the destiny of the child and steers him towards that direction.

He sees his son as a conduit wherein he can project whatever ideals and frustrations he may have

had. This typology is called a determinative father. His identifies his role as a molder of man (Tan,

1994). He has a whole range of ideas on what the child should wear, study etc.

The final typology in the fourfold typology is the generative father. This typology includes

fathers whose involvement with their children is high and who react to the experience of

fatherhood in a positive way. This type of father sees fatherhood as an opportunity to grow and

learn more about oneself and self-fulfillment. Moreover, the father has a basic respect for the child

as an individual. The child is not his to shape or mold into whatever feels like (Tan, 1994). For

him, a child is a responsibility to nurture and care for in terms of what is the best for the child. As

Ericksons explained, the child is a symbol for the future and nurturance of the child is

consequently a nurturance of the future of the family, society and the world. Furthermore, his role

as a father is not only limited to providing and taking a hands-off attitudes rather he nourishes and

provides guidance, he is constantly watching over his child and is ever ready to help out.

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Conceptual Framework

PERCEPTION OF
FATHERHOOD ROLE
(PRE DISASTER) FULFILMENT

TYPOLOGY OF TYPOLOGY OF
FATHERHOOD ADAPTATION FATHEROOD

PERCEPTION OF
ROLE FATHERHOOD
FULFILMENT
(POST DISASTER)

This conceptual framework aims to summarize the concept of the study. As stated earlier,

this study will be conducted on men displaced by typhoon Yolanda. In this conceptual framework,

the researchers put into consideration the pre disaster and post disaster conditions of the

respondents.

In the pre disaster setting, the researchers would like to distinguish the perception of these

fathers about fatherhood. The answers of these fathers will then be used in determining what type

of father they are in the pre disaster setting. The works of Allen Tan (1994), entitled The Four

Types of Fatherhood will be employed in determining their typology. In the post disaster setting,

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the researchers will also determine the perception of these fathers on fatherhood to see if there

have been changes on how they view fatherhood in general. The answers will also be subjected

and classified according to The Four Types of Fatherhood by Allen Tan (1994). After determining

the typology, it will then be analyzed to see how these roles were fulfilled and hopefully to observe

and determine the way these fathers used their perceived gender role in their adaptation in general.

The conceptual framework is structured wherein the researchers will recount the

experience and role of the father before Yolanda and then check why these fathers think that their

role is supposed to proceed in that manner. How they perceive the paternal role is crucial to how

they understand their position in the family and society and whether or n

ot they were able to fulfill this role in a pre-Yolanda setting.

Perception

Perception is our sensory experience of the world around us and involves both the

recognition of environmental stimuli and actions in response to these stimuli. Through the

perceptual process, we gain information about properties and elements of the environment that are

critical to our survival. Perception not only creates our experience of the world around us; it allows

us to act within our environment.

Perception is the process by which people translate sensory impressions into a coherent

and unified view of the world around them. Though necessarily based on incomplete and

unverified (or unreliable) information, perception is equated with reality for most practical

purposes and guides human behavior in general.

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People perceive things differently. The process of perceiving is universal but the way we

perceive things is almost unique for every person.

Gender Roles

Gender role is generally defined as a set of attitudes, behaviors, and self-presentation

methods ascribed to members of a certain biological sex. This includes norms for behavior, which

some researchers have started to call the rules of masculinity or masculine ideology. These

include prescriptions for ways to act (be tough, stay in control, etc), attitudes to hold (work is very

important, women should be be primary caregivers to children, etc), and ways to look (wear pants

and suits, wear hair short, etc). It also includes proscriptions for ways not to act (dont cry, dont

be a wimp, etc), attitudes not to hold (want to be a stay-at-home dad, its OK for my wife to earn

more money than me, etc), and ways not to present oneself (dont wear a dress, dont have long

hair, etc). Similar to sex differences, there are many debates about the nature and nurture of gender

roles. Some believe that these attitudes and behaviors naturally flow from biological sex and

personality traits, whereas others see them as complete cultural constructions.

Furthermore, gender roles are based on different expectations that individuals, groups, and

societies have of individuals based on their sex and based on each society's values and beliefs

about gender. Gender roles are the product of the interactions between individuals and their

environments, and they give individuals cues about what sort of behavior is believed to be

appropriate for what sex. Appropriate gender roles are defined according to a society's beliefs

about differences between the sexes.

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Adaptation

The term adaptation describes a myriad of different actions throughout society, by indi-

viduals, groups and governments (Adger et al. 2005). The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate

Change (IPCC) defines adaptation as adjustments in ecological, social, or economic systems

in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli and their effects of impacts. This term refers to

changes in processes, practices, and structures to moderate potential damages or to benefit from

opportunities associated with climate change.

Adaptation refers to the actions that people take in response to, or in anticipation of projected or

actual changes in climates, to reduce diverse impacts or take advantage of the opportunities posed

by climate change (Tonpkins 2003).

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study is significant because through the collection of the factors and data that affected

the livelihoods of various displaced men, we can incorporate perceived gender roles of men in a

post-disaster setting in designing and implementing project by NGOs and government

organizations. Since researches on gender are almost entirely composed on the female perspective,

this will give an insight on how men really perceive their gender roles and will contribute in the

advancement of gender equality.

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SCOPES AND LIMITATIONS

Inasmuch as the researchers are eager to study on how the perception of gender roles and

how it affects adaptation, the former would only into consideration the perspective of the male

fishermen originally situated in Barangay. This research may not be applicable to those outside of

the preferences of the researches and will only consider the male perspective. The research is

limited to a particular sample size originally situated in Barangay 88, San Jose, Tacloban City,

Furthermore the researches did not consider other factors that may affect coping and adaptation

mechanisms.

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CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

The literature section of this study consists of two parts. This chapter will first define

perception, gender role, adaptation and father by presenting the substantial works of different

scholars who developed these concepts. Secondly, these concepts will be put into context of a post-

disaster setting since this research is situated within a disaster context, some disaster related studies

which employed the concept of fatherhood and adaptation will be concisely discussed.

Perception

Perception in psychology is the way the brain takes all the sensations that people

experience and let them interpret it in their own meaningful way, perception has some form of

individuality to it (Ciccarelli, 2006). The way people see things may be different to how others see

them. Though it speaks through the senses, perception can better be identified as an idea or an

impression of how individuals see concepts. So rather than just being way or a method as in

psychology, perception is more on an idea, an impression or an interpretation if you may of certain

concepts depending on how each individuals understanding.

Individuals now then have their own interpretations of concepts. Whether these

interpretations coincide with societal norms may vary depending on the individual. One person

might perceive concepts through their own experiences or through social constructs. So concepts

that dictate how one should act may differ from person to person.

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Gender Role

A role is a set of connected behavior, rights, obligations, beliefs and norms as

conceptualized by actors in a social setting. This may be clearly defined such as a position in a

company but as discussed earlier, interpretations of concepts vary from person to person. The role

represents the sum total of all the various roles of an individual, and determines what one does for

the society and what one may expect from it. As what Florian Znaniecki (1940), understands, IS

applicable not only to individuals who specialize certain activities, for example, a teacher, a priest

but also to Individuals as members of certain groups, for example, an American, a Methodist,

Communist, a club member, a child, a father. The social personality of an individual is a synthesis

of all the different roles he/she performs simultaneously or successively throughout the course of

one's life. Now, in the analysis of a role there are three major components taken in consideration.

First is the role expectation. It is the expected behavior of the role incumbent which consists of

beliefs and expectancies. Depending on the social structure, roles may be uniform from one person

to another. It is the actions expected of persons and how they fit into the structure. This is how the

structure itself defines the role. Role expectation of course affects how people will act. That is why

there is something called role conformity. It is when a person does things in specified ways and

ought to hold certain beliefs compared to other roles. They enact the role in a way that such actions

are predictable. It is then implied that approval or disapproval by other people is contingent on the

nature and quality of how one reenacts the role. In short role expectations are specifications for

adherence to group norms. Role perception on the other hand is the direction in which the person

channelizes their efforts. It is what the actor himself thinks is required of him in a setting. What a

person expects from himself and he can actually do while performing his role is influenced by the

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norms of the institution he belongs and what has been developed from the beginning (Kumar,

2013).

Roles come in many forms and differ depending on what aspect of society we involve it

with. If put in the context of say a school then teacher-student roles are to be dealt with. But when

put in a context of say a family wherein there is a patriarch and matriarch then the concept of

gender roles come into play.

Gender roles are based on the expectations that societies have on individuals based on their

sex and based on each societys values and beliefs on gender. Gender roles are the result of the

interactions between individuals and their environments, and they give individuals signals about

what sort of conduct is supposed to be appropriate for what sex. Appropriate gender roles are

defined according to a society's beliefs about differences between the sexes.

But to clearly define gender roles gender must be separated from sex. Sex and gender

are different concepts. Sex is a biological concept, determined on the basis of individuals' primary

sex characteristics. Gender, on the other hand, refers to the meanings, values, and characteristics

that people attribute to different sexes. In other words, gender is a concept that humans create

socially, through their interactions with one another and their environments, yet it depend on

heavily upon biological differences between males and females. Because humans create the

concept of gender socially, gender is referred to as a social construct. The social construct of gender

is demonstrated by the fact that individuals, groups, and societies ascribe particular traits, statuses,

or values to individuals purely because of their sex, yet these ascriptions differ across societies and

cultures, and over time within the same society.

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It is believed that women are more caring than men. That is why in the traditional view of

gender roles women should behave in ways that are nurturing. One way that a woman might

engage in the traditional feminine gender role would be to nurture her family by working full-time

within the home rather than taking employment outside of the home. Men, on the other hand, are

presumed by traditional views of gender roles to be leaders. The traditional view of the masculine

gender role, therefore, suggests that men should be the heads of their households by providing

financially for the family and making important family decisions. A traditional gender role

orientation highlights differences between men and women and assumes that each sex has a natural

affinity to particular behaviors. While these views remain dominant in many spheres of society,

alternative perspectives on traditional beliefs about gender roles have gained increasing support in

the twenty-first century (Blackstone, 2003).

Since gender roles are heavily traditional in modern society there is still apparent pressure

on individuals to enact their said roles. The approval and disapproval of society influences how

individuals reenact their roles. But it is also up to the individual what actions pertain to his role

and whether or not ones conduct will fulfill said role.

Research on Gender Role Perception

In a study on gender role perception, participants believed that gender roles are linked to

tasks and behaviors. But at the same time they believed that these were socially constructed.

Gender roles are directly related to the performance of observable behaviors or ways of being in

the world. Though participants of the study were inclining to the more progressive view of gender

roles they did deny the fact the traditional orientation of gender roles wherein men were providing

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for their families was a smooth structure because everyone is given an important role no matter

how constricting it was. Multiple social constructs were also noted on influencing views on gender

role. That culture, religion and education have great influence in the promulgation of these

constructs (Kilroe, 2009).

Development of the Father

Traditionally, man becomes a father, when he has this status is fixed, such that, once a

man becomes a father he is always a father.

Fatherhood, then, is a status attained by having a child and is irrevocable (unless


an only child dies). In the contemporary research literature, the term fatherhood is used
interchangeably with the term fathering which includes, beyond the procreative act itself,
all the childrearing roles, activities, duties, and responsibilities that fathers are expected
to perform and fulfill. Furthermore, while these definitions once implied biological
fathers only, with the rapid changes in the family structure they came to include non-
biological fathers as well. We follow the common practice in the research literature and
use "fatherhood" to include childrearing responsibilities and fathering activities as well,
regardless of whether they are carried out by biological or non-biological fathers.(Tanfer,
n/d)

During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, fathers had the primary responsibility for

child care beyond the early nursing period. They had great influence over their childrens education

and religious worship. They also made decisions involving masculine power. Fathers decided

when their children were ready to begin work, leave home and eventually whom they would marry.

Colonizers accepted religious beliefs that men were the head of the household. Fathers exercised

legal control over women and children in these colonial families (Berry, 1993). Though it was not

long before the events of Revolution let to a greater separation of mens and womens activities

and the beginnings of a different kind of family life.

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The traditional model of fatherhood assumes the important role fathers play in the lives of

their children including the broad range of responsibilities of defining and supervising the

childrens development. Domestic control was largely in the hands of men wives were expected

to defer to husbands on matters of childrearing. A father's moral role persisted through childhood

into adult life. (Cherlin, 1981). In the beginning of the nineteenth century, with the shift away from

an agrarian to an industrial mode of production, the paternal control over children began to erode.

As men's economic roles increasingly drew them outside the home and into the market place,

women extended their sphere of domestic influence (Filene, 1986 Lasch, 1977). An increase of

affective ties within the family reshaped the nature of parenthood and parentchild relations (Shorter

1975 Stone, 1979). The change in the family and parental division of affective ties within the

family reshaped the nature of parenthood and parent child relations (Shorter 1975 Stone, 1979).

The change in the family and parental division of labor was the beginning of a shift in the balance

of power within the family labor was the beginning of a shift in the balance of power within the

family.

The growth of cities led to the creation of the public arena distinctly separate from domestic

realm in the courts. Gradually men and women were inhabiting different worlds. By the nineteenth,

responsibility for children shifted from fathers to mothers. The history of father care receded and

the tradition of mother care replaced it.

The spatial separation of work and home helped in the revision of marital and parental

roles. In the part of the fathers, this was the beginning of an almost exclusive role of providing for

the family and in turn, curtailed the relationship of father to the day-to-day contact with their

children. Demos (1986) writes that the separation of work and family life led to the disappearance

of certain key elements of traditional fatherhood (e.g., father as moral overseer), and to the

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transformation of others (e.g., father as role model). Men still continued to act as disciplinarians

in the family, but their removal from the home weakened their tie to the emotional bonds that form

between generations in a family. The father now derived his status from the outside world, from

his place in the market place. His occupational standing, his economic power established not only

his authority in the home, but his worthiness as a husband and father as well. With this movement

from ascribed value to achieved value throughout the nineteenth century, an erosion in the role of

the fathers began.

In contemporary times, there seems to have been a shift in the roles of the fathers. It appears

that, especially among younger people, men have reduced the hours they spend at work in favor

of home activities while women have followed the opposite course. There is a corresponding

increase in the amount of time spent by men on activities that have traditionally been performed

by women (Juster and Stafford, 1985). Fascinatingly, men with younger children do less household

chores with no children or with other children. Baydar and Brooks Gunn(1991) argue that even

when men do spend a substantial amount of time with their children, the quality of involvement is

not high, and therefore fathers' involvement is not an important or necessary element of children's

development. Despite of the shift that had happened, evidence from contemporary studies of

fatherhood shows that even if the father is at the scene, he often plays a recreational rather than an

instrumental role in the lives of their children. In sum, there seems to be compelling evidence of a

change in the contemporary meaning of fatherhood for men, but not so much that men have

become equal partners in parenthood.

Fatherhood in a Post Disaster Setting

Parents provide daily care, emotional nurturance, guidance, discipline, economic support,

health promotion, and protection for children. Parenting is predominantly viewed as the work of
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women. Historically, fathers do not have an active role in everyday tasks in parenting and is seen

more as a provider, providing economic support to children. As such men still define being a

financial provider as the most important part of their parental responsibility (Townsend 2002).

Specifically, the pressures of paid employment often pushed fathers to the provider role. This

reason being the cause why fathers have little to no involvement in pre-disaster preparations

because of work.

Now in disasters, the division of labor in gender becomes more pronounced with men

taking on the role of protector as they attempted to get their wives and children out harms way,

shield family members from the storm, guard their homes from suspected looters, and clean up the

debris outside the home. The gender roles and identities asserted by men before and after the

disaster were not only shaped by personal interactions but also by institutional arrangements. Men

were often pushed to the role of the provider (Peek, 2008).

Fatherhood in the Philippines

On the whole, the Filipino father has taken rather a limited role in childrearing. This is

especially so among lower income families. Filipino fathers has taken the role of provider and

disciplinarian. According to Carunungan-Robles (1986) finds fathers with an even less important

role as subjects perceived their mothers to be more nurturing, as well as more powerful and more

punitive than their fathers. Though the involvement of the Filipino father with his children may

be low, the siring of offspring is considered to be a major accomplishment. In addition, children

are assumed to have a lifelong indebtedness to their parents for having given them life.

In a study by Jurilla (1986) on the analysis of covert motives of rural men for parenthood,

she found out that Filipino fathers are dilettante. According to her, most rural men tend to be

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economic failures and feel insecure and threatened by their wives efficiency as homemaker,

entrepreneur, and breadwinner. In response, these fathers withhold emotional support and intimacy

from their wives while impregnating them as often as possible. This is there way of asserting

dominance and masculinity by playing the role of sexual aggressor. And in addition, the love and

affection are then reserved for their children.

In another study by Bulatao (1975), he surveyed the advantages and disadvantages

represented by children to Filipino parents. The perceived advantages of having children are as

follows:

Companionship, avoidance of loneliness

Love and affection

Play, relief from strain

General happiness

Maturity, adulthood, learning from childrearing

Incentive to succeed

Fulfillment; extension of self, own values

Pleasure in childrens growth

To carry out parents aspirations

Assistance in old age

Economic assistance, general help

Practical help with housework, on farm

Bond between spouses; family life

Continuity of family traditions, name

Religious obligations

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Social benefits

Fathering is socially constructed and society shapes the role of the father. Depending upon

the culture, the historical time, and the needs of the society, fathers may play a variety of roles

(e.g. breadwinning, sex-role modeling, moral guidance, physical involvement, emotional support

and nurturance). From being viewed as being primarily instrumental, as determined mainly by a

fathers role as a breadwinner and disciplinarian, fathers are now being recognized as an active

and involved parent in routines and activities that help foster a strong daily family life. But, as

there has been a significant and substantial increase in the involvement of fathers in the different

areas of development of their children, Filipino adolescents still consider that their fathers primary

role is that of a disciplinarian.

Multifaceted Definition of Adaptation

Adaptation, as mentioned earlier is multifaceted. It can be explained and or defined by

different field of studies present today. One particular field who offers an insight about adaptation

is psychology.

Influenced by biology, the concept of adaptation has been at the heart of psychological
modelling since its origin in psychological adaptation. It is defined as the process of unceasing
interaction between man and the ever-changing world within which he evolves. It is like a complex
dynamic that articulates the different actions of the subject, as well as the different processes that
enable the emergence of transformation perspectives (Jakubowitcz,2002). These are updated by the
process of information processing and decision making, to act recursively on the internal
organization of the subject, giving it the possibility to adapt to new situations (Tach,2003). The
subject is never isolated from the collectives in which he participates and the other (actor, situation,
organization) is a stakeholder in adaptation scenarios. This field also distinguishes the faculty of
adaptation, the aptitude of an individual to modify his structure or behavior in order to respond to
new situations. Clinical psychology has unraveled an idea of the complex adaptation as a result of
the discovery of the unconscious via psycho-analysis and its implications in the process of ones
identity. Social psychology, as well, developed a definition of adaptation using a reflexive dynamic
from trans-construction in which the subjects values and those of the environment or
organizations are adjusted.

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Furthermore, social psychology offered an explanation to which adaptation is describe as

a reflexive dynamic from a trans-construction in which the subjects values and those of the

environment are adjusted.

Despite of the seemingly intertwined roots with biology, the field of sociology seldom uses

the concept of adaptation, preferring the terms acculturation, deviance or socialization

(tienne et al, 2005). Nevertheless, adaptation exists in the world of sociology through the concept

of social adaptation.

It is found in changes in the individual at the beginning of the development of aptitudes to


integrate and acquire the feeling ofbelonging to a group (Boudon, 2002). Social and cultural
adaptations have several aspects in common through inadaptation and psychological adaption and
conform to the concepts of social integration and socialization. Socialization requires an individual
to have interiorized and integrated the models, values and symbols of the milieu to the structure of
his personality in order to communicate and evolve with ease. Social adaptation, however, does not
signify conformity as the adaptation to a milieu can introduce the notion of innovation or
modification (Rocher, 1992).

In addition, sociology sees adaptation as a conceived process central to change by which

a particular system or individual can raise its complexity by lowering the constraints being put to

by the external environment.

Morin (1985) emphasizes that the concept is wired to a conceptual loop mixing auto-
organization that integrates an eco-organization, thus participating in Evolution. The notion of
adaptation is itself subject to change and transformation.
Parsons developed the function of adaptation in the context of the action system
represented by social actors and defined by the interdependence of the under systems
(cultural,social, psychic, biological) and the system of action with its environment. Therefore, the
function of adaptation is a principal of organization that enables one to understand the relation
between parts of the system, as well as the system as a whole. It deals with all the means that the
system and its members must use in the pursuit of goals. In this way, adaptation becomes an
endogen process that enables the system to either assimilate the innovation, or to modify its internal
structure in order to assimilate this innovation.

Throughout its multifaceted and transdisciplinary polysemy, it can be fairly understood the

concept of adaptation. With a rising demand and interest for adaptation capacity especially on the

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issues of climate and environment, it is worth noting that the concept of adaptation can utilize these

numerous interdisciplinary aspect of such concept.

Adaptation in a Post Disaster Setting

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) defines adaptation as

adjustments in ecological, social, or economic systems in response to actual or expected climatic

stimuli and their effects of impacts. This term refers to changes in processes, practices, and

structures to moderate potential damages or to benefit from opportunities associated with climate

change (IPCC 2001). In addition, Tonpkins stipulated that adaptation refers to the actions that

people take in response to, or in anticipation of projected or actual changes in climates, to reduce

diverse impacts or take advantage of the opportunities posed by climate change (Tonpkins 2003).

Adaptation in its general sense is multifaceted. It may refer to a variety of aspect in a human

life. Issues about adaptation especially in the developing world have garnered much attention in

the contemporary times because of the increasing natural disasters due to climate change. This is

due in part to greater awareness of human kinds influence on climate and the recognition that

actions may be needed to help communities with consequences. The impacts of climate change are

widespread, but its consequences will fall disproportionately on developing countries, and

typically will hit the poorest communities within them the hardest (IPCC, 2007),(Smith et al.,

2003).

In a post disaster setting, people are confronted with the issue of adaptation. They are

forced to make do of what is left from the rubbles of their houses and other material possessions.

Fathers, especially are pressured to provide and support their family. As the head of the family,

fathers are forced to find and make a living in order for them to have a food on their plate.

22
Gender is seen as shorthand for inequality or vulnerability in disasters--but this cannot

be assumed for men or for women. Men benefit from gendered life experiences, intimate

relationships and social networks, just as women do. Both womens and mens leadership in

crisis situations is essential though it may be manifested differently (Women, Gender & Disaster:

Men & Masculinities).

23
CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY

This chapter mainly elaborates on the methodology the researchers employed in this

particular study. This research involves a qualitative approach on the post disaster context of the

perceived gender role of fathers as an instrument in adaptation. It seeks to understand how these

perceived gender roles in fathers were used in adapting years after Yolanda had displaced them

from their original abode and source of livelihood. A qualitative research is, in a sense, descriptive

for the researcher is primarily interested in the process, the meaning and the understanding of

how people make sense of their experiences and structure their world (Merriam 1988). In

addition, qualitative research is aimed at gaining a deep understanding of a specific organization

or event, rather than a surface description of a large sample of a population. It aims to provide an

explicit rendering of the structure, order, and broad patterns found among a group of

participants. Qualitative research does not introduce treatments or manipulate variables, or impose

the researcher's operational definitions of variables on the participants. Rather, it lets the meaning

emerge from the participants. It is more flexible in that it can adjust to the setting. Given the nature

of the information needed in this study, it is deemed to be appropriate that a qualitative approach

must be undertaken.

Research Design

To be able to answer and fulfill the objectives of this research, a case study approach was

used. According to Robert Stake (2005), case studies are used when a researcher needs a deep

understanding of a particular case because of its uniqueness, ordinariness, or because it is

representative of a larger number of similar cases. A case study is an in-depth study of a particular

24
research problem rather than a sweeping statistical survey or comprehensive comparative inquiry.

It is often used to narrow down a very broad field of research into one or a few easily researchable

examples. The case study research design is also useful for testing whether a specific theory and

model actually applies to phenomena in the real world. It is a useful design when not much is

known about an issue or phenomenon. Because of the nature of the research, a case study approach

will enable the researchers to explore the case and gather in-depth information by utilizing various

data collection procedures during a specific period of time.

Research Locale

The research locale of this study is the permanent shelter of GMA Kapuso Foundation

located at New Kawayan, Tacloban City. The researchers selected this locale for research because

the respondents needed in this study were relocated in this place. The respondents were

specifically, as stated earlier, were fishermen formerly residing in San Jose and were displaced

after Yolanda.

Case Selection

The method of sampling employed by the researcher is based on a nonprobability purposive

sampling. It is also known as selective or subjective sampling because the selection of the units

(people or cases) that are to be studied relies on the researcher (Oliver 2006). Cases were mainly

selected based on some criteria used by the researchers. Furthermore, the availability of the

individuals is also taken into consideration. This research study requires a respondent who must

be a father and a fisherman before Yolanda struck. These fathers must now be residing in the

aforementioned locale. The researchers also considered the livelihood that these fathers are now

25
doing before conducting the interview. Similar cases, such as fathers who remained fishermen

were considered while cases wherein fathers changed their livelihood were taken to consideration.

Data Collection

The data collected were comprised of two sets. The first type of data collected were about

the demographic profile of the respondents. The second set of data concerns about the fathers

perception on fatherhood before and after Yolanda. In addition, these data are also about the

changes brought about by Yolanda and what facilitated and or obstructed these changes.

Furthermore, the respondents were asked on how their perception of being a father helped in

adapting to these changes.

For the researchers to obtain these data, a semi structured interview was employed. A semi

structured interview are conducted with a fairly open framework which allow for focused,

conversational, two-way communication. They can be used both to give and receive information.

Semi-structured interviews are helpful because they enable the researcher to derive some kind of

information from the responses that can be used in follow-up questions, since, one can understand

the importance given to some specific issues from the participants' responses while asking a

broader question" (Azadeh 2011)

Data Analysis

The data gathered were first transcribed before it was analyzed. The method used to analyze

the data was through thematic analysis. This type of analysis is highly inductive, that is, the themes

emerge from the data and are not imposed upon it by the researcher. In this type of analysis, the

data collection and analysis take place simultaneously (Dawson, 2002).

26
CHAPTER FOUR

Results and Discussions

A. Perceived Gender Role

The first section of this chapter presents the perceived gender role of the fathers in the GMA

permanent shelter by examining the answers provided by the respondents.

Roles in the family

According to all of the respondents, the role of fathers in the family is to provide for the

needs of their family. As one informant shared:

Pakabuhi para an pamilya baga makasalbaray. makakaon la bis tulo ka beses usa ka
adlaw. asya la ito it akon ginhunahuna.

[To make a living so that my family can survive the day to day stuggle. To be able to eat three
times a day which is the only my mind.]

Another respondent shared that:

Pagpakaon ha ira ngahin pagpaeskwela, pagbalon hin tuhay amo kun baga it ak responsibilidad
ha ira.

[To feed them and to be able to send them to school to give them their daily allowance. Thats my
main responsibility.]

The abovementioned results showed that, fathers in the permanent shelters sees themselves

as the main provider for the family. It can be inferred from the answers above that these are

stereotyped roles expected especially from a typical Filipino families. Additionally, one

respondent mentioned that:

Kun hino it angay pagpakabuhi kay it lalaki man it makusug amo it magpapakabuhi

[Whoever is best suited to make a living. Since the male is physically fit, he is the one best suited
to make a living.]

27
In his statements, it can be assumed that the perceive role of these fathers are still

influenced by the machismo culture that is prevalent especially in the Philippines. Although all of

these fathers see their roles as providers, their responsibility as fathers does not end there,

according to a respondent:

Pag may libre ako na oras, nabulig ak paglaba, diri ngani pagluto

[If I have a free time, I sometimes help in housework such as doing the laundry and cooking.]

In addition, there is a particular respondent wherein his wife is also involve in providing for their

living. He stated that:

Diri la ak usa duha kami. Nagpuputo ito hiya ako liwat ha dagat nangisngisda sanglit
kasugbong ko hiya.

[Its not just me. She sells rice cake in the morning while I fish.]

Oo amo la ito pagpuputo hit aga. nakakakuan gihapon hin gutiay. baga diri mabugat para ha
akon an paniguro kay duduha kami. magaan an amon... burubligay tas adi an amon mga batos.
kun anot am makukuan ha ira kay nahibaro man gud gihap hira panluto. an tutulo nagbububligay
nakakaggiosgios kami tas adi liwat tak usa na batos tulo man it ak lalaki nga dagko na.
nakatrabaho hia guiaun simbahan. nakakabulig gihap ha akon.

[Yes. She sells rice cake I the morning. She earns just enough. So its not that heavy for
me since we both earn. We help each other. My children also knows how to cook, so the
three of us, we help each other. My three children is also helping, one of them is in
Guian, he works at a church there.]

In terms of the changes in the role perception of these fathers after Yolanda struck, almost all of

the respondents answered that there have been no significant change in their perception. As one

respondent stated:

Waray kay amo man la gihap

[Nothing. Its still the same.]

28
Another respondent also stated that:

Amo gadla geapon siyempre, makapaeswkela

[Still the same, to be able to send them to school.]

In the case of a respondent, though the responsibilities he is currently performing is different from

his pre-disaster role, this role being more akin to that of a mothers role, he still maintains that his

perception of a father did not change. His statements are as follows:

Pepedicab ako, han buhi pa akun asawa

[I was a pedicab dirver when my wife is still alive.]

Amo na adto an akon kuan nga akon na tanan kay wrai naman ako asawa

[Now its this, all of the responsibilities are all mine.]

Amo na tatay nanay na ako

[Now Im both a mother and a father]

It can be inferred from his statements that he still distinctly views the role of the mother and father

but now he sees himself performing both:

Kay it usa nga tatay sugad ha ak nga waray na ako asawa ngatanan na problema hit kalugaringon
akon sagot. Kay wrai naman ako asawa puros akon adi nasangko ha akon. It problema

[Because a father like me who is a widower, all of the problems are my responsibility. I have no
wife, so I am the one who carries all of the problems.]

When asked on how they perceived the roles that way, one respondent answered:

Kun siguro hiton nga nakikitan ko hiton hit iba na tatay. damo tak nakikitan ano nga nalilihis it
landas iton ira mga anak dida ginkuan ko nga it ak mga anak unta diri masugad ba. Amo ito
ginsasagdunan ko it akon mga bata.

[Maybe because, I see the others that their children are lacking in guidance. So I make sure that
my children are in the right path.]

29
Oo, diri ko karuyag buhaton it mga sugad hito. Ginuundang ko an akon mga anak hin gutiay,
ginluluwagan ko liwat hin gutiay. Dir kay puro hugot, Diri liwat kay puro luwag

[Yes. I dont want to do those things. Sometimes I am strict to them, then there are times that I am
not that strict. It should be balanced.]

Respondents are also asked on how these roles are being fulfilled by them. Respondents stated

that:

Siyempre, nakayod, natrabaho

[Of course yes. I persevere. I work]

Aw naniniguro na la. Nangingimkamot nala paniguro pakabuhi

[I persevere. I endure the hardships and continue to work despite all of these.]

Paniguro la ada. Amo la ito. Para hit mga anak

[Perseverance, thats all. For my children.]

Almost all of them responded that perseverance and their children are there motivations to

make a living. No matter how hard the circumstances are, the respondents ended up with the same

resolution. For it is the only thing they know to cope with any kind of hardships.

Though, it is important to take note that one respondent believed that the bahala na

mentality of the Filipinos and leaving it all up to God can will suffice in adapting to those kind of

hardships. He stated:

Kay nagaampo nala ak ha akun ginoo na tatagan nala ak han maupay na kuan pakabuhi, an
akun pamasahero nakun magmaupay la permi para mayda ko mapakaon ha akun mga anak. Pero
masydao gud yana dinhi an kakuri, diri gud pareho didito ha amun na may pagpipilian, dagat
naman. Mas priority namun didto an dagat

[I just pray to God Almighty that he will give me a good livelihood. On the part of my livelihood,
I pray for more passengers always so that I will be able to feed my families. But it is very hard
right now, unlike before that the sea is very near. I always prioritize the sea.]

B. Fatherhood

The second section of this chapter presents the in-depth perception of the respondents on

the role of the father. The various factors that facilitated in the formation of these concepts will be

30
analyzed and its connection to the parenting styles that manifested with these perceptions will be

subject to scrutiny.

According to some respondents, their fathers influence and guidance aided in how they treat

their children. As shared by a respondent.

Kuan ini nga amo adto nga pagpaeskwela pagrespeto gihap hin igkasitawo ba.

[I think it was that he made us go to school and to respect our fellow men.]

While another focused on how his father wanted him to be independent.

Siring ha akon han akon tatay nga pagtrabaho ngan eskwela kay para makabiling ka hin trabaho
kay oras magasawa ka na diri ka magkukuri kay mayda ka na trabaho.

[My father told me to work and to go to school so that I would be able to find a job because when
the time comes that I have wife I would not be in a dire situation.]

Another one said that his father figure wanted him to be decent wherever he went.

Bisan ak hingain, basta dad-on ko an maupay na pamatasan. Amo manla an kuan ha ak.

[Wherever I may end up for as long as I bring with me my virtue. That is the only thing he left me.]

Most of the respondents responses, associated the father role with strength. That the father

should be viewed as capable whether it be a faade or not. For as long as they are viewed as capable

then that in itself will suffice. As reiterated by some of the respondents.

It tatay amo it sinisiring na pinakahaligi hitun kusug hit usa nga balay.

[The father is what you would call the foundation of the strength of the household.]

Siyempre kay karuyag ko na diri hira masugad parte ha akun na kinahanglan ko hira
masuportahan ko hira, para diri nira matagamtamam an pagkuri ko yana.

[I do not want them to feel that, unlike my circumstance, that we are facing hardships. I want to
show them that I can support them.]

Kay natural gud it nagpapamilya. Kailangan it lalake an nagpapakabuhi. It lalaki it magtimangno


ha mga anak.

31
[Well it is only natural that when you start a family, it is the man that needs to work, the man looks
out for his children]

Most of the respondents outlook on fatherhood was positive. Instead of being bothered by

the prospect of future endeavors of becoming father they were happy at the thought of having a

child.

Malipayon man ako.

[I was happy]

Siyempre malipay na gihapon. Malipay ako ba. Kay sugad man gihap an nahibaruan han akon
tatay baga ha akon la nga pagkuan ba na makikita na it akon ba pagkatatay kun kaya ko na
makabuhi kun may ko na mga anak

[Of course I was also happy. I was happy. Because that is what I learned from my father so for me
that is when my capacity as a man will be tested. If I am able to support my family]

Most of the respondents perceived their children as projects wherein they do not want them

to experience the lapses in life they experienced. As some of them stated:

Gusto ko gad na diri maparehas akun mga anak na parehas yana ha akun asawa na elementary
gudla amun natapos.

[I do not want our children to become what we could not, I mean I and my wife only finished
elementary]

Pagalaga hit mga bata tapos paggiha ha ira, pagpaeskwela para ba dili mapapareha akon na
kitaa ka na grade 5 la ako. tubtub gud la ako pag.. di ako nakakaharayo pagpakabiling hin pakabuhi
hin maupay kay grade 5 la ako. amo ini nga akon mga anak mintras buhi pa ko paeskwelahun ko
para it ira kinaptan diri ba duru ha akon na kakurian

[To take care of my children and to make sure they finish their schooling so that they do not end up
like me who only finished grade 5. I could not get far in looking for a decent job because I only
finished grade 5. That is why, my children, for as long as I am alive I will make them go to school
so that they would not suffer too much in the future]

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One respondent on the other hand only wanted his children to become decent persons.

Damo tak nakikitan ano nga nalilihis it landas iton ira mga anak dida ginkuan ko nga it ak mga
anak unta diri masugad ba. Amo ito ginsasagdunan ko it akon mga bata.

[Maybe because, I see the others that their children are lacking in guidance. So I make sure that my
children are in the right path.]

One respondent pointed out how he values his children.

Hira it baga akon inspirasyon hit akon pagpapakabuhi. Kay tungod ha ira baga nangagat ako
pagpakabuhi. Labi na kun mangisngiskwela hira. Pagkaon gihapon. Bado. Hira it akon
ginpapakabuhian.

[They are somewhat my inspiration why I work. It is because of them why I go fishing to work.
Especially when they have to go to school. This also includes our food and clothes. They are the
ones I work for]

C. Changes brought by Yolanda

Most of the respondents stated that there were no significant changes in their lives after

Yolanda. According to some of them, the only change that they have observed and experienced is

their change of residence. As one respondent stated:

Pareho la gihap. Waray pagbabago. Kay amo la gihap tam kabutangan

[Its still the same. Theres no change at all. Our condition is still the same.]

Oo nagkuan ngani kami nga naghuruhirayo lugud

[Yes. Now were far from our source of income.]

Although, some respondents stated that the change they have observed were related to their source

of income in the present. Because of the change in their residence, they have decided to change

their source of income.

Ahw oo. Nagbago gud akun pakabuhi kay aadi na. Han una, adto dagat man. Yana adi na man ak
didi. Nagpapakabuhi. Baga amo manla iton an pagbabago. Baga pagpapakabuhi la.

33
[Yes, definitely. My livelihood has really changed. In the past, the sea. Now, I am here, working. I
think thats all. I think its my livelihood.]

Oo nagbago gud. Mas linabi pa yana na kinahanglan gud han tatay na gumios kay gulpi yana didi
an kakuri. Mas makuri dinhi kontra didto han dati namun

[Yes. It really has changed. Especially now that as a father I should work double time because it is
really hard. Its hard especially here unlike before.]

Because of these changes, these fathers and their families were obliged to cut down on their

family expenses so that their budget can suffice their needs.

Ahw an pamasahe la an pagbalik-balik la an kuan makuri. Kun halimbawa istambay, Kun warai

kuan kwarta, it pamasahe it problema, it pagpapanagat.

[The fare. Its very hard since its wasteful. For example, when I lay low, I dont have money for

fare so I problem is cannot go fishing.]

Kay nabudget in kwarentay otso it pasahe. Han nakadto pa kami San Jose, kuan la ito syete.
Balikan katorsi. Nagdurudako lugod amun gastos ha pamasahe pala.

[Our fare amounts to 48 pesos. When we were in San Jose, it is only 7. The budget for fare really
increased.]

While it is evident that most of the respondents did not perceive any significant change,

two of our respondent stated that a major life change occurred after Yolanda. The first respondent

detailed that:

An nagbago la yana, siyempre bago na pamilya. Pareho man kami balo, naanod man liwat an

iya asawa ngan an iya unom na anak, Tapos an akun duha na anak.

[The thing that change is that I have a new family. Our partners both died in the typhoon. Her six

children and two of mine.]

The second respondent is also a widower. He specified that:

Oo nagbago. Nabayaan ko akun mga bisyo. Wara na ako magkuruan ha barkada. D na ako

nalakat. Diri sugad han buhi pa akun asawa. Nakakapanagat. Magkulop ak didto kun diin

maupod ak ha iba parapanagat.

34
[It really changed. I left my vices. I dont go out with my friends anymore. Unlike when my wife

is still alive. I can still fish. I spent the whole day fishing.]

D. Discussion

All respondents came from the barangay 88. San Jose. They were all fathers who were

fisherman before Yolanda. With the study conducted, this paper aims to determine the perception

of what fatherhood is to these fathers and how it manifested in the actions they perform as fathers

themselves after relocating in GMA Kapuso Foundation permanent shelter. This part of the paper

will examine the data above I lieu of the related literatures regarding the study.

Typology of Fathers

The data gathered reveals that the respondents perceive the role of the father as provider

for their families whose main priorities are to work for sustenance of the family, to provide

schooling for children and to be responsible for whatever needs their family may require. As what

Allen Tan stipulated, with respect to their perceived primary role of the father, these fathers can

be classified as the procreative type. To the procreator his main role as father is that of a provider.

Most fathers certainly see the role of the provider as a major one, but for the procreator, it can

often be the only one he sees. (Tan, 1994). This is consistent with the idea on the typical stereotype

of a Filipino father. Since these fathers are far from home and always working, they have taken

rather a limited role in childrearing.

Although the cases presented showed that these fathers are provider, as what they perceived

their role is, these cases differ in circumstance such as their perception on their children. They see

their offspring as a project. They begin with definitive ideas of how his child should turn out.

Furthermore, these fathers attempt to reach an elusive goal through his children, a goal that he

35
might have failed to reach. (Tan, 1994). Their children are mere conduits and are subject to

projection by their fathers. Projection of missed opportunities and unattained dreams. These fathers

are called determinative. Though there is a dissenting case in which the fathers perception on his

children as a generative type. According to Allen Tan (1994), generative type of fathers have basic

respect for their children as an individual. The child is not shape or mold into whatever he feels

like. Rather the child is seen as someone as a responsibility to nurture and care for.

It is important to note that these perceptions mentioned by the respondents does not

necessarily mean that it coincides in the performance of the role. Majority of respondents performs

their roles in accordance to how they perceived them but in some cases, there is complete disregard

of the perceived role in favor of doing another role. This is due to the fact that these cases differs

in some circumstance, such as respondents losing their counterpart that is supposedly the one

performing the role.

Role Fulfilment

Now role fulfilment can come in many forms. These fathers may have the same perception

of the role of the father but how they fulfil this role may vary. The role represent the sum total of

all the various roles of an individual, and determines what one does for the society and what one

may expect from it. Before a role is fulfilled it is important to know how a role can be analyzed.

Roles can be analyzed through the concept of role expectation. Role expectation is the expected

behavior of the role incumbent which consists of beliefs and expectancies. Role expectation of

course affects how people will act. That is why there is something called role conformity. It is

when a person does things in specified ways and ought to hold certain beliefs compared to other

roles. They enact the role in a way that such actions are predictable. It is then implied that approval

36
or disapproval by other people is contingent on the nature and quality of how one reenacts the role.

These respondents may see their roles as providers but how they provide will be different from

another (Znaniecki, 1940).

Circumstance breeds methods that differ from each other. In their role fulfilment, since

they see themselves as the main provider they find ways to earn a living and to provide for the

family.

Adaptation

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) defines adaptation as

adjustments in ecological, social, or economic systems in response to actual or expected climatic

stimuli and their effects of impacts. This term refers to changes in processes, practices, and

structures to moderate potential damages or to benefit from opportunities associated with climate

change (IPCC 2001). The respondents identified multiple major changes in their lives after

Yolanda. One recurring change is the relocation to New Kawayan. Though disposition to this

change may vary from person to person. Some see it as something big and hard to adapt to while

others consider it as something quaint and ignorable. Others were able to easily get over the fact

that they have relocated and continued on with their previous routine while other needed major

changes in the way they do things in order to efficiently adapt to their new environment.

Some respondents still opted to be fishermen even though they need to budget more on

transportation. Some were willing to sacrifice face time by staying for how many days in San Jose

just to fish even if it meant not being able to see their family. This meant that they wanted to save

expenses by not going back and forth everyday which will increase their expense on budget. They

reasoned that the sea still provides better income. Other respondents on the other hand opted not

37
to continue fishing and try out new forms of livelihood. The most common of which is becoming

a tricycle driver wherein they openly admitted that the income they get from it is not as substantial

as being a fisherman. Others made the choice while one did not. The only reason why one person

did not choose to become a fisherman and opted to become a tricycle driver was the fact that he

was convicted of illegal fishing. In his own words he stated that even if he wanted to he could not.

One case also utilizes some of his skills as means for income because his current livelihood is

unreliable.

Though most respondents major gripes on the relocation is their livelihood, others were

more affected by Yolanda in ways that left them in a completely different circumstance. One case

wherein he had lost his wife and decided to marry a fellow widow was not driven by the need to

be a father but rather the need to be someones husband. He wanted someone looking out for him

and someone needing him. To stop him from indulging too much on his vices. The death of his

wife and kids left him longing for someone who is concerned for him. One case on the other hand,

the husband lost his wife to the typhoon so now he has to pull double-duty. He no longer works in

order to take care of his children. Though his perception of the father role did not change, in his

mind he was performing the role of the mother.

In terms of their perception of being father, this has not changed. However, in connection

to these perceptions and typology of being the main provider for their families, these fathers used

this perception as a motivation to find ways to provide for the needs of their families. The

respondents are willing to sacrifice being with their family in exchange of being able to deliver

there perceived role. Although in one case, there is dissonance between the perception and the role

performed. It is due to the fact that one circumstance has change wherein his wife died.

38
CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

A. Summary

This study sought to determine the perceived role of fathers in the pre disaster and post disaster.

Moreover, the researchers aims to know how these fathers adapted using their perceived father

roles.

The case study approach was utilized since this study is a qualitative research regarding the

perception of fatherhood. With the use of a semi structured interview, the researchers were able to

gather information from the respondents an employed a thematic analysis in analyzing the data.

B. Conclusions

After conducting the study, the researchers arrived at the following conclusions:

1. All the respondents perceived their role as a father as that of a provider whose

main priority is to provide sustenance for their family.

2. In terms of what the child means to these fathers, they can be classified as

determinative. They intend to let their children experience what they found

lacking from their father.

3. Even through relocation is too far from the resources their livelihood is reliant

on, some of the respondents still opted to remain as fishermen.

4. Others on the other hand changed their livelihood in accordance to their new

environment. Being a tricycle driver the most common change.

39
5. There is no significant change on their perception of the father.

6. Though there is no significant change in their perception, some have changes

their role entirely.

7. Most of the respondents view the major change in their life as relocating to New

Kawayan.

8. Their perception of the father has driven what actions they undertook to adapt

to their new environment.

C. Recommendations

1. Future researches on disaster context should not only be focused on the

womens perspective. They should also focus on the mens perspective and

their adaptation mechanisms.

2. The government should provide livelihood programs to help men in adapting to

their new environment.

40