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A.

Subjunctive merupakan suatu kalimat yang mengemukakan suatu pengharapan


yang biasanya bertentangan dengan kenyataan. Kalimat subjunctive biasanya
menggunakan kalimat pengandaian, seperti : Wish (berharap), if only (seandainya
saja), as if/as though (seolah-olah), would rather (lebih suka).
1. Present Subjunctive
Subject 1 + wish / would rather + subject 2 + past (v2 / were)
If only + subject + past (v2 / were)
Subject 1 + present (v1) + as if / as though + subject 2 + past (v2 / were)

Contoh Kalimat Present Subjunctive


Shinta would rather he told the truth. Artinya: Shinta lebih suka dia mengatakan
yang sebenarnya (faktanya: he doesnt tell the truth).
If only he knew. Artinya: Seandainya dia tahu (faktanya: He doesnt know).
She dresses as if it were summer now. Artinya: Dia berpakaian seolah-olah
sekarang musim panas. (faktanya: it is not summer now)
2. Past Subjunctive
Subject 1 + (wish, if, as if, as though, would rather) + subject 2 + past perfect
If only + Subject + past perfect
Subject 1 + past (v2) + as if / as though + subject 2 + past perfect

Contoh Kalimat Past Subjunctive


I would rather he had been here. Artinya: Saya lebih suka dia berada disini.
(faktanya: He was not here).
If only Farel had been at home last night. Artinya: Seandainya Farel sudah
berada dirumah kemaren malam. (faktanya: Farel was not at home last night).
Bella looked as though she had seen a ghost. Artinya: Bella terlihat seolah-olah
dia telah melihat hantu. (faktanya: Bella didnt see a ghost).
B. Causative merupakan kata-kata kerja tertentu dalam bahasa inggris yang
bermakna menyuruh orang lain mengerjakan sesuatu, entah karena subject merasa
tidak bisa mengerjakan sendiri atau karena ingin orang lain yang mengerjakannya.
Causative terbagi menjadi dua object, yaitu object aktif (manusia) dan object pasif
(benda).
Untuk Object Aktif (manusia)

1. Rumus : S + has/have/had + object aktif (manusia) + V1


Berarti : S + ask/asked + object aktif (orang) + to + V1
Contoh :
I have John wash my car.
Berarti : I ask John to wash my car.
2. Rumus : S + get/got/goten + object aktif (manusia) + to + V1
Berarti : S + ask/asked + object aktif (orang) + to + V1
Contoh :
I get John to wash my car.
Berarti : I ask John to wash my car.
Untuk Obyek Pasif (Benda)
Rumus:
S + has/have/had /get/got/goten + O pasif (benda) + V3
Berarti : S + ask/asked + someone/somebody + to + V1 + O
Contoh:
I have/get my car washed (by John).
Berarti : I ask some one/some body (John) to wash my car.
*Keterangan:
Bila have diikuti object aktif (orang), verb yang mengikuti adalah V1 .
Bila get diikuti object aktif (orang), verb yang mengikuti adalah to V1 .
Bila have atau get diikuti object pasif (benda), verb yang mengikuti adalah V3.

Subjunctives

Subjunctive adalah bentuk kalimat pengandaian. Namun topik Subjunctive ini berbeda
dengan Conditional. Conditional adalah kalimat pengandaian juga namun perbedaannya
adalah Conditional dilengkapi dengan syarat-syarat tertentu untuk mengandai-andai.
Misalnya "Aku akan mengundanya jika aku jadi kamu.". Berikut ini adalah penjelasan
tentang Subjunctives.

Struktur Subjunctive

be (past)
I were
you were
he, she, it were
we were
you were
they were
be (present)
I be
you be
he, she, it be
we be
you be
they be
Kata kerja lain (past & present)
I work
you work
he, she, it work
we work
you work
they work
Penggunaan Subjunctive

Kita menggunakan subjunctives ketika kita berbicara tentang suatu kegiatan yang sebenarnya
tidak akan terjadi. Kita menggunakan subjunctive ketika berbicara tentang kegiatan yang
seseorang:
Inginkan agar terjadi
Harapkan akan terjadi
Membayangkan akan terjadi
Contoh:
The President requests that you be present at the meeting.
It is vital that you be present at the meeting.
If you were at the meeting, the President would be happy.
Subjunctive biasanya menggunakan kedua struktur berikut:
Kata Kerja: ask, command, demand, insist, propose, recommend, request, suggest +
that
Ekspresi: it is desirable, essential, important, necessary, vital + that
Contoh:
The manager insists that the car park be locked at night.
The board of directors recommended that he join the company.
It is essential that we vote as soon as possible.
It was necessary that every student submit his essay by the weekend.
Perhatikan bahwa struktur berikut ini, subjunctive-nya sama. Tidak masalah kalimat itu
tenses-nya past atau present. Contoh:
Present: The President requests that they stop the occupation.
Past: The President requested that they stop the occupation.
Present: It is essential that she be present.
Past: It was essential that she be present.
Kita selalu menggunakan were sebagai pengganti "was" setelah if (dan kata lainnya yang
memiliki arti yang sama). Contoh:
If I were you, I would ask her.
Suppose she were here. What would you say?

Mengapa kita menggunakan "I were", "he were"?

Kita sering mendengar orang berkata "if I were you, I would go" atau "if he were here, he
would tell you". Memang normalnya adalah: I was, he was. Tetapi struktur if I were you tidak
melihat Past Tense". Struktur tersebut hanya mengenal past subjunctive untuk "to be" nya.
Perhatikan contoh kata-kata/frase di bawah ini untuk struktur di atas:
if
as if
wish
suppose
If I were younger, I would go. (FORMAL)
If I was younger, I would go. (INFORMAL)
If he weren't so mean, he would buy one for me.(FORMAL)
If he wasn't so mean, he would buy one for me. (INFORMAL)
I wish I weren't so slow! (FORMAL)
I wish I wasn't so slow! (INFORMAL)
I wish it were longer. (FORMAL)
I wish it was longer. (INFORMAL)
It's not as if I were ugly. (FORMAL)
It's not as if I was ugly. (INFORMAL)
She acts as if she were Queen. (FORMAL)
She acts as if she was Queen. (INFORMAL)
If I were you, I should tell her. (FORMAL)
If I was you, I should tell her. (INFORMAL)
Note: We do not normally say "if I was you", even in familiar conversation.

Beberapa ekspresi menggunakan subjunctive. Contoh:


Long live the King!
God bless America!
Heaven forbid!
Be that as it may, he still wants to see her.
Come what may, I will never forget you.
We are all citizens of the world, as it were